|Chapter 14 - Intelligence
|“There is absolutely no question of any genetic differential: Intelligence potential is distributed among Negro infants in the same proportion and pattern as among Icelanders or Chinese or any other group."
|U.S. Moynihan Report, Department of Labor (March, 1965)
The single most important trait that man has is his intelligence and therefore its absence is the single most important primitive trait. A population could have primitive bodies, but if they have a high average intelligence they can nevertheless build a great civilization and have a relatively high standard of living. It is anyone’s guess what the minimum average intelligence required today for a population to create and maintain a modern civilization might be, but it can be safely said that 67, the average for today’s sub-Saharan Africans (Lynn, 2006a, p 37), is way too low. 1 In Figure 14-1 (Lynn, 2006b) plots national IQ against PPP-GNI (purchasing power parity – gross national income). The “UAE” (United Arab Emirates) has a higher GNI due to oil income and China has a lower GNI due to socialism. National IQ does not begin to really “pay off” in terms of living standards until it is at least in the mid 80s. 2
Chimps have fingers with an opposing thumb, can walk on two legs (poorly, and for only short distances), are omnivores, have a social organization, can make simple tools and weapons, 3 have culture, communicate by hand signals (Pollick, 2007), and can even understand language and teach it to their children, 4 but no other animal can engage in abstract thought to the extent that man can. We dominate all the other animals on the planet and alter not only the planet Earth (drastically), but have made contact with its moon, asteroids, comets, many of the planets, and even the sun! None of man’s great accomplishments would have been possible without his intelligence, particularly his ability to engage in abstract reasoning.
Paleoanthropologists have long conceded that from monkey to ape to archaic man to modern man, both brain size (Lee, 2003, Fig. 2) and intelligence increased. 5
The correlation is so strong that no one disputes that, in the context of different animals, more brain (in proportion to body size) equals more intelligence. In proportion to his size, man has the largest brain of any large animal. 6
Figure 14-2 shows the increase in man’s brain size as he evolved. 7
Note the two sharp increases in intelligence that began at about 2 million and 500,000 ya, suggesting mutations and/or strong selection.
There is also considerable evidence that brain size and intelligence correlate strongly between human populations, as both increase from Bushmen to Australian aborigines to s-S Africans to Caucasians to NE Asians. 8 But some of the same people who think the brain size-intelligence correlation is obvious in animals will vigorously argue that it is not true of different human populations or of different individuals. 9
And, indeed, it is not difficult to find people with average-sized brains who are unusually intelligent, and it is even easier to find people with large brains who are not intelligent at all. After all, by injury, disease, or genetic defect, you can always take a person with the brain of a genius and turn him into a dummy, but there is no way you can take a person with the brain of a dummy and turn him into a genius. 10
At any rate, there is a correlation of 0.44 (Lynn, 2006a, p 214) between human brain size and intelligence for individuals, as measured by IQ. 11
Figure 14-3 12 shows this relationship for the major races, where the “ecological” correlation between cranial capacity and IQ for the three major races is an extremely high 0.998. (Jensen, 1998).
Intelligence is determined by multiple genes and also by the environment. The heritability of intelligence is approximately 42% for 4 to 6 year olds and 55% for the age group 6 to 20, but increases to 80% for adult Europeans 13 and 72% for adult African Americans. 14
As environments become more equal, the “remaining differences in intelligence are increasingly determined by differences in genes” (Herrnstein, 1994, p. 91) and the heritability of intelligence increases. Thus, as the egalitarians make the environments of blacks and whites more equal, the remaining IQ differences between blacks and whites will become more controlled by genes and therefore more intractable.15
If people “sort” themselves according to their IQ, so that more intelligent people go to one place (i.e., college, technical occupations) and less intelligent go to another (i.e., inexpensive housing or manual labor jobs), then the heritability of intelligence will increase since people tend to marry those they associate with (“assortative mating”), who are then similar in intelligence. There is a correlation between the IQs of men and women who mate of about 0.45, higher than for any personality traits, 16
so if the heritability of IQ is initially low, it will increase in magnitude over several generations. The correlation between the IQs of spouses is 0.4. (Wikipedia, “IQ”).
Researchers have found that certain regions of the brain responsible for intelligence are highly heritable, including language areas (Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and the frontal region, which plays a large role in abstract reasoning. 17 In identical twins, these areas showed a 95 to 100% correlation between one twin and the other, a correlation as high as for fingerprints (identical twins have similar, but not identical, fingerprints). Fraternal twins were nearly identical in Wernicke's area of the brain (language comprehension), but less similar in other areas, with about a 60 to 70% correlation. (Thompson, 2001).
The correlation of the IQs of identical twins is a high 0.86, even when they have been reared apart (Crew, F.A.E., 1927), while fraternal twins and siblings correlate only 0.6. (Wikipedia, “IQ”). When the same IQ test was given to the same people at ages 11 and 77 (Deary, 2000), the correlation between the two test results was a strong 0.73, showing little environmental influence on intelligence during the intervening 66 yrs. A test for the intelligence of babies predicts their later intelligence, further indicating its heritability. 18 “In other words, the odds are 2 to 1 that an individual’s adult IQ will fall within 3 points of his IQ at age 8.” (Levin, 1997, p. 62).
General intelligence, the ability to comprehend, understand, catch on, make sense of, or figure out (Gottfredson (1997a), is known as “g,” and “g” is what IQ tests strive to measure. 19 But IQ tests today are so suspect in some quarters that they are no longer given to school children unless specifically requested. 20 Although it might seem obvious that knowing what a child is capable of learning would be highly useful in deciding what to try to teach him, egalitarianism trumps reason; determining children’s IQ and, even worse, making use of that information to decide whether they are learning up to their capabilities, would expose the lower intelligence of blacks, so that information ist verboten.
All innovations, including IQ tests, are improved as their usefulness becomes apparent; early IQ tests were inaccurate in determining intelligence, and some even obviously biased. (Blacks actually do better on tests that are culturally biased. 21) Today, however, psychologists go to great lengths to make their IQ tests as accurate and unbiased as possible. (Levin, 1997, pp. 62-73; Jensen, 1980). They know full well that their work will not be accepted, and may even be ridiculed, unless the tests meet the strictest possible standards.
Moreover, modern science has just about eliminated any bias by using Raven Matrices to determine IQ. (Penrose, 1936). In a Raven Standard Progressive Matrices test, a person sits in front of a monitor screen. As quickly as he can, he is required to extract a pattern implied by a set of geometric pictures, which become increasingly more complicated; the faster he reacts, the higher is his IQ and a computer, not a person, calculates his score. 22 One might reasonably ask what ‘how fast a decision is made’ could possibly have to do with intelligence, especially since not much abstract reasoning is involved other than examining drawings for similarities and differences. Before answering that question, let us note that it works – these tests have correlations with conventional IQ tests that “reach 0.50 and higher.” 23 They work because high intelligence requires a brain that can perform certain physiological functions well, one of which is the rapid transmission of information across synapses in the part of the brain that makes decisions.
At any rate, children quickly learn how to take a Raven test, whether they are literate or illiterate, educated or uneducated, poor or rich, white or black. And, since the tests are typically given to school children, and children who go to school, especially in Third World countries, tend to be more intelligent than those who do not, any bias will result in IQ scores being higher than they would have been had all children been tested.
While IQ scores are information that the people who run our schools don’t want to know, the U.S. Army, whose generals apparently value winning wars more than obeisance to egalitarianism, has been testing prospective recruits for IQ since 1950 (Armed Services Qualification Test) and continues to do so because it is so valuable in determining what jobs soldiers are capable of learning to do. Needless to say, mistakes made by unintelligent soldiers can cost lives and lose battles. In or out of the military, there is no other indicator that predicts success as well as IQ.
“The Bell Curve” (Herrnstein, 1994) catalogued intelligence and a variety of other indicia, such as education and socioeconomic status, to determine how well they positively correlate with socially desirable outcomes (Shurkin, 1992), such as job success and income, and negatively correlate with socially undesirable outcomes, such as welfare dependency, illegitimacy, and crime; none correlated as highly, positively or negatively, as IQ.
Higher IQ correlates well with job performance (r = 0.54), 24 increased wealth, 25 increased income, 26 economic growth, 27 livability in a U.S. state (0.80), 28 cooperation, 29
and even life expectancy (0.85) and infant mortality (-0.84), 30
so one might reasonably expect that average IQ will determine economic success for an entire population. And, indeed, that is the case. Nations whose citizens have a high average IQ usually also have a high average living standard; 31 the correlation is strong, 0.73. (Fig. 14-4). 32
As Figure 14-4 shows, high IQ usually equals a high living standard. For example, the United States (average IQ = 98) has a GDP that is 58 times that of s-S Africa (average IQ = 67). 33 It is not wealth that makes people intelligent, as the egalitarians sometimes claim, but intelligence that enables people to better acquire their material desires, just as one would expect. Each 10 point increase in IQ approximately doubles economic growth, provided the country has a market economy – socialism has strangled the economies of China and Eastern Europe.
The IQ results Table 14-1 (Lynn, 2006a) were “normed” so that an IQ of 100 is set at the average for Britain. Note the drastic drop in IQ that occurs for s-S Africans, Australian aborigines, and the Bushmen. This drop suggests significant genetic differences and that those populations are much more primitive. Also note that the worldwide average IQ is 90 and that all the average IQs over 90 are in northern populations. Lynn (2002a, Table 4) gives IQs for 185 countries.
The Mysterious Black-White Gap
|Population ||Median IQ ||Equivalent Age|
of White Child
|Jews (1) ||107-115 |
|East Asia (2) ||105 |
|Europeans (all races) ||98 ||16 ||173
|Inuit (Eskimos) ||91 |
|Worldwide ||90 ||14 ||(Lynn, 2002a)
|South East Asians (3) ||87 |
|Native Americans (4) ||86 |
|Pacific Islanders (5) ||85 |
|African Americans 34
|South Asians (6) ||84 |
|North Africans (7) ||84 |
|s-S Africans ||67 ||11 ||37
|Australian Aborigines ||62 ||10 ||104
|Kalahari Bushmen ||54 ||8 ||76
|Homo erectus (est.)|
| (1) European Jews in the United States and Great Britain. 35
| (2) China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
| (3) Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.
| (4) North and South America.
| (5) Pacific Islands and New Zealand.
| (6) India, Iran, Iraq, Israel-Arabs, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Nepal,|
Pakistan, Qatar, Sri Lanka, Syria, Turkey, and Yemen.
| (7) North Africa and Egypt.
Trillions of dollars have been spent on programs to erase the gap between white and black academic achievements. 36 All have failed. 37 After each program fails, the egalitarian chattering classes get together to see what can be done about this Mysterious Gap. IQ differences are never mentioned, and another program costing even more money is started, only to fail several years down the road, and the Mysterious Gap remains, or even increases. 38 “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.” (Albert Einstein).
As discussed in Chapter 13, geneticists are identifying the genes responsible for intelligence and are finding the incidence of those genes in people around the world. To no one’s surprise, the incidence in Africa is much less than in Europe or Asia. It is difficult to argue that blacks fail to achieve for lack of education or because of white racism when they do not have the genes required for learning. 39
Figure 14-5 shows the IQ frequency distributions of Africans, blacks (African Americans) and whites (European Americans). 40 The distributions of blacks and whites are of equal population size. The African distribution is a normal bell curve having a population approximately equal to the black curve. The mean of the African distribution is 67 (Lynn, 2006a, p 37) and “the black mean is commonly given as 85, the white mean as 100 …” 41
The IQ difference between blacks and whites is observable by age 3, indicating that it is genetic. (Levin, 1997, p. 103). At age 8 months to 12 months blacks, due to their faster maturation (Chap. 11) have IQ scores that are almost identical to whites, while Asian scores are slightly lower due to their slower maturation; as blacks become older, their IQ gap with whites increases and, with Asians, increases even more. 42
The egalitarians argued that the IQ scores of Africa Americans were depressed by slavery and therefore the IQ scores of Africans would prove to be much higher than the scores of African Americans; instead, they were much lower. (Herrnstein, 1994, p.565). In Figure 14-5, the black curve would be much closer to the African curve had whites not interbred with African slaves and given their children genes for higher intelligence. 43
Note that in Figure 14-5, the peak of the black distribution is higher and the left end 44 is less spread out than the ends of white curve, even though both curves include the same number of people; the narrower black curve means that the black standard deviation (SD) is less than the white SD. Although the SD “is commonly given … as 15” for everyone (Herrnstein, 1994, p. 276), the black SD for the data used in Figure 14-5 was 12.4. According to Jensen, the SD for whites is 16 (18 for males and 14 for females) but is 10 or 11 (some say 14) for NE Asians and about 12 for blacks. 45
A group that has a larger SD will have both more geniuses and more dummies than another group that has the same mean but a smaller SD; white males have the largest SD, which may explain their greater achievements (see next chapter).
In Figure 14-5, people with IQs below the left vertical yellow line (IQ<70) are considered to be retarded and people with IQs above the right vertical yellow line (IQ>130) are considered to be gifted. As Figure 14-5 shows, over half of S-s Africans are in the retarded range. About 37% of American blacks have an IQ below 80, just above retarded, but only about 9% of whites do, 46 but blacks are 6.1 times as likely to be retarded (IQ<70) as whites (i.e., about 12% of African Americans and 2% of non-Hispanic whites have an IQ less than 70; La Griffe du Lion, 2000d).
Even though the percentage of blacks with IQs under 70 is about 6 times the percentage of whites, in one study only 4% of those blacks were actually classified as “retarded,” i.e., as behaviorally impaired, while 15% of the whites were! 47 The reason is not that whites are being discriminated against, but that in whites a low IQ is usually due to a genetic abnormality such as Down’s syndrome, which causes obvious physical deformities, but low IQ blacks usually do not have a genetic defect and are normal in behavior and appearance; in Africans and aborigines these low scores are normal. 48 “Black children of IQ 70 routinely learn to speak, to play games, learn names, and act friendly with playmates and teachers. They appear quite normal, whereas White children with similar IQs ‘look’ abnormal.” 49
Referring now to the right tail “gifted” region of Figure 14-5, we see that the lower average IQ of blacks means not only that the left tail “retarded” region has disproportionately more blacks, but also that the right tail “gifted” region has disproportionately fewer blacks; 50 a much greater percentage of whites have high IQs than blacks. Although half of all whites have an IQ over the white average, only 16% of African Americans do (i.e., 5 out of 6 blacks have an IQ below the white average) and only 1.3% of Africans would be expected to have an IQ above the white average. 51 The higher the IQ, the greater is the difference between the percentage of blacks and the percentage of whites. Only 1% of the black (African American) population has an IQ over 120, but 9% of the white population does. 52 About 2.3% of whites have an IQ of at least 130 (gifted), 20 times greater than the percentage of blacks who do; 53 only 0.00044% of Africans would be expected to have an IQ over 130. (Id.).
The large differences in the percentages of blacks and whites IQs in the right tail of the curves account for the small number of blacks in high-IQ professions, such as physicians and attorneys. 54 Note in Figure 14-6 (Gottfredson, 2004a) how IQ relates to occupation and how the lower IQ of blacks limits them to less well-paying occupations (U.S. in 1981).
The black-white gap will increase as more and more African refugees, with an average IQ of only 67, are brought into the United States and are counted as part of the black population.
For African Americans, skin color, which is a surrogate for European ancestry, correlates highly (r = 0.92) with intelligence 55 so the blacks at the right tail of the black IQ curve (Fig. 14-5 & 14-6) have lighter skin (and more of other Caucasian features) than those in the left tail. The IQ of Africans is estimated to increase by 0.2 IQ points for every 1% of Caucasian heritage. (Lynn, 2006a, p 70).
The latest attack on the massive amount of data that shows that blacks are less intelligent is the “stereotype threat,” which asserts that blacks do worse on IQ tests because they fear that they will confirm the white stereotype 56 of them – that they are less intelligent; this fear makes them so nervous that they don’t do well on the tests. (Steele, 1995). Steele demonstrated experimentally that blacks perform worse on a test when it is called an “IQ test” than when it is described as a “research tool.” The egalitarians were, of course, overjoyed at this news and both academics and the popular press exulted in the Tinker Bell Theory of Intelligence, that blacks would be just as smart as whites if only they believed they were. Belief may increase motivation, but our belief does not create reality. Steele’s experiment disguised racial differences in IQ, but did not eliminate them, i.e., the gap between white and black IQ scores remained. (Sackett, 2004; Sailer, 2004a; Murray, 2005; La Griffe du Lion, 2003). Nor does the “stereotype threat” explain how stereotypes get started in the first place. 57
The very fact that Africans were so extensively enslaved for centuries, not only by other Africans, but also by people from many other countries, and were unable to stop their own exploitation, despite their often superior physical abilities, strongly suggests that mentally they were, and are, incapable of competing with other races.
The Male-Female Gap
Another “gap” is between the accomplishments of white men and white women, which also suggests a difference in intelligence. (Lynn, 2006a, p. 219) gives white men about a 5 point IQ advantage over white women and (Jackson, 2006) gives a 3.63 point IQ advantage to men. 58 This is consistent with men having a brain that is about 100 cc larger, even adjusting for body weight. 59 Although this difference is only a few IQ points, because of the difference in male and female means and the greater SD of white men, the small difference in IQ makes a large difference between the number of white men and white women at the higher IQ levels. 60 Figure 14-7 clearly shows both the higher average IQ of males and their greater SD, and how much those differences affect the male/female ratio at higher IQs (dotted line). 61
Among Africans, however, the women may have an IQ advantage over men, 62 probably because African women are less dependent on men and therefore need not select males who are good providers (and good providers are typically more intelligent, see Chap. 5).
The Flynn Effect
A major anomaly in IQ research, the Flynn Effect, was discovered by Richard Lynn (Lynn, 1982), but was named for James R. Flynn (1984, 1987), who gathered a great deal of data to support it. The Flynn Effect is a world-wide increase in IQ scores of about 3 IQ points every ten years since about 1950. Some researchers (Rushton, 2000a, p. 284; Lynn, 2006a, p. 6) believe that >U>real (i.e., genetic) intelligence has increased and suggest that it may be due to improved nutrition. (With all the junk food eaten today, one wonders whether nutrition has really improved.) The author believes, 63 however, that the increase in scores is not an increase in real intelligence, but is because the IQ test score comparisons are made between people of the same chronological age, but of different maturities. To give an example, if you give the same IQ test that 10 year olds took 50 ya to today’s 10 year olds, you will find that today’s 10 year olds do much better on the test. But children today mature at an earlier age (probably due to increased calories, which accelerates maturation), and therefore are actually, perhaps, 12 yrs old in terms of maturity. Thus, the Flynn Effect is due to comparing years-ago children who were 10 yrs old in maturity to today’s children who are 12 yrs old in maturity (but 10 yrs old chronologically) and, of course, the more mature children do better.
It was always unbelievable that people are becoming more intelligent, given all the welfare subsidies for lower IQ people to have more children and the immigration of low IQ people into the West from Mexico, Africa, and the Middle East. 64 “Literacy among college graduates declined between 1992 and 2003, with less than one-third of all graduates at the highest ‘proficient’ level in 2003, and less than half of all graduates with advanced degrees at this level.” 65 If real intelligence (i.e., the genetic potential for high intelligence) were increasing, we would not see grade inflation, falling SAT scores, a dumbing down of SAT tests, 66 courses, textbooks, and our culture, the publication of studies such as “A Nation at Risk,” 67 the Darwin Awards, 68 and the series, “[insert almost any subject] for Dummies.” 69 American “music” consists of endless repetition and pounding drums and less and less Beethoven and Prokofiev, or even Richard Rodgers and George Gershwin, and art is urination and feces rather than Rembrandt and Michelangelo. New research in England has confirmed common sense, finding, "The intelligence of 11-year-olds has fallen by three years' worth in the past two decades." 70
There is evidence not only for declining intelligence in the United States, but that the intelligence of blacks is declining faster than the intelligence of whites. 71 This conclusion is based on data showing that for both whites and blacks, the less intelligent are more fecund, and that is truer of blacks than whites. (Chap. 11 and Table 32-1, p. 262).
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base (2005), the world population, which was at a little over 6 billion in 2000, is expected to grow to 7 billion by 2013 and to surpass 9 billion by 2050. The U.S. population is also growing, from about 280 million in 2000, to a projected 310 million in 2010, to a little under 400 million by 2040. Given that high IQ white and East Asian population numbers are falling while low IQ population numbers are increasing, world-wide average intelligence has to be declining.
Selecting for Intelligence
Intelligence increases significantly with distance from the equator. 72 Although high intelligence appears to be an adaptation to the cold, it is not cold weather, per se, that selects for intelligence, as the Arctic people have an average IQ of 91 and they would be expected to have an IQ significantly higher than that if cold weather alone selected for intelligence. The real selector for intelligence is a mentally challenging environment, where survival (and therefore reproductive success) depends more on intelligence than on other traits. 73 The Arctic may be colder, but the people who live there depend upon the same food source - sea animals - the entire year. Thus, obtaining and storing food for the winter is unnecessary and the same skills can be used to obtain food the entire year. In contrast, the large seasonal variations in northern territories south of the Artic and far from the sea, where vegetation must be relied upon as a major food source, make those environments more mentally challenging. 74
A highly seasonal climate is more mentally challenging because of the many additional problems that must be solved in order to survive. These included keeping warm, of course, but also the absence of food in the winter, the need to hunt and kill large mammals, cut them up, and carry the meat back to women and children and store the excess when the temperature is above freezing. (Lynn, 2006a, pp. 227-228). These problems were not faced by people in the tropics, 75 and solving these problems required careful planning, cooperation, and the crafting of weapons and tools, i.e. intelligence.
The center of the Chinese Han population is between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers and extends from modern Wuhan, Nanjing, and Chengdu. This is in an officially-designated “hot summer/cold winter zone” where the average temperature in the hottest month is 25 to 30°C (77 to 86°F) and the average temperature in the coldest month is 0 to 10°C (32 to 50°F). 76 It is no coincidence that the Chinese, coping with such wide swings in temperature, have an average IQ of 103. (Lynn, 2006a, p. 173). Now contrast China with equatorial Africa, where the annual temperature variation is between 17 and 32°C (63 and 90°F) and the average IQ is only 67. (Lynn, 2006a, p. 224).
Since northern women, until modern times, needed men to provide for them and men capable of doing so typically had status and wealth, which correlate highly with intelligence, northern women directly or indirectly selected more intelligent men. There is some evidence that beautiful women are of higher intelligence (Kanazawa, 2004), perhaps because their mothers were beautiful and their mothers selected intelligent men 77 so, since men prefer beautiful women, they are also selecting for higher intelligence. As a consequence of these sexual selections, white women are only slightly less intelligent than white men. 78
Like all traits, if average intelligence rises it is because people who are more intelligent are more reproductively successful. Since the brain is man’s most expensive organ, 79 intelligence quickly falls again when the less intelligent are just as, or more, reproductively successful than the more intelligent. By vastly increasing the number of people who could survive and by reducing the intelligence needed to do so, agriculture produced the first big drop in intelligence and the Industrial Revolution and the welfare state produced the second. 80
Intelligence as a Liability
The greatest blind spot that anthropologists have is their unexamined assumption that more intelligence, at least in man, is always advantageous. This is a natural assumption for them to make because in their field more intelligence equals more success, but intelligence is not a unique (“sui generis”) trait that is exempt from the selection pressures that apply to all other traits and all other living things.
In economics, “there ain’t no such thing as a free lunch” (“TANSTAAFL”) and that is also true in evolution. If an individual puts more of his resources into a larger, more intelligent brain, he has fewer resources available for his other organs. (Zimmer, 2008). Why are there no super-intelligent lions or gazelles? Because any gazelle that invested more resources in a larger brain would have fewer resources to devote to the muscles and bones that enable it to escape lions, nor could a slower, but bigger-brained lion catch enough of even the stupider gazelles to survive. That is, an animal’s brain increases in size only as long as the additional grey matter increases his reproductive success; after he reaches his optimal brain size, any additional brain lowers his reproductive success. Since we humans have already invested so much in our brains (about 25% of our metabolism is devoted to brain function) going past our optimal brain size will rapidly lower reproductive success. (Isler, 2006). Remember, too, that each additional cubic centimeter of brain will probably require more than an additional cubic centimeter of the body’s other organs to support it. Unless individuals cannot reproduce without solving problems that require a lot of grey matter, large brains will be strongly selected against. Today, even though more intelligent people have the means to be more reproductively successful, they lack the motivation to do it, so their fitness, and the average intelligence of the population has declined.
The optimal amount of intelligence depends upon the other traits the organism has and the environment it is in. More intelligence is a waste of resources if an organism does not possess the means to make use of high intelligence, i.e., it lacks arms, fingers, or tentacles for manipulating its environment, or it can obtain all the energy it needs from its environment without solving mentally challenging problems (e.g., a sponge).
That the optimal amount of intelligence is less in Africa is demonstrated by the lower IQ of Africans (Chap. 4, Rule 10, second corollary) and is supported by the correlation between IQ and distance from the equator (-0.68, Templer, 2006, 121–139). The extinction of large-brained Africans, such as Herto (Fig. 17-1), Boskop (Fig. 26-9), and Grimaldi (Fig. 26-11), the (presumably) considerable lowering of the intelligence of the Bushmen as they moved from northern Africa to central and southern Africa, and the low IQ of the Africans in the horn of Africa (e.g., Somalia = 68), who clearly have some white heritage (Fig. 26-8), also suggest that the optimal amount of intelligence is lower in Africa. 81
The difference between the 105 average IQ of NE Asians (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) and the SE Asians, who are related to the NE Asians, but have an average of only 87 (Lynn, 2006a, pp. 173, 100) support the conclusion that the optimal IQ in tropical climates is likely to be low. Although the Incas and Mayans, living in the tropics of Mexico and the Amazon, built civilizations that had writing, a calendar, and mathematics, and therefore must have had a reasonably high IQ, the Native Americans today of North and Latin America have an average IQ of only 86. (Lynn, 2006a, pp. 130, 166). However, the Mayans and Incas may have come from a higher IQ founding population and may have been in the process of undergoing a reduction in IQ as it no longer paid off in reproductive success.
Brain size, and presumably intelligence, also fell outside of the tropics when it became less needed for reproductive success. (Fig. 14-8).82 Both the Cro-Magnons, who became the Europeans (Chap. 24), and the Neanderthals (Chap. 25) initially had larger brains than today’s Europeans. It is possible that a mutation about 50,000 ya (the beginning of the Cultural Revolution) enabled the brain to become more efficient (Chap. 13), so that greater intelligence could be achieved even with a smaller brain (Lynn, 2006a, pp. 150-153), but it is more likely that the domestication of animals and agriculture reduced the reproductive pay-off from intelligence.
The vast expansion in the food supply made possible by agriculture and the domestication of animals meant less selection for high intelligence because a person who was not intelligent enough to survive as a hunter could nevertheless survive as a farmer. (The adage that 95% of the fish are caught by 5% of the fishermen illustrates the importance of intelligence in hunting.) 83 Also, although agriculture meant more food, it initially meant a lower quality food than meat, and did not provide the nutrition needed to support a large brain. In fact, if food is plentiful and high intelligence is not needed to acquire it, then it is a disadvantage to have a large brain instead of, say, a better immune system, which would be more advantageous in the more crowded conditions made possible by agriculture. For a hunter, more intelligence meant killing more game, thereby reducing the amount of food available, so human population growth was self-limiting. But once the knowledge of how to farm had been discovered, population growth was much less limited and depended more on hard, steady work than on outwitting game, 84 i.e., the optimal brain size for a farmer was less than for a hunter-gatherer.
Table of Contents
1. “It seems there is an IQ threshold to be reached before a country can get off the ground economically. None of the black nations has yet reached this threshold.” (La Griffe du Lion, 2002); La Griffe argues that it is the fraction of a nation's population that has an IQ greater than 108 that determines per capita GDP. A country with a national IQ below about 85 is likely to be an economic failure. (Lynn, 2006b, regression plot of national IQ). A civilization can be achieved and maintained with a somewhat below average (100) IQ if it is homogeneous, as the corruptions of ethny-against-ethny are avoided. The decline of the civilizations of the US, Europe, Canada, and Australia with the immigration of large numbers of ethnically and racially different groups shows that even an average IQ of 100 may not be sufficient under the burden of ethnic competition. Also see Table 32-2. Back
2. Also see Table 32-2, where the average IQ in South America is low, but not nearly as low as in Africa, yet their attainments in math and science are almost as sparse as Africans. Back
3. However, chimpanzees do not make stone tools (Arsuaga, 2001, p. 30) nor, when they obtain a useful stone, do they keep it for later use. (Arsuaga, 2001, p. 33). They use sticks to dig up tubers and bulbs, and to beat other chimps; they make points on wooden spears with their teeth to impale bush babies in hollow trees. Even crows make tools; a New Caledonia crow named “Betty” spontaneously bent a wire to make a meat hook and used it to retrieve some meat. (Emery, 2004). But so far only man has been found to use a tool to make a tool. Back
4. They also “pat each other on the hand to show affection, or kiss each other, or embrace. …[and] develop lifelong friendships, and grieve for their dead babies by carrying them for days or weeks. [They can] do sums like 5 plus 4 or communicate with hand signs.” (Wrangham, 1996, pp. 23-24; see the documentary, “Ape Genius.”). Adolescent chimps outperformed human college students in remembering numbers. (Hooper, R. “Chimps outperform humans at memory task,” New Scientist, Dec. 3, 2007). Back
5. The correlation between brain size and the g factor (general intelligence, i.e., abstract reasoning) across 25 primate genre is 0.77, which is a strong correlation. (Lee, 2005). "No one, I presume, doubts that the large proportion which the size of man's brain bears to his body, compared to the same proportion in the gorilla or orang, is closely connected with his mental powers." (Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 1871). Back
6. Very small animals can have disproportionately large brains. Animals that are socially complex, e.g., dolphins, elephants, and humans, also tend to have larger brains. (Marino, L., “Cetacean brains: How aquatic are they?” The Anatomical Record Online, May 21, 2007). Back
7. Data from Kambiz Kamrani. Some of that increase is due to an increase in body size, but body size may have increased to accommodate a larger brain, so absolute brain size may correlate more highly with intelligence. (Deaner, 2007; the increase in brain size may have been due to a longer period of brain growth as a result of neoteny; Coqueugniot, 2004). About 30,000 ya, the increasing brain size reversed and started decreasing (Wiercinski, 1979), but and man began to live much longer. (Caspari, 2004). This was sometime after the Cultural Revolution took hold; the use of abstract thinking (e.g., astronomy, complex languages,) would have produced a population increase that enabled more of those who were less intelligent (and had smaller brains) to survive and reproduce; the coming of agriculture about 12,000 ya also made it possible for more of the less intelligent to survive. The trend seems to be continuing. (Fig. 14-8). Back
8. East Asians have about 17 cc (1 in3) larger brains than Europeans, and Europeans have about 80 cc (5 in3) larger brains than Africans. (Jensen, 1998). Back
9. See the 2005 study by Michael McDaniel, an industrial and organizational psychologist at Virginia Commonwealth University, which found a direct correlation between intelligence and brain size. Also, (Posthuma, 2002; Thompson, 2001). "I can predict full-scale IQ from the amount of gray matter in a small number of areas." (Haier, R.J., quoted in Zimmer, C., "The Search for Intelligence," Scientific American, Oct., 2008, p. 73). Back
10. (Gale, 2006). As comedian Ron White put it, “You can’t fix stupid.” By day 166 of the 277 days of human intrauterine development the total number of cells capable of differentiating into neurons has been produced. Though most brain growth is before adulthood, neurons can regenerate to a limited extent in adults. (Lindvall, 2003). Back
11. (McDaniel, 2005; Rushton, 2000a, pp. 36-41, 113-146). The correlation with head circumference is an even greater 0.8. (Brandt, 1978). This correlation indicates that although brain size is important, other factors are also important. Artic people have the largest brains of any living people (1444 cc), but an average IQ of only 91, perhaps because more of their brains is devoted to visual memory and they may not have acquired mutations that other Eurasians did. (Lynn, 2006a, pp. 150-153). It is probable that at some stage in man’s evolution, mutations occurred that made the brain more efficient (probably about 2 mya), so that the same intelligence could be achieved with a smaller brain. (Shaw, 2006). Intelligent brains are more efficient than less intelligent brains. (Seligman, 1992, p. 62). Back
12. Redrawn from (Jensen, 1998). “Negroid” is African American. Back
13. (Rushton 2005c & 2005d). In the US, for non-Hispanic white mothers, the percentage of their children who are in the bottom 10% of IQ scores is 39% if the mother’s IQ is <75, 17% if the mother’s IQ is 75 – 90, 6% if the mother’s IQ is 90 – 110, 7% if the mother’s IQ is 110 – 125, and <1% if the mother’s IQ is >125. (Wikipedia, “IQ”). Back
14. (Lynn, 2006a, pp 26, 65). The high heritability of intelligence is evident in studies that show that black children from high socioeconomic homes have a lower IQ than white children from low socioeconomic homes. (Jensen, 1974a). Back
15. Those who wish to minimize the importance of IQ often say, “IQ is what is measured by an IQ test,” and that is true if it is a valid test. The heritability of IQ is not 100%, which means that environment does affect IQ. (Lynn, 2006a, p. 70) estimates what the IQ would be if people lived in a “perfect” environment (Lynn, email to author), which he calls the “genotypic IQ.” Lynn estimates the genotypic IQ of African Americans as 85, the same as their measured IQ, and of s-S Africans as 80, much higher than their measured IQ of 67 (Lynn, 2006a, pp. 69-71), but estimating the genotypic IQs of different populations is largely guesswork. The concept of genotypic IQ should not embolden the IQ-deniers because much of that “environment” is beyond our control, at least at the present time. That is, education is only a small part of the environment that affects IQ, most of the environment being the womb, family and friends, accidents, pollution, and events that are difficult or impossible to control. It is hard to specify exactly what a “perfect” environment is for maximizing IQ, and it is even more difficult to determine how perfect a child’s environment was for that purpose. Back
16. The correlation of mating couples is 0.6 for educational background, and educational background correlates 0.6 with IQ. Thus, assortative mating for education increases the heritability of IQ within a family because the children are more likely to receive more alleles for intelligence than if they were the children of two random people in that population. (Mare, 2006). Back
17. “We were stunned to see that the amount of gray matter in frontal brain regions was strongly inherited, and also predicted an individual’s IQ score.” Paul Thompson, the chief investigator for a study on that subject and an assistant professor of neurology at the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. (Thompson, 2001).
18. (Bornstein, 2006). Also see the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study and the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Back
19. (Brody, 1992). There are a number of very useful talents that are not included in “g” such as spatial visualization, musical composition, the visual arts, and higher mathematics. However, there seems to be a synergistic effect between “g” and these talents, so that having both is disproportionately beneficial. Back
20. In California, blacks got low scores on IQ tests and were placed in with the “educable mentally retarded” so, in 1979, a judge banned giving the tests, but just to blacks. (Larry P. v. Riles, 793 F.2d, 1984). In 2005, University of California President Richard Atkinson proposed not using SAT scores (which correlate 0.8 with IQ; Seligman, 1991) for admissions because blacks do so poorly on them. "In 1997, black students from families with incomes between $80,000 and $100,000 scored lower on the SAT than did white students from families with incomes of less than $10,000." (Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, Summer 1998, p. 6). Back
21. (Rushton, 2000a, p. 50; Levin, 1997, p. 67). The correlation between the “g” loading of a test and the difference between black and white scores on that test is a high 0.78, so the more a test measures culture and not “g,” the smaller will be the black-white gap. (Rushton, 2000a, p. 139). Back
22. (Rushton, 2000a, pp. 34-36; Seligman, 1992, pp. 60-63). “Inspection time,” e.g., deciding which of two lines is longer, is another IQ test that depends on speed. Back
23. (Rushton, 2000a, p. 281). Even reaction time, simply pushing a button after a stimulus, has a correlation with IQ of 0.2 to 0.3. (Lynn, 2006a, p. 57). Back
24. (Hunter, 1984). Intelligence is the best predictor of job performance. (Gottfredson, 1997b; the correlation is over 0.90 for scores that are averaged, Schmidt, 2004). Back
25. (Herrnstein, 1994). Most wealth resides in the civilizations people create, not in their physical assets. (Hamilton, K., Where Is The Wealth Of Nations?: Measuring Capital for the 21st Century, World Bank, 2005). Back
26. In one study, each point increase in IQ score was associated with $202 to $616 more income per year. (Zagorsky, 2007). A study by the Census Bureau of veterans in their early thirties showed that a 15 point higher IQ corresponded to 11% more earnings. Similarly, a 15 point higher IQ between brothers in the sixth grade (Kalamazoo, MI) was associated with a 14% increase in annual earnings between ages 35 and 59. (Olneck, 1979). The percentage of non-Hispanic whites living in poverty is 30% for IQ <75, 16% for IQ = 75 – 90, 6% for IQ = 90 – 110, 3% for IQ = 110 – 125, and 2% for IQ >125. “People who work sitting down get paid more than people who work standing up.” (Ogden Nash). Many high IQ people, however, choose doing what they enjoy rather than maximizing their income. Back
27. “In growth regressions that include only robust control variables, IQ is statistically significant in 99.8% of these 1330 regressions, and the IQ coefficient is always positive. A strong relationship persists even when OECD countries [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development – most of the major industrialized countries] are excluded from the sample. A 1 point increase in a nation’s average IQ is associated with a persistent 0.11% annual increase in GDP per capita.” (Jones, 2006b). Back
28. (“The Audacious Epigone,” Aug. 15, 2007; Kanazawa, 2006). Back
29. “A meta-study of repeated prisoner’s dilemma experiments run at numerous universities suggests that students cooperate 5% more often for every 100 point increase in the school’s average SAT score.” (Jones, 2006b). SAT scores correlate 0.8 with IQ. (Seligman, 1991). Back
30. (“The Audacious Epigone,” May 31, 2006; Hemmingsson, 2006; Gottfredson, 2004b; Lynn, 2006b). As one would expect, a higher IQ usually equals a higher living standard within a country as well as between countries. (Lynn, 2008). See (Levin, 1997, pp. 54-59) for other correlations. Back
31. Gross Domestic Product [GDP] per person, i.e., per capita income in British pounds per year. “… the Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert Lucas declared the multiplier effects that stem from talent clustering (i.e., talented people interacting) to be the primary determinant of growth.” (Florida, 2006, p. 35). Also see (Lynn, 2006b). Back
32. (Lynn, 2002a). In Fig. 14-4, Great Britain is set at IQ = 100. Back
33. Lowered from 70 in Lynn’s latest book (2006a, p. 37). “One of the great paradoxes of Africa is that its people are for the most part desperately poor while its land is extraordinarily rich. East Asia is the opposite: a region mostly poor in resources that over the last few decades has enjoyed the greatest economic boom in human history.” (Arthur Hu, “Asian Americans: Arthur Hu’s Index of Diversity”). Back
34. The percentage of European ancestry in African Americans has been given as 25 to 28% (Putnam, 1961, p. 92), among other figures; a 1998 study of genetic markers of 1022 self-identified African Americans from nine big cities showed they were only 16.4% European, or about 5/6 African and 1/6 European. (Parra, 1998; also, Rosenberg, 2002). (Shriver, 2003) found that African Americans have ~80% African ancestry. Back
The high IQ of European Jews is due to selection for intelligence (e.g., encouraging the most intelligent boys to become rabbis and the daughters of wealthier, and more intelligent Jews, to marry rabbis (Seligman, 1992, p. 135, the Christian priests, also more intelligent were, however, celibate), and exclusion from occupations, such as farming, that required manual labor. The average intelligence of the Oriental Jews of North Africa and the Middle East is nearly 15 IQ points lower. (David, H., 2007). European Jews are stronger in verbal reasoning than in visual-spatial, the reverse of Asians. (Nyborg, 2003). Both are high in math, but Jews use algebraic reasoning while Asians use geometric reasoning. (Seligman, 1992, p. 133). Back
36. “… public schools now spend more per capita on black children than on white.” (Levin, 1997, p. 127). Back
37. (Rushton, 2006; Seligman, 1992, pp. 39-40). “Contrary to environmentalist predictions, intervention beginning at age three makes no difference to the intellectual development of blacks. Perhaps surprisingly, intervention for whites does, indicating a possible nonsocial race difference in receptiveness to stimulation.” (Levin, 1997, p. 112). Even the adoption of black children by white parents did not improve their IQ. (Lynn, 1994; Levin, 1994). “With the Negro, as with some other races of man, it has been found that the children are precocious, but that no advance in education can be made after they arrive at the age of maturity; they still continue mentally [as] children.” (Hunt, 1864, p. 12). Back
38. Since 1988, the Mysterious Gap has increased. ("Trends in Average Reading Scale Scores by Race/Ethnicity: White-Black Gap," U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Ed. Statistics). Also see (Table 32-1); Abramson, 2006). On the other hand, see (Murray, 2007; Seligman, 1992, p. 163). The “Black-White IQ difference in the United States is about 80% heritable.” (Rushton, 2006). Back
39. Black children adopted in infancy by white middle-class families showed no significant improvement in IQ over other black children, further evidence that low IQ in blacks is genetic. (Scarr, 1993). For a point-by-point refutation of the environmental explanation for lower black IQ see (Hart, 2007, Chap. 16). Back
40. (Herrnstein, 1994, p. 279); the African curve was added. The black and white distributions are from Version II of The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1990. Back
41. (Herrnstein, 1994, p. 276). Black and white IQs and SDs depend upon the test and who is considered to be “black” or “white.” In Fig. 14-5, the black IQ was 86.7 and the difference between the black and white means was 1.2 SD (18 IQ points). (Roth, 2001) says the African American mean of 85 is about 16.5 IQ points (1.1 SD) lower than the white mean of 102, which may exclude Hispanics. Jensen (1998) also says the black-white IQ difference is about 1.2 SD.
42. (Jensen, 1974b; Lynn, 1998 and 2006a, p. 45; Rushton, 2000a, pp. 147-150; Fryer, 2006; Also see FN 362, p. 86). “Psychologists who study chimpanzees observe a certain parallelism between their learning process and ours up to the age of about two and a half years. After that the gap between us becomes wider and wider until it is a yawning abyss.” (Arsuaga, 2001, p. 277). The U.S. black-white IQ gap increases from 0.70 SDs in early childhood, to 1.00 SDs in middle childhood, and to 1.20 SDs in early adulthood, which is consistent with brain growth terminating early in blacks. (Jensen, 1998). Back
43. Black school children in rural Georgia had an average IQ of only 71. (Jensen, 1977). This was attributed to a poor environment, but less white heritage is a better explanation because the whites did not have a comparable IQ lowering. See FN 396 on p. 116). Southern blacks have less white heritage (10%) and lower IQs (80.5) than northern blacks (25% & 87.6). (Shuey, 1966; Levin, 1997, pp. 20, 135, citing Reed, 1969). The slaves in Africa who were selected to be transported to the Americas, and who survived the trip, may have been above average in health, and health correlates positively with intelligence. (Richards, 2006). On the other hand, others contend that only the worst Africans were captured and sold as slaves. (Hunt, 1864, pp. 25-27). Back
44. The right end is more spread out, making the black distribution asymmetrical (“skewed”). The right tail are mulattoes who are more intelligent because they have a substantial amount of white heritage. Back
45. (Jensen, 1998, p. 353). (La Griffe du Lion, 2000c) gives an SD for African Americans of 13.5 when the IQ of non-Hispanic whites is normalized to a mean of 100 and a SD of 15. (La Griffe du Lion, 2007) also gives a white-black difference in “g” of 1.09 SD (16 IQ points), with a variance ratio ([B SD]/[W SD]) of 0.888. Back
46. "Adults in the bottom 5% of the IQ distribution (below 75) are very difficult to train and are not competitive for any occupation on the basis of ability. Serious problems in training low-IQ military recruits during World War II led Congress to ban enlistment from the lowest 10% (below 80) of the population, and no civilian occupation in modern economies routinely recruits its workers from that below-80 range. [This partly explains why companies do not put manufacturing plants in s-S Africa to take advantage of the low wages.] Current military enlistment standards exclude any individual whose IQ is below about 85." (Gottfredson, 1999). Of course, selecting the most intelligent people for the risks of military service is a good way to lower the national average IQ. Back
47. (La Griffe du Lion, 2000d). Back
48. The African average IQ of 67 is within the “mild retardation” range of 50 to 69. “Moderate and mild retardation, contrary to the more severe forms, are typically not caused by brain damage but [are] part of the normal variance of intelligence, and therefore largely genetic and inherited. This is important with regard to the question whether or not retarded persons should be allowed to have children; for especially the moderate and mild forms of retardation, wherewith it physically is possible to have children, are the most likely to be inherited.” (Paul Cooijmans, “IQ and Real-life Functioning”). Back
49. (Rushton, 2000a, p. 5). Chimpanzees function quite well with an adult IQ just over 40. (Paul Cooijmans, “IQ and Real-life Functioning”). “More than Asia, Europe, and other areas of the world, the accuracy of such a low IQ for Africa is popularly questioned, but more with reflexive incredulity than adequate methodology. A typical comment is that it is hard to believe that half of Africa is mentally retarded. It is also hard to believe that 16% of African-Americans are ‘mentally retarded,’ but 16% of African-Americans do have IQs below 70, and the APA [American Psychological Association] recognizes this as an accurate and factual reflection of ability – IQ tests are not biased against African-Americans (the criticism is fairly ignorant to begin with since diagnosing mental retardation is mostly orthogonal to [independent of] the intelligence test, See Mackintosh 1998, p. 177. Although this is not controversial now, among scientists, it certainly was as shocking to believe for many back in the 1970s as the 2 SD [30 IQ point] difference is to many today.” (Malloy, J., "A World of Difference: Richard Lynn Maps World Intelligence," Gene Expression, Feb. 1, 2006). Since the optimal intelligence for a population depends in part upon the culture, the average IQ in Africa was likely even lower prior to the introduction of some Western cultural practices. Back
50. Similarly, East Asians have a higher average IQ than whites, but their smaller SD means that they have fewer people in the tails of the bell curves; people with “IQs of over 130 are 7 times more likely to be found in European populations than in East Asian populations.” (Arthur Hu, “Asian Americans: Arthur Hu’s Index of Diversity”). This helps to explain why Europeans have accomplished much more than Asians despite a higher Asian IQ. Back
51. Calculated using an African IQ of 70 and a normal IQ curve. (La Griffe du Lion, in “Scary Stuff about Black IQ: Blacks & Whites with IQ>130,” From the News Archives of: WWW.AfricanCrisis.Org, Aug. 6, 2006). Back
52. The proportion of blacks in an occupation decreases as the intelligence required to practice that occupation increases. (Rushton, 2000a, p 145). The average black high school graduate has the academic proficiency of the average white 8th grader. (The National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2006). “Black children from the wealthiest families have mean SAT scores lower than white children from families below the poverty line.” “Black children of parents with graduate degrees have lower SAT scores than white children of parents with a high-school diploma or less.” (La Griffe du Lion, 2000a). A good example of this right tail effect is steroid use in baseball; it increases bat speed by about 5% but home runs (at the right tail of hits) by about 50%. (Tobin, 2008). Another example: African Americans are 12.5% of the population, but only 1.1% scored at least 700 on the 2005 math SAT and the percentage dropped even lower, to 0.7%, for scoring over 750. (“The Widening Racial Scoring Gap on the SAT College Admissions Test,” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, Mar. 9, 2008). Back
53. (Taylor, J. “Race/IQ Explanation Gap at ‘Achievement Gap Summit’,” VDARE.com, Nov. 13, 2007). “… in the NLSY, a person with the black mean was at the 11th percentile of the white distribution [i.e., he is more intelligent than 11% of the whites], and a person with the white mean was at the 91st percentile of the black distribution [i.e., he is more intelligent than 91% of the blacks].” (Herrnstein, 1994, p. 278). A black is 53 times less likely to be gifted than a white. (La Griffe du Lion, 2000d). Back
54. (Hernnstein, 1994, p 456-457). If admission to medical school were determined by MCAT score, only seven blacks in the entire United States would probably be admitted to the top ten medical schools and there would be almost no black physicians. (Cross, 1997, p. 17; Dawson, 1994). Also see (La Griffe du Lion, 2000c; Gawande, 2004). The odds ratio favoring black applicants to medical schools over whites was 21 to 1 in 2005. (Clegg, R., “Discrimination Continues,” Center for Equal Opportunity, Oct. 17, 2006). Male physicians are recruited from people with an IQ of at least 114 (U.S. Dept. of Labor), which is 1.1% of the black population and 23% of the white population, so there should be 4.8 black physicians for every 100 white physicians. In 1970, there were actually 23 black physicians for every 100 white physicians and, in 1980, it had increased to 30. This means that of those 30 black physicians, 25.2 had IQs less than 114. (30 – 4.8 = 25.2). If we take 114 as the minimum IQ for competency, then 84% (25.2/30 = 0.84) of the black physicians are incompetent. (Levin, 1997, pp. 264-265; Ree, 1992). Since the 1978 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, which permitted racial discrimination in favor of blacks in medical school admissions, the percentage of whites in medical schools between 1986 and 2005 has dropped 27% while the percentage of blacks has increased 23.8%. (Association of American Medical Colleges). Moreover, basing admissions on standard tests actually results in over-representation of blacks; for the SAT test (Harvard data), 240 points would have to be subtracted from the black combined verbal and math scores to accurately predict black college performance. (Klitgaard, 1985). See (Miller, 1994b) for a proof.
The same is true of law schools. (Heriot, G., “Affirmative Action Backfires,” The Wall St. Journal, Aug. 24, 2007). Only sixteen blacks had a GPA of 3.50 or better and an LSAT score at or above the 92.3 percentile in the 1996/1997 tests, and those scores are below the median for elite law schools (Graglia, 1998), so Affirmative Action has also produced less competent black lawyers. (Kirsanow, 2006). First-attempt law exam pass rates were 31.1% for blacks and 73.1% for whites. (Law School Admission Council, 1998). "More than 20,000 adult blacks [out of a total adult (over 18) black population of 214,700,000 in 2004 (U.S. Census, Table 1)] in the U.S. have an IQ of 130 or more, but because of affirmative action, the chance that your black lawyer will be one of them is vanishingly small." (La Griffe du Lion, 2000a). "Currently only about one in three African-Americans who goes to an American law school passes the bar on the first attempt and a majority never become lawyers at all." (UCLA law professor Richard Sander, Fox News, Oct.15, 2007). (Lin, A. “Judge Rejects Race Bias Suit Against DLA Piper,” The New York Law Journal, Dec. 7, 2007). Black police (Levin, 1997, pp. 81-82) and firemen are also less competent, again sacrificing lives for egalitarianism. (La Griffe du Lion, 2000c; Batz, R. “Quotas in the San Francisco Fire Department,” American Renaissance, Vol. 9, No. 9, Sept. 1998). For every 1% increase in black officers in a police department, property crime goes up 4% and violent crime goes up 4.8%." (Lott, 2000); also, "How Whites Stack Up," American Renaissance, Vol. 18, No. 8, Aug., 2007, p. 11). Corruption also increases. (McGowan, 2001). Black teachers fail competency exams at more than twice the rate of white teachers. (Herrnstein, 1994, p. 393). In other higher level occupations, African Americans also have lower IQs than whites. (Jensen, 1998, pp. 565-569). Far more black than white employees (44% versus 25%) work in grossly overpaid government jobs, where politics trumps competency. (The ninth annual Black Investor survey by Ariel/Schwab). Blacks are over-hired in Federal government departments by as much as 808% more than their proportion in the civilian labor force. (“Equal Opportunity vs. Equal Results,” Adversity.Net, July 23, 2007). On TV and in the movies, blacks are portrayed as highly competent professionals, but the reality is the opposite. In the military, which is disproportionately black, “White recruits are more likely to end up in highly technical fields; black recruits are more likely to end up in clerical work or the supply services.” (Seligman, 1992, p. 202). Since the low IQ of blacks makes it impossible to find enough qualified blacks, women were given "minority status" for the purposes of Affirmative Action, though women are actually a majority. Back
55. (Lynn, 2006a, p. 213, citing Templer, 2006, p 121–139; Lynn, 2002b). Back
56. Philosopher Michael Levin has a good discussion of racial stereotyping. (Levin, 1997; pp. 32-34). Back
57. It is hard to believe that the “stereotype threat” has much effect when even black researchers acknowledge that blacks have higher self-esteem than whites. (Gray-Little, 2000). Besides, K-12 IQ tests are presented as tests of knowledge, not IQ. Back
58. (La Griffe du Lion, 2007) gives a male-female difference in “g” of 0.162 SD (2.43 IQ points) with a variance ratio ([F SD]/[M SD]) of 0.916.
59. (Rushton, 2000a, p. 132). A higher male IQ is consistent with a faster and earlier maturation of females. Male brains can continue growing to about age 24, but female brains stop growing by age 18. Blacks also mature faster than whites and have smaller brains and lower intelligence. ( Chapter 11, FN 12 and this chapter, FN 37). Back
60. One or more of the genes for intelligence is on the X chromosome. Since women are XX and men are XY, higher intelligence is more likely to come from the mother. Also, an X from the mother may be expressed over an X from the father. Because two Xs average out, that may make the standard deviation for intelligence less for women than for men. Back
61. (Nyborg, 2005). The left vertical axis is the portion of men or women, the right vertical axis is the ratio of the number of men to women, and the horizontal axis is SD. There are twice as many men as women with IQs above 120 and 30 times as many with IQs over 170. (Jackson, N., Interview with Paul Irwing, The Independent, Nov. 30, 2006). Note the similarity of Fig. 14-7 & 14-5. A similar dotted line could be drawn in Fig. 14-5. Back
62. (Sternberg, 1994). Black males scored 88.4 and black females scored of 90.8 on the 1997 renormed Armed Forces Qualification Test. Back
63. See the author’s article,"A Possible Explanation for the Flynn Effect," (Jan. 11, 2008).
64. Genetic IQ in the developed world has declined about one point per generation; in Britain, it declined 6.2 points from 1890 to 1980. (Lynn, 1996). Also (Herrnstein, 1994, Chapter 15; La Griffe du Lion, 2005; Sailer, 2004b & 2005c; Murray, 2003, Chap. 21). Back
65. (Wikipedia, "Literacy"). In Washington, D.C., which is 57% black (2005 U.S. Census), 36% of the residents are illiterate. (Eberhart, D., "Washington, D.C.: Home to the Elite and the Illiterate," NewsMax, Apr. 17, 2007). Back
66. SAT scores are periodically “normed down,” i.e., scores are raised to keep the numerical results the same. (Levin, 1997, p. 233). “SAT scales got easier during 1963 to 1967 by about 8 to 13 points on the Verbal and perhaps 10 to 17 points on the Math.” (Herrnstein, 1994, p. 773). Back
67. (National Commission on Excellence in Education, April, 1983.) Back
68. The Darwin Awards are given to people who improve the human gene pool by removing themselves from it, i.e., by dying when they do something that is hilariously stupid. Back
69. Although there is not yet a Quantum Mechanics for Dummies, there is an Einstein for Dummies. Back
70. (Michael Shayer, professor of applied psychology, and Philip Adey, a professor of education, at King’s College, University of London; research funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)). Back
71. (Vining, 1982, 1995) gives a decline of 1.6 IQ points per generation for whites and 2.4 for blacks. (Lynn, 2004) gives a total decline of 0.9 IQ points per generation and 0.75 for just whites. (Van Court, 1985; Sailer, 2006). Back
72. The correlation between national average IQ and distance from the equator is 0.67. ("Intelligence and Lattitude in US," The Audacious Epigone, Apr. 13, 2007) and the correlation between IQ and mean high winter temperature is -0.68. (Templer, 2006). Back
73. Although high average IQ in a population will still depend on reproductive success, today a mentally challenging environment may no longer be a significant selector. Back
74. Richard Lynn (by email) confirmed that this is “very likely.” In this regard, the Northern Hemisphere has more land and the Southern Hemisphere has more ocean, which means that there is a greater seasonal change, and more storms, in the Northern Hemisphere, making the north more mentally challenging than the south. (Coon, 1962, p. 46). Another selector for intelligence in Europe was probably the plagues, caused by Yersinia pestis, bacteria that lived on the fleas of rats that infested towns and cities. When Christians, believing cats were evil, killed the cats, the rats took over. The plagues wiped out the poorer (and less intelligent) people, who were crowded together in cities (and, in London, were forbidden to leave), while sparing the better off, and more intelligent, who did not live so close together (and fled the cities). In the 1300s the Black Plague killed 20 million people, nearly a third of the population of Europe. Twenty-three year old Isaac Newton, the greatest scientist ever, left London for Lincolnshire, where he invented calculus and worked on the nature of gravity, while his much less intelligent countrymen died in London; unfortunately, Newton left no progeny. Back
75. “…women go gathering plant foods about one day in three, and men go on hunting expeditions for about one week in three. This is sufficient to provide food for the whole group, including infants, children and the old. The rest of the time can be spent relaxing about the camp.” (Lynn, 1991, citing Lee, 1968). Also see FN 32, p. 4. Back
76. (Hogan, 2001). This zone would extend all across Asia and Europe, though the difference between summer and winter temperatures would be less in Europe due to the moderating influence of the Gulf Stream. Back
77. Women do not give suitors IQ tests, but many choose mates who are knowledgeable, wealthy, musically talented, and have a good sense of humor, all of which correlate with intelligence. And, although most men do not want a woman who is more intelligent than they are, neither do they want an unintelligent woman. Back
78. An interesting consequence of modern times is that since white women no longer need men to provide for them, they can select more for attractiveness and less for intelligence, as self-sufficient African women have done for thousands of years, so men will become better looking, but not as intelligent. Back
79. “[B]rain tissue requires 22 times the energy of skeletal muscle.” (Gorman, R.M., "Cooking Up Bigger Brains,"Scientific American, Dec., 2007). Back
80. Agriculture greatly increased man’s numbers, while decreasing his quality. (Diamond, J., “The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race,” Discover, May, 1987, pp. 64-66). “Farming brought a population explosion, protein and vitamin deficiency, new diseases and deforestation. Human height actually shrank by nearly six inches after the first adoption of crops in the Near East.” (“Noble or savage? The Economist, Dec. 19, 2007). Back
81. Cranial capacity has fallen in sub-Saharan Africa by 95 to 165 cm3 in males and 74 to 106 cm3 in females “between the Late Stone Age (30-2 ka BP) and modern times (last 200 years).” (Henneberg, 2005). The decrease in African brain size may be due to a long-ago infusion of larger-brained Eurasians into Africa who interbred with the natives, followed by a gradual decrease in brain size to the optimum for Africa. Note that African Bushmen have small brains and the world’s lowest IQ (54; Lynn, 2006a, p 167), despite their apparent East Asian ancestry. The de-evolution of intelligence is most likely due to the selection of alleles that reduce brain size, which were retained in a portion of the population. Those alleles would spread throughout the population if the body’s resources could be more reproductively successfully “spent” on traits other than intelligence. Back
82. (Chart from Keiio University, “Basic Neuroscience: Evolution of the Brain,” citing “Henneberg, 1998”). Body size and nutrition also fell. “Early farmers in Greece and Turkey averaged 5 feet 3 inches tall for men, 5 feet 1 inch for women: Their Paleolithic hunter-gatherer ancestors had averaged 5 feet 10 inches and 5 feet 6 inches respectively, taller even than the well-nourished modern inhabitants of those countries.” (Haywood, 2000, pp 104-106). Agriculture may have begun at least about 23,000 ya. (Allaby, 2008). Agriculture greatly changed the selection pressures on man, selecting for hard, constant labor (i.e., slow twitch red muscle fibers), pair bonding and monogamy (as couples were tied to the land), diversity of skills (the increased output per person permitted more specialization), a lower optimal intelligence, and individual interests over group interests (working a piece of land – private property vs. owning little and sharing whatever was food was killed or found). The bounties of agriculture freed up people for other occupations and, when they concentrated in one area, it made civilizations possible. Back
83. Predators have a higher intelligence than comparable non-predators and domesticated animals are less intelligent than their wild counterparts. “Domestication is little more than the survival of the dumbest – under the guiding hand of humans.” (Birkhead, 2003, p. 91-92). Domesticated animals typically have smaller brains and are not as intelligent as wild animals. (Howells, 1948, pp. 79-80). “On average, domestic dog, cat, sheep and pig brains weigh 25 per cent less than those of wild animals.” (Kealey, 2006; Jerison, 1983). When domestic cats become feral, larger brains reappear. (Coon, 1962, p. 117). These changes in brain size suggest strong selection pressures for optimizing intelligence which, given its high cost, is to be expected.
Agriculture is a sort of domestication of man: “of all living beings the most domesticated” (I.F. Blumenbach); “the first domesticated animal” (Howells, 1948, p. 125); “man domesticated himself” resulting in “progressive shrinkage and weakening, and reduction in tooth size” (Leach, 2003); “… [human] brains have been getting smaller for 20,000 to 30,000 years.” (Cochran, G., "Human evolution, radically reappraised," World Science, Mar. 20, 27, 2007). But once populations had expanded to the greater carrying capacity made possible by agriculture and private property made brains pay off again, higher intelligence was once more selected. Back
84. It is interesting that the domestication of animals (e.g., the wolf) is a selection for docility and, since the very young are more docile, it also selects for neoteny (wolf pups bark like dogs; adult wolves howl). Agriculture, in some ways, also seems to be a selection for docility and neoteny (gracile, less primitive, tame), a sort of domestication of humans. Thus, agriculture not only vastly increased carrying capacity, it also selected traits. When the Russian breeder Budiansky domesticated a species of wild fox by selecting for tameness, the foxes became more neotenic, retaining into adulthood the droopy ears that pups have. (Budiansky, 1992; Trut, 1999). “Not a single domestic animal can be named which has not in some country drooping ears.” (Darwin, 1859). Women in the northern climates have been selected for both neoteny (youthful appearance) and tameness (smiling, good disposition) but, thank goodness, sparing them droopy ears. Back