The Unz Review • An Alternative Media Selection
A Collection of Interesting, Important, and Controversial Perspectives Largely Excluded from the American Mainstream Media
Problems of Communism Archives
Problems of Communism • 38 Years, 197 Issues, 2,290 Articles, 16,969pp
Books
East Germany's Disappearing Future
East Germany in Comparative Perspective, by David Childs, Thomas A. Baylis, and Marilyn Ruescheme...
Problems of Communism, March 1990, pp. 85-90
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  1. [+]
    Issues of the 1950s = 5 Years, 26 Issues, 264 Articles
    1. [+]
      Issues of 1955 = 2 Issues, 15 Articles
      1. [+]
        Issues of 1956 = 6 Issues, 65 Articles
        1. [+]
          Issues of 1957 = 6 Issues, 65 Articles
          1. [+]
            Issues of 1958 = 6 Issues, 55 Articles
            1. [+]
              Issues of 1959 = 6 Issues, 64 Articles
            2. [+]
              Issues of the 1960s = 10 Years, 52 Issues, 729 Articles
              1. [+]
                Issues of 1960 = 6 Issues, 81 Articles
                1. [+]
                  Issues of 1961 = 5 Issues, 57 Articles
                  1. [+]
                    Issues of 1962 = 6 Issues, 67 Articles
                    1. [+]
                      Issues of 1963 = 6 Issues, 71 Articles
                      1. [+]
                        Issues of 1964 = 5 Issues, 66 Articles
                        1. [+]
                          Issues of 1965 = 6 Issues, 90 Articles
                          1. [+]
                            Issues of 1966 = 5 Issues, 89 Articles
                            1. [+]
                              Issues of 1967 = 4 Issues, 75 Articles
                              1. [+]
                                Issues of 1968 = 5 Issues, 66 Articles
                                1. [+]
                                  Issues of 1969 = 4 Issues, 67 Articles
                                2. [+]
                                  Issues of the 1970s = 10 Years, 55 Issues, 659 Articles
                                  1. [+]
                                    Issues of 1970 = 6 Issues, 99 Articles
                                    1. [+]
                                      Issues of 1971 = 5 Issues, 86 Articles
                                      1. [+]
                                        Issues of 1972 = 6 Issues, 78 Articles
                                        1. [+]
                                          Issues of 1973 = 5 Issues, 53 Articles
                                          1. [+]
                                            Issues of 1974 = 6 Issues, 68 Articles
                                            1. [+]
                                              Issues of 1975 = 6 Issues, 65 Articles
                                              1. [+]
                                                Issues of 1976 = 5 Issues, 55 Articles
                                                1. [+]
                                                  Issues of 1977 = 5 Issues, 49 Articles
                                                  1. [+]
                                                    Issues of 1978 = 6 Issues, 54 Articles
                                                    1. [+]
                                                      Issues of 1979 = 5 Issues, 52 Articles
                                                    2. [+]
                                                      Issues of the 1980s = 10 Years, 51 Issues, 461 Articles
                                                      1. [+]
                                                        Issues of 1980 = 6 Issues, 60 Articles
                                                        1. [+]
                                                          Issues of 1981 = 4 Issues, 35 Articles
                                                          1. [+]
                                                            Issues of 1982 = 6 Issues, 59 Articles
                                                            1. [+]
                                                              Issues of 1983 = 4 Issues, 42 Articles
                                                              1. [+]
                                                                Issues of 1984 = 6 Issues, 56 Articles
                                                                1. [+]
                                                                  Issues of 1985 = 3 Issues, 31 Articles
                                                                  1. [+]
                                                                    Issues of 1986 = 6 Issues, 52 Articles
                                                                    1. [+]
                                                                      Issues of 1987 = 6 Issues, 47 Articles
                                                                      1. [+]
                                                                        Issues of 1988 = 5 Issues, 33 Articles
                                                                        1. [+]
                                                                          Issues of 1989 = 5 Issues, 46 Articles
                                                                        2. [+]
                                                                          Issues of the 1990s = 3 Years, 13 Issues, 177 Articles
                                                                          1. [+]
                                                                            Issues of 1990 = 6 Issues, 65 Articles
                                                                            1. [+]
                                                                              January 1990 Issue = 9 Articles
                                                                              1. Gorbachev's Dual Role by Elizabeth Teague and Dawn Mann, pp. 1-14
                                                                              2. First Party Secretaries by Vladimir Brovkin, pp. 15-27
                                                                              3. Leadership by "Lines" by Ian Wilson and You Ji, pp. 28-44
                                                                              4. Portuguese Communism Since 1976 by Carlos Gaspar, pp. 45-63
                                                                              5. Agricultural Price Reform in Eastern Europe by Nancy J. Cochrane, pp. 64-73
                                                                              6. The "Abalkanization" of Soviet Economic Reform by Boris Rumer, pp. 74-82
                                                                              7. Economic Conversion in the USSR by William H. Kincade and T. Keith Thomson, pp. 83-92
                                                                              8. [+]
                                                                                Soviet Propaganda and Active Measures by James P. Nichol, pp. 93-100 - 4 Reviews
                                                                                1. "Peace" of the Dead by Paul Mercer
                                                                                2. The Soviet Propaganda Machine by Martin Ebon
                                                                                3. Soviet Strategic Deception by Brian D. Dailey and Patrick J. Parker
                                                                                4. Psychological Operations by Joseph S. Gordon
                                                                              9. [+]
                                                                                The Secret Police and Soviet Politics by William C. Bodie, pp. 101-110 - 6 Reviews
                                                                                1. The KGB by Amy W. Knight
                                                                                2. The KGB in Kremlin Politics by Jeremy R. Azrael
                                                                                3. Chekisty: A History of the KGB by John J. Dziak
                                                                                4. Inside Stalin's Secret Police by Robert Conquest
                                                                                5. Secret Servant by Ilya Dzhirkvelov
                                                                                6. On the Wrong Side by Stanislav Levchenko
                                                                            2. [+]
                                                                              March 1990 Issue = 13 Articles
                                                                              1. Soviet Federalism by Stephan Kux, pp. 1-20
                                                                              2. Toward Lithuanian Independence by Alfred Erich Senn, pp. 21-28
                                                                              3. Soviet Agriculture's Halting Reform by Karen M. Brooks, pp. 29-41
                                                                              4. Moscow and the Congo by Mark V. Kauppi, pp. 42-60
                                                                              5. A Decade of Direct Foreign Investment in China by Shen Xiaofang, pp. 61-74
                                                                              6. Checklist of Communist Parties in 1989 by Richard F. Staar, pp. 75-84
                                                                              7. [+]
                                                                                East Germany's Disappearing Future by Jeffrey Gedmin, pp. 85-90 - 4 Reviews
                                                                                1. East Germany in Comparative Perspective by David Childs, Thomas A. Baylis, and Marilyn Rueschemeyer, ...
                                                                                2. The Quality of Life in the German Democratic Republic by Marilyn Rueschemeyer and Christiane Lemke
                                                                                3. The East German Economy by Ian Jeffries and Manfred Melzer
                                                                                4. The Two German States and European Security by F. Stephen Larrabee
                                                                              8. [+]
                                                                                A New Security Regime for Europe? by Philip A. Petersen, pp. 91-97 - 2 Reviews
                                                                                1. Soviet Military Policy Since World War II by William T. Lee and Richard F. Staar
                                                                                2. Soviet Military Doctrine by Harriet Fast Scott and William F. Scott
                                                                              9. [+]
                                                                                Breakdown and Reconstitution by Lars T. Lih, pp. 98-104 - 8 Reviews
                                                                                1. Revolution on the Volga by Donald J. Raleigh
                                                                                2. Russia's Second Revolution by Eduard N. Burdzhalov
                                                                                3. Red Petrograd by S.A. Smith
                                                                                4. The Petrograd Workers and the Fall of the Old Regime by David Mandel
                                                                                5. The Petrograd Workers and the Soviet Seizure of Power by David Mandel
                                                                                6. Lenin and the Mensheviks by Vera Broido
                                                                                7. Intelligentsia and Revolution by Jane Burbank
                                                                                8. Soviet Communists in Power by Richard Sakwa
                                                                              10. [+]
                                                                                Consequences of Glasnost by Marc Raeff, pp. 105-108 - 3 Reviews
                                                                                1. The Long Road to Freedom by Walter Laqueur
                                                                                2. Glasnost' in Action by Alec Nove
                                                                                3. Empire of the Czar by Marquis Astolphe de Custine
                                                                              11. [+]
                                                                                Perestroyka and Beyond by Ronald Tiersky, pp. 109-114 - 3 Reviews
                                                                                1. Politics, Society, and Nationality Inside Gorbachev's Russia by Seweryn Bialer
                                                                                2. Russia and the West by Jerry Hough
                                                                                3. The Gorbachev Phenomenon by Moshe Lewin
                                                                              12. [+]
                                                                                China's Economy by Barry J. Naughton, pp. 115-119 - 7 Reviews
                                                                                1. China's Industrial Reform by Gene Tidrick and Chen Jiyuan
                                                                                2. Management Reforms in China by Malcolm Warner
                                                                                3. Transforming China's Economy in the Eighties, Vol I by Stephen Feuchtwang, Athar Hussain, and Thierry Pairault, ...
                                                                                4. Transforming China's Economy in the Eighties, Vol. II by Stephen Feuchtwang, Athar Hussain, and Thierry Pairault, ...
                                                                                5. Urbanisation in China by R.J.R. Kirkby
                                                                                6. Towards Capitalist Restoration? by Michel Chossudovsky
                                                                                7. The Economic Development of China by Victor D. Lippit
                                                                              13. [+]
                                                                                On Communist Agriculture by Barbara Ann Chotiner, pp. 120-126 - 4 Reviews
                                                                                1. The Food Revolution in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe by Robert Deutsch
                                                                                2. The Party and Agricultural Crisis Management in the USSR by Cynthia S. Kaplan
                                                                                3. The Soviet Agro-Industrial Complex by Valentin Litvin
                                                                                4. Socialist Agriculture in Transition by Joseph C. Brada and Karl-Eugen Wadekin
                                                                            3. [+]
                                                                              May 1990 Issue = 9 Articles
                                                                              1. Protest in Beijing by David Strand, pp. 1-19
                                                                              2. China Faces the 1990's by Michael D. Swaine, pp. 20-35
                                                                              3. Gorbachevian Contradictions by Aurel Braun and Richard B. Day, pp. 36-50
                                                                              4. The Soviet Military in Transition by William E. Odom, pp. 51-71
                                                                              5. The Politics of "Renovation" in Vietnam by Gareth Porter, pp. 72-88
                                                                              6. [+]
                                                                                The Roots of Eastern Europe's Revolution by Zvi Gitelman, pp. 89-94 - 3 Reviews
                                                                                1. Return to Diversity by Joseph Rothschild
                                                                                2. Communist States and International Change by Ronald Linden
                                                                                3. Economic Reform and Political Change in Eastern Europe by Judy Batt
                                                                              7. [+]
                                                                                Soviet-Type Societies by Ferenc Feher, pp. 95-98 - 4 Reviews
                                                                                1. The Soviet Union Demystified by Frank Furedi
                                                                                2. The Velvet Prison by Miklos Haraszti
                                                                                3. Coercion and Control in Communist Society by Maria Hirszowicz
                                                                                4. Perestroika by Svetozar Stojanovic
                                                                              8. [+]
                                                                                Eastern Europe in Flux by Trond Gilberg, pp. 99-103 - 5 Reviews
                                                                                1. Central and Eastern Europe by William E. Griffith
                                                                                2. Eastern Europe and Communist Rule by J.F. Brown
                                                                                3. Big Brother by Helene Carrere d'Encausse
                                                                                4. Eastern Europe, Gorbachev and Reform by Karen Dawisha
                                                                                5. The Soviet Union and Central Europe in the Post-War Era by Kristian Gerner
                                                                              9. [+]
                                                                                The Modernization of China's Military by June Teufel Dreyer, pp. 104-110 - 4 Reviews
                                                                                1. China's Military Reforms by Charles D. Lovejoy and Bruce W. Watson
                                                                                2. The Chinese Army After Mao by Ellis Joffe
                                                                                3. China Builds the Bomb by John Wilson Lewis and Xue Litai
                                                                                4. China's Political-Military Evolution by Monte R. Bullard
                                                                            4. [+]
                                                                              July 1990 Issue = 12 Articles
                                                                              1. Gorbachev and German Unification by Hannes Adomeit, pp. 1-23
                                                                              2. The 28th Congress of the CPSU by Giulietto Chiesa, pp. 24-38
                                                                              3. A Colloquium---The Revolution of 1989 by Jerzy Jedlicki, pp. 39-44
                                                                              4. Comment---The Burden of History by Roman Szporluk, pp. 45-48
                                                                              5. The Islamic Influence on Nationalism in Soviet Central Asia by Yaacov Ro'i, pp. 49-64
                                                                              6. Perestroyka in Kazakhsatan by Martha Brill Olcott, pp. 65-77
                                                                              7. [+]
                                                                                Soviet Nations by John A. Armstrong, pp. 78-83 - 3 Reviews
                                                                                1. Federalism and Nationalism by Gregory Gleason
                                                                                2. Soviet Disunion by Bohdan Nahaylo and Victor Swoboda
                                                                                3. The Hidden Nations by Nadia Diuk and Adrian Karatnycky
                                                                              8. [+]
                                                                                Poland by Christine M. Sadowski, pp. 84-90 - 5 Reviews
                                                                                1. Political Authority and Party Secretaries in Poland, 1975-1986 by Paul G. Lewis
                                                                                2. Democracy in a Communist Party by Werner G. Hahn
                                                                                3. The Political Trials in Poland, 1981-1986 by Andrzej Swidlicki
                                                                                4. On Trial in Gdansk by Jane Cave
                                                                                5. Sisyphus and Poland by J.L. Black and J.W. Strong
                                                                              9. [+]
                                                                                North Korea's Search for Legitimacy in a Multipolor World by Clark Sorensen, pp. 91-99 - 3 Reviews
                                                                                1. Kim Il Sung: The North Korean Leader by Dae-Sook Suh
                                                                                2. North Korea in a Regional and Global Context by Robert A. Scalapino and Hongkoo Lee
                                                                                3. Asian Communism by Robert A. Scalapino and Dalchoong Kim
                                                                              10. [+]
                                                                                China's Leaders by Marcia R. Ristaino, pp. 100-106 - 3 Reviews
                                                                                1. Peng Te-huai: The Man and the Image by Jurgen Domes
                                                                                2. Hu Yaobang: A Chinese Biography by Yang Zhongmei
                                                                                3. Deng Xiaoping by Ching Hua Lee
                                                                              11. Correspondence, pp. 107-110
                                                                              12. Cover Photo by Frank Johnston
                                                                            5. [+]
                                                                              September 1990 Issue = 11 Articles
                                                                              1. Kirgizia-Kazakhstan by Guy G. Imart, pp. 1-13
                                                                              2. The "Karabakh Syndrome" and Azerbaijani Politics by Mark Saroyan, pp. 14-29
                                                                              3. Deng versus the Peasantry by Edward Friedman, pp. 30-43
                                                                              4. Labor Policy in China by Jeanne L. Wilson, pp. 44-65
                                                                              5. Four Modernizations That China Needs by Andrew J. Spano, pp. 66-74
                                                                              6. [+]
                                                                                The Past in Bulgaria's Future by Philip Shashko, pp. 75-83 - 4 Reviews
                                                                                1. A Short History of Modern Bulgaria by R.J. Crampton
                                                                                2. Bulgaria by Robert J. McIntyre
                                                                                3. The Bulgarian Economy in the Twentieth Century by John R. Lampe
                                                                                4. The Bulgarian Communist Party from Blagoev to Zhivkov by John D. Bell
                                                                              7. [+]
                                                                                The Chinese Party-State by Brantly Womack, pp. 84-92 - 3 Reviews
                                                                                1. The Communist Party of China and Marxism, 1921-1985 by Laszlo Ladany
                                                                                2. China's Continuous Revolution by Lowell Dittmer
                                                                                3. From Revolutionary Cadres to Party Technocrats in Socialist China by Hong Yung Lee
                                                                              8. [+]
                                                                                The PCI by Ted Perlmutter, pp. 93-98 - 2 Reviews
                                                                                1. Italian Communism in Transition by Stephen Hellman
                                                                                2. Moscow and the Italian Communist Party by Joan Barth Urban
                                                                              9. [+]
                                                                                Soviet-Latin American Relations by Roger Hamburg, pp. 99-107 - 4 Reviews
                                                                                1. Soviet Relations With Latin America, 1959-1987 by Nicola Miller
                                                                                2. The Soviet Brigade in Cuba by David D. Newsom
                                                                                3. The USSR and Latin America by Eusebio Mujal-Leon
                                                                                4. The Soviet Union and Cuba by Peter Shearman
                                                                              10. Correspondence, pp. 108-110
                                                                              11. Cover Photo by V. Korotayev
                                                                            6. [+]
                                                                              November 1990 Issue = 11 Articles
                                                                              1. The Ukrainian Catholic Church in the USSR Under Gorbachev by Bohdan R. Bociurkiw, pp. 1-19
                                                                              2. The Future of the KGB by Amy W. Knight, pp. 20-33
                                                                              3. Perestroyka, Social Justice, and Soviet Public Opinion by David S. Mason and Svetlana Sydorenko, pp. 34-43
                                                                              4. Hungary's New Political Elites by Rudolf L. Tokes, pp. 44-65
                                                                              5. [+]
                                                                                Marxist Disaster and Cultural Survival in Ethiopia by Paul B. Henze, pp. 66-80 - 26 Reviews
                                                                                1. The Rural-Urban Dichotomy in the Developing World by Jonathan Baker
                                                                                2. Eritrea and the United Nations and Other Essays by Bereket Habte Selassie
                                                                                3. Transformation and Continuity in Revolutionary Ethiopia by Christopher Clapham
                                                                                4. Resettlement and Rehabilitation by John Clarke
                                                                                5. Politics and the Ethiopian Famine, 1984-1985 by Jason W. Clay and Bonnie K. Holcomb
                                                                                6. The Spoils of Famine by Jason W. Clay, Sandra Steingraber, and Peter Niggli, ...
                                                                                7. Integrated Rural Development by John M. Cohen
                                                                                8. Red Tears by Dawit Wolde Giorgis
                                                                                9. Agrarian Reform in Ethiopia by Dessalegn Rahmato
                                                                                10. The Southern Marches of Imperial Ethiopia by Donald L. Donham and Wendy James
                                                                                11. Coping with Drought in Kenya by Thomas E. Downing, Kangethe W. Gitu, and Crispin M. Kamau, ...
                                                                                12. Ethiopia and the Challenge of Independence by Haggai Erlich
                                                                                13. The Struggle Over Eritrea, 1962-1978 by Haggai Erlich
                                                                                14. The Ethiopian Transformation by John W. Harbeson
                                                                                15. Peasants and Nationalism in Eritrea by Jordan Gebre-Medhin
                                                                                16. Surrender or Starve by Robert D. Kaplan
                                                                                17. Ethiopia, the United States, and the Soviet Union by David A. Korn
                                                                                18. The Mission, the Life, Reign, and Character of Haile Sellassie I by Hans Wilhelm Lockot
                                                                                19. From Poverty to Famine in Northeast Ethiopia by James McCann
                                                                                20. Haile Sellassie I by Harold G. Marcus
                                                                                21. National and Class Conflict in the Horn of Africa by John Markakis
                                                                                22. Rural Vulnerability to Famine in Ethiopia, 1958-1977 by Mesfin Wolde Mariam
                                                                                23. Ethiopia by Mulatu Wubneh and Yohannis Abate
                                                                                24. Peasants, Land, and Society by Siegfried Pausewang
                                                                                25. The Challenges of Drought
                                                                                26. Eritrea by Testfatsion Medhanie
                                                                              6. [+]
                                                                                Chinese Nationality Policy and "The Tibetan Question" by Donald R. DeGlopper, pp. 81-89 - 5 Reviews
                                                                                1. China and Its National Minorities by Thomas Heberer
                                                                                2. Tibet: A Political History by W.D. Shakabpa
                                                                                3. The Making of Modern Tibet by A. Tom Grunfeld
                                                                                4. The Status of Tibet by Michael C. van Walt van Praag
                                                                                5. A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951 by Melvyn C. Goldstein and Geler Rimpoche
                                                                              7. [+]
                                                                                Peasants and Regime in Vietnam by Ronald J. Cima, pp. 90-95 - 2 Reviews
                                                                                1. Vietnam: Peasant Land, Peasant Revolution by Nancy Wiegersma
                                                                                2. The Fate of the Peasantry by Andrew Vickerman
                                                                              8. [+]
                                                                                Contemporary Russian Nationalism by Robert Otto, pp. 96-105 - 3 Reviews
                                                                                1. The Third Rome by Mikhail Agursky
                                                                                2. The New Russian Nationalism by John B. Dunlop
                                                                                3. The Russian Challenge and the Year 2000 by Alexander Yanov
                                                                              9. [+]
                                                                                The Destruction of East-Central Europe, 1939-41 by Robert Blobaum, pp. 106-111 - 2 Reviews
                                                                                1. Revolution from Abroad by Jan T. Gross
                                                                                2. The Deadly Embrace by Anthony Read and David Fisher
                                                                              10. Index, pp. 112-118
                                                                              11. Cover Photo by Bohdan R. Bociurkiw
                                                                          2. [+]
                                                                            Issues of 1991 = 4 Issues, 46 Articles
                                                                            1. [+]
                                                                              Issues of 1992 = 3 Issues, 66 Articles