Chapter 10 - Soft Tissue

    In this chapter, we look at soft tissue (Table 10-1). Since soft tissue is not preserved in fossils, the last column in Table 10-1 uses Australian aborigines (AA), male chimpanzees (C), and male gorillas (G) for comparison.
Table 10-1
Trait Asians Caucasians Africans AA, C, & G
Volume (cc) (1) 1 1416 1369 1282
1270 (Bush-men)
AA: 122
C: 400
G: 469
Degree of fissuring (2) High High Moderate C: Less
Size of frontal lobes (abstract reasoning) (3) Larger, more fissured, and more complex Larger, more fissured, and more complex Smaller, less fissured, and less complex -
Testicles (4) Small Medium Large C: Larger
Apocrine glands (5) Small and few Medium and more Large and most -
Body odor Very little Medium Strong -
Face and Neck
Epicanthic fold (6) Present Absent Absent, except Bushmen C: Absent
G: Absent
Eye color (iris) (7) Dark brown, black Blue, green, hazel, brown Dark brown, black AA: Dark brown, black
C & G: Black
Eye color (sclera) (8) White White White, but sometimes yellowish C: Dark
G: yellow
Lips (9) Medium Medium, thin in north Large, thick, everted AA: Medium
C & G: Thin
Ears 2 - Large, rectangular, thin Small, round, thick, high; small earlobes C: large
G: small
Ear wax Dry, brittle, grey or beige Sticky, wet, brown Sticky, wet, brown -
Nose (10) Low Long, thin, and narrow Short, flat, and wide AA: Large, broad
C & G: Flat and broad
Mouth (11) Small Usually small, some large Large C: Large
Voice pitch (12) - M=117 Hz
F= 217 Hz
M=110 Hz
F=193 Hz
Skin and Hair
Skin thickness (13) - Thin Thicker, outer horny layer -
Fat distribution (14) Uniform Concentrates (buttocks, abdomen, etc.) Concentrates (buttocks) -
Skin color (15) Yellowish Flesh colored Dark C: Flesh until 10-12, then dark
Body hair (16) Little body hair More than Africans, especially in south Less than Caucasians, more than Asians AA: Medium
C: High
Head hair, color (17) Dark brown, black Blond, red, brown, black Dark brown, black AA: Dark brown, black
C: Black
Head hair, form (18) Straight, long Straight or wavy, long Wooly, short. AA: Curly
C: Straight
Head hair, microscopic (19) Circular, thick Oval, thin Flat, no central duct 3 -
Beard Very little Heavy Little, except Pygmies 4 AA: Heavy
Muscles (proportion of total body weight) (20) Low Medium High C: Higher
Calf muscle (21) - Large and low Small and high -
Buttocks (22) Flat Medium Large
Male testosterone level (23) Low Intermediate 19% higher than whites 5 -
Serotonin level (24) - - Lower than Eurasians -
Blood Type (25) - Fblb3 Ablb3 AA: CDe(R1)

    (1) Converting brain volume into the number of neurons, Mongoloids average more than half a billion more neurons than Negroids. 6 The East Asians (Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese) have the highest ratio of brain to body mass, but the record for brain size goes to Russian writer Ivan Turgenev, at 2012 gms. (Corballis, 1991, p. 66). The heritability of brain size is about 0.9 (Lynn, 2006a, p. 67).
    Until recently, when cranial capacity and brain volume could be measured by magnetic imaging, cranial capacity was determined by plugging the holes in a skull and filling it with small pellets and brain volume was determined by weighing the brain and dividing by its density. 7 Due to the thickness of the membranes that surround the brain, brain volume is less than cranial capacity. (Fig. 14-8).

    (2) The ridges (“gyri”) between the groves (“sulci”) at the surface of the brain greatly increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex, the outer layer of the cerebrum. Since the cerebral cortex processes information, increased brain fissures increases the percentage of the brain that is cerebral cortex and should increase intelligence without increasing the volume of the brain, although this is difficult to establish quantitatively. (Baker, 1974, p. 432).
Figure 10-1
    Notice (Fig. 10-1) the fissures (and frontal lobes) in the brains of an orangutan, an African bushman, and the great German physicist and J.C.F. Gauss, the great German mathematician. 8
    Africans and some retarded people (Friend, T., "Brains of mice enlarged to help research," USA Today, July 19, 2002, citing Chenn, 2002) have fewer convolutions (“fissures”) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract thought is performed. 9 Australian aborigines also have smaller and less complex brains. Figure 10-2 shows the back of the brains of an orangutan, an Australian aborigine, and a European. (Baker, 1974, p 293).
Figure 10-2

    In size and complexity, the Australian aborigine brain is intermediate between the orangutan and European brain.
    There are many other physical properties of the brain that are also associated with greater intelligence. 10 The thickness of the three outer layers (the supragranular layer) of the cerebral cortex (the six outer layers), increases from lower animals to man. 11 “The supragranular layers in the dog are one-half the thickness of those in the ape, and the thickness of the ape’s only three-fourths the thickness in man.” 12 The supragranular layer is 15% thinner in blacks than in whites. (Vint, 1934). Also see (Poynter, 191513 The nerves in blacks are reported to be larger. (Burmeister, 1853). Many other comparative brain studies of blacks and whites can be found in (Putnam, 1967, footnote 17).

    (3) “… the prefrontal area … constitutes 3.4 percent of the cat brain, … 16.9 percent of the chimpanzee’s and 29 percent of man’s.” (Herrick, 1956, p. 385). The human neocortex is over three times as large as expected for a primate matched for body size. 14 Compared to Eurasians, in Africans the back of the brain is more developed and the front less developed. 15 This is noticeable in the more sloping forehead of Africans and the length of their skull (Fig. 9-3). Vision is processed in the back of the brain, hearing at the side, and planning and abstract thought at the front. Thus, a brain that is more devoted to one of these functions than to others will have a greater mass of brain tissue in that area and the skull shape will be expanded in that area. 16
    Racial differences in the relative sizes of different areas of the brain are suggested by the way smoking affects the races. Compared to white smokers, American black smokers absorb 30% more nicotine per cigarette and take longer to rid their bodies of the drug. 17 Since different neurotransmitters in the brain take up nicotine at different rates, this implies that blacks and whites have significant differences in the relative sizes of different areas of the brain. 18
    Thus, in our journey to become human, our brain not only increased in size, but certain portions, such as the frontal lobes, the cerebral cortex, and its supragranular layer, increased disproportionately. Also, the sulci and gyri increased and deepened. Other parts, such as the olfactory bulb, devoted to smell, have increased less than proportionately. These changes were greater in Eurasians than in Africans.

    (4) Large testicles indicate that females mate with more than one man. 19 When there is more promiscuity, men who have larger testicles, who produce more sperm in their ejaculates, are more likely to fertilize the egg and pass on their alleles for large testicles to their sons. 20 All the sex organs (e.g., testicles, penis, clitoris, vagina, ovaries) are larger in Africans. 21

    (5) Apocrine glands are scent glands in areas such as the armpits and groin. They produce secretions that, after they are degraded by bacteria, produce pheromones, chemicals that have sexually 22 and racially-distinctive odors. Not only are the secretions themselves racially different, but the species of bacteria that degrade them to produce the odors are also racially different. Thus, there is a distinct difference in body odor between the major racial groups, detectible by dogs 23 and by some people. 24 Asians have the least amount of body odor and find the odor of the other races, particularly blacks, objectionable. 25 Odor may seem like a trivial matter, but odor is very important, both in identifying genetic similarity between individuals and, between the sexes, receptability towards mating, the suppression of menstruation, and even the identification of mothers and their babies. 26 There is some evidence that women tend to be attracted to men whose odor indicates that they are genetically similar to theirs, but not too similar; a slight difference in odor indicates that the man’s immune system is different from hers, thereby possibly giving their children a stronger immune system. On the other hand, (Roberts, 2005). 27
Figure 10-3

    Sweat glands and other glands also differ according with race, with black sweat containing more chloride than white sweat. “Races also differ in the size and weight of endocrine glands, and in the substances carried in the urine.” (Coon, 1962, p. 116).

    (6) The epicanthic fold, a fat-insulated upper eyelid, protects the eye from the cold. All children have them in the womb, which suggests that it was the greater neoteny of the Asians that caused them to be retained in Asian adults. (Fig. 10-3; Baker, 1974, pp. 208-209).

    (7) Dark irises exclude more light than light irises, thereby making a sharper image in bright light. (Howells, 1959, p. 271). Blue, green, and hazel eyes are recessive, meaning that both parents have alleles for light eye color. Men are said to prefer women with blue eyes because blue eyes are recessive and if any of “his” children have brown eyes, he will know he is not the father (Laeng, 2007), though it is possible for blue-eyed parents to have a brown-eyed child; 28 also, blue eyes are associated with youth and fertility (though lighter eye colors have an increased risk of macular degeneration).
    It is easier to see the size of the pupil if the iris is light colored. Since dilated pupils signal happiness, which is attractive, happiness is easier to detect in blue-eyed people. (Belkin, 2006). The incidence of blue eyes is 3 to 5% greater in boys, and blue-eyed people are more intelligent. 29

    (8) A remarkable, but little remarked upon, difference between humans and apes is that humans have a white sclera (eyeball or cornea), but in other primates it is dark. Compare a chimpanzee’s eyes with a human’s. (Figure 10-4). 30 Other animals hide their eyes and their gaze from prey and predators; we expose ours to our fellow humans.
Figure 10-4

    A white sclera means that it is easier tell where a human is looking and know at whom speech or a facial expression is directed, thereby facilitating communications and cooperation, particularly of subtle and personal information. 31 A white sclera suggests more complex social relationships and a larger brain that is capable of interpreting this additional information. It also indicates living among people trusted enough to reveal what one is thinking about and what actions one may take. 32 The slightly yellowish sclera that has been reported in some Australian aborigines (Baker, 1974, p. 298) and adult male Africans may be due to the presence of melanin in their sclera and a less complete conversion to a white sclera. 33
Figure 10-5

    The need to inform others of one’s emotional state, and the need for others to know it, may have affected not just the sclera, but also the cones in the eyes. In man, there are three types of cones in the eye, one that detects blue light, peaking at 440 nm, a second that detects green light, peaking at slightly less than 550 nm, and a third that detects red light, peaking at slightly more than 550 nm. (Fig. 10-5). 34 In animals that can see colors, it is unusual to have two cones that detect light at wavelengths that are so close together. The reason for this in humans may be that the wavelength of 550 nm is where skin color changes according to the amount of blood underneath it. Thus, the almost-identical wavelengths enable the cones to more easily detect blushing and anger by means of small changes in skin color. If that explanation is correct, 35 close-together wavelengths would be less useful for detecting changes in blood flow in the very dark skin of Africans; as yet no data has been published showing that the wavelengths in African cones are not so close together or that Africans make less use of these changes in skin color. 36

    (9) Table 10-2 gives the height norms for the red part of the lip of African Americans and American Caucasians. (Table 10-2; Farkas, 1981). Since African Americans are about 25% Caucasian, lips would be larger in Africans, particularly the Congoids (Fig. II-1) from which African Americans came.
Table 10-2

Male Female
Upper Lower Upper Lower
African Americans 13.3 mm 13.2 mm 13.6 mm 13.8 mm
Caucasian Americans 8.0 mm 9.3 mm 8.7 mm 9.4 mm
It has been suggested (Dr. Julian O’Dea) that the everted lips that most Africans have were selected for as a signal of good health, a sexual attractant, since facial color cannot be used for that purpose due to their dark skin. Many white female Hollywood stars have collagen injected into their lips to make them larger, so large lips are a sexual attractant in women. But usually traits that are sexual attractants in woman are seen as feminine and undesirable in men. Another explanation is that the increased surface area of the lips helps to cool the brain. (Irmak, 2004). Still another possibility is that large everted lips are a retained simian trait that enabled the lips to be flipped backwards to expose the teeth when the mouth is opened wide, thereby intimidating male rivals.
Population Nasal Index
S. African Bushmen 103.9
Mbuti Pygmies 103.8
Aborigines (Australia) 99.6
Eskimo 68.5
European 66.0
Iran 63.7
    Table 10-3

Figure 10-6 Figure 10-7

    (10) In Figure 10-6 and Figure 10-7, notice that the nose of Paris Hilton is narrower, longer (eyes to bottom of nose), and protudes more than the nose of the African woman. Those differences in shape produce vertical ovals for the nostril openings of Caucasians and horizontal ovals for the nostril openings of Africans. Also, the tip of the nose over the septum between the nostrils extends farther down in Caucasians than in Africans.
    Narrow noses warm and moisten the air, and evolve where the air is cold or dry, and broad noses evolve where the air is warm or moist. (Coon, 1962, p. 62).

Figure 10-8

It may be the brain, more than the lungs, that requires cooling (Irmak, 2004) or warming. (Coon, 1962, p. 533). Large nasal openings can take in more air when bursts of energy are needed. (Howells, 1959, pp. 92, 212), which may help explain the large noses of Neanderthals. (Chap. 25). Table 10-3 (from DeAnza College, CA) gives the nasal index (width of nasal opening divided by its length, multiplied by 100).
    Figure 10-8 (DeAnza College, CA) is a map of nasal indices; note that narrow noses are generally found in cool or dry climates and broader noses in warm or moist climates. In Section IV, we will see that northerners migrated south and pushed the southerners farther south. The distribution of nasal indices in Figure 10-8 can then be interpreted as early hominids, once living near the equator and having broad noses, being pushed south into Australia and southern and western Africa by the thinner-nosed northerners, who replaced them just north of the equator.

    (11) Africans have larger mouths, but racial differences in mouth size have not been measured and published. Figure 10-9 shows an African with an exceptionally large mouth. There are also racial differences
Figure 10-9
in the shape of the palate (roof of the mouth). (Byers, 1997).

    (12) (Hudson, 1982). The lower pitch of black voices compared to white voices is probably due to higher testosterone
levels in both black males and black females. (Note 23, which follows).

    (13) Negro skin is “more resistant to infection from a variety of skin afflictions, including some skin-related or skin-implanted diseases like scarlet fever or diphtheria.” 37

    (14) Subcutaneous fat benefits people in cold climates by retaining heat in the body. It is especially beneficial for new babies as they have a higher ratio of surface area to volume than do adults. Uniform fat would retain too much heat in the tropics, but fat concentrated in the buttocks lowers the body’s center of gravity and does not add to the weight of the legs when they swing forward, thus providing a way to store energy internally without impeding movement much (pp 222-223). Blacks have less body fat and more muscle than whites. (Wagner, 2000).

    (15) Melanin is a pigment that darkens the skin, eyes, and hair; it comes in two varieties, phenomelanin, which is blond, and eumelanin, which is dark. African dark skin is due to an African-specific allele for eumelanin. (Harding, 2000). The conventional view is that too little melanin lets in so much UV light that the skin burns, cancer may occur, 38 the synthesis of DNA is disrupted, and folic acid may be destroyed, resulting in birth defects. Too much melanin lets in insufficient UV light for the body to make enough vitamin D, which is essential for building and maintaining bones. 39 Thus, skin color evolves according to the amount of UV light that the skin is exposed to. (Jablonski, 2000). A more recent view is that melanin is a fungicide and bactericide, and therefore its amount correlates better with warmth and moisture, which is why it is found in tissues other than skin. (Mackintosh, 2001; see Gloger’s rule in Glossary). The melanin in Africans can also be found inside the mouth and, to a lesser extent, throughout the body, except in the bones. (Cartwright, 1857, p. 47). Blacks are more resistant to skin diseases than whites. 40 The heritability of skin color is estimated to be 63 to 72%. (Harrison, G.A., 1964). The yellowish color of Asian skin is due to the presence of more fat under their skin.

Figure 10-10

    (16) Caucasians have the most body hair, Asians the least, with Africans in between, but closer to Asians. It is probable that our northern predecessors once had “fur,” thick body hair for warmth, 41 but today fur appears only as an occasional atavism (i.e., “generalized congenital hypertrichosis”), where the turned-off allele that codes for it is turned on again, resulting in a “werewolf.” (See KRT41P gene, p. 103.)

    (17) Some Australian aborigines have blond hair (Fig. 22-5, p. 177 & 27-4, p. 232) which may be more of an ash blond (Fig. 10-10). Unlike the golden blond hair of Europeans, ash blond hair lacks both the reddish (phenomelanin) pigment and the dark (eumelanin) pigment. 42 African hair is black, except certain diseases can make it reddish.

Figure 10-11       Figure 10-12

    (18) African hair grows more slowly and is more fragile than European hair. Asian hair grows the fastest and has the greatest elasticity. Africans have the shortest hair, 43 Asians the longest. African males, and even more so European males, are more prone to balding than Asian males. 44 Some Africans, especially females (Fig. 10-11), have a receding hairline over the forehead, a characteristic of the bonobo chimpanzee and the orangutan. (Fig. 10-12). 45 (Also see Fig. 25-8, p. 215 & 26-8, p. 226).

    (19) The wooly hair of Africans is believed to be a specialized trait that evolved in their tropical bipedal ancestors to facilitate the evaporation of sweat, thereby keeping the brain cool. Similarly, pubic hair, which is curly in all the races, may serve to facilitate the evaporation of pheromones. Figures 10-13a, 10-13b, and 10-13c are transverse cross-sections (top) and longitudinal views (bottom) of the head hair of Caucasians,
Negroids, and Mongoloids. 46
Caucasian Negroid Mongoloid
Figure 10-13a Figure 10-13b Figure 10-13c

    Asian hair is coarser and thicker than Caucasian hair. “If the hair follicles of a Chinaman, a European, and a Negro are cut across transversely, it will be found that the diameter of the first is 100 by 77 to 85, the second 100 by 62 to 72, but that of the Negro is 100 by 40 to 60. This elliptical form of the Negro's hair causes it to curl more or less tightly.” “… the crispest, most closely curled hair [“peppercorn”] is found among the yellow Hottentots and Bushmen.” (DuBois, 1915). “According to Professors Brown, Seidy and Gibbs, the negro's hair is not tubular like the white man's, but it is eccentrically elliptical with flattened edges, the coloring matter residing in the epidermis and not in tubes. In the place of a tube, the shaft of each hair is surrounded with a scaly covering like sheep's wool, and, like wool, is capable of being felled.” (Cartwright, 1857, p. 47). The pigment granules are “sparse to moderately dense with fairly even distribution” in Caucasian hair, “densely distributed (hair shaft may be opaque) and arranged in prominent clumps” in Negroid hair and “densely distributed and often arranged in large patchy areas or streaks” in Mongoloid hair. (Deedrick, 2004).
    African hair exits perpendicular to the scalp, at random angles to their elliptical axes so that each strand curls independently. Eurasian hair exists at the same angle as adjacent hairs, so that strands curl together. (Howells, 1959, p. 271). Figure 10-14 (DeAnza College, CA) is a map of hair type, which
coincides well with the three major races. The curly hair indicated on some of the South Pacific Islands
north of Australia is for Negritos.

Figure 10-14

    (20) (Ama, 1986). Slow twitch red muscle fibers (Type I) resist fatigue, but lack strength; fast twitch muscle fibers (Types IIA - pink and IIB – white, almost all IIB in humans) tire quickly, but contract more rapidly. East Africans (e.g., the Nandi district in western Kenya; Entine, 2000, pp. 39-41) have more Type I red fibers and excel in marathons; West Africans (and most African Americans; id, p. 34) have more Type IIB white fibers, 47 and excel in sprinting and jumping, which is why African Americans dominate the running back and cornerback positions in football and all but six of the 500 fastest times for the 100-metre dash have come from sprinters of West African descent. West African sprinters have heavier fast-twitch muscles, as well as denser bones, narrower hips, thicker thighs, longer legs and lighter calves, all helpful in running. 48 Eurasians have less fast twitch muscle fiber than Africans, suggesting a greater reliance upon tools and weapons, and the intelligence needed to make and use them, and less reliance on athletic ability. 49

    (21) Africans have slenderer calves with longer tendons. 50 Kenyans (from East Africa) dominate world records in long distance races. They have birdlike legs (400 grams less flesh on each calf), so they need less energy to swing their legs.

    (22) The gluteal (buttocks) muscles in Africans and Caucasians are “stacked,” but they are “offset” in Asians, making Asian buttocks flatter. These muscles are thicker in blacks.

    (23) Higher testosterone levels correlate with a more masculine body, an earlier sexual maturity, a higher fertility, manual labor instead of intellectual labor, a higher crime rate, 51 a higher sexually transmitted disease rate, a shorter lifespan, and lower intelligence. 52 There is convincing scientific evidence suggesting that testosterone is the primary hormonal element of aggression in both sexes. 53 The severity and violence of the crime for which female prison inmates were incarcerated is in direct proportion to their plasma (blood) levels of testosterone. (Dabbs, 1997). Asians have lower testosterone levels, but the level in females is closer to the level of males (i.e., less sexual dimorphism). Other hormone levels also differ between blacks and whites. (Wright, 1995). Testosterone levels decline when a male pair bonds, suggesting that such males had greater reproductive success. (Shur, 2008).

    (24) Low levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, have been linked to impulsive violence, suicide, alcoholism, and depression. (Brown, 1982). Serotonin levels are 20 to 30% lower in men than in women, and men are more prone to impulsive violence. Serotonin levels are high in newborns, low in adolescents (who are more prone to impulsive violence), then rise again with age. Blacks have lower levels of serotonin, but if socioeconomic status (SES) is controlled for there is no correlation between race and serotonin level; 54 low serotonin levels are genetic as they have been tied to specific alleles. 55 However, the egalitarians fear that the races may differ genetically in their propensity towards violence (they do) and have stifled research in this area.

    (25) Blood types overlap quite a bit between the races, though most of the world is Rh positive while about half of Europe is Rh negative. (Sykes, 2001, p. 41). The races differ significantly in the percentage of their populations that fall into the different categories of the various systems for classifying blood. (Baker, 1974, pp. 185-187). Some blacks have rare blood types found only in blacks and, to avoid incompatibility, they may be advised to receive blood transfusions from blacks having the same type. Treating a person of one race as though he were a member of a different race can lead to serious medical problems or even death. “The number of red corpuscles and the amount of haemoglobin in the blood [Nicklas, 1987], the pulse-rate, the vital capacity [lung capacity], the muscular strength, the amount of urea in the urine, are different in different races.” 56. "Most populations below the Sahara average 60 percent of the Rho subtype found in only 2 percent of whites. Absence of the Duffy factor (Fy) in blacks, common in other people, is responsible for their immunity to vivax malaria." (Pollitzer, W.S., The Gullah People and their African Heritage, 1999, p. 15).
    There are scores of different tissue types that have a genetic component and differ among the races. (Sykes, 2001, p. 91). The races have different bacteria in their bodies (Caufield, 2007), e.g., different vagina flora and fauna, and different parasites, e.g., a different species of body mite inhabits the bodies of East Asians and Europeans.
    There are racial differences in reactions to foods, drugs (Bailey, 2005), and other substances. In June of 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the sale of BiDilTM, a drug that reduces damage to the heart in African Americans, but has little effect on Eurasians. (Liggett, 2008). The FDA specifically permitted its sale to be directed at blacks. GenSpec Labs, LLC is even marketing race-tailored vitamins, specially designed to meet the needs of African Americans, Hispanics, and Caucasians.
    There are racial differences in susceptibility to various diseases, even neuroses and psychoses, but especially debilitating diseases, such as cancer, and genetic diseases. (Holloway, A., 1996). For example, whites have much more melanoma (skin cancer) than blacks, but far more blacks have a deadlier form of it. (Hu, 2006). African Americans are more than twice as susceptible as whites to developing prostate cancer by age 55, and that is due, at least in part, to a gene variant in chromosome-8. (Freedman, M.L., 2006). Blacks are also more susceptible to tuberculosis. (Stead, 1990). Northern Europeans, on the other hand, are more susceptible to cystic fibrosis. Two well-known racial genetic diseases are sickle-cell anemia in Africans and Tay-Sachs disease in European Jews, 57 but there are many others.
    In fact, the number of medical differences between the races is so great that it would take an entire book just to describe them all. A black medicine specialty is arising and there is even a journal, Ethnicity and Health, devoted to medical differences between the races. Blacks at Howard University have started a program to identify genes unique to blacks so that medical treatment can be specifically tailored for blacks. To argue that “race” is just a social concept when the human body reacts differently to chemical and biological substances and infectious organisms depending upon race, illustrates perfectly how nonsensical that position is.

Chapter 11

Table of Contents


1. (Lynn, 2006a, pp. 210 – 211) for human data and (Aiello, 1990, p. 193) for chimpanzee and gorilla data. Different measuring techniques give somewhat different data. (Rushton, 2000a, pp. 130, 133) gives a brain volume of 1364 cc for Mongoloids, 1347 cc for Caucasoids, and 1267 for Negroids. Back

2. Blacks have better hearing than other races. (Murphy, 2006). Back

3. (1911 Encyclopedia Britannica; Baker, 1974, p. 308). Back

4. The Pygmies live in forests around the villages of the Congoids. Unlike the Congoids, they “sometimes have beards and body hair, especially on the back…” (Howells, 1948, p. 277). Back

5. (Ross, 1986). Back

6.  (Rushton, 2000a, p. 133; Broom, 1918, p. 63-79; Howells, 1948, p. 118; Galloway, 2005, pp 31-47). Back

7. Brain volume in cc = 1.038 x (brain weight in grams). (Rushton, 2000a, p. 126). Back

8. Drawings by Pierre Louis Gratiolet. The drawings are not to the same scale. The front of the brains is to the left. See (Connolly, 1950). “With regard to convolutions there is unanimous testimony that the convolutions of the brain of the Negro are less numerous and more massive than the brain of the European.” (Hunt, 1864, p. 10). Back

9. (Broca, 1858, cited by Rushton, 2000a, p. 106). The brain of the Hottentot Venus, Fig. 26-5, and the brain of another Sanid were examined and found to have simpler sulci. (Baker, 1974, pp 319, 321; Tiedemann, 1836; Bean, 1906; Connolly, 1950, pp. 146, 203-204, 360). Back

10.  “More intelligent brains show faster nerve conduction, less glucose utilization in positron emission tomography [PET scans], faster reaction times, faster inspection times, faster speeds in general, greater circumference and volume, smaller standard deviation in reaction times, greater variability in EEG [electroencephalogram] measures, shorter white matter T2 relaxation times, and higher gray-white matter contrast with magnetic resonance imaging [MRI].” (Miller, 1994d). Back

11. As a percentage of the brain, the cerebral cortex is about 80% in man, about 74% in apes, about 68% in monkeys, and about 50% in prosimians. (Corballis, 1991, p. 67). It develops some time after birth. Back

12. (Putnam, 1967, p. 51, quoting Bolton, 1914). Back

13. (Simpson, 2003, p. 712). “ … the grey substance of the brain of a Negro is of a darker color than that of the European, that the whole brain is of a smokey tint, and that the pia mater [the innermost membrane covering the brain] contains brown spots, which are never found in the brain of a European.” (Hunt, 1865, p. 10). Back

14.  (Passingham, 1982). “… imaging studies have shown the prefrontal cortex to be activated when subjects plan or solve the sorts of problems that make demands on general intelligence. Furthermore, there is a significant correlation between the volume of frontal grey matter and intelligence as measured on such tests.” (Passingham, 2002). Back

15. (Broca, 1858, cited by Rushton, 2000a, p. 106; Bean, 1906; Levin, 1997, p. 105). Back

16. A frontal lobotomy, which removes the anterior frontal area of the brain, leaves a person conscious and seemingly normal, but unable to plan and take initiative. (Penfield, 1957, p. 226). That is why Africans have been compared to lobotomized Europeans. (Simpson, 2003, p. 705). Back

17. (Dr. Nora Volkow, "News Release," National Institute on Drug Abuse, Jan., 20, 2006). "Numerous studies have demonstrated significant racial differences in the metabolism of tobacco-related products.” (Wilson, S.E., "Study Examines Racial Differences Among Children To Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Cincinnati Children's Center for Environmental Health," Mar. 15, 2005). Back

18.  African Americans have much lower slow wave brain activity during sleep than do Caucasians, which also suggests structural differences in the brain. ("Slow Wave Activity During Sleep Is Lower In African-Americans Than Caucasians," Science Daily, June 13, 2007). Back

19. When female chimps come into heat, they are “famously promiscuous” and mate with a large number of males, who have the largest testicles of any primate. Back

20. Females may then choose men with larger sex organs so that their sons will have more offspring. Back

21.  (Library of Excerpts, “Menopause and Menstruation,” The sperm of promiscuous primates also swim faster (Nascimento, 2007), and one would expect that to also be true of Africans. Back

22.  (Matchock, 2006). “Dancers made about $70 an hour [in tips from lap dancing] during their peak period of fertility, versus about $35 while menstruating and $50 in between.” (Hutson, M., “The Stripper’s Secret,” Psychology Today, Oct. 2, 2007, online). Back

23. (Baker, 1974, pp. 174, 176; White, S. & Tieken, T., (1999), “Scent – K9’s Reason For Being”). Back

24. (Prichard, 1836, p. 292). Chemical analysis can already identify individuals and their sex just from their odor. (Penn, 2007). Back

25. (Baker, 1974, pp 173-177; Hall, 1960). Back

26. The retention of arm pit hair, even among very hairless humans, is believed to be for the dissemination of pheromones (odors to attract the opposite sex) - until modern times, people did not bathe regularly and some of us still don’t. (Baker, 1974, p. 165). The scent glands of the genital region become functional only at puberty. (Baker, 1974, p 169). “Mothers can recognize their babies by smell alone within six hours after birth, and within days babies can recognize their mothers’ distinct smells.” (Etcoff, 1999, p. 241). Individual mice, and probably individual humans as well, can be identified by their genetically controlled odor. (Kwak, 2008). There is evidence that the odors (pheromones) that women living together emit cause them to menstruate at about the same time of the month. (Weller, 1993). Back

27. (Jacob, 2002; Wedekind, 1995). Women may be unfaithful or may mate with men of a different race for this reason. (Garver-Apgar, 2006). Back

28. (New Scientist, “The Color Code,” Mar. 10-16, 2007). Back

29. Blue eyes are associated with strategic thinking and achievement, which would be more selected for in men. (“Blue-eyed people better off, say scientists,”, Aug. 20, 2007; Clerkin, B., “Why blue-eyed boys (and girls) are so brilliant,” London Daily Mail, Aug. 20,2007). Also see (Worthy, M. "Eye Color, Sex, and Race, 1974). Since light pigmentation is neotenic and blue eyes are less pigmented, neoteny may also play a role: “Most [human] babies have blue eyes but they usually darken as the pigment melanin builds up in the iris.” (Id). “Negro infants at birth and for a short time afterwards have not infrequently a dark, grayish-blue iris." (Johnston, 1910). Puma kittens have blue eyes, which later become brown. (MSN Encarta Encyclopedia). Blue eyes, blond hair, and light skin are produced by the HERC2 gene (p. 102); all three traits are associated with youth, which suggests that the neoteny that occurred in the Caucasian lineage was not the same as the neoteny that occurred in the Asian lineage. Blue eyes can transmit up to 100 times as much light as dark eyes. (Mogk, 2003). While this may lead to macular degeneration, the additional light may have stimulated the pineal gland, giving blue-eyed people a fertility advantage. Back

30. (Kobayashi, 2001). Unlike anywhere else on the body, muscles on the face are attached directly to the skin. (Etcoff, 1999; Schmidt, 2001). Back

31. High intelligence is selected for in animals that have complex social interactions; the smartest animals are also the most social. Even consciousness may be a social adaptation, so that we are aware of how others see us and can behave accordingly. Back

32. (Tomasello, M., “For Human Eyes Only,” New York Times, Jan. 13, 2007). Back

33. “Their [Pygmies of central Africa] eyes are dark brown, but the sclera is white, not flecked with melanin patches as it is among many Negroes and Australian aborigines.” (Coon, 1962, p. 654). “The white of the eye has, in all negroes, a yellowish tinge.” (Burmeister, 1853). “… the sclera [of Australian aborigines is] somewhat yellowish.” (Baker, 1974, p. 298). Referring to the Nilotids (Africans near the Nile River), “The cornea of the eye is somewhat brownish …” (Baker, 1974, p. 329). The eleventh edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica (1911, p. 344) reports that the Negritos of the Pacific (aborigines) have “eyes dark brown with yellowish cornea.” (It is unfortunate that such an old edition of that encyclopedia must be cited, but the Equality Police do not permit frankness on racial matters.) Back

34. (Wikipedia, “Color vision”). The peaks of the detectors are in the center of the blue, green, and red ranges. Back

35. (Changizi, 2006). Here is another explanation. Vertebrates have cones in their retinas for seeing in color and rods for seeing in black and white, but with more detail. The progenitors of mammals had four types of cones, enabling them to distinguish subtle differences in color. When the dinosaurs ruled the earth, early mammals became nocturnal. They lost two types of cones, which were replaced by more rods, enabling them to see better at night. When, 65 mya, the dinosaurs were wiped out, most mammals became diurnal (active in daylight), but still had only 2 types of cones. Birds, however, evolved from dinosaurs and retained the four types of cones. The early primates, from which man evolved, had a mutation that gave them a third cone, which helped them find ripe fruit, and humans today have those 3 types of cones. (Goldsmith, 2006). Back

36. If the wavelengths for the cones in the eyes of Africans are the same (and they very likely are) that would suggest that Africans acquired alleles for those wavelengths from Eurasians, and therefore man migrated into Africa, not out of Africa. Back

37. (Howells, 1959, p. 267). “The skin is also much thicker, especially on the skull, the palm of the hand, and the sole of the foot.” (Hunt, 1864, p. 10). Back

38. Whites with less melanin are several times more likely to develop skin cancer than darker whites. (Dwyer, 2002). Back

39. Eskimos and the Inuit, who eat mostly vitamin D-rich foods such as seal, walrus, and fish, don’t need vitamin D made from sunshine, and their darker skin protects them from the increased cosmic radiation in the Arctic and from ultraviolet light reflected off snow and ice in the summer. Back

40. Gloger’s Rule states that the more humid the environment, the darker the skin. The reason is that eumelanin is more difficult for bacteria and fungi to attack than phenomelanin. Back

41. Although human babies are hairless, as fetuses they have a fine body hair, “lanugo,” suggesting the fetuses of their long-ago ancestors were hairy; see “Biogenetic Law.” Back

42. Of the two main hair pigments, eumelanin and phenomelanin, both yellow blonds and ash blondes have very little eumelanin pigment in their hair, but yellow blonds have more phenomelanin. (Birdsell, 1993). Some people in Melanesia (Brouganville, the Aita) have very dark skin and hair that looks ash blond, but their features are more Negroid and less Caucasian than the Australian aborigine blonds. (Razib, “Blondism in Melanesia, Gene Expression, Oct. 12, 2007). Back

43. “It [Negro hair] is rarely more than three inches long and, generally not nearly so long. (Hunt, 1864, p. 10). (Emma Freeman, London’s Natural History Museum). Back

44. (Emma Freedman, London's Natural History Museum). 45. “The superfices of the face [forehead] at puberty exceeds that of the hairy scalp both in the negro and the monkey, while it is always less in the white man.” (Cartwright, 1857, p. 45). Orangutan picture from Aravind B. Dev’s Animal Talks. Back

46. (Houck, M.M., “Forensic Hair Comparisons,”>). The Caucasian cross-section is enlarged. East Asian cross-sectional area is about 30% greater than African hair and about 50% greater than European hair. Back

47. And, compared to whites, they have 30 to 40% more of the enzymes needed to activate fast twitch muscles. (Ama, 1986). Back

48. The psoas major muscle, which lifts the legs, “is markedly larger in black than in white subjects.” (Hanson, 1999). Back

49. The earliest European modern humans were nearly as robust as Neanderthals. About 30,000 ya they began to lose muscle and bone mass. Modern oarsmen could not power a Greek trireme as fast or as long as Greeks did in 500 BC. (Pain, S., "Histories: When men were gods," New Scientist, Issue 2590, Feb. 10, 2007). Back

50. (Cartwright, 1857, p. 46). Back

51. (“High Testosterone Linked to Crimes of Sex, Violence,” Crime Times. 1(2): 2). Back

52. (Nyborg, 1987; Rushton, 2000a, p. 272; Dabbs, 2001). Gifted children have lower salivy testosterone levels. (Ostatnikova, 2000). Back

53. (Potischman, 2005; Harris, J.A., 1996). “… the same hyperaggressive monkeys that kill each other are also hypersexual …” (Casual remark by Frederick Goodwin, director of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, at the Feb., 1992 meeting of the Mental Health Advisory Council; the Congressional Black Caucas was offended and had him fired). Back

54. Here is an example of academic deception. Since SES (socioeconomic status) correlates with race, by “controlling for” SES, i.e., comparing whites and blacks of the same SES, the researchers removed the correlation between serotonin level and race. The fact remains that a black is more likely to have low serotonin than a white. Back

55. (Williams, 1994). The levels are not completely genetic – abusing a child may lower his serotonin level, even after he becomes an adult. (Maestripieri, 2006). Back

56. (Seal, B. “Meaning of Race, Tribe, Nation,” in Papers on Inter-Racial Problems, First Universal Races Congress, 1911). Back

57. ("Natural Genius?" The Economist, June 2, 2005). Back