Chapter 29 - Miscegenation
And every race must fall which carelessly suffers its blood to become mixed."
Benjamin Disraeli

    Miscegenation (“mix race”) is the interbreeding of the races, especially blacks and whites. Miscegenation was illegal in many states until 1967 when the U.S. Supreme Court overruled a Virginia court and declared those laws unconstitutional 1 under the unconstitutional Fourteenth Amendment. Not that long ago miscegenation was viewed as akin to bestiality (Chap. 28), but today it is promoted by the video and print media, even in advertising, and columnists despair that there is not enough of it. 2
    Evolution “automatically” works against miscegenation. Every population has variation. Over time, the individuals in a population who have traits most advantageous for particular environments concentrate in those environments and become sub-populations. If some of the individuals in one of those sub-populations develop traits that prevent them from interbreeding with individuals in the rest of the population, they will have an advantage over other individuals in their sub-population because they will not waste resources producing progeny who lack the advantageous traits for the sub-population’s environment. For that reason, sub-populations evolve traits that discourage or prevent interbreeding with other sub-populations, and the sub-populations eventually become different species. 3
    To a physicist, miscegenation brings to mind the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which says that in a closed system, order goes to disorder (i.e., entropy increases). Without getting technical, this means that if you have a gallon each of white, black, and yellow paint, “paint” being a metaphor for a collection of racial traits, and mix them together, it would take many times the age of the universe before the pigment particles in the mixture again separated into white, black, and yellow paints. The uniqueness of those colors would be forever lost. Life, like other acts of creation, is a local lowering of entropy; miscegenation, like death, destruction, and chaos, increases entropy.
    When miscegenation occurs, the alleles that make the interbreeding races unique do not necessarily disappear, 4 but, like the pigment particles in the paint, they can no longer be separated again into the unique collections that constituted the original races. The races, as distinct forms of life, are destroyed forever. As argued earlier in this book, it took at least two million years to create and select the alleles that make us different, but it takes only an instant of miscegenation to scramble them up again. The selection of some of those alleles required the suffering and death of hundreds of thousands of people who did not have them, so the creation of racial differences was not without great cost. To destroy this monumental natural creation – us, so thoughtlessly and permanently, is akin to desecrating graves, dynamiting ancient statues, bombing cathedrals, and burning the library at Alexandria. What is the most valuable possession populations have that they can pass on to the next generation? It is not wealth or even knowledge. It is their genome, their ability to reproduce themselves as the unique people that they are. To squander that by miscegenation is the ultimate betrayal of one’s heritage. 5
    To a biologist, the loss of distinct races of humans might bring to mind the relatively recent extinctions of species such as the dodo bird, the Carolina parakeet, the passenger pigeon, and many of the birds of Hawaii, as well as various frogs, mammals, and even the 65 mya extinction of the dinosaurs. Nothing saddens a lover of nature so much as seeing a unique form of life become extinct, and nothing is as gladdening as finding that a species once thought to be extinct (e.g., the ivory billed woodpecker) still lives. (Fitzpatrick, 2005).
    Most scientists value diversity as an end in itself, for how dull life would be if they could study only one kind of star, rock, bacteria, cloud, and so on. No dog lover would want all the breeds of dogs to interbreed, so that all dogs are mongrels. No breeder of race horses would want his thoroughbreds to breed with common riding ponies. No garden lover wants all his flowers to come in only a single color or shape, or his tomatoes or apples in only a single variety, and no oenophile would want only a single red wine and a single white wine to choose from. Only those driven mad by the maladaptive ideology of egalitarianism cheer the loss of diversity that results from their demands for more of it. 6 To borrow from the anti-racists, one might call the end result of miscegenation, “Life without rainbows.”
    Egalitarians love diversity so much that they insist that everything – our corporations, restaurants, hotels, neighborhoods, schools, television, movies, and textbooks 7 must all be diverse – everything, that is, except people, who must miscegenate to become the same and therefore equal. They were overjoyed in 2003 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 8 that “diversity” (i.e., racial quotas) is so important that colleges can legally violate the Fourteenth Amendment, 9 but only for 25 yrs, by discriminating against Eurasians in order to achieve diversity in their student bodies. But their love of diversity is different from the love others have for it. Egalitarians love diversity not as an end, but as a means. They do not want to preserve the diversity of the peoples of this planet; they want to destroy it. Making all human contact diverse is simply their means for destroying human diversity. Mix the races physically, and they will mix biologically on their own. 10 Diversity to destroy diversity. The loss of biological diversity, which most of us would not wish on the living things we love and value, egalitarians wish upon man himself.
    Some egalitarians openly encourage miscegenation, while others even condemn the failure to miscegenate as “racist,” 11 and still others argue that everyone might as well miscegenate because everyone is already a mixture. In the sense that the races share most alleles (as do people and chimps), everyone is a mixture but, as we shall see in the next chapter, there are major differences between (1) people within a population interbreeding and (2) people from very different populations interbreeding.
    It is not necessary to involve the government in people’s intimate decisions in order to reduce miscegenation and preserve the uniqueness of the Earth’s peoples. People themselves, given their freedom, can accomplish this. They can segregate themselves, as suggested in Chapter 31. 12 They can boycott movies, television, and books that show or advocate miscegenation. And they can ostracize those who practice, encourage, or condone it. Parents can disapprove of their children dating interracially and withhold benefits, such as weddings, gifts, inheritances, and social support from children who defy their wishes and reject their own people as mates. They can cite statistics showing that they are many times as likely to get a STD from a black as from a white (Chapter 12, Note (4)) and, for females, many times as likely to be beaten, raped, and murdered. 13 Many things can be done but, until people come to believe that it is desirable and morally good to preserve their own genetic heritage, nothing will be done.
    The race mixers love to point out that white men fear that black men will take “their” women. Of course, they fear that; 14 for a white man, it’s a significant loss in fitness. The biological purpose of a male of any species is to pass on his alleles, and the principal way he does this is by impregnating females. But he gets a big bonus if he impregnates a woman who already has more of the same alleles that he has, i.e., someone of the same race (Chapter 8, FN 4), and his fitness falls if he lets someone of another race impregnate “his” women (and similarly for women). This biological purpose implies, of course, that he must not only compete against other men, particularly men of a different race, but win that competition. If he does not even try to win and, indeed, facilitates his own failure, then his unique collection of alleles, including the alleles that made him a biological loser, are out of the game. 15
    The incidence of miscegenation is greatly increased by welfare. As we saw in Chapters 5 and 12, Eurasian women normally choose “dads,” not “cads,” because, until modern times, they and their children could not survive without the support of a man. With the state now supporting them, however, they can choose “cads” and still survive and therefore are more likely to make that choice. Blacks are more likely to be cads, and therefore the absence of welfare would induce Eurasian women to once again choose dads and would significantly reduce miscegenation. 16 Other studies have shown that partners who are genetically similar to each other tend to have happier marriages 17 and, without welfare, the importance of having a happy marriage increases.
    Another way of looking at miscegenation is from the viewpoint of eugenics. If blacks and whites engage in miscegenation, the mulatto progeny will have characteristics of both races. 18 Will the two races regard the mullatos as “improved” children? Although there are no polls on this question, other evidence suggests that more blacks would see it as an improvement than whites. 19 As we have seen, blacks are genetically primitive humans, who have evolved a lesser distance away from our ape LCA. They have alleles that are many millions of years old – chimpanzees and gorillas have them, but Eurasians do not (Chapter 16, FN 17). Admitting those and other primitive alleles into the white genome would undo hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of years of white evolution. 20 Both blacks and whites regard the primitive features of blacks as undesirable (p. 96). Both white and black children prefer playing with white dolls. 21 And the push behind integration has been blacks wanting to be around whites, not whites wanting to be around blacks.
    Mulattos resent the fact that they can never be “white,” and must accept a lower status as a “black.” They become hostile towards whites, who are the higher status group, even though they would have an even lower status if they were not partly white. Thus, whites who have mulatto children create enemies of whites, including themselves, another reason for whites to oppose miscegenation. 22
    Most mixed race breeding occurs at the margins, where a white woman is undesirable to white men (overweight, ugly, old, addicted to drugs, mentally ill, low IQ, etc.) or has been rejected by a white man, resulting in a deep hatred of all white men, or the black man may be rich and/or famous (e.g., Tiger Woods, O.J. Simpson), though there are some cases where the explanation is not readily apparent (e.g., blond German model Heidi Klum).

                            Declining Civilizations
    Perhaps both the strongest and the weakest argument against miscegenation is that it can destroy an existing civilization. (Simpson, 2003, pp. 746-751). That argument deserves consideration because the outcome is so dire, but the evidence for it is indirect because it is difficult to assign the collapse of an entire civilization to any particular cause, though a lower quality gene pool is certainly a strong candidate. (Gobineau, 1853; Fisher, 1958). And the decline of a civilization is often slow, over hundreds of years, so that people may not even realize it is happening. However, there is good evidence that a lowering of IQ individually (Herrnstein, 1994) or nationally (Lynn, 2002a) will lower living standards as less intelligent people are less productive and consumption cannot be maintained without production (though if you borrow or steal, it can be someone else’s production). The reader should keep in mind the “right-tail effect” shown in Figure 14-5 & Figure 14-7. When the average intelligence of the entire population drops, the number of people at the higher end of the bell curve falls much more drastically. With welfare states ensuring the reproductive success of the less intelligent in the temperate zones, the dysgenic effect of miscegenation in reducing the percentage of people in the right tail will never be overcome by natural selection, i.e., the less intelligent will not lack the means to successfully reproduce. And, when mankind is presented with environmental challenges to his survival, as he inevitably will be, he will no longer have the intellectual wherewithal to overcome them.
    Let us examine the past consequences of the right-tail effect of lower intelligence due to miscegenation to see the future that awaits us. Contrary to the OoA theory, Africans did not travel of their own accord into other countries – every country they went to, they went as slaves. (Figure 21-1). As individuals, the slaves no doubt suffered, though they very likely were better off as slaves than if they had been left in Africa. 23 Biologically, being a slave to Eurasians was adaptive for Africans, as it enabled them to spread their alleles much more widely than they otherwise would have, but all the civilizations they became part of declined.
    Today, people in the countries that imported slaves emphatically deny they have any Negro blood and become quite offended at the suggestion that they do. However, their dark skin, short, black, woolly hair, and African alleles betray them.
    As discussed in Chapter 26, the multiple migrations of Eurasians into Africa have resulted in a mixed population in Africa itself. And, as discussed in Chapter 15, the accomplishments and achievements of Africans and African Americans have been abysmal, which is not surprising given their average IQs of only 67 and 85, respectively (Chap. 14). So it is not unreasonable to blame the decline of white civilizations on the importation of, and interbreeding with, Africans slaves.

    The early Egyptians were Caucasian (Figure 26-2). From 3400 to 1800 B.C., Egypt excelled in architecture, mathematics, and science. As Egyptians moved south, up the Nile River, they encountered black Africans (Nubians), who were brought back as slaves. Miscegenation spread, Egyptians became more Negroid, 24 and Egyptian civilization began a decline from which it has never recovered. 25 “The weak, disease-ridden population of modern Egypt offers dramatic evidence of the evil effects of a hybridization which has gone on for 5000 years.” (Garrett, 1960, p. 7). Today, Egypt is a Third World country with an average IQ of only 77 to 83. (Lynn, 2006a, p. 80).

                         The Middle East
    The Muslims in the Middle East made many important discoveries and inventions including coffee, the camera obscura, soap, the crank shaft, quilting, the pointed arch, surgical instruments, anesthetics, the windmill, smallpox inoculation, checks, and algebra. 26 When the more powerful men acquired large harems of women, many of the common men were left without wives. From about 600 to about 1000 AD, cheap African slaves were imported as concubines, a practice that did not end until the 1960s. By 1200 AD, Arab advances in the arts and sciences had stopped. “The number of books published in the Arab world did not exceed 1.1% of world production though Arabs constitute 5% of the world population…. No more than 10,000 books were translated into Arabic over the entire millennium [1000 to 2000 AD], equivalent to the number translated every year into Spanish.” 27 The average IQ in the Middle East is now about 83. (Lynn, 2006a, p. 80; also Kemp, 2006, Chap. 7, 16, 17).
    Originally white, classical Greece reached such heights that it is still studied today. The IQ in Greece at that time must have been at least 100, but today it is only 92 (Lynn, 2006a, p 173). There is as yet little evidence for the presence of African alleles in the Greek gene pool, though that would explain the drop in IQ. (Kemp, 2006, Chap. 10, App. 4, 6).

    By 1550, Portugal, then a white country, had become the wealthiest, most powerful nation in the world with colonies in Asia, Africa, and South America. Unfortunately, Negro slaves were brought into Portugal from Africa between the middle 15th century until slavery was banned in the late 19th century (Godinho, 1983), when Africans were about 5 to 10% of the population. 28 Interbreeding occurred 29 and Portugal declined until today it is the poorest nation in Europe and has the lowest literacy score for ages 26 to 65. 30 Of the 346 Nobel Prizes awarded in science between 1901 and 2003, the Portuguese received only one, for prefrontal lobotomy, a now discredited treatment for mental illness. Spain was also affected, but to a lesser extent. The average IQ in Portugal is 95, 31 but it is 99 in Spain.

                         The West Indies
    “In the West Indies, the civilization is advanced almost exactly in the degree to which the populations are unmixed with the Negro.” (Garrett, 1960, p. 7). Haiti, like most African nations, is a basket case of corruption, poverty, and crime. There are no ‘safe areas’ in Haiti. (U.S. Department of State Travel Warning, Oct., 2008).
    In Jamaica, it has been reported that race-mixing has lead to “physical as well as mental disharmonies.” (Garrett, 1960, p. 7; Davenport, 1970).

Figure 29-1

Let any one who doubts the evil of this mixture of races, and is inclined from mistaken philanthropy to break down all barriers between them, come to Brazil."
Louis Gassiz, naturalist

    The northern coastal Bahia region of Brazil, where there is extensive interbreeding between former African slaves, native Indians, and whites, is in poverty and the southern region around San Paulo, which is mostly white, is well-off. (Garrett, 1960, p. 7). As is true throughout the world, those who are brown or black are poorest, the least educated, and have the lowest IQ. The average IQ in Brazil is 87 but the average IQ of Europeans in Brazil is 95 and the average IQ of Africans in Brasilia is only 70. (Lynn, 2006a, pp 23, 70). Figure 29-1 (Wikipedia, “IQ,” now withdrawn) shows the overlapping IQ bell curves in the U.S. for (left to right) African Americans, Hispanics, whites, and Asians. The lower mean IQ for Hispanics is due to the interbreeding of Portuguese and Spaniards with Africans and South American Indians (ave. IQ = 86; Lynn, 2006, p. 159).

               Europe and the United States
    In Europe and the United States the evidence for the de-civilizing effect of miscegenation can be found in the education and crime levels in black schools and neighborhoods. And it is almost certain to become worse. According to a U.S. Census Bureau report, non-Hispanic whites accounted for only 66.4 percent of the U.S. population on July 1, 2006, though they were 76% in 1990 and 88% in 1965.
    The U.S. population is predicted to balloon from the current (October, 2006) 327 million people (Abernathy, 2006) to nearly 420 million in 2050. (Census Bureau). Census Bureau projections show that the U.S. white population (IQ = 98; Lynn, 2006a, p. 174) will drop from 69.4% of the population to 50.1%; 32 blacks (African-American IQ = 85, African = 67; Lynn, 2006a, pp. 41, 37) will increase from 12.7% to 14.6%; Hispanics (Mexican IQ = 87; Lynn, 2002a) will rise from 13% to 24.4%; and Asians (East Asian IQ = 105, Southeast Asian = 87; Lynn, 2006a, pp. 147, 99) will jump from 3.8% to 8%. 33 Thus, the percentage of blacks in the U.S. is already significantly higher than the 5 to 10% that Portugal had when its decline began. The United States is becoming more and more genetically homogenized and there is little hope that the trend can be reversed. The extent that a society is civilized is a function of its gene pool; once the gene pool has been lost, the products of that gene pool are also lost.
    Miscegenation (with blacks), by inexorably lowering IQ, is the greatest threat to the survival of whites and their civilizations. 34 Nothing else is more certain to permanently destroy white civilization. Yet few whites recognize the threat and many whites actually welcome it. Unless miscegenation is stopped soon, it will be too late. The center of civilization is already moving from the West to East Asia, i.e., China, Japan, Singapore, and South Korea. Soon, those countries will be the center of art, science, and military power, and the West will be mired in a hopeless struggle to keep up.

Chapter 30

Table of Contents


1. Loving v. Virginia, 388 US 1 (1967). According to Stanford University sociologist Michael Rosenfeld, the number of biracial marriages in the U.S. went from 2% in 1970 to 7% in 2005. (Crary, D., "Interracial Marriages Surge Across U.S.," Associated Press, Apr 12, 2007) The amount of black/white miscegenation has increased in the U.S. from 3.3 per 1000 pregnancies in 1968 to 17.7 in 1996, a 4 to 5 fold increase. (Getahun, 2005). Back

2. As in particle physics, whatever is not forbidden, is required; for miscegenation, that took less than 50 yrs. Back

3. A different and disagreeable odor discourages interbreeding, but as man has become domesticated he has lost some of his sensitivity to odors (as evidenced by the large percentage of inactive genes (“pseudogenes”) in our olfactory genome; Keller, 2007), and modern deodorants hide natural odors. The degree with which another race “smells bad,” is proportional to the damage interbreeding would do to the genome, by “break[ing] apart those compatible physical and mental qualities which have established a smoothly operating whole in each race by hundreds [millions] of years of natural selection.” (East, 1919, p. 245ff). Also see (Simpson, 2003, pp. 737-747). The advantages of preserving unique traits, however, apply more to larger populations. For smaller groups, an optimal balance between inbreeding and outbreeding is more beneficial. See next chapter. Back

4. Alleles may disappear if the individual who has them has no offspring (“lineage sorting”). Back

5.  The larger a population is, the more mutations will arise in it, though that affects evolution only if a mutation codes for a trait that is selected. Culture, behavior that is not inherited, can select traits. Thus, agriculture, the Industrial Revolution, and public health measures have vastly increased human populations, and therefore the number of mutations, and cultures have been selecting some of the resulting traits, though not necessarily desirable traits (Chap. 32). As a result of cultural selection, “Human races are evolving away from each other, … on a scale of centuries to millennia." (Harpending, H., Press Release, U. of Utah, Dec. 10, 2007). Evolution occurs because better adapted individuals are selected; to the extent that everyone becomes more alike, selection is reduced and evolution cannot occur. Miscegenation, by hampering evolution, is maladaptive, anti-life, and destructive. Back

6. When the first sailors arrived at the Galapagos Islands, they took giant tortoises aboard for eating. Excess tortoises were deposited on different islands than they came from, thereby mixing up the many different races of tortoises. Now scientists are using DNA to sort them out and return them to their home islands in order to preserve their unique races. It is ironic that so much trouble would be incurred to preserve tortoise races while, at the same time, some people deliberately try to mix up and destroy human races. (Nicholls, H., "Galapagos tortoises: untangling the evolutionary threads," New Scientist, June 6, 2007, pp. 40-41). Back

7. Textbook publishers now require their school books to be “diverse” to meet state laws for diversity. For example, McGraw-Hill’s guidelines for elementary and high school texts specify that “40% of the people depicted should be white, 30% Hispanic, 20% African-American, 7% Asian and 3% Native American.” (Liberty Magazine, Nov., 2006, p. 7). Also see (Lefkowitz, 1997; Ravitch, 2003). Back

8. (Grutter v. Bollinger et al., No. 02-241, 2003). Back

9.  “No state shall … deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” Back

10. E.g., by permitting and encouraging the immigration of non-white races. “One of the biggest threats to global biodiversity comes from invasive species transported from their natural habitats to places they don’t belong.” (Pain, S., "The last place on earth with no invasive species," New Scientist, June 16, 2007, p. 38). And immigrants of African descent are 4.9 times more likely than African Americans to marry interracially. (Wikipedia, “Interracial Marriage”). Back

11. Dennis Prager, Jewish radio talk show host, promoting white miscegenation, not Jewish miscegenation. Back

12. Studies have shown that almost everyone marries someone within a very short geographic distance from his or her home, so one method of reducing miscegenation is segregation – permitting ethnic and racial groups to legally limit their communities to people of the same group. Another way is to maintain language differences. A language barrier (e.g., Spanish, Ebonics) is equivalent to living 109 km (68 miles) away. (Barrai, 2003). Back

13.  (Chapter 12, "Black on White Crime"). “The incidence of spousal homicide is 7.7 times higher in interracial marriages compared to intraracial marriages.” (Burnett & Adler, “Domestic Violence,” emedicine, Jan. 17, 2006). During the 10 year period from 1975 to 1985, spousal homicide rates were 7.7 times higher in interracial marriages. (Mercy, 1989). Back

14. With good reason. According to the 1990 Census there were 2.5 times more black husband-white wife marriages than white husband-black wife marriages, i.e., 72% of the miscegenating couples were black man-white woman. Back

15. Surely the people who succeeded in convincing white men to abandon their biological purpose in life are the greatest propagandists ever, far superior to Joseph Goebbels, whose accomplishments pale by comparison. Back

16. In a multi-racial society, welfare is also against the genetic interests of the race with the highest ratio of welfare taxes to welfare payments, i.e., whites. (Salter, 2003). Back

17.  (Russell, 1991). The batting average of success for mixed race marriages is 0.127 compared to 0.213 for same race couples (Joyner, 2005). Back

18. If a racial characteristic requires the presence of two recessive alleles, there is less likelihood that a mulatto will have it. For example, straight hair requires two copies of the same allele, so most mulattoes have wooly hair. One reason for the “one drop rule” – that anyone with any visible amount of black heritage is black – may be that whites have more recessive alleles; thus, when it come to the expression of genes, the “phenotype,” a person with one drop really is “black.” Back

19. A Pew Research Center survey (2007), found that 97% of African Americans believe that interracial dating is acceptable. “Marry light – improve the race,” is a black aphorism. Also, (Ross, 1997). On the other hand, here is what two white Americans thought: “There is a natural disgust in the minds of nearly all white people to the idea of indiscriminate amalgamation of the white and black races.” (Abraham Lincoln, Springfield, Illinois, June 26, 1857). “… I give … the most solemn pledge that I will to the very last stand by the law of the State, which forbids the marrying of white people with negroes.” (Also Abraham Lincoln; Basler, 1953, p. 402-403). “Blacks … are inferior to Whites in the endowments of both body and mind. (W)hen freed, the Black is to be removed beyond the reach of mixture.” (Thomas Jefferson). Back

20. The number of Americans born with blue eyes has dropped from about half in 1900 to about 1/3 in 1950 to about 1 in 6 today. (Belkin, D. "Don't Make My Blue Eyes Brown, , Oct. 17, 2006). Back

21. See studies done in support of (Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, 1954). Back

22. Mulattos who are mostly white nevertheless usually see themselves as black and side with black interests, e.g., Colin Powell, just as people with a minor amount of Jewish ancestry often sympathize with Jewish interests. Even people who discover, through DNA testing, that they have a bit of non-white heritage that they did not know they had, e.g., an Indian ancestor, tend to become more sympathetic towards that minority. Back

23. After a match in Africa, black boxer Mohammed Ali (Cassius Clay) famously remarked, “Thank God, my grand-daddy got on that boat!” Black reporter Keith Richburg, author of “Out of America,” said, "Thank God my ancestor got out, because, now, I am not one of them [Africans].” African slaves were captured by fellow Africans. They were not put to work as the women did the work (and they could not be trusted around the women) and there was no way of preventing them from escaping. They were either killed immediately or kept until needed as food. Back

24. This is shown by the increasing lengths of the forearms relative to the upper arm. (Zakrzewski, 2003, Table 6). “The change found in body plan is suggested to be the result of the later groups having a more tropical (Nilotic) form than the preceding populations.” The Nubian dynasty was 742 to 633 B.C. Back

25. Kemp (Kemp, 2006, Chap. 8 & 9, App. 3). Those of us who are born into an advanced civilization take it for granted, and we don’t realize how difficult they are to create and how fragile they can be. Civilizations arise in populations that are genetically homogeneous, intelligent, and cooperative, if not altruistic and, when those factors are lost, so is the civilization. Compare Africa to the way Germany rebuilt itself within a few decades after being destroyed in WWI and WWII. Back

26.  ("1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World" a touring exhibition, 2006). Back

27. ("Arab education in crisis," Aljazeera News, October 21, 2003). Back

28. (Pereira, 2000; Simpson, 2003, pp. 816-818). The percentage of sub-Saharan African mtDNA is negligible in Europe, but is 11.7% in southern Portugal. (González, 2003). Back

29. "The Portuguese intermarried freely with their slaves, and this infusion of alien blood profoundly modified the character and physique of the nation. It may be said without exaggeration that the Portuguese of the 'age of discoveries' and the Portuguese of the 17th and later centuries were two different races.” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., 1911, “Portugal”). “Templeton gives a modern-day analogy: the presence of a gene for sickle cell anemia in Caucasians in Portugal. The gene traces back to a mutation that occurred in Africa and spread through interbreeding between Africans and Europeans. ‘The Africans didn't come up, reconquer the Iberian peninsula, kill off all the Europeans, and that's why there are sickle cell alleles in Portugal today,’ he says. The presence of the sickle cell gene in Portugal ‘means that Portuguese and Africans have met and they've interbred, just like humans tend to do.’ " (Flanagan, R., Contributing Editor, “Out of Africa,” Earth Magazine). About one in 12 African-Americans and about one in 100 Hispanic Americans are carriers for the sickle cell trait. (Minority Organ Donation Education Program, Inc.). Back

30. (International Adult Literacy Survey, 1994-1998, Figure 7). Back

31. (Lynn, 2006a, p 174; also Kemp, 2006, Chap. 22, 23, App. 10, 11). The 95 IQ for Portugal is an average of two studies showing IQs of 101 and 88, but in view of the few achievements of today’s Portuguese, an IQ of 101 is unlikely to be accurate. In a homogenized population, the “right tail effect” disproportionately reduces the number of people with high IQs, so the 88 figure is more likely to be accurate. (A high IQ is a synergistic trait that occurs when a number of alleles that affect intelligence are assembled in the same person. Thus, a homogeneous mixing of a high IQ population with a low IQ population greatly reduces the odds that that will occur. See next chapter.) Back

32. Between 1900 and 1950, only about 1 in 10 Americans was nonwhite. Today that ratio is 1 in 3. (Belkin, D. "Don't Make My Blue Eyes Brown, , Oct. 17, 2006). According to the Census Bureau, by 2042 whites will be a minority in the U.S. (Ohlemacher, S., "White Americans no longer a majority by 2042," Associated Press, Aug., 14, 2008). Back

33. (Rubenstein, E.S., “Hispanics, Blacks Driving Baby Boomlet,”, Jan. 23, 2008). “A decimated, defeated, or impoverished population can quickly recover if it retains control of its territory, but a large-scale influx of genetically distant immigrants has the potential permanently to reduce the genetic interests of the original population.” (Salter, 2002a). Back

34. (Kemp, 2006, Chap. 69, 70, App. 13, 14,and "The Ruins of Detroit"). “[T]he weak members of civilized societies propagate their kind. No one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this must be highly injurious to the race of man.” (Darwin, 1871, p. 128). Back