Chapter 24 - The Origin of the Eurasians
If we look, first of all, for that part of the world which was the hothouse of races, we can make only one choice.
All the visible footsteps lead away from Asia
."
(Howells, 1948, p. 295)

    In this chapter, we move from the bipedal apes (“…pithecus” = ape) to man (“Homo”). 1 Oreo is a good candidate for a bipedal ape in our lineage and, given their overlapping ranges and durations, Australopithecus is likely to have descended from Oreo. Oreo lived in the tropics and sub-tropics (i.e., north of the Tropic of Cancer, 22.5° north latitude) and may not have been specialized for either. Since Australopithecus had so many species and greater numbers, anatomical specializations for different climates likely began with Australopithecus, rather than with Oreo.
    The reason it is necessary to go back to Australopithecus for the origin of the races is the simple principle of evolution (Chapter 4, Rule 3), that generalized goes to specialized, not the reverse. 2 The LCA of all the hominoid populations who ever lived, including those living today, must have been at least as generalized as any of those populations.
    Living Africans are specialized for the tropics. They not only have large amounts of melanin, but unique hair (Table 10-1, items (15) to (19)). Both of those traits are found in Africa, in the Andaman Islanders off India (Fig. 26-4), and in the Negritos throughout SE Asia (Figure 27-7). That the most primitive and widely dispersed people (e.g., the Bushmen, Hottentots, and Andaman Islanders) all have these traits in common suggests that these traits are a very old adaptation to the tropics. Since georgicus, who lived 1.8 mya much farther to the north, had at least two specializations, shoveled incisors and an occipital bun, the specializations for the tropics must have occurred prior to 1.8 mya because hominids lived in warmer climates before they lived in the north where georgicus lived. This means (1) that the tropical specializations of the African and Negrito lineages began in an Australopithecus prior to about 2 mya, and (2) that the generalized Australopithecus from which the specialized tropical and northern Australopithecus evolved lived in between them in the sub-tropics.
    Thus, before the tropics-specialized Australopithecus evolved, 3 a generalized Australopithecus (who had evolved from a generalized Oreo) occupied the sub-tropics as far to the north as his un-clothed, but hairy, body could survive, and very likely ventured into the tropics as well. 4 After the tropics-specialized Australopithecus had evolved, the generalized Australopithecus, which was less fit for the tropics, lived only north of the tropics in the sub-tropical regions of Europe and Asia.
    The generalized Australopithecus who lived at the northern limit of their sub-tropical ranges were under strong selection pressure for anatomical adaptations for the cold, simply because those individuals who could stand the cold had access to territory and food sources that those who were less tolerant of the cold did not have. Northern Australopithecus populations living in Europe and West Asia followed the usual evolutionary path for adapting to the cold – a larger and more compact hairy body that has less surface area per unit weight; they were the beginning of the Neanderthal lineage. 5
    The Australopithecus populations living in East Asia, however, took an alternative evolutionary path for adapting for the cold – they became neotenic. Many neotenic traits (e.g., subcutaneous fat, epicanthic folds, round heads, short legs – see Chapter 6) offer protection from the cold; 6 these Australopithecus populations were the beginning of the Mongoloid lineage. 7 That East Asians have so many specializations for the cold strongly suggests that these adaptations are also ancient. Thus, Australopithecus evolved at least two species that were anatomically adapted for the cooler north. 8
    But the original generalized Australopithecus that begot the tropics and cold-specialized species did not go extinct. It yielded the tropics to its tropics-specialized spawn and settled in the sub-tropics, and it yielded the territory farther to the north and east and west of it to its two cold-specialized spawn, the Neanderthals and the Mongoloids, but it clung to survival in between them, 9 where being generalized was still an advantage. 10 It, and its generalized descendants, specialized not anatomically, but socially, in better communications and organizing, and technologically, in better weapons, tools, and body coverings.
    Remaining more generalized, 11 of course, meant that they could not compete well with tropically-adapted populations in the lower latitudes, nor with cold-adapted populations in the higher latitudes. The best they could do was to migrate north and south with the seasons, and inch their way north as their technology and organizational skills improved. 12 Thus, in Eurasia, three lineages progressed from ape to modern man, a Neanderthal lineage to the north and west, a Mongoloid lineage to the northeast 13 and a West Asian lineage in between. 14 Quite naturally, like a prototype, the generalized West Asians ended up in the middle, surrounded by specialized populations. The generalized West Asians eventually became the Cro-Magnons 15 and then the Europeans.
    These three non-tropical lineages were not, however, completely genetically isolated. The Neanderthal lineage was the most isolated as the West Asians could not safely venture into the territory of such large and powerful people (Figure 22-2), and if the West Asians interbreed with the Neanderthals prior to about 46,000 ya it was probably negligible. After that date, however, when the West Asians had advanced technologically and socially and the climate changed, decimating the Neanderthals, there may have been significant interbreeding, as discussed in the next chapter. The West Asians were, however, able to migrate into East Asian territory from time to time (and vice versa to a much lesser extent), resulting in much more interbreeding with East Asians. That Mongoloids and West Asians (i.e., Cro-Magnons) had a Cultural Revolution and the Neanderthals did not, suggests there was much less interbreeding and gene exchange with Neanderthals than between the Mongoloids and the Cro-Magnons.
    Although both the Neanderthals and the Mongoloids had some cold adaptations in common (e.g., shorter arms and legs, shoveled incisors, and probably increased blood flow to the extremities and more meat eating, with the men doing the hunting), there were also major differences in their adaptations. The Neanderthals increased in body mass, strength, and nose size while the Mongoloids retained fetal traits, such as an epicanthic fold and subcutaneous fat. Figure 24-1 shows the Australopithecus splits into tropics and cold-specialized lineages. 16

Figure 24-1

    Europeans, whose lineage originated in West Asia, in between the Neanderthals and the East Asians, are the most generalized of the three major races. Because they came from a zone in between the hot tropics and the cold north they did not become anatomically specialized for either. And, because living Africans and Asians, and the extinct Neanderthals, are all more anatomically specialized than the Europeans, the European lineage must go back to before those specializations occurred, making Europeans the descendents of the generalized Australopithecus and the most ancient living people. 17
    The genetic evidence, however, shows a much more recent LCA for man 18 and suggests that that LCA was in Africa because Africans have the greatest amount of genetic variation. (Figure 19-2). Genetic dating is based on the amount of variation in the alleles – a population that has a greater number of different alleles is assumed to have been around longer because mutations accumulate over time. The assumption that greater variation equals greater age is not always true, however, because there are other ways of accumulating more variation besides mutations. Africans have more variation because, over at least hundreds of thousands of years, all sorts of hominoids have migrated into Africa and mated with populations that were already there, infusing a large variety of different alleles into their gene pool. 19 Asians have more variation than Europeans not because they are more ancient, but because the Europeans, already smaller in numbers, were decimated much more by Toba and the ice ages than the Asians and lost much of the variation that they had accumulated. (Figure 20-1).
    The fossil evidence supporting Figures IV-1 and 24-1 is also inadequate, but one cannot assume that man arose in Africa or China simply because more hominoid fossils have been found in there. 20 China has more erectus, Hs, and Hss fossils (Figures 17-7 to 17-10 & Table 17-1) and artifacts (Table 17-2) than West Asia, but that may just be due to smaller populations in West Asia, less obliteration by glaciers, and poorer bone preservation (acidic soil, constructed shelters) than in East Asia (caves). (Hoffecker, 2002, pp. 34, 35, 63).
    The East Asians have more of some “human-like” traits than do Caucasians, such as being more “K” orientated (Chapter 11), more neotenic, and less primitive than the Caucasians, but Cro-Magnon/Neanderthal interbreeding would account for at least some of that. 21 Neoteny, as the Bushmen show (Chapter 26), is not necessarily associated with greater intelligence, though East Asians do have a higher average IQ than Caucasians. (Chapter 14). Also, most of the migrations were west to east, 22 which suggests a western origin for man and the evolution of the more advanced populations in the west. 23
    Although the theory of modern human origins proposed in this book is Out-of Eurasia, most of the early evolution of Caucasians is believed to have occurred in India, 24 then in SW Asia (Fig. 24-2), and finally in Eastern Europe (Fig. 24-3). 25
Figure 24-2 Figure 24-3
    SW Asia, which includes the Fertile Triangle in Anatolia (east of the Mediterranean Sea) and Mesopotamia (between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, now Iraq) are good examples of the type of territory where the transformation of a generalized Australopithecus into a generalized Homo could have begun. Here there was food and fresh water, and just enough seasonal change to provide the mental challenges needed to begin the selection for greater intelligence and behavioral adaptations for the cold. And, when that territory became crowded, some groups would have been pushed east and west and into more mentally challenging areas to the north, e.g., Turkey and Armenia, then the Republic of Georgia, where georgicus was found.
    All three of the northern populations (Neanderthals, West Asians, and East Asians) were becoming more intelligent as they moved farther north, and the generalized West Asians were becoming more innovative because they were less selected for anatomical cold adaptations and therefore had to rely more upon technology to survive in the cold. The generalized West Asians could not yet compete with the anatomically cold-specialized populations to the northwest (Neanderthals) and northeast (Mongoloids) of them in hunting the mouth-watering large mammals that lived there but, because they relied upon a variety of foods, rather than concentrating on large mammals, they were more easily able to switch to alternative food sources should the numbers of large mammals decline. As circumstances permitted, they spread west into Europe and east into Asia, as well as south.
    Thus, there were somewhat-overlapping belts of differently adapted populations that extended east-to-west from Europe to Asia, and the boundaries of these belts changed with time, especially when the climate changed. The tropically-adapted populations inhabited Africa and the lower latitudes of Eurasia, i.e., southern India and southern Asia and the South Pacific Islands. Next came the sub-tropically-adapted, less-specialized Neanderthals and East Asians with the generalized West Asians in between, making a belt from southern Europe across the Middle East and northern India and across China. And, on the top, the cold-adapted populations – the Neanderthal lineage in Europe, NE Europe, and as far east as southern Siberia (Krause, 2007a), and the Mongoloid lineage in Central and East Asia. 26
    North of Turkey and Armenia is the Republic of Georgia, once part of the former U.S.S.R. (Fig. 24-4), where georgicus lived 1.8 mya. Georgicus (Figure 2-4) is a good example of what an early cold-adapted Homo in the west was probably like. Georgicus is, in some ways, so similar to both the earlier types of Homo, habilis, and ergaster that were found in Africa and to the later erectus that some scientists classify georgicus as ergaster, but others lump him in with erectus. (Dennell, 2005).
Figure 24-4
    The Republic of Georgia has both an Alpine climate in the mountains (northern border and south-west) and a subtropical climate on the Black Sea (Wikipedia, “Georgia, country”), so early man, e.g., georgicus, could forage and hunt in the mountains during the summer, then retreat to the warmer lowlands in the winter, gradually evolving into a more anatomically cold-adapted population. Like other populations that went north and were selected for greater intelligence by the more mentally-challenging climate, the Neanderthal lineage (georgicus, Antecessor, Heidi, and the Neanderthals) became larger, stronger, and more intelligent than their southern neighbors and expanded back into the warmer climates, including Africa, at least to a limited extent. 27 However, the indigenous tropical populations were better adapted for the tropics and the northerners were absorbed and went extinct. After the Cultural Revolution, the generalized West Asians were able to expand, move north, and eventually displace the Neanderthals from Georgia and Eastern Europe.
    Meanwhile, like the Neanderthal lineage in the west, the Mongoloid lineage in the east was also becoming cold-adapted, but by means of neoteny. In Chapter 17 there is a review of the some of the Chinese fossils that have been found, which illustrates the continuity of the Mongoloid lineage all the way back to an erectus. Today’s East Asian populations clearly show a “cline” of greater cold adaptation with increasing latitude, due to the more northern populations migrating south 28 and interbreeding; some early Asians migrated as far south and west as Africa, as we shall see in Chapter 26.
    Figure 24-5 is a tree that shows proposed population splits and the movements north that higher intelligence, cold-adaptation, and better technology and communications made possible, and a few of the movements south again with expanding populations (excluding to Africa). It is difficult to unravel all the populations and migrations involved, so the tree is an approximation. Most of the southern migrations were small and were absorbed by interbreeding, but a few survive to this day. (“AA” = Australian Aborigines, “Andaman” = Andaman Islanders).

Figure 24-5

    Although northern man initially kept warm by means of heavy body hair (“fur”), by the time of the generalized archaics (Hs), man had developed sufficient technology to live in the cold (shelters, controlled fire, insulating coverings) without body fur. 29 In the tropics, less hair enables the body to lose heat more rapidly 30 and reduces external skin parasites. (Rantala, 1999; Pagel, 2003). In the colder climates, thick body hair is an advantage, of course, but it also harbors lice, ticks, and fleas, which carry deadly diseases; body lice, for example, carry the bacteria responsible for epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In addition, hairlessness lets the body receive more sunlight, thereby enabling it to generate more vitamin D. Thus, once early man began using animal skins, body hair, even in the north, was selected against as those who had it did not need it for warmth and were more likely to die from diseases carried by skin parasites. 31
    Early man probably lost most of his body hair by about 240,000 ya. (Klein, 2002, p. 203), when a genetic change occurred that stopped the growth of body hair. 32 The change would have initially occurred only in a single person in a small group, then spread due to the increased health of the hairless and their selection as mates by others. 33 For the more hairless northern populations, the pay-off in increased reproductive success for developing better clothing and shelter to keep warm would have been greater than for the more hirsute, thus selecting for greater inventiveness and technological skills among the hairless. By about 500,000 ya, insulation was covering the feet of northern hominids, but it was not until between 40,000 and 26,000 ya with the evolution of Hss that shoes were used, as indicated by foot bones becoming more gracile. (Trinkaus, 2005). Selection for technological skills led to nets for catching fish and traps and snares for catching small furry mammals that could be skinned for their warm coats. 34
    Early man had to migrate south of the Himalayas in order to reach India and SE Asia, 35 but the generalized archaics (Hs) were better able to survive the cold and could take the more difficult route across the steppes north of the Himalayas, at least in the warmer months, as well as the southern route, settling in the more northern, erectus-free areas of Asia first. 36 Subsequent expansions of more advanced Hss populations forced these generalized archaics south again, where some of them hybridized with erectus (Garrigan, 2005) in New Guinea and Australia (Chap. 27). 37
    The generalized archaics from West Asia were not anatomically cold-adapted and did not have a uniform layer of fat or epicanthic folds; in appearance, they looked Caucasian, somewhat similar to Australian desert aborigines (Figures 22-5 & 27-4), but they had control of fire and could live farther north than their erectus predecessors. They may still have had to move north and south with the seasons, however, eating plants and small animals in the summer and large herbivores in the winter. Migrating twice a year not only meant abandoning what could not be carried, but abandoning territory. So selection for ability to live farther north, and stay there all year, continued.
    Seasonal migrations could be avoided by acquiring the tools, weapons, and shelter needed to survive in both summer and winter, by evolving more cold-adapted anatomy, or by doing both. The advantages of avoiding seasonal migrations was one of the payoffs from the final stage of man’s evolution, going from archaic man (Hs) to modern man (Hss). In the more northern regions occupied by archaic man, those who had the intelligence to make it through the winter without seasonally migrating became Hss, modern man. They expanded, took over archaic man’s territory, and pushed him south.
    In West Asia, modern man was the Cro-Magnons. They acquired the intelligence needed to avoid seasonal migrations, but did not acquire much in the way of cold-adapted anatomy, and they remained generalized in appearance. Instead, they conquered the cold by tailoring and later weaving clothes and constructing shelters. Unfortunately, glaciation was more severe in West Asia than in East Asia and there are fewer traces of them. Glaciers scoured the earth, grinding up, scattering, and burying fossils and artifacts. Also, northern forest soils are acidic, and acid solubilizes the calcium in bones before they can be mineralized. 38
    When the second ice age came, the grass-covered steppes north of about Moscow, which fed the large herbivores, disappeared under ice, while shrubby trees replaced much of the grass in the lower latitudes. (Hoffecker, 2002). With the grass gone, most of the large herbivores disappeared, and without them the numbers of the Neanderthals and the Aurignacians (early generalized moderns), who were not as well prepared for the cold, decreased. The generalized moderns that had developed better technology (the Gravettians), however, were better able to cope with the cold.
    New genetic studies of Y chromosomal DNA have shown that there were three major migrations of Hss into Europe from West Asia (Fig. 24-6). 39 About 80% of the Y chromosomes of Europeans come from the Paleolithic Aurignacians, which confirm "strikingly similar" findings on mtDNA.<
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Figure 24-6

    At 30,000 to 35,000 ya (earlier migrations are dated at 46,000 ya; Mellars, 2006), the Aurignacian people moved into Europe from Asia (green), followed by the Gravettians 25,000 ya from the Middle East (blue). Keep in mind that the second ice age was from 30,000 to 12,000 ya and peaked at between 21,000 and 18,000 ya. (Hoffecker, 2002, p. 254). Thus, the Aurignacians moved into Europe just as the ice age was beginning and took refuge in the areas of the green dots. By the time the Gravettians moved in to Europe the severity of the ice age had increased, but these people, who may have initially come from southern Russia (Kemp, 2006, p.305), had a more advanced culture and could survive better in the cold.
    Although the Cro-Magnon lineage had split from the Neanderthal lineage perhaps over 2 mya, there was still some interbreeding, but it was probably mostly between 46,000 ya and 24,500 ya, when the Neanderthals went extinct. Interbreeding between populations in the Cro-Magnon lineage and the Mongoloid lineage, on the other hand, though intermittent, was over a much longer period of time and more extensive. The result was that in the west the Cro-Magnons who migrated into Neanderthal territory absorbed the last of the declining Neanderthals, but in the east the Cro-Magnons who migrated into Mongoloid territory were absorbed and displaced by the Mongoloids, leaving behind only a few traces of their presence, 40 such as the Jomon in Japan and the Polynesians. (Gates, C.E., 1922). Some northern Mongoloid/Cro-Magnon hybrids migrated to the Americas, becoming the northern Amerindians. Interbreeding between these populations made both the European-Neanderthal LCA date (700,000 ya) and the European-Asian LCA date (46,000 ya) seem more recent than they were.
    Individuals in the Mongoloid/Cro-Magnon and Cro-Magnon/Neanderthal hybrid populations had various combinations of advantageous and disadvantageous traits from their parent populations. Natural selection then picked out for reproductive success those individuals who had the combination of traits most adapted for all the various Eurasian environments. In the northeast, it was those who were the most anatomically cold-adapted, e.g., epicanthic fold, fat under the skin (but hairless). In the more seasonal climates of China and Japan, cold-adapted traits were less important and less selected. 41 (These migrations and interbreedings show up in the genetic distances between living populations, which are given in Figure 7-2.) Of all the races, the Caucasians were, and are, the most adventurous and risk-taking and did more migrating into the territories of other races; 42 most of the early explorers were Caucasian and today it is the Caucasians who dominate the “extreme sports.”

Figure 24-7

    Figure 24-7 (Cavalli-Sforza, 1994, p. 91) is a tree which shows genetic distance. (C.A.R. is Central African Republic). In Figure 24-7, the lengths of the lines are proportional to the genetic distance between the populations. 43 Thus, because “f” is much longer than “d,” we can conclude that the Chinese evolved more away from the Hss rootstock than did the Europeans, consistent with the West Asians remaining generalized while the East Asians evolved from generalized to specialized. If OoA is correct and the races originated only 65,000 ya from modern Africans, the LCA of the races should be near the juncture of lines “a,” “b,” and “c”; if OoE is correct and the races originated at least 2 mya from a generalized Australopithecus, the LCA of the races should be on line c, near its juncture with lines “d” and “e,” 44 placing it closer to the Europeans than to the Chinese.
    Referring again to Figure 24-7, although Europeans and the Chinese are closely related, Europeans are closer to the African pygmies than are the Chinese. Under OoA, this is hard to explain as the Africans who allegedly migrated out of Africa went to Asia first and became Asians, and then some of those Asians went to Europe. If that were true, one would expect the Chinese to be closer to the Africans than the Europeans. Under OoE, however, there was no migration out of Africa and the Europeans are closer to the Africans because the Europeans remained generalized while the Africans and Asians became specialized, but in opposite directions, one for the tropics and the other for the cold. Note, in Figure 24-7, that the Europeans are in between the Africans and the Chinese. In addition, more European hominoids than Asian hominoids migrated into Africa and interbred with indigenous African hominoids. Had Eurasian-African interbreeding not occurred, line “c” would be much longer. And, if Eurasians came from Africans only 65,000 ya, as OoA holds, why are Africans so genetically different from Eurasians in Figure 24-7? 45 The only explanation that OoA has for the length of line “c” is that Africans and Eurasians did a whole lot of evolving after Africans left Africa and became Eurasians.

                           Jomon and Ainu
    The Ainu are primitive stone age people who live in northern Japan. They are believed to be the remnants of interbreeding between Koreans and the Jomon, a maritime people who spread around Polynesia (and possibly to the Americas). The Jomon, in turn, may be the remnants of the generalized Hs West Asians who migrated into Asia. The Ainu (Fig. 24-8) 46 have prominent brow ridges and large teeth, which are primitive Hs traits, as well as a somewhat wide nose and epicanthic folds, but their skin is whiter and less yellowish; a few even have grey or blue eyes.
Figure 24-8

    The Ainu are among the hairiest people on earth. Their hairiness in relatively mild Japan suggests that their Hs ancestor was hairy. Other East Asians have very little hair, but the Ainu were mostly isolated from the hairless East Asians. 47 The 9200 year old Kennewick man (Figure 20-6), found in the eastern part of the state of Washington, may have been genetically close to the Ainu. The Ainu language is strangely similar to the Basque language (Ainu & Basque Language Correlation); today, the Basques live between France and Spain, but they could easily have been the Solutreans who came to America. 48
    Waves of Koreans invaded stone age Japan in about 1500 B.C. and then again about 400 B.C. The interbreeding of those Koreans with the more primitive Jomon people then living in Japan also produced the modern Japanese (80% Korean-20% Jomon – less Jomon than the Ainu) in only about 2500 to 3500 yrs. 49 Modern Japanese have traits picked up from the Jomon, such as more hair and “squared” canine teeth, and a few Japanese men even have brow ridges.

Chapter 25

Table of Contents

FOOTNOTES

1. There is no sharp dividing line between ape and man and it would not be unreasonable to include within the genus “Homo” an ape that was habitually bipedal, such as Australopithecus or perhaps even Oreo. Back

2.  "A comparison of the skeletal and muscular features of living apes and humans shows that apes have developed a more complex and specialized anatomy, while humans have preserved a primitive mammalian simplicity, with only the cerebrospinal system, necessary for the manifestation of selfconscious intelligence, being highly developed. If apes and humans descended from a common ancestor, that ancestor must have had a more generalized anatomical structure than modern apes." (Anatomy and origins, Pratt, D. Human Origins: The ape-ancestry myth, Feb., 2004). Back

3. Their northernmost territory may have been farther north than one might think. The golden snub-nosed monkey lives in China in snow at high altitudes and, in winter, the temperature falls to 5°F The northern Japanese Snow Monkey lives in a climate where the snow can be more than a meter deep (though hot springs are available), so Australopithecus may have lived in such climates as well. Human artifacts dated at 1.2 mya have been found in China along the Nihewan Basin near Mongolia. (Deng, 2007). It is also possible that the generalized Australopithecus arose from a tropics-specialized Australlopithecus that became more generalized by neoteny (Rule 3, Chapter 4, FN 17), but it is more parsimonious to retain the generalized Australopithecus than to re-evolve it. Back

4. “…the Neandertal sequence is actually further away from either of the two chimpanzee sequences than the modern human sequences are. My calculations show that every one of the human isolates that I used was “closer” to chimp than was the Neandertal.” (Australian biochemist John P. Marcus, personal communication). This is consistent with Caucasians remaining generalized from their LCA with Neanderthals, while the Neanderthals evolved cold specializations that moved them farther away from that LCA. Back

5. It is likely that before the Neanderthal and Mongoloid cold specializations evolved, a somewhat cold-specialized Australopithecus had spread across both Europe and Asia. That would account for some of the similarities (e.g., occipital buns, shoveled incisors) found in both Asian erectus and georgicus. Back

6.  However, the absence of body hair is also neotenic, and East Asians lack body hair. This suggests that they relied less on body hair to keep warm and more on subcutaneous fat. Also, the loss of body hair may have occurred after animal skins were used as garments, when it became a net disadvantage because it harbored disease-carrying lice. Back

7. Of the Mongoloids: “Everything has been done to flatten the face, to decrease the area of exposure to frostbite, and to pad it.” (Howells, 1959, p. 288). Back

8. It is difficult to say whether these two species were advanced enough to be called “habilis” or “erectus,” but Australopithcus seems more likely, given the nearly 3 million years that the genus lived. Back

9. “Central and Eastern Europe was occupied by people who manufactured a crude pebble chopper and flake industry… These people may have represented a separate Homo population – similar to Asian Homo erectus …” (Hoffecker, 2002, pp. 93, 98). Back

10.  “ … the first East European modern humans …came from southern latitudes and warmer climates, and did not represent a specialized northern variant of Homo.” (Hoffecker, 2002, pp. 139–140). Back

11. Some cold specializations still occurred, such as a larger, narrower nose, physiological processes to increase body heat, and an increase in body size, which was also needed to accommodate a larger brain. Back

12. "The establishment of larger social networks allowed the replacement of Neanderthals [by Hss] in the Caucasus [south of Russia and north of Iran, between the Black and Caspian Seas]." (Peresani, 2008). Back

13. Because the East Asians were cold-specialized, they were able to move north earlier than the generalized West Asians. This enabled them to increase their intelligence earlier and expand south again, interbreeding with tropically-adapted species, resulting in hybrids, some of which eventually migrated into Africa. (Chap. 26). Back

14.  “The Whites do not give us any particular trouble. They would seem to have been entrenched in southwest Asia, perhaps more specifically in Persia [Iran] and Afghanistan, from their beginnings, apparently with the Neanderthals to the north and west of them.” (Howells, 1948, p. 296). Back

15. All hominid remains of the last 100,000 years belong to one of these two species, i.e., Neanderthals or Hss. (Waechter, 1990, intro. by Roe). Back

16. Note the similarities to the gene-generated Cavalli-Sforza tree of Figure 16-7. Back

17. The large number of different haplogroups in Europe (H, I, J, K, T, U, V, W, X) suggests, by the afrocentrist rule that more variety equals greater age, that Europeans either have ancient roots or interbred with Neanderthals or both. Back

18.  But see the discussion in Chapter 25 about the 3 million yr old inversion. Back

19. Similarly, interbreeding between an ancestor of the chimp and a more advanced Eurasian primate in the human lineage would give the chimp ancestor advantageous alleles that would be positively selected and would make it appear that African chimps have evolved more than humans. “… the number of positively selected genes is substantially smaller in humans than in chimps …” (Bakewell, 2007). Back

20. Unfortunately, there is as yet no good evidence for Australopithecus in Eurasia, though they almost certainly would have been there, given their large numbers and varieties and the presence of Oreo and other apes in Eurasia. Fossils are usually not found unless paleoanthropologists look for them and, since most paleoanthropologists believe that all humans arose in Africa, that is where they look for them. (”It’s amazing what you can see when you look.” Greg Palast, investigative reporter.) “The best place to look would be in Africa, whence, it is thought, modern humans migrated.” (Arsuaga, 2001, p. 289). Also, there is more funding for digs in Africa than in most other places. A good territory for the early evolution of man in East Asia is the Hengduan Mountain region in western China. It is a hotbed of plant evolution due to its multiple climates at different altitudes (similar to the climate where georgicus was found). Back

21. “The late Neanderthals at Saint Césaire and Vindija are markedly less robust than the early ones, and the early ‘moderns’ such as Dolní Vestonice are markedly more robust than living Europeans.” (C. Loring Brace, Professor of Anthropology and Curator of Biological Anthropology, Letter to Scientific American dated Mar. 20,2000). Also, (Smith, 2005). Back

22. (Howells, 1948, pp. 252). Note Fig. 21-1, which suggests west-to-east migrations. That Caucasians are more generalized and East Asians are more specialized also argues against east to west migration since evolution is almost always generalized to specialized, not the reverse. (Chap. 4, Rule 3). So great a threat was migration from the NW that the Chinese built the Great Wall of China, the only man-made structure that is (or was until optics improved) so large it could be seen from space. Genghis Khan is a significant exception, and even he had red hair. (Wikipedia, “Genghis Khan”). (Attila the Hun arose in NW Asia, not NE Asia.) Linguists have tried to identify the “mother tongue” of all languages and its location, “proto-World.” “Until recently, proto-World was located in the Near East [the Middle East] at about 35,000 years ago, …” (Corballis, 1991, p. 161). Back

23. However, after the arrival of agriculture, about 12,000 ya, the East Asians advanced faster technologically than the Europeans, and got about 1000 years ahead in some areas, such as military technology. Europeans later caught up and advanced more until very recently; now the East Asians are pushing ahead again. Back

24. (Shishir Arya, “Did early man originate in India?” Times News Network, India, May 30, 2007). Back

25. (Wikipedia, “Southwest Asia” and “Eastern Europe”). “Eastern Europe” is not well-defined, but for the purposes of this book, it includes areas north of Turkey and Iran, including Kazakhstan, Russia, and Poland in the west. The area around and north of the Caspian Sea was once Khazaria, possibly the homeland of the European Jews. (Koestler, A., 1976, The Thirteenth Tribe. Random House). Back

26.  North Central Asia was relatively uninhabited because it was not close to either the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans, making it both cold and dry, a hostile environment for man. (Hofffecker, 2002). It was this separation that kept the Neanderthals from interbreeding with the East Asians and provided the generalized populations in between with a territory to the north where they did not have to compete with either of those two populations. Back

27. “On anatomical grounds, it is argued that the relatively small-brained and lightly built Dmanisi hominins [georgicus] may be ancestral to African and Far Eastern branches of H. erectus showing more derived morphology.” (Lordkipanidze, 2006). The Hobbit on Flores (Fig. 17-11) is most similar to georgicus, suggesting the extent of the migrations of these early hominids. Back

28. There is now evidence that all three populations, the Neanderthals (Rosas, 2006), the Europeans (Seldin, 2006), and the East Asians (Xue, 2006; Zhang, 2007), have distinct north and south genetic differences in their populations. Back

29. Counterintuitively, hairiness in both Europe and Asia increases as one goes from north to south, perhaps because hair was less of a liability in the south as fewer garments would be needed and it would therefore be easier to see and remove skin parasites. Back

30. Hair is cooler than no hair for an animal that is not sweating (Wikipedia, “Aquatic Ape Hypothesis"), but if an animal is sweating, hair is warmer. Only man and horses sweat and horses have very short hair. In the tropics, erectus may have lost his hair when he began to run and sweat and it became a disadvantage. (Jablonski, 2006). Back

31. So important was it to be rid of lice that Egyptians and some Europeans shaved their heads and wore wigs. Large numbers of people died from typhus carried by lice in English camps in the Boer war in South Africa, Confederate camps in the War of Northern Aggression, and in Nazi camps in WWII. Back

32. (Klein, 2002, p. 203). The “hair or no-hair” gene (KRT41P) can be switched on or off relatively easily. Our tropical prosimian ancestors likely had short body hair, our bipedal tropical ancestors had very little body hair, our sub-tropical, but no-garment ancestors acquired thick body hair, and our temperate, but animal-skin-clad ancestors lost body hair again. Back

33. Many men and most women are disgusted by body hair in the opposite sex, perhaps because it is associated with harboring disease-carrying parasites. Back


34. The skeletons of small mammals found with human artifacts were often still articulated, indicating that they had been skinned, not eaten. The archaics also had needles for sewing hides together. Back

35.  Like Oreo, they may have been a coastal people, living near lakes, rivers, seas, and oceans. Their reliance upon seafood would give them the incentive to build rafts and boats, which would eventually enable them to follow coastlines and reach Africa, India, Japan, and Australia. There are two types of head lice which diverged about 1.2 mya; one lived on He and the other on Hs and, when Hs interacted with He, Hs got the He head lice. (Reed, 2004). Since Hs lived north of He, this suggests that Hs migrated south. Back

36. Generalized West Asian Hs migrated east, where he was eventually absorbed and replaced by Mongoloids, though traces remain to this day. “In the Far East, we first find H. erectus, then a generalized H. sapiens and later H. sapiens sapiens with Mongoloid features, but no Neanderthal presence.” (Roe in Waechter, 1990). Howells (1948, p. 296) suggests that the Ainu and the Polynesians were a generalized form of whites who traveled east from West Asia (Howells, 1959, p. 276) through Central Asia into China before the Mongoloids had developed their specializations for the cold. They may have also contributed to the American Indian gene pool. Back

37. “In the Far East there are two great land funnels, one in the north and one in the south, and we know very well that peoples have flowed out through them, to America and Oceania respectively.” (Howells, 1948, pp. 295-296. Back

38. However, recently 42 to 45 kya artifacts have been found in Russia, about 250 miles south of Moscow. (Anikovich, 2007). Back

39. (Semino, 2000). Asian traits, such as round heads, can be found in many Slavic populations and in the Middle East. Note that these Eastern Europeans did not acquire the cold adaptations (e.g., uniform layer of fat, epicanthic fold) that East Asians have, suggesting that migrations into the west by East Asian populations was minimal. The Finns, however, are one-fourth Siberian. (Carpelan, C. , “Where Do Finns Come From?”, Free Republic, Sept. 26, 2007).

40. “In fact these earliest modern human inhabitants of China were anatomically similar to the Cro-Magnons of Europe… “ (Haywood, 2000, p. 49; Wang, 2000). Caucasian mummies were found in China. (Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China; Wikipedia, “Tarim Mummies”; Kemp, 2006, pp. 33-35). Also, (“China striving for mummy identification,” Science Daily, Dec. 24, 2006). Fifteen percent of the population in the SE portion of that NW province are reported to have blue eyes and wavy or curly hair. (Ch'eng-K'un, 1946). Back

41. “… the best explanation of the strong mongoloid stamp of the whole Far East lies in the expansion of a segment of the northern population …” (Howells, 1948, p. 289). Scientists have discovered a novelty-seeking area of the brain, but racial differences in its development are not yet known. (Wittmann, 2008). Back

42. (Kemp, 2006, Chap. 6). A good example is the early migration by the more advanced northern Aryans into India, where they became the upper caste of Indians, the less advanced southern indigenous people becoming the lower caste, the untouchables. By prohibiting intermarriage, the caste system in India was able to preserve the genetic integrity of the two classes in India, though today it is breaking down. Back

43.  However, the length of the lines depends upon the method used to calculate them. Also, Fig. 24-7 includes interbreeding, which can shorten the lines considerably. Back

44. Two types of changes occurred between the OoE LCA and today: (1) evolution from primitive to modern, and (2) evolution of specializations. Africans did less of (1) than Eurasians and Europeans did less of (2) than Africans and Asians. Back

45. Note that Melanesians (“black islanders,” i.e., South Pacific negritos) in Fig. 24-7 are the least related to Africans, who would be located near the Zaire (now “Democratic Republic of the Congo”) Pygmies. Also note that “Pygmies” are used for the tree rather than a more typical African tribe. One cannot help suspecting that the reason was that, as we shall see in the Chapter 26, some of the pygmies have substantial white heritage and are closer to Eurasians than other Africans, i.e., had Congoids been used instead of pygmies, the Africans would be even more distant from the Eurasians. In Fig. 7-3, the “Mbuti Pygmy” (same as the “Zaire Pygmies” in Fig. 24-7) is also the most genetically different from the Eurasians. Back

46. From the (Frederick Starr collection, by H.C. White Co. of Vermont, 1906). Back

47. The Ainu became isolated from people on continental Asia about 14,000 to 18,000 ya, when sea levels began to rise again after the second ice age. (Figure 5-1 Back

48. (New Scientist, Aug. 11-17, 2007, p. 41). Although they look a bit Caucasian, genetically they are not Caucasian, perhaps because their LCA with Caucasians was a long time ago. Back

49. This “rapid evolution” also occurred in Africans (Chap. 26) and African Americans (Lind, 2007; Silva, 2006), when Eurasian males mated with African women. The reverse, where a numerically superior, but less advanced, population kills off the males of the more advanced population and takes their women has also occurred, but much less frequently. Back