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Goodbye to All That: Why the UK Left the EU
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So what started as a gamble by David Cameron on an outlet for domestic British discontent, to be used as a lever to bargain with Brussels for a few more favors, has metastasized into an astonishing political earthquake about the dis-integration of the European Union.

The irrepressibly mediocre Donald Tusk, president of the European Council, posing as a “historian”, had warned that Brexit, “could be the beginning of the destruction of not only the EU but Western political civilization in its entirety”.

That’s foolish. Brexit proved that it’s immigration, stupid. And once again, it’s the economy, stupid (although the British neoliberal establishment never paid attention). But serious bets can be made the EU system in Brussels won’t learn anything from the shock therapy – and won’t reform itself. There will be rationalizations that after all the UK was always classically whiny, obtrusive and demanding special privileges when dealing with the EU. As for “Western political civilization”, what will end – and this is a big thing — is the special transatlantic relationship between the US and the EU with Britain as an American Trojan Horse.

So of course this all goes monumentally beyond a mere match between a hopelessly miscalculating Cameron, now fallen on his sword, and the recklessly ambitious court jester Boris Johnson – a Donald Trump with better vocabulary and speech patterns.

Scotland, predictably, voted Remain, and may probably hold a new referendum — and leave the UK — rather than be dragged out by white working class English votes. Sinn Fein already wants a vote on united Ireland. Denmark, the Netherlands and even Poland and Hungary will want special status inside the EU, or else. Across Europe, the extreme right stampede is on. Marine Le Pen wants a French referendum. Geert Wilders wants a Dutch referendum. As for the vast majority of British under-25s who voted Remain, they may be contemplating one-way tickets not to the continent, but beyond.

Show me the people

Anglo-French historian Robert Tombs has remarked that when Europeans talk about history they refer to the Roman Empire, the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. Great Britain is somewhat overlooked. In reciprocity, quite a few Britons still consider Europe an entity that should be kept at a safe distance.

To compound the problem, this is not a “Europe of peoples”. Brussels absolutely detests European public opinion, and the system exhibits an iron resistance to reform. This current EU project that ultimately aims at a federation, modeled on the US, does not cut it in most of Britain. Arguably this is one of the key reasons behind Brexit – which for its part has already disunited the kingdom and may eventually downgrade it into a tiny trading post on the edge of Europe.

Lacking a “European people”, the Brussels system could not but be articulated as a Kafkaesque, unelected bureaucracy. Moreover, the representatives of this people-deprived Europe in Brussels actually defend what they consider to be their national interest, and not the “European” interest.

Brexit though does not mean Britain will be free from the dictates of the European Commission (EC). The EC does propose policy, but nothing can be followed through without decisions from the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers, which group representatives of all elected governments of member states.

Arguably Remain, in the best possible case, would have led to some soul-searching in Brussels, and a wake-up call, translating into a more flexible monetary policy; a push to contain immigration inside African borders; and more opening towards Russia. The UK would remain in Europe giving more weight to countries outside the eurozone while Germany would concentrate on the 19-member eurozone nations.

So Remain would have led to the UK increasing its politico-economic weight in Brussels while Germany would be more open to moderate growth (instead of austerity). Although Britain arguably would wince at the notion of a future eurozone Treasure Minister, a European FBI and a European Minister of the Interior, in fact the whole notion of a complete economic and monetary union.

That’s all water under the bridge now. Additionally, don’t forget the mighty single market drama.

The UK not only will lose duty-free access to the EU’s single market of 500 million people; it will have to renegotiate every single trade deal with the rest of the world since all of them have been EU-negotiated. French economy minister and presidential hopeful Emmanuel Macron has already warned that, “if the UK wants a commercial access treaty to the European market, the British must contribute to the European budget like the Norwegians and the Swiss do. If London doesn’t want that, then it must be a total exit.” Britain will be locked out of the single market – to which over 50% of its exports go — unless it pays almost all that it currently pays. Moreover, London must still accept freedom of movement, as in European immigration.

The City gets a black eye

Brexit defeated an overwhelming array of what Zygmunt Bauman defined as the global elites of liquid modernity; the City of London, Wall Street, the IMF, the Fed, the European Central Bank (ECB), major hedge/investment funds, the whole interconnected global banking system.

The City of London, predictably, voted Remain by over 75%. An overwhelming \$2.7 trillion is traded every day in the “square mile”, which employs almost 400,000 people. And it’s not only the square mile, as the City now also includes Canary Wharf (HQ of quite a few big banks) and Mayfair (privileged hang out of hedge funds).

The City of London – the undisputed financial capital of Europe — also manages a whopping \$1.65 trillion of client assets, wealth literally from all over the planet. In Treasure Islands, Nicholas Shaxson argues, “financial services companies have flocked to London because it lets them do what they cannot do at home”.

Unbridled deregulation coupled with unrivalled influence on the global economic system amount to a toxic mix. So Brexit may also be interpreted as a vote against corruption permeating England’s most lucrative industry.


Things will change. Drastically. There will be no more “passporting”, by which banks can sell products for all 28 EU members, accessing a \$19 trillion integrated economy. All it takes is a HQ in London and a few satellite mini-offices. Passporting will be up for fierce negotiation, as well as what happens to London’s euro-denominated trading floors.

I followed Brexit out of Hong Kong – which 19 years ago had its own Brexit, actually saying bye bye to the British Empire to join China. Beijing is worried that Brexit will translate into capital outflows, “depreciation pressure” on the yuan, and disturbance of the Bank of China’s management of monetary policy.

Brexit could even seriously affect China-EU relations, as Beijing in thesis might lose influence in Brussels without British support. It’s crucial to remember that Britain backed an investment pact between China and the EU and a joint feasibility study on a China-EU free trade agreement.

He Weiwen, co-director of the China-US-EU Study Centre under the China Association of International Trade, part of the Ministry of Commerce, is blunt; “The European Union is likely to adopt a more protectionist approach when dealing with China. For Chinese companies which have set up headquarters or branches in the UK, they may not be able to enjoy tariff-free access to the wider European market after Britain leave the EU.”

That applies, for instance, to leading Chinese high-tech companies like Huawei and Tencent. Between 2000 and 2015, Britain was the top European destination for Chinese direct investment, and was the second-largest trading partner with China inside the EU.

Still, it may all revert into a win-win for China. Germany, France and Luxembourg – all of them competing with London for the juicy offshore yuan business – will increase their role. Chen Long, economist with Bank of Dongguan, is confident “the European continent, especially Central and Eastern European countries, will be more actively involved in China’s ‘One Belt, One Road’ programs.”

So will Britain become the new Norway? It’s possible. Norway did very well after rejecting EU membership in a 1995 referendum. It will be a long and winding road before Article 50 is invoked and a two-year UK-EU negotiation in uncharted territory starts. Former UK Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling summed it all up; “Nobody has a clue what ‘Out’ looks like.”

A version of this piece first appeared in Sputnik News.

Pepe Escobar is the author of Globalistan: How the Globalized World is Dissolving into Liquid War (Nimble Books, 2007), Red Zone Blues: a snapshot of Baghdad during the surge and Obama does Globalistan (Nimble Books, 2009). His latest book is Empire of Chaos. He may be reached at [email protected].

(Republished from Counterpunch by permission of author or representative)
• Category: Economics, Foreign Policy • Tags: Brexit, Britain, EU 
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  1. From someone so well informed this is remarkably poorly reasoned – and even on the facts hasn’t noticed that the UK buys a lot more from the rest of the EU than it sells to it.

    The key fact is that a tough negotiator as the no-doubt-deceptively amiable Boris Johnson (or Michael Gove or Theresa May) would be will hold off pulling the two year trigger until he has a great Out deal or one that allows him to go back to the UK electorate and reverse Thursday’s vote about which the most important fact is that it has no legal consequence.

    • Replies: @Rehmat
  2. Rehmat says:

    The mid-wives of European Union were France and Germany. It was established to serve the post-colonial powers and Israel. Most of EU member consider Britain as an American mole in the organization. I’m sure they’re happy to get rid of it.

    Former London Mayor Boris Johnson (ex-Tory MP), has both Muslim and Jewish ancestry, (New Statesman, March 27, 2008). He is related to Edward Sieff, the former chairman of Marks & Spencer from mother side and to Osman Ali aka Wilfred Johson, a Turk Muslim, from father side. In 2004, it was reported that Boris Johnson had a four years extramarital affair with Petronella Wyatt, The Spectator‘s New York correspondent.

    On September 22, 2011 – John Pilger, renowned British investigating journalist wrote: “The Westfield Stratford centre, backed by a former Israel commando (Frank Lowy, member of Jewish terrorist militia Haganah) and touted as the future face of London by the likes of Boris Johnson, makes a mockery of the East End’s history of productive work“…..

  3. Great Britain begins with the Roman Empire and has been inmixed in every major European affair ever since. If you want “outsiders”, there is Germany.

    Not that any of it matters.

    Issues? It’s not “immigration”, that’s for sure. I doubt most people can even begin to describe it without the use of sobs. Or the “economy”, that by rights of common sense will be negatively upset by the process of secession. There are no rainbows or unicorns in the immediate future. At all.

    Not that any of it matters.

    The best thing for everyone to do elsewhere is to distance ourselves from the mess and avoid becoming associated with it. Even if it gets better, it will get worse first. The UK has become a strategic liability.

    • Replies: @22pp22
  4. Renoman says:

    Ah London, Bankers and Wankers! No one has any respect for the World financial system and there is no reason they should. Just a gang of thieves picking each others pockets, we are all very tired of the offshore tax havens, the huge salaries the gutting of industries, the endless shake downs, we’ve had enough, the day has come and the mansions will be burned.
    Good article!

  5. 22pp22 says:
    @Berta Arnason

    You clearly know less than nothing about Britain. Immigration was the key issue.

  6. “Donald Tusk, president of the European Council, posing as a “historian”, had warned that Brexit, “could be the beginning of the destruction of not only the EU but Western political civilization in its entirety””

    Judging from the demographic trends that have accelerated under the EU’s benign neglect to securing Europe’s borders and enforcing its immigration laws, one might reasonably posit that the EU is the angel of death for Western Civilisation.

    • Agree: Che Guava
    • Replies: @Epaminondas
  7. Durruti says:

    Much food for thought from Escobar

    The celebration is still on 2 days after the Brexit vote.

    Nice article from Mainstream Media reflects their Power elite Oligarchs, such as the Rothschilds, et. al., concern for their future, as well as hints at how they intend to overthrow the people’s Democratically voted wishes.

    The British voters, those who resisted the Fear Mongering, “fear itself,” and half a century of Zionist imperialist brainwashing, voted for (just peruse the speeches in favor of Brexit).

    The British voted for:

    1. Freedom

    2. National Sovereignty, (independence from the Zionist-American New World Order).

    3. A strong prosperous Middle Class (who enjoy real jobs, with real meaning to existence).

    4. Life, Liberty, & the Pursuit of Happiness.

    5. Happy family life.

    6. Good Sex (sometimes conflicts with #5).

    7. Rational Population Management (England is seriously overcrowded – Trees and open green areas are disappearing).

    8. Opposition to Zionist American NATO imperialist wars.

    9. Friendly approach to Russia (more photos of bear backed Putin on horseback).

    10. They wish for Dieudonné to be able to perform at British theaters.

    The celebration continues, and the Frogs at my lake continue to say “Brexit” “Brexit” “Brexit.”

    Oh! They may be able to undermine the people’s victory. They may talk it to death, delay it to death, or scare it to death. What don’t we know?

    For the Restoration of America’s Democratic Republic, (assassinated, along with our last Constitutional President, in the first modern ‘Arab Spring,’ John F. Kennedy, on November 22, 1963).

  8. @The Alarmist

    If the EU is the “angel of death” for Western Civilisation, then Multiculturalism/Feminism is the double edged sword.

  9. We don’t want to be like Norway. We don’t want the Acquis Communitaire.

    • Replies: @Philip Owen
  10. German_reader says:
    @Immigrant from former USSR

    No, he meant that Dieudonne:

    Though I have my doubts many voted for leave because they’re keen on Dieudonne’s special kind of “humour”.

    • Replies: @Wally
  11. Che Guava says:

    I always enjoy your articles, Mr. Escobar, but

    Why the UK Left the EU

    past tense is yet to eventuate, I suspect that the EU moron bureaucrat’s ‘start the process ASAP’ may well be a ploy.

    I very much doubt that Alexander ‘Boris’ Johnson has any real commitment to either side, he just happened to pick the right one as the possible next leader of his party.

    The Labour Party in parliament is suddenly very noisy about dumping Corbyn, too. Not as if most haven’t been running a campaign against him from the start. Trouble is, he is overwhelmingly more popular among members and supporters. Can’t allow a popular choice, can we?

    Very nice to see the treacherous Hillary Benn slapped down. Better still if he loses his selection at the next election. His father would be ashamed of him.

    It would be lovely if it has a domino effect. Syriza in Greece were super-stupid, returning to the drachma and leaving the Euro-zone was the obvious first step for their economy.

    Instead, they are prone, runnimg up impossible debts, and will be forced to give up much of their heritage.

    Economic rape indeed! Tzipras is a liar and an idiot.

    Every place in Europe, get out. Go back to a loose union based on trade. The EUSSR is as bad as the USSR at its worst in some ways, and some, former Communist youth organiser in the DDR Merkel among them, are quite aware of the articles in Marxist journals on ‘convergence’ in the late eighties.

    At least, the post-WWII USSR had much grandeur and genuine progress, great education etc.

    As Hegel said, history repeats, the first time as tragedy, the second as farce.

  12. g2k says:

    Britain as an American Trojan Horse.

    Yes, I’m sure that the EU’s subservience to the US will become a thing of the past, now that the notoriously hardcore British atlaticists; Dalia Grybauskaitė, Donald Tusk, Radek Sikorski, Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Carl Bilt and Guy Verhofstadt have left…….. Oh hold on!

  13. @22pp22

    Fools agree with you. Reality, not at all.

    As presented, the issue of “immigration” is a fantasy. So, at best, you could argue that a fantasy was the “key issue”.

    But it wasn’t. Proof of it is that nothing at all whatsoever will change regarding “immigration” (as presented) and only the delusional expect it to in, inevitably, delusional terms.

    • Replies: @pink_point
    , @22pp22
  14. @Berta Arnason

    Still, what did shake your mental equilibrium that much?

    You posted a comment with 2 “delusion” ‘s, 1 “fools”, 1 “fantasy”, and 1 “reality”.
    Enough to make readers — or at least readers aware that projection is the core working of the human psyche — worry about your conditions.

    We will know “reality” as it unfolds. “Fools” can be sure about everything before it happens, though: no denying they are somehow lucky people.

  15. Wally [AKA "BobbyBeGood"] says: • Website

    Facts over propaganda:

    It’s claimed in the official ‘holocaust’ storyline that the evil Germans ‘exterminated’ Jews by dumping granules of the pesticide Zyklon-B through four openings / holes for little chimney-like structures that were secured upon the roofs of two gas chambers built alongside crematoriums II & III at Auschwitz/Birkenau.

    photo 1: top of roof of crematorium no. 2Taken January/February 1943 where there are no such ‘little chimneys’ or ‘holes’. Note that the little chimneys are claimed to have been ca 2 feet high. The snow is ca. 2-3 inches high.
    According to Auschwitz “expert” Robert Jan Van Pelt (who appeared at the Irving/Lipstadt trial), the insertion columns, which were said to protrude out from the roof, were added as an adaptation in August, 1942.

    photo 2: underside of crematorium II, post war
    Notice no such openings / holes exist in the underside of the roof in crematorium no. II, there is no indication that these opening / holes were filled in.

    see here for more:


    • Replies: @Anonymous
  16. Nobody expected Brexit to win. Even private exit polls conducted for financial institutions got it wrong.

    Boris Johnson was a “joke” candidate who was intended to lose.

    Both the “In” and “Out” campaigns tried to sway voters with fear; only now are the facts beginning to emerge. There will be no catastrophe, except perhaps a reduction in London’s financial sector.

    It is still possible that Britain will not leave at all: a second referendum, this time binding on the government, is a distinct possibility. It all depends whether David Cameron will give up without a fight, or whether he wants one more roll of the dice.

  17. @22pp22

    The demographics tell us that it clearly was. There’s always more though. For decades ‘news’papers have regaled readers with stories of illogical, nutty and costly cock-ups directly due to EU policies. Things like British apples being fed to pigs and replaced by foreign (EU) imports in order to conform to EU rules. There are thousands of such examples. Take a look at the number of rules the EUrocrats have concocted.

    The Remain people focused on their own finances and convenience to the continent whereas the Brexit people felt deeper issues were at stake. Money (fiat) means more to some than liberty.

    Like in the US, people are waking up to the fact that the great growth in wealth and prosperity largely illusory and for them nonexistent.

  18. 22pp22 says:
    @Berta Arnason

    Do you liver in the UK? Do you know any British people? It’s true that BOJO and his friends have already started backtracking on “taking back control of our frontiers”, but the majority of leave voters voted leave in the probably vain hope that something would be done to “cut net immigration to the tens of thousands”. That was an election promise Cameron made and failed to keep using the excuse that the EU wouldn’t let him.

    You really don’t know the UK. You should restrict yourself to ssubjects on which you are better informed.

    • Replies: @Philip Owen
  19. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    For fuck’s sake, would you get lost? You jump onto every thread and bleat about the “Holohoax.”


    • Replies: @Philip Owen
  20. neil says:

    the two huge flaws in the EU, are a common currency, and open borders. since Britain does not use the Euro, then obviously the issue of contention is MIGRATION.
    This issue has gone 360 degrees. The EU began after WWII as a steel [coal and iron] union between Germany and France, to end wars that went back to Charlesmaine. In other words, the underlying idea was diluting toxic nationalism. Most recently, Peter Sutherland has stated explicitly that the goal of the current wave of MIGRATION, is to dilute national [language, history, religion, race] differences between EU member states.
    However, if like me, you have traveled in these countries, you will find no Germans in Italy, no Italians in France, and no French in Germany. So, the original goal of the EU has achieved zero results, nada, zilch.
    Meanwhile, you will have your wallet stolen from you by post-soviet east-europe romanian pick-pockets.
    And you will read in your paper every day, a story about NAMs [Non-Assimilated Muslims], about ‘no-go zones’ of shariah law, breeding grounds of violent supremacist jihadists. A mass migration, invasion, of a people who represent the very antithesis of a peace based on diluted nationalism.
    [never mind the corporatist agenda of cheap labor and market monopoly]

  21. Philip Owen [AKA "Soarintothesky"] says:

    I was a Remainer in 1975 and I was one now. If the vote had been about joining EFTA (basically the Norway solution) or moving into the slow lane of a two speed Europe, I would have voted for Leave. There was no such option.

    That said to establish my position, immigration from EU states was not the issue. Only 33% of Leavers polled by Lord Ashcroft (the biggest polling) put immigration #1. Sovereignty was #1 for 49%, Unease about further expansion (ironically a UK government policy – e.g. the UK is Turkey’s main sponsor) was #3 for 13%. The Remainers were all focused on economic issues. My anecdotal experience is in line with this. Most of the immigrant bashing was about Muslims anyway. Nothing to do with EU Free Movement. The Muslims have been sent by NATO (and clones) from Kosovo, Afghanistan, Syria and Somalia. Compared to other Northern Europeans, the UK, like France, takes disproportionately few anyway. Southern Europeans take almost none in comparison.

    I have worked and lived in Blaenau Gwent (Ebbw Bale to Guardian readers), perhaps the poorest area in mainland Britain. The steelworks closed in the mid 1970’s. Until the newly formed Welsh Assembly gained access to EU funding in 2005, the only economic revival effort by the UK government was a Garden Festival in the early 1990’s! Since EU structural funds were made available, the area has had a £30m new railway to improve commuting to the very prosperous coastal city of Cardiff, an £80m new road to snake down the mountains to the English Midlands and a £15m (?) new Technical College to finally improve training for the local youth who don’t make it to university. (The old one was still set up for steel making skills – the remaining steel mills are 1 and 2 hours away and under threat of closure). But that’s basically 10 years out of 40. During the other 30, factories have arrived from the US (my plant made magnetic disks for disk drives) and Germany only to move on to Slovakia and China. All Blaenau Gwent sees is lower and lower cost competition. Slovakia>Turkey>Ukraine. So far the infrastructure projects are too new to connect it to the service economy. So, how did the whitest but poorest local authority in the UK and the greatest beneficiary from EU funds vote? It voted for Leave by the biggest margin in Wales. That was not about immigration. It was not even rational. It was a massive protest against the UK Government’s Blairite focus on the top half of society. Thatcher, although a Tory, spoke to the skilled working class, even if she destroyed a lot of it. She was the last PM to do so. What were the voiceless expected to say? The status quo is great? No one looked at Trump’s campaign and saw what was happening. Certainly not Leave.

  22. Philip Owen [AKA "Soarintothesky"] says:

    but the majority of leave voters voted leave in the probably vain hope that something would be done to “cut net immigration to the tens of thousands”

    Not true (& I’m a Remainer saying it wasn’t a racist vote!). See my piece below.

    • Replies: @22pp22
    , @ben tillman
  23. Philip Owen [AKA "Soarintothesky"] says:
    @Simon in London

    You have forgotten Sir Humphrey’s key point that if we are not inside then we cannot frustrate the plans of the darstardly continentals. Joining to disrupt was the strategy. (to Johnny Foreigner and Englishmen gone wrong in the colonies, this is a joke about a TV comedy series).

  24. Philip Owen [AKA "Soarintothesky"] says:

    His ward nurse might, at least professionally.

  25. Rehmat says:
    @Wizard of Oz

    Boris Johnson (or Michael Gove or Theresa May) are well-known three stooges of the ‘Jewish board deputies of UK’. Former UK ambassador to Uzbekistan Craig Murray will attest to that.

    In November 2015, British Home Secretary, Theresa May (aka Israeli tank), just banned American student leader Matthew Heimbach, 25, from entering United Kingdom for being a threat to country’s 320,000-strong Jewish community. In support of her decision, May accused Heimbach of advocating racial segregation in United States, making antisemite statements and supporting anti-Israel terrorist organizations.

    The UK’s Israel lobby, the Community Security Trust (CST), in a statement, has lauded May’s decision.

    Heimbach, a White nationalist Christian, who founded the White Student Union at Towson University in 2013. Unlike other anti-Muslim White supremacist western leaders, he supports Hamas and Hizbullah against Israel. He has also stated that Jews are hated around the world for their support for the Zionist entity.

  26. Rehmat says:

    Donald Tusk, the “Polish historian” reminds of another Polish “Jewish historian”, professor Jan T. Gross (Princeton University), who claimed in September 2015 that Polish Christians killed more Jews than Nazis.

    His ‘conspiracy theory’ was published in pro-Israel German newspaper ‘Die Welt’. He also accused Poles being Europe’s top antisemite people. He argues that that’s the reason Poland has refused to accept Syrian refugees.

    “The Poles, for example, were indeed rightfully proud of their society’s resistance against the Nazis, but in fact did kill more Jews than Germans during the war,” he said.

  27. 22pp22 says:
    @Philip Owen

    The word racist is meaningless and better discarded.

    I’ve seen other polls saying immigration was the key issue. Some of them have even been quoted on this site. See Steve sailer for details.

  28. @Philip Owen

    but the majority of leave voters voted leave in the probably vain hope that something would be done to “cut net immigration to the tens of thousands”

    Not true (& I’m a Remainer saying it wasn’t a racist vote!).

    It’s impossible for support for immigration restriction to be racist. The immigrants and their sponsors are always the aggressors. IF “racist” is to have a pejorative meaning (and it does), then the racial aggressors are always the racists. and those engaging in self-defense are the anti-racists.

  29. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    Much of this gives the sort of impression one would get from viewing the useless B.B.C. and I wonder if that isn’t the source of his inspiration. It is largely hopeless, trite and displaying a very shallow understanding of Britain.

    He may understand Europe, I don’t know. But I’ve been reading the authors work for some time off and on and if his grasp of the rest of the world is a flimsy as this, then I’ve been wasting my time.

    John Pilger has a much better grasp of what the European Union is, what it’s major failings are and why Britain was never at home in it.

  30. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    European here, just wanted to drop my take on this whole Brexit thing.

    The European Union is not the evil thing you all make it out to be, I’m seriously weirded out by this article and some of the reactions here. There’s even an honest to god Holocaust denier, wow.

    The EU is an overly bureaucratic institution that overcompromises everything to death and is infuriatingly wasteful on many levels, but it’s undeniably a force of good. Seventy years of internal peace, accumulation of wealth and a strong (though declining) influence on world events that would never have been achieved otherwise. The peace thing is a biggie by the way, we euros have a long proud history of finding new exotic ways to kill each other.

    As for the Brits leaving; maybe it’s for the better, they never fully understood or supported this whole EU thing, blocking proposals left and right and demanding special treatment. And alway suspiciously eyeing the EU as an attack on their sovereignty. Which I guess it is in a way, but only because statehood and nationalism are irrelevant old fashioned concepts. Strong cooperation between nations offers wonderful things for it’s citizens such as the right to work and live in 27 countries without any hassle, open borders, free trade, etc etc.

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