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From Nature in 2015:

The myopia boom
Short-sightedness is reaching epidemic proportions. Some scientists think they have found a reason why.

Elie Dolgin
18 March 2015

… East Asia has been gripped by an unprecedented rise in myopia, also known as short-sightedness. Sixty years ago, 10–20% of the Chinese population was short-sighted. Today, up to 90% of teenagers and young adults are. In Seoul, a whopping 96.5% of 19-year-old men are short-sighted.

Other parts of the world have also seen a dramatic increase in the condition, which now affects around half of young adults in the United States and Europe — double the prevalence of half a century ago. …

They are challenging old ideas that myopia is the domain of the bookish child and are instead coalescing around a new notion: that spending too long indoors is placing children at risk. …

For many years, the scientific consensus held that myopia was largely down to genes. Studies in the 1960s showed that the condition was more common among genetically identical twins than non-identical ones, suggesting that susceptibility is strongly influenced by DNA1. Gene-finding efforts have now linked more than 100 regions of the genome to short-sightedness.

But it was obvious that genes could not be the whole story. One of the clearest signs came from a 1969 study of Inuit people on the northern tip of Alaska whose lifestyle was changing2. Of adults who had grown up in isolated communities, only 2 of 131 had myopic eyes. But more than half of their children and grandchildren had the condition. Genetic changes happen too slowly to explain this rapid change — or the soaring rates in myopia that have since been documented all over the world (see ‘The march of myopia’). “There must be an environmental effect that has caused the generational difference,” says Seang Mei Saw, who studies the epidemiology and genetics of myopia at the National University of Singapore.

There was one obvious culprit: book work. That idea had arisen more than 400 years ago, when the German astronomer and optics expert Johannes Kepler blamed his own short-sightedness on all his study. The idea took root; by the nineteenth century, some leading ophthalmologists were recommending that pupils use headrests to prevent them from poring too closely over their books.

… In the 1990s, for example, they found that teenage boys in Israel who attended schools known as Yeshivas (where they spent their days studying religious texts) had much higher rates of myopia than did students who spent less time at their books. On a biological level, it seemed plausible that sustained close work could alter growth of the eyeball as it tries to accommodate the incoming light and focus close-up images squarely on the retina.

Attractive though the idea was, it did not hold up. In the early 2000s, when researchers started to look at specific behaviours, such as books read per week or hours spent reading or using a computer, none seemed to be a major contributor to myopia risk5. But another factor did. In 2007, Donald Mutti and his colleagues at the Ohio State University College of Optometry in Columbus reported the results of a study that tracked more than 500 eight- and nine-year-olds in California who started out with healthy vision6. The team examined how the children spent their days, and “sort of as an afterthought at the time, we asked about sports and outdoorsy stuff”, says Mutti.

… Close work might still have some effect, but what seemed to matter most was the eye’s exposure to bright light.

… And Ian Flitcroft, a myopia specialist at Children’s University Hospital in Dublin, questions whether light is the key protective factor of being outdoors. He says that the greater viewing distances outside could affect myopia progression, too.

Are there state-by-state differences in myopia? Are kids in cold, wet Massachusetts more nearsighted than kids in balmy California or Hawaii?

Baseball batters benefit from sharp eyesight. David Epstein reported in The Sports Gene that when the Los Angeles Dodgers hired an optometrist to check their players, he had to create new, harder eye charts because most of the hitters could easily read the smallest print on the standard charts. Many big league batters scored 20-12 and one 20-9.

This might help explain why so many major leaguers these days come from Sunbelt states like Arizona and Florida: they are sunny.

That perhaps ties into the often discussed conundrum of how Mike Trout of New Jersey was still around for the Angels to get him with the 25th pick in the first round of the amateur draft. He was the best high school player in New Jersey, but how good are New Jersey high school players? In the case of Trout, who has finished first or second in A.L. MVP voting eight times in his first nine seasons, really good.

This also raises the question of how good old time baseball players were. In a nation of farm boys who grew up working outside, maybe a larger percentage of young men had excellent eyesight. (There might be data on this from conscription in WWI, WWII, and up into the 1970s.)

 
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  1. Offhand, I can’t figure out how, but I’m confident that somehow this will be blamed upon White Supremacy.

    • Replies: @Dieter Kief
    Eh - aren't whites more into outdoor activities than blacks?
    , @Corvinus
    "Offhand, I can’t figure out how, but I’m confident that somehow this will be blamed upon White Supremacy."

    Silly goose, it's the Jews. It's always the Jews.

    Although...

    Israeli Scientists Isolate Nearsightedness Gene (2011)

    https://forward.com/schmooze/142536/israeli-scientists-isolate-nearsightedness-gene

  2. My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.

    I grew up on a remote farm in Australia. I can’t recall more than a few children in primary school who wore glasses (back in the 60s and early 70s.).

    I now live in Northeast Asia, and rarely see the horizon (it’s blocked by buildings). Everyone here wears glasses. And I think it’s because nobody looks long distance.

    • Replies: @Mr McKenna

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.
     
    I think there's a lot to that. When I was fairly young, I read (!) that it's a good idea to take regular breaks from close work and deliberately focus on objects in the distance. The advice stuck and maybe it's one reason my vision is still sharp in middle age. The only trouble was in an office where no distances were adequate for the purpose, with no windows nearby. It's probably also a bad idea to stare at computer graphics too much.
    , @Hypnotoad666

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.
     
    Clearly it has to be the modern environment of indoor close work that is triggering all this myopia. If our caveman ancestors were this nearsighted they would have starved to death in short order. It's kind of hard to hunt or gather when you can't see sh*t.

    Once upon a time there was an idea going around that you could avoid myopia and strengthen your eyes by doing exercises in which you switched back and forth between close and distant focal points.

    I wonder if that was ever tested scientifically, or turned out to have any merit.

    , @The Wild Geese Howard

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.
     
    This is correct. Zooming and refocusing exercise tiny muscles that are not used when staring at a screen all day.

    I know that the Air Force, Navy, and other service branches have pretty sophisticated vision tests and exercises for their pilots, but trying to find any info is difficult.

    You'd think some of them would be common knowledge, but it's easier to find info about the current state of US' hypersonic weapons.
    , @AnotherDad

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.
    ...

    I now live in Northeast Asia, and rarely see the horizon (it’s blocked by buildings). Everyone here wears glasses. And I think it’s because nobody looks long distance.
     
    Agree on looking at distance. But the buildings blocking the horizon aren't the issue. There isn't much work done by the eye between "infinity" and about 30 feet away.

    I just walked outside. Even with my old eyes, i can hold some sea grape (40ft) and the pink house across the canal (100+ yards) both in focus. As i walk toward the water looking at the house, the sea grape stays in focus at least through 30 feet. Maybe around 20ft i start to have to noticeably refocus between the two.

    So all you really need to do is keep looking up--out the window, or across a suitably large room.

    I think the problem is worse in Asia probably because of the smaller spaces. And worse with kids as they spend more time in their, smaller, bedrooms.

    Bottom line here: Same old advice: Don't stare at the screen too long. Look up. Every 45 minutes or so, get up out of the chair and walk around--ideally outside or at least someplace you can look outside. Good for your eyes, good for your ass.
    , @Bard of Bumperstickers
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/11/07/nearsightedness.aspx
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/12/19/sunlight-reduce-risk-nearsightedness.aspx
    https://www.lewrockwell.com/2014/07/joseph-mercola/can-you-retrain-your-eyes/
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2019/11/06/blue-light-accelerates-aging.aspx
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2018/08/29/blue-light-blindness-study.aspx
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/09/19/foods-improve-vision.aspx
    https://www.google.com/search?q=eye+exercises+mercola&oq=eye+exercises+mercola&aqs=chrome..69i57j0.4655j0j8&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
    There's a lot more out there on the series of tubes with search terms about sunlight and blue screens and nutrients and eye exercises. Who'd'a thunk our eyes were designed to thrive in nature? Crazy, innit?
  3. what seemed to matter most was the eye’s exposure to bright light.

    This might help explain why so many major leaguers these days come from Sunbelt states like Arizona and Florida: they are sunny.

    If you look at youth baseball players, a striking number come from Florida. I never thought much about it, but it could be the sunlight.

    Perhaps there are arbitrage opportunities involved with finding undervalued HS, college, and minor-league players in the northern states.

    Here are a couple questions. Does eyesight improve if you spend enough time around bright light or is eyesight set for life? At what age (if any) does eyesight stop being malleable?

    • Agree: Mr McKenna
  4. @Mr McKenna
    Offhand, I can't figure out how, but I'm confident that somehow this will be blamed upon White Supremacy.

    Eh – aren’t whites more into outdoor activities than blacks?

    • Replies: @Buck
    Yeah, blacks love outdoor activities like skiing, hunting, surfing, sailing, dirt bikes, hiking, camping, etc. It's just white supremacy that keeps them inside. On a funny note, I did see a black whitewater kayaker once. It was like an REI catalog but real.
    , @Kronos
    Whites might prefer outdoor activities during the day while blacks may prefer performing outdoor activities at night.

    https://youtu.be/eIASMX3-PUg

  5. I’ve lived in Florida my whole life. I never wore sunglasses as a kid. I read a lot and never needed any aids. Now at 55 I can’t see shit and can’t go outside without sunglasses. Even the reflection off of the little white ball blinds me. My theory: All those years of being outside sans sunglasses ruined my eyes.

    • Replies: @South Texas Guy

    My theory: All those years of being outside sans sunglasses ruined my eyes.
     
    Mine as well. You'll never see me outside without sunglasses, especially in the South Texas sun.

    *Of course way back when, dad was very much old school about sunglasses and said 'real men squint.'
    , @Achmed E. Newman
    I've hardly ever worn sunglasses either, Dtbb. I haven't had the same problem. Near vision is another story. It'll all be fine once every single thing we read can be blown up to the size of that big E on the top line of the eye test through one faggy* swoosh of our fingers.

    .


    * See "Are modern electronic devices making us gay?".
  6. @Change that Matters
    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.

    I grew up on a remote farm in Australia. I can't recall more than a few children in primary school who wore glasses (back in the 60s and early 70s.).

    I now live in Northeast Asia, and rarely see the horizon (it's blocked by buildings). Everyone here wears glasses. And I think it's because nobody looks long distance.

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.

    I think there’s a lot to that. When I was fairly young, I read (!) that it’s a good idea to take regular breaks from close work and deliberately focus on objects in the distance. The advice stuck and maybe it’s one reason my vision is still sharp in middle age. The only trouble was in an office where no distances were adequate for the purpose, with no windows nearby. It’s probably also a bad idea to stare at computer graphics too much.

    • Replies: @Father O'Hara
    Or Shirley,the buxom receptionist.
    , @Chicago Girl
    My ophthalmologist recommends a 20-20-20 routine for those who work at a computer all day:

    Every 20 minutes look at something 20 feet away for 20 seconds.

    There's more on it at https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321536.php, including a little supporting research.
  7. Today, up to 90% of teenagers and young adults are. In Seoul, a whopping 96.5% of 19-year-old men are short-sighted.

    Sad. No Formula 1 drivers or Moto GP champions will be coming out of this cohort.

    Maybe Kim Jong-un can fix this, since nobody in North Korea needs glasses (much like Pol Pot, which is Maoism on steroids). The Great Leader provides them with eyesight.

    Did you guys hear Formula One might be going to two-stroke technology? I know North Korea has a few two stroke motorcycles within its dominion.

    • Replies: @gate666
    alex albon says hi.
  8. Here’s something interesting that happened recently.

    As everyone knows, a number of teen boys and men have accused Kevin Spacey of sexual misconduct or rape.

    Recently, Kevin Spacey made this video.

    1 day after the video was made, one his accusers died by “suicide.”

    3 of Kevin Spacey’s accusers have died in the past year.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
    Linda Culkin sounds even more deranged than Spacey.

    Culkin was a nursing assistant who was reportedly obsessed with Spacey and had threatened to kill the actor, according to prosecutors. She sent bomb threats to two of Spacey's workplaces and also sent threats to his coworkers and associates. Radar claims that her threats to Spacey and his team began after one of Culkin's patients told her about allegedly being attacked by Spacey.

    In 2014, Culkin was sentenced in 2014 to 51 months in prison, three years of probation and ordered to pay more than $125,000 in restitution after pleading guilty in federal court to sending threats to the mail and over the internet, sending threats and false information regarding explosives and sending threats about biological agents.

    https://popculture.com/trending/2019/05/02/kevin-spacey-accuser-found-dead-after-being-struck-by-vehicle/
     
    , @The Wild Geese Howard
    I believe the correct term for this is, 'Arkancided.'
    , @The Anti-Gnostic
    "I'm telling you it's Keyser Soze!"
  9. @Mr McKenna

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.
     
    I think there's a lot to that. When I was fairly young, I read (!) that it's a good idea to take regular breaks from close work and deliberately focus on objects in the distance. The advice stuck and maybe it's one reason my vision is still sharp in middle age. The only trouble was in an office where no distances were adequate for the purpose, with no windows nearby. It's probably also a bad idea to stare at computer graphics too much.

    Or Shirley,the buxom receptionist.

  10. Then, books … now, smartphones & tablets. As someone said above, nobody looks at the horizon anymore, so a lack of time outside is plausible, but so would more and more people outdoors but staring at screens less than a metre away.

  11. The Conan author, Robert Howard, blamed his own bad eyesight on his voracious reading habits.

    In low light, I wear 1 to 1.5 cheaters. I’m the last one in my family to not need to use glasses most of the time. Anyway, I truly believe there is something to the ‘too much reading in dim light’ hypothosis.

    • Replies: @Autochthon
    Can't he just be "Robert Howard?" I reckon he is famous enough. Folks don't typically write "H.P. Lovecraft, the Cthulu author," or "Edgar Rice Burroughs, the Tarzan author," after all. (Or do they? I've not noticed such a phenomenon. I intentionally choose as examples peers of comparable ability and fame in an effort to compare apples to apples; if I'd cited the silliness of writing, say, "William Shakespeare, the Hamlet author" or "Charles Dickens, the David Copperfield author" one might rightly point out the greater fame of those two latter men).

    I'm not impugning you. I just notice whenever anyone commenting at The Unz Review mentions Robert Howard, they seem to feel compelled to point out that he created Conan, in a way they do not point out the famous characters of any other author. It's a curious phenomenon to me. Do those doing it all find their social acquaintances ignorant of Mr. Howard and his work? Is my own social circle anomalous for mostly being aware of him? (Anyway, if we're to carry on that way, can we at least mix it up? Maybe once in awhile Mr. Howard can be "the Solomon Kane author" or "the Kull author...."
  12. @Dtbb
    I've lived in Florida my whole life. I never wore sunglasses as a kid. I read a lot and never needed any aids. Now at 55 I can't see shit and can't go outside without sunglasses. Even the reflection off of the little white ball blinds me. My theory: All those years of being outside sans sunglasses ruined my eyes.

    My theory: All those years of being outside sans sunglasses ruined my eyes.

    Mine as well. You’ll never see me outside without sunglasses, especially in the South Texas sun.

    *Of course way back when, dad was very much old school about sunglasses and said ‘real men squint.’

  13. Anonymous[921] • Disclaimer says:

    Very interesting! I’ve always wondered about this rarely remarked-on epidemic.

    It’s a little misleading to single out Massachusetts as particularly cold and wet. Boston gets 2633 hours of sunlight a year, more than Houston (of course, the sunlight Houston does get is of higher average intensity.) The least sunny major cities in the 48 are rust belt cities like Syracuse, Pittsburgh, and Columbus, as well as Seattle:

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_by_sunshine_duration

    It’s also worth noting that almost everywhere in the US is much sunnier than all but the driest, southernmost places in Europe.

    • Replies: @Homeschooling Mom in NY
    Yes, we get plenty of sun here in NY, but we rarely see at any great distance. The northeast is heavily forested so it almost has the effect of city living spatially. So that could give more weight to the horizon hypothesis.
  14. Might be diet related. In my mid thirties I was tested here in New South Wales when I renewed my drivers licence and I was told that I must wear glasses when driving. Every five years after that through my forties and fifties my eyesight was tested and the stipulation that I wear glasses remained. In my mid fifties I started eating mostly paleo and cut way back on carbohydrates. When I did my most recent test at the age of sixty, my eyesight was much improved and I am no longer required to wear glasses when driving.

    • Replies: @Aguynamedme
    diet and sunlight - bilberry and other supplements help some people

    Looking into the sun with your eyes closed is a traditional folk cure for bad vision - one of the techniques of the Bates method
    , @Chief Seattle
    I think there's something to that. I was starting to need reading glasses for the last 5 years for computer and book usage. After a few months of intermittent fasting and getting down to my college weight I don't need them any more. My readers just sit on my desk unused.
  15. Anonymous[409] • Disclaimer says:

    Myopia is caused by near focus work like reading. Reading correlates with being indoors, hence the being outdoors/sunlight hypothesis. When you’re outside, you tend not to read but do other activities. The actual cause is the reading. It’s aggravated by glasses/contacts that correct the initial myopia. Readers get glasses/contacts meant to see things far away, and then continue reading while using the glasses/contacts. These glasses/contacts project the image even further back behind the eyeball, stimulating further myopia. Hence progressive myopia.

    Thankfully, myopia can be easily and cheaply prevented and even reversed. You just do the opposite and go in the opposite direction. Depending on how nearsighted you are, you progressively use weaker prescriptions and then reading glasses and progressively stronger reading glasses. You use these glasses and read. If your eyes are so bad that you can’t read a book without glasses for seeing far away, you get a weaker prescription that allows you to still make out the letters and words and read, but that leaves the letters slightly blurry. After some time reading like this, you’ll find that your eyes have slightly improved and that now the letters are clear with the weaker prescription. At that point, you get another pair of weaker glasses and read with them. Eventually, you’ll be able to read without glasses at all, and at that point, you start reading with reading glasses, which have “plus” prescription numbers. The same principle is involved once you start using the “plus” reading glasses. You pick a plus reading glasses prescription that allows you to read but that make the letters slightly blurry. Over time, once you read the letters clearly with the glasses, you get another pair of stronger reading glasses. It’s like weightlifting. You use heavier weights as you get progressively stronger. And eventually, your myopia will be reversed.

    Prevention involves the same thing. Kids should all be given reading glasses to use when doing schoolwork and reading. People who are not nearsighted and have normal vision should use reading glasses while doing extended reading and close work to prevent myopia.

    This can be done so easily and cheaply. Zenni.com sells prescription glasses for as low as $7 including lenses, and you don’t need an official prescription.

    Anybody can test this principle out for themselves cheaply by going to the grocery store and getting some reading glasses, or if they’re nearsighted, ditching their glasses for a few hours. Wear the reading glasses or ditch the myopia correcting glasses for a few hours at home, and just deal with the blurriness without squinting or pressing up your face to things to see clearly. If you do it long enough, you’ll find that under the stress of blur, your eyeballs may even spasm a couple times and try to change shape. And when you take off the reading glasses, or put back on the myopia correcting glasses, after this little experiment, you’ll notice that your eyes have slightly improved and that you can see a little better.

    If you want more info, just Google “Todd Becker” and “myopia”. He has a presentation on Youtube and had a blog and forum about this. He calls this technique of reading with a slight blur with progressively stronger reading lenses “print pushing”.

    • Replies: @Tono Bungay
    I wasted a lot of time on a similar recommendation when I was young. "See Without Glasses" and other books promoted the Bates method of exercise to overcome myopia. Didn't work for me, and I bet your suggestion won't work either.
  16. I’m getting nearsighted just reading the names in this report:

    Pfc. Ali Al-kazahg, stationed at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, was arrested May 31 after being stopped by gate guards at Offutt Air Force Base near Omaha…

    Nedhal Al-kazahy, his younger sister, described her brother as protective of her and almost always upbeat — despite the tumult of them and four other siblings being put into foster care when the state declared their parents unfit to care for them….

    Al-kazahg, a native of Nebraska and the son of Iraqi refugees, was home on leave at the time of the arrest.

    https://www.stripes.com/news/us/marine-private-sentenced-to-three-years-after-attempting-to-bring-illegal-firearms-onto-offutt-afb-1.614843

    Must be refugees from the “first” Gulf War.

    • Replies: @Hippopotamusdrome


    Pfc. Ali Al-kazahg

     

    Maybe the journalist died while writing the story.
  17. @JohnnyWalker123
    Here's something interesting that happened recently.

    As everyone knows, a number of teen boys and men have accused Kevin Spacey of sexual misconduct or rape.

    Recently, Kevin Spacey made this video.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzYKGmpjeXA

    1 day after the video was made, one his accusers died by "suicide."

    3 of Kevin Spacey's accusers have died in the past year.

    https://twitter.com/vigilantfeed/status/1216845239673131010

    https://twitter.com/iheartmindy/status/1210251771068735489

    https://twitter.com/SkylerShuler/status/1210262827761405952

    Linda Culkin sounds even more deranged than Spacey.

    Culkin was a nursing assistant who was reportedly obsessed with Spacey and had threatened to kill the actor, according to prosecutors. She sent bomb threats to two of Spacey’s workplaces and also sent threats to his coworkers and associates. Radar claims that her threats to Spacey and his team began after one of Culkin’s patients told her about allegedly being attacked by Spacey.

    In 2014, Culkin was sentenced in 2014 to 51 months in prison, three years of probation and ordered to pay more than $125,000 in restitution after pleading guilty in federal court to sending threats to the mail and over the internet, sending threats and false information regarding explosives and sending threats about biological agents.

    https://popculture.com/trending/2019/05/02/kevin-spacey-accuser-found-dead-after-being-struck-by-vehicle/

    • Replies: @Lot
    One of the other “3 dead accusers” is a guy who wrote very depressing books (his short story collection was entitled “Sad as Hell”) and was married to and recently divorced a Norwegian princess. His bombshell was Spacey groped him under a table at an awards dinner in 2007 when he was 34.
    , @JohnnyWalker123
    I'm not sure why you would label Culkin as "deranged."

    See quote from your article.

    Radar claims that her threats to Spacey and his team began after one of Culkin’s patients told her about allegedly being attacked by Spacey.
     
    We know that Kevin Spacey has been accused of molestation by a lot of people. So it's likely that one of his patients experienced significant sexual abuse from Spacey.

    Threatening to kill a sexual abuser hardly constitutes "deranged" behavior.

    Now, apparently, this individual who was angry at Spacey is now dead.
  18. This has been known for some time now. Get lots of light outdoors and get some bright LED lights for indoors.

    Make sure those LED lights are high quality with CRI close to incandescents (90+).

  19. Do sailors have unusually good vision? There’s a whole lot of staring at the horizon when you’re at sea for months at a time. In Peter Benchley’s novel Jaws there’s an aside about how good Quint’s eyesight is after decades on the ocean. And I read something in a book I can’t recall about how British ships sailing in the Pacific in the 19th century used to take on native islanders as translators or liasons as they went from port to port. And the British sailors were dumbfounded at how acute the vision of the islanders were. One would point in one direction and say “ship.” The Brits would look, see nothing, then take out their spyglass and still see nothing and say “there’s nothing there.” And invariably a few minutes later a speck would appear on the horizon and pretty soon the ship was in sight. Not sure if there’s really anything to this or it’s just folk wisdom.

    • Replies: @Corvinus
    "Do sailors have unusually good vision? There’s a whole lot of staring at the horizon when you’re at sea for months at a time."

    Great question. From 2017...

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309365380_Visual_Search_Strategy_During_Regatta_Starts_in_a_Sailing_Simulation

    In a sport conditioned by natural elements such as sailing, visual perception is a key factor for the performance. The research has shown that the visual behaviour of athletes at different skill levels varies, which may cause differences in the performance achieved. The aim of this research was to examine the visual behaviour of sailors from different ranking positions at the start of a race in a simulated situation. Twenty junior sailors (N=10 top and N=10 bottom ranking) participated in the study. The visual behaviour was recorded at the start of a sailing simulation. The top-ranking sailors perform more visual fixations on the locations that have more highly relevant information, such as "tell-tales" and "rivals", than do bottom-ranking sailors (p < 0.005). The top-ranking sailors are closer to the start line at the time of start signal. The analysis of the visual search strategy shows that top-ranking sailors employed a more active visual search strategy. More experience athletes can make better use of the information obtained from the important locations.
     
  20. lol.

    One of the first national celebrity baseball players was a basestealing Irish media-ham named Mike King Kelly, who loved getting attention. He was one of the first pro athletes to run in his spare time to keep in shape (with news media following him). He’d act weird and quirky to get more attention, and the press loved him.

    One of his other weird quirks? When he ran, he would stare directly at the sun. Said it helped his eyes.

    And then in the first half this century, some psuedo-science people claimed that poor eyesight could be cured by having the magnifying glasses used to shoot sunlight directly into the eyes.

    And now we find it might just work. Kelly might not have been crazy after all.

    Everything old is new again, and old wives’ tales are more true than new-fangled science.

    And slide, Kelly, slide!

  21. Anon[286] • Disclaimer says:

    The Pleiades asterism is a good eyesight test. Draw a line from the upper right shoulder star, Bellatrix, diagonally out (up and right relative to Orion) to the bright red eye of Taurus, Aldeberan. Then to about half again as far out in the same direction, where in a sufficiently dark sky you’ll see a little dim glowing puff. The number of stars you can distinguish in that puff is your eye test. Of the nine brightest stars, the brightest is magnitude 2.9, the dimmest 5.7. Focusing a degree or so to one side of the asterism may help. This eye test is relative to sky darkness, so it only works to compare people in the same place at the same time.

  22. Blue eyed hitters have major splits with day and night games.

  23. @petit bourgeois

    Today, up to 90% of teenagers and young adults are. In Seoul, a whopping 96.5% of 19-year-old men are short-sighted.
     
    Sad. No Formula 1 drivers or Moto GP champions will be coming out of this cohort.

    Maybe Kim Jong-un can fix this, since nobody in North Korea needs glasses (much like Pol Pot, which is Maoism on steroids). The Great Leader provides them with eyesight.

    Did you guys hear Formula One might be going to two-stroke technology? I know North Korea has a few two stroke motorcycles within its dominion.

    alex albon says hi.

  24. It’s very likely that the increase in myopia is due to toddlers spending too little time outside. There’s a window of opportunity for eye-related brain development similar to there being a window of opportunity for ear-related brain development (i.e., no-one develops absolute pitch after age six or so).

    This has been demonstrated in animals.

    If the eye is stimulated enough before a certain age, vision will be normal. If the eyes are not exposed to light by a certain age, vision related brain development will not occur and the animal will be permanently blind. It’s likely that “not enough” exposure to sunlight by a certain age will lead to underdeveloped eye-brain development and vision loss.

    We do not know what age this is in humans but toddlers should spend a lot of time in sunlight to ensure proper eye-related brain development.

    • Replies: @anon
    We do not know what age this is in humans but toddlers should spend a lot of time in sunlight to ensure proper eye-related brain development.

    Myopia has more to do with the actual shape of the eyeball than with brain perception.
    The optics engineer up thread has a clear explanation of this.

    It is possible that the physical shape of the eyeball is affected by patterns of use in the toddler years, but I do not know of any research in that area.
  25. OTOH, blue eyed people have a higher risk of eye diseases from UV light (but these are rare overall). I kept track of this because my blue eyes and I lived in San Diego for a while. I never ran into Steve at the corner of Race and Privilege down there in Balboa Park, but I wouldn’t have, as the British say, ‘minded terribly’.

  26. @Dieter Kief
    Eh - aren't whites more into outdoor activities than blacks?

    Yeah, blacks love outdoor activities like skiing, hunting, surfing, sailing, dirt bikes, hiking, camping, etc. It’s just white supremacy that keeps them inside. On a funny note, I did see a black whitewater kayaker once. It was like an REI catalog but real.

  27. Anecdotally, my father graduated college at the height of Vietnam. He tried to be a pilot in the Air Force but his was just a little too nearsighted. Instead, he became a navigator on B-52’s. After his first tour, he reapplied for pilot school and his eyes were fine. He believed a year off from studying and hanging out in sunny Southeast Asia had made the difference. He was a fighter pilot in F-4’s the rest of his career and didn’t need glasses until into his forties.

  28. @Change that Matters
    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.

    I grew up on a remote farm in Australia. I can't recall more than a few children in primary school who wore glasses (back in the 60s and early 70s.).

    I now live in Northeast Asia, and rarely see the horizon (it's blocked by buildings). Everyone here wears glasses. And I think it's because nobody looks long distance.

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.

    Clearly it has to be the modern environment of indoor close work that is triggering all this myopia. If our caveman ancestors were this nearsighted they would have starved to death in short order. It’s kind of hard to hunt or gather when you can’t see sh*t.

    Once upon a time there was an idea going around that you could avoid myopia and strengthen your eyes by doing exercises in which you switched back and forth between close and distant focal points.

    I wonder if that was ever tested scientifically, or turned out to have any merit.

    • Agree: Achmed E. Newman, BB753
    • Replies: @Anon

    Once upon a time there was an idea going around that you could avoid myopia and strengthen your eyes by doing exercises in which you switched back and forth between close and distant focal points.
     
    The problem with stuff like this is that people only start doing it after they are already having problems with their eyesight, which is presumably too late, even if there were some truth to it.
    , @Alden
    My Dad has a book about eye exercises to prevent near and far sightedness. I don’t think it worked.
  29. I tend not to believe any study that comes along … wait, let me finish eating my eggs, which are OK now, and a muffin with some real butter … yeah, anyway, the author hedges already with:

    Close work might still have some effect, but what seemed to matter most was the eye’s exposure to bright light.

    It’s one thing what people report on, how they only looked at the computer 3 hours daily or whatever. Wouldn’t you think that the kids that go outside a lot are the ones that truly are not what were once “bookworms” (now, gamers, youtube addicts, bloggers … oops, etc.)?

    I don’t believe this study. It is quite obvious to me that the current generation – people 30 and under – look at screens that are from 8″ to 12″ away from the eyeballs for HOURS each day. How can that not be the major factor to affect myopia? One can get away with this very-near-focus when young and still be able to “accommodate”, that is, have the eye muscles change focus, quickly. That accommodation is what gets worse for older people, and they end up needing 5 seconds to focus on the distance. People may be losing accommodation ability younger and younger.

    That’s not myopia itself, but, as people have written here already, one must keep the eye muscles in practice. I do see the myopia itself, along with accommodation problems manifested on the road. People who are young enough to have good reactions will look at you from their stopping point at a T-intersection, wait 3 seconds or so, and then somehow think “oh, I guess I do have room after all”, and pull out in front of you as if they were 80 y/o geezers living in Mayberry. They are too young to be this slow in the head, so I think their focus is so bad that they can judge neither speed nor distance.

  30. Trout is from the Pine Barrens in South Jersey. Much more rural part of the State with a higher percentage of Deer Hunters and less ethnic Whites who spend more time outdoors.

  31. @Dtbb
    I've lived in Florida my whole life. I never wore sunglasses as a kid. I read a lot and never needed any aids. Now at 55 I can't see shit and can't go outside without sunglasses. Even the reflection off of the little white ball blinds me. My theory: All those years of being outside sans sunglasses ruined my eyes.

    I’ve hardly ever worn sunglasses either, Dtbb. I haven’t had the same problem. Near vision is another story. It’ll all be fine once every single thing we read can be blown up to the size of that big E on the top line of the eye test through one faggy* swoosh of our fingers.

    .

    * See “Are modern electronic devices making us gay?”.

  32. @Anonymous
    Very interesting! I've always wondered about this rarely remarked-on epidemic.

    It's a little misleading to single out Massachusetts as particularly cold and wet. Boston gets 2633 hours of sunlight a year, more than Houston (of course, the sunlight Houston does get is of higher average intensity.) The least sunny major cities in the 48 are rust belt cities like Syracuse, Pittsburgh, and Columbus, as well as Seattle:

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_by_sunshine_duration

    It's also worth noting that almost everywhere in the US is much sunnier than all but the driest, southernmost places in Europe.

    Yes, we get plenty of sun here in NY, but we rarely see at any great distance. The northeast is heavily forested so it almost has the effect of city living spatially. So that could give more weight to the horizon hypothesis.

  33. Another example: Brigadier General Chuck Yeager, West Virginia farm boy with 20/10 vision. His autobiography recounts that he hunted squirrels from an early age.

    • Replies: @JMcG
    I had 20/10 when I was young and my son currently sports 20/10. Both of us hunted from an early age. I think that’s enough data points to publish!
  34. Reading and staying indoors might be part of the answer. Yet, just like lack of exercise and bad diets are not the whole explanation to obesity (processed sugar in food might be), I can’t help but wonder if modern food is partly to blame. I remember just a generation ago in the UK, short – and far-sightedness were relatively rare, one in ten. Now, it’s over 50 % which is abnormal, given that habits haven’t changed that much.
    Also, what is the explanation for far-sightedness in young people? It is just as crippling as myopia.

  35. I have been a compulsive reader from about the age of seven on, and my eyesight isn’t bad (although now in my 40s it ain’t what it used to be). Maybe that’s because my parents made me play a sport every season of the year and thereby kept me outside a lot.

    The Inuit are an interesting group to study, because they traditionally kept their kids inside for about half the year. So it may be that if kids get enough outdoor time in the summer that’s enough to prevent myopia.

    As for baseball and vision, the best I ever saw in my life was when I was pitching a game as a teenager. I threw a fastball and the batter nailed it for a line drive headed directly toward my face. I don’t know how it happened, but suddenly everything slowed down and I could clearly see every stitch on the ball and its rotation (slow, clockwise, near-vertical axis) as it rocketed toward me. Because of this really weird distortion of time and heightened focus, I was able to get my glove up and shield my face in time to prevent what would otherwise have been a very painful reckoning. Keep in mind that this isn’t easy to coordinate when you are off balance after following through on a pitch.

    If I had been able to conjure up that ability every time I stepped up to bat, I could have hit the ball when and where I wanted (against high school pitchers at least). I think top level MLB hitters can see about that well normally, and that’s really amazing to me.

    • Replies: @Paul Mendez
    I’ve read that WW2 fighter pilots, in the stress of dogfights, would experience a form of telescopic vision trying to identify friend from foe. The national insignias of the plane they were looking at would take up their entire field of vision.
  36. @Anonymous
    Myopia is caused by near focus work like reading. Reading correlates with being indoors, hence the being outdoors/sunlight hypothesis. When you're outside, you tend not to read but do other activities. The actual cause is the reading. It's aggravated by glasses/contacts that correct the initial myopia. Readers get glasses/contacts meant to see things far away, and then continue reading while using the glasses/contacts. These glasses/contacts project the image even further back behind the eyeball, stimulating further myopia. Hence progressive myopia.

    Thankfully, myopia can be easily and cheaply prevented and even reversed. You just do the opposite and go in the opposite direction. Depending on how nearsighted you are, you progressively use weaker prescriptions and then reading glasses and progressively stronger reading glasses. You use these glasses and read. If your eyes are so bad that you can't read a book without glasses for seeing far away, you get a weaker prescription that allows you to still make out the letters and words and read, but that leaves the letters slightly blurry. After some time reading like this, you'll find that your eyes have slightly improved and that now the letters are clear with the weaker prescription. At that point, you get another pair of weaker glasses and read with them. Eventually, you'll be able to read without glasses at all, and at that point, you start reading with reading glasses, which have "plus" prescription numbers. The same principle is involved once you start using the "plus" reading glasses. You pick a plus reading glasses prescription that allows you to read but that make the letters slightly blurry. Over time, once you read the letters clearly with the glasses, you get another pair of stronger reading glasses. It's like weightlifting. You use heavier weights as you get progressively stronger. And eventually, your myopia will be reversed.

    Prevention involves the same thing. Kids should all be given reading glasses to use when doing schoolwork and reading. People who are not nearsighted and have normal vision should use reading glasses while doing extended reading and close work to prevent myopia.

    This can be done so easily and cheaply. Zenni.com sells prescription glasses for as low as $7 including lenses, and you don't need an official prescription.

    Anybody can test this principle out for themselves cheaply by going to the grocery store and getting some reading glasses, or if they're nearsighted, ditching their glasses for a few hours. Wear the reading glasses or ditch the myopia correcting glasses for a few hours at home, and just deal with the blurriness without squinting or pressing up your face to things to see clearly. If you do it long enough, you'll find that under the stress of blur, your eyeballs may even spasm a couple times and try to change shape. And when you take off the reading glasses, or put back on the myopia correcting glasses, after this little experiment, you'll notice that your eyes have slightly improved and that you can see a little better.

    If you want more info, just Google "Todd Becker" and "myopia". He has a presentation on Youtube and had a blog and forum about this. He calls this technique of reading with a slight blur with progressively stronger reading lenses "print pushing".

    I wasted a lot of time on a similar recommendation when I was young. “See Without Glasses” and other books promoted the Bates method of exercise to overcome myopia. Didn’t work for me, and I bet your suggestion won’t work either.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
    That's not the Bates method. The Bates method and other old school methods involved bizarre exercises like "sunning", or trying to look directly at the sun.

    The "print pushing" method described by Todd Becker is different from Bates and these other old fashioned snake oil style methods. Moreover, while the actual practice of "print pushing" is simple and easy, it's not some immediate cure. It takes months and years, depending on how bad the myopia is, of using the method while engaging in extended reading. Just as myopia takes years to develop, it generally takes years of "print pushing" to reverse the myopia. A lot of people don't bother sticking with it because of the inconvenience and time. On the other hand, people with bad myopia tend to be heavy readers who engage in extended reading daily or frequently already, so it's relatively easy for them to incorporate "print pushing" in their reading habit. And kids and young people who are just starting school or becoming heavy readers should be taught to use reading glasses whenever reading to prevent myopia from developing in the first place. Reading glasses move images further away, so the book that's physically 1 ft. away from your face is to your eyes an image further away than 1 ft. when you're wearing reading glasses. The stronger the reading glasses prescription, there further it pushes images away.

    See Todd Becker's presentation and video here:

    https://gettingstronger.org/2014/08/myopia-a-modern-yet-reversible-disease/

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5Efg42-Qn0
  37. Part of the story may be ‘detection’ rather than ‘condition’.

    Even if one works outside a great deal there is no guarantee that modest short-sightedness will be an issue. If the only large red vehicle is the tractor, the fuzzy red object coming at you is the tractor.

    The introduction of better tools at the DMV for driver licensing provides an objective test point. However, that only works as a broad statistical test for groups where almost everyone obtains a license.

    PEACE 😇

  38. @Change that Matters
    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.

    I grew up on a remote farm in Australia. I can't recall more than a few children in primary school who wore glasses (back in the 60s and early 70s.).

    I now live in Northeast Asia, and rarely see the horizon (it's blocked by buildings). Everyone here wears glasses. And I think it's because nobody looks long distance.

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.

    This is correct. Zooming and refocusing exercise tiny muscles that are not used when staring at a screen all day.

    I know that the Air Force, Navy, and other service branches have pretty sophisticated vision tests and exercises for their pilots, but trying to find any info is difficult.

    You’d think some of them would be common knowledge, but it’s easier to find info about the current state of US’ hypersonic weapons.

  39. @JohnnyWalker123
    Here's something interesting that happened recently.

    As everyone knows, a number of teen boys and men have accused Kevin Spacey of sexual misconduct or rape.

    Recently, Kevin Spacey made this video.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzYKGmpjeXA

    1 day after the video was made, one his accusers died by "suicide."

    3 of Kevin Spacey's accusers have died in the past year.

    https://twitter.com/vigilantfeed/status/1216845239673131010

    https://twitter.com/iheartmindy/status/1210251771068735489

    https://twitter.com/SkylerShuler/status/1210262827761405952

    I believe the correct term for this is, ‘Arkancided.’

  40. I wonder if this is part of the positive selection for light eyes at high latitudes in Europe. Lighter eyes let in more light, which, if the light-vision connection is real, would give lighter-eyed people slightly better vision if they grow up in fairly dim areas.

    • Replies: @JMcG
    How can that be? Isn’t it the pupil that controls the amount of light entering the eye? Why would iris color matter?
  41. @Mr McKenna
    Offhand, I can't figure out how, but I'm confident that somehow this will be blamed upon White Supremacy.

    “Offhand, I can’t figure out how, but I’m confident that somehow this will be blamed upon White Supremacy.”

    Silly goose, it’s the Jews. It’s always the Jews.

    Although…

    Israeli Scientists Isolate Nearsightedness Gene (2011)

    https://forward.com/schmooze/142536/israeli-scientists-isolate-nearsightedness-gene

  42. “Are there state-by-state differences in myopia?”

    From Epidemiology of Myopia, Johns Hopkins, 1996

    “There is considerable geographic variation in the reported prevalence of myopia. It is difficult to compare prevalence rates between countries based on previous studies; the definitions of myopia are not uniform, and refraction may have been performed without cycloplegia. Prevalence studies are not all population-based, with some studies being conducted on convenient select groups of individuals with limited generalizability. The prevalence of myopia varies with time and the age of the study population.”

    From 2018…

    https://www.jpost.com/HEALTH-SCIENCE/Young-haredim-more-myopic-than-modern-Orthodox-and-secular-counterparts-559350

  43. @Will
    Do sailors have unusually good vision? There’s a whole lot of staring at the horizon when you’re at sea for months at a time. In Peter Benchley’s novel Jaws there’s an aside about how good Quint’s eyesight is after decades on the ocean. And I read something in a book I can’t recall about how British ships sailing in the Pacific in the 19th century used to take on native islanders as translators or liasons as they went from port to port. And the British sailors were dumbfounded at how acute the vision of the islanders were. One would point in one direction and say “ship.” The Brits would look, see nothing, then take out their spyglass and still see nothing and say “there’s nothing there.” And invariably a few minutes later a speck would appear on the horizon and pretty soon the ship was in sight. Not sure if there’s really anything to this or it’s just folk wisdom.

    “Do sailors have unusually good vision? There’s a whole lot of staring at the horizon when you’re at sea for months at a time.”

    Great question. From 2017…

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309365380_Visual_Search_Strategy_During_Regatta_Starts_in_a_Sailing_Simulation

    In a sport conditioned by natural elements such as sailing, visual perception is a key factor for the performance. The research has shown that the visual behaviour of athletes at different skill levels varies, which may cause differences in the performance achieved. The aim of this research was to examine the visual behaviour of sailors from different ranking positions at the start of a race in a simulated situation. Twenty junior sailors (N=10 top and N=10 bottom ranking) participated in the study. The visual behaviour was recorded at the start of a sailing simulation. The top-ranking sailors perform more visual fixations on the locations that have more highly relevant information, such as “tell-tales” and “rivals”, than do bottom-ranking sailors (p < 0.005). The top-ranking sailors are closer to the start line at the time of start signal. The analysis of the visual search strategy shows that top-ranking sailors employed a more active visual search strategy. More experience athletes can make better use of the information obtained from the important locations.

  44. @JohnnyWalker123
    Here's something interesting that happened recently.

    As everyone knows, a number of teen boys and men have accused Kevin Spacey of sexual misconduct or rape.

    Recently, Kevin Spacey made this video.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzYKGmpjeXA

    1 day after the video was made, one his accusers died by "suicide."

    3 of Kevin Spacey's accusers have died in the past year.

    https://twitter.com/vigilantfeed/status/1216845239673131010

    https://twitter.com/iheartmindy/status/1210251771068735489

    https://twitter.com/SkylerShuler/status/1210262827761405952

    “I’m telling you it’s Keyser Soze!”

  45. People, the entire cause of myopia is that the power (reciprocal focal length) of the eyelens is too great to work with the length (lens to retina) of the eyeball. The image of distant objects is formed forward of the retina. At nearer object distances, the relaxed eye forms the image at the retina. Thus, “nearsightedness.” No visual effort can offset myopia, because the squeezing of the sphincter muscle increases the power, which is necessary in varying degrees for objects closer than infinity (which, optically, is shorthand for about a hundred focal lengths, or more). The opposite refractive error, too little power for the eyeball length, is called hyperopia or farsightedness. It is much less common than myopia, but by no means rare. Hyperopia can, in principle, be offset by constant accommodative effort. Myself, I imagine I’d rather wear glasses. But then, like most people, I’m myopic, so I can’t say from experience.

    The other bit of bad news for us all is presbyopia, which is the loss of accommodation that quite predictably accompanies aging. It’s caused by both the weakening of the aging sphincter muscle and decreasing compliance of the eyeball. This, too, can in principle be mitigated by eyeball exercise, although I’ve never known anyone who claimed substantial success from this.

    If myopia is becoming more common in East Asia, or anywhere else, I’d guess it might have to do with more widespread (and more sensitive) vision screening, more willingness to do something about it (for most people, moderate myopia is something you can “get along with”), or maybe genetics: there might be some reason why the myopic are having relatively more children. After all, that’s close work, unless their bedrooms are really big!

    And yes, I am a (retired) optical engineer, who had professional reasons for knowing something about the mechanics of vision.

    • Replies: @grey
    myopia can be induced by the use of lenses. the length of the eyeball can change in response to stimuli. eg hyperoptic defocus and the aforementioned "lens induced myopia". this can be exploited in reverse to bring the focal length of the eyeball back to health.
  46. @Reg Cæsar
    I'm getting nearsighted just reading the names in this report:

    Pfc. Ali Al-kazahg, stationed at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, was arrested May 31 after being stopped by gate guards at Offutt Air Force Base near Omaha...

    Nedhal Al-kazahy, his younger sister, described her brother as protective of her and almost always upbeat — despite the tumult of them and four other siblings being put into foster care when the state declared their parents unfit to care for them....

    Al-kazahg, a native of Nebraska and the son of Iraqi refugees, was home on leave at the time of the arrest.

    https://www.stripes.com/news/us/marine-private-sentenced-to-three-years-after-attempting-to-bring-illegal-firearms-onto-offutt-afb-1.614843
     
    Must be refugees from the "first" Gulf War.

    Pfc. Ali Al-kazahg

    Maybe the journalist died while writing the story.

  47. @Dieter Kief
    Eh - aren't whites more into outdoor activities than blacks?

    Whites might prefer outdoor activities during the day while blacks may prefer performing outdoor activities at night.

  48. Richard Henry Dana’s father sent the lad on his famous voyage — after a year at Harvard IIRC — to ‘cure’ him of his myopia. Common believe at the time that peering into the distance, as one would have to do standing watch, was the cure for nearsightedness.

  49. Maybe the blue light from cell phones and computer screens is having an impact…

    One of my daughters is suffering early onset macular degeneration (early 40s) due to this I believe.

    She worked in a lot of banking and accounting in her early years and now has her own business but still spends 8-10 hours or so everyday on the computer and/or cell phone screens…

    Just my opinion, others, of course, will disagree.

  50. Why Near-Sightedness Is Growing

    I blame porn…there is also an increase in hairy palms.

  51. @Mr McKenna

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.
     
    I think there's a lot to that. When I was fairly young, I read (!) that it's a good idea to take regular breaks from close work and deliberately focus on objects in the distance. The advice stuck and maybe it's one reason my vision is still sharp in middle age. The only trouble was in an office where no distances were adequate for the purpose, with no windows nearby. It's probably also a bad idea to stare at computer graphics too much.

    My ophthalmologist recommends a 20-20-20 routine for those who work at a computer all day:

    Every 20 minutes look at something 20 feet away for 20 seconds.

    There’s more on it at https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321536.php, including a little supporting research.

  52. @Reg Cæsar
    Linda Culkin sounds even more deranged than Spacey.

    Culkin was a nursing assistant who was reportedly obsessed with Spacey and had threatened to kill the actor, according to prosecutors. She sent bomb threats to two of Spacey's workplaces and also sent threats to his coworkers and associates. Radar claims that her threats to Spacey and his team began after one of Culkin's patients told her about allegedly being attacked by Spacey.

    In 2014, Culkin was sentenced in 2014 to 51 months in prison, three years of probation and ordered to pay more than $125,000 in restitution after pleading guilty in federal court to sending threats to the mail and over the internet, sending threats and false information regarding explosives and sending threats about biological agents.

    https://popculture.com/trending/2019/05/02/kevin-spacey-accuser-found-dead-after-being-struck-by-vehicle/
     

    One of the other “3 dead accusers” is a guy who wrote very depressing books (his short story collection was entitled “Sad as Hell”) and was married to and recently divorced a Norwegian princess. His bombshell was Spacey groped him under a table at an awards dinner in 2007 when he was 34.

    • Replies: @YetAnotherAnon
    That's the princess who's eat-pray-loving with a black American "shaman". Maybe that's a more likely motive for suicide than Spacey grabbing his meat and two veg a dozen years before.

    Two of his daughters are Isadora and Tallulah. Never a good sign.
    , @Charon
    You know, there are actual occurrences of actual rape in nearly every society on earth. Jokers like this guy (and a long list of pseudo-feminists) aren't helping their cause. Or "weren't" helping, in his case.

    Japan seems to have rapes, even; though they appear to be limited to attacks by American Servicemen of Color. Can't imagine why them nips resent our presence..
    , @JohnnyWalker123
    Why did you place "3 dead accusers" in quotation marks?

    3 of his accusers really have died in the past year. The last death occurring right after Kevin Spacey made his video.

    Coincidence, I'm sure.

    Like Epstein's death.

    https://twitter.com/nypost/status/1217837860054806532
  53. On the bright side, people are probably getting cataracts and skin cancer less often by avoiding the sun as children.

  54. @Change that Matters
    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.

    I grew up on a remote farm in Australia. I can't recall more than a few children in primary school who wore glasses (back in the 60s and early 70s.).

    I now live in Northeast Asia, and rarely see the horizon (it's blocked by buildings). Everyone here wears glasses. And I think it's because nobody looks long distance.

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.

    I now live in Northeast Asia, and rarely see the horizon (it’s blocked by buildings). Everyone here wears glasses. And I think it’s because nobody looks long distance.

    Agree on looking at distance. But the buildings blocking the horizon aren’t the issue. There isn’t much work done by the eye between “infinity” and about 30 feet away.

    I just walked outside. Even with my old eyes, i can hold some sea grape (40ft) and the pink house across the canal (100+ yards) both in focus. As i walk toward the water looking at the house, the sea grape stays in focus at least through 30 feet. Maybe around 20ft i start to have to noticeably refocus between the two.

    So all you really need to do is keep looking up–out the window, or across a suitably large room.

    I think the problem is worse in Asia probably because of the smaller spaces. And worse with kids as they spend more time in their, smaller, bedrooms.

    Bottom line here: Same old advice: Don’t stare at the screen too long. Look up. Every 45 minutes or so, get up out of the chair and walk around–ideally outside or at least someplace you can look outside. Good for your eyes, good for your ass.

  55. I think it would have been a big problem living with poor eyesight before eyeglasses were available. If this story is on to something, maybe there weren’t that many people suffering with poor vision then.

  56. @Change that Matters
    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.

    I grew up on a remote farm in Australia. I can't recall more than a few children in primary school who wore glasses (back in the 60s and early 70s.).

    I now live in Northeast Asia, and rarely see the horizon (it's blocked by buildings). Everyone here wears glasses. And I think it's because nobody looks long distance.
    • Replies: @Coemgen
    I'm not clicking on any of the links but I am familiar with Mercola. Take everything you read/hear from Mercola with a grain-of-salt. He is trying to sell something...
  57. I remember once reading a story about Ted Williams, who was apparently mocked by some for his claim that he could see the stitches on the baseballs pitched to him until, upon induction into the Navy in WW2, he took an eye test that showed he had vision better than 1 in 100,000 people. The Navy made him a pilot, which, given his vision and reflexes, he was really, really good at. Williams grew up in sunny San Diego.

  58. Anon[150] • Disclaimer says:

    Something is wrong here. Classrooms are indoors, but typically well-lit. Flourescent lights do generate blue light the way the sun does, so there should be no difference there. Most classroom lighting is flourescent.

    Secondly, when I think back to my own learning years, much of it was watching the teacher lecture and draw on the blackboard. This is medium-distance viewing, not short distance. I started getting near-sighted in 1st grade, but didn’t develop into an enthusiastic reader of books until about 5 years later. Most school kids do not have the habit of reading for pleasure.

    Nor do teachers overstrain your eyes with much close-up reading. Most of what you get is in the form of a lecture. I can count all the full-length books I was assigned to read, from kindergarden to the last year of high school, on the fingers of one hand. The Tale of Two Cities, e.g.

    Thirdly, most of the work women do, whether third-world or first-world, has ALWAYS been close-up work. When you sew clothes or cook or make handicrafts, your viewing distance rarely is farther from your eyes to your lap. When you read with a book sitting on your lap, the distance is the same.

    However, first-world eyes began to go bad en masse when we switched from grass-fed meat to feedlot meat, and began to use margarine instead of butter. The modern third-world diet has also deteriorated, and many countries use godawful artificial fat substitutes, and many third worlders are reliant on plant foods and don’t get enough high quality meat fat with natural vitamins in their diet.

    Eyes appear to be a lot more sensitive to diet than anyone realizes.

    • Troll: ScarletNumber
  59. Some randomly selected ball players, with hometowns, PA, hits, and K’s for seasons early in career.

    Yogi Berra St. Louis. 656 192 12

    Rocky Colavito NYC. 664 151 86

    Al Kaline Baltimore 636 170 38

    Vada Pinson Oakland 660 208 63

    Tony Olivia Cuba 677 191 72

    Jack Clark L.A. 657 181 72

    Mike Hargrove TX 648 160 59

    Robin Yount L.A. 663 174 80

    Don Mattingly OH 742 238 35

    Mike Trout NJ 705 173 184

  60. Anon[286] • Disclaimer says:
    @Hypnotoad666

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.
     
    Clearly it has to be the modern environment of indoor close work that is triggering all this myopia. If our caveman ancestors were this nearsighted they would have starved to death in short order. It's kind of hard to hunt or gather when you can't see sh*t.

    Once upon a time there was an idea going around that you could avoid myopia and strengthen your eyes by doing exercises in which you switched back and forth between close and distant focal points.

    I wonder if that was ever tested scientifically, or turned out to have any merit.

    Once upon a time there was an idea going around that you could avoid myopia and strengthen your eyes by doing exercises in which you switched back and forth between close and distant focal points.

    The problem with stuff like this is that people only start doing it after they are already having problems with their eyesight, which is presumably too late, even if there were some truth to it.

  61. @Lot
    One of the other “3 dead accusers” is a guy who wrote very depressing books (his short story collection was entitled “Sad as Hell”) and was married to and recently divorced a Norwegian princess. His bombshell was Spacey groped him under a table at an awards dinner in 2007 when he was 34.

    That’s the princess who’s eat-pray-loving with a black American “shaman”. Maybe that’s a more likely motive for suicide than Spacey grabbing his meat and two veg a dozen years before.

    Two of his daughters are Isadora and Tallulah. Never a good sign.

  62. anon[960] • Disclaimer says:

    There is supposed to be a connection from the optic nerve to the pineal gland, which is why light of higher frequency shuts down the production of melatonin. Full spectrum sunlight or blue light from screens. I’m very skeptical of looking at the sun, but exposing the face to the sun with closed eyelids for 20 to 30 seconds wakes me up; perhaps it’s shutting off melatonin.

    Baseball player vision is special, but…
    Did Ted Williams really see the seams on the ball?

    https://www.esquire.com/sports/news/a23050/ted-williams-seams/

  63. @South Texas Guy
    The Conan author, Robert Howard, blamed his own bad eyesight on his voracious reading habits.

    In low light, I wear 1 to 1.5 cheaters. I'm the last one in my family to not need to use glasses most of the time. Anyway, I truly believe there is something to the 'too much reading in dim light' hypothosis.

    Can’t he just be “Robert Howard?” I reckon he is famous enough. Folks don’t typically write “H.P. Lovecraft, the Cthulu author,” or “Edgar Rice Burroughs, the Tarzan author,” after all. (Or do they? I’ve not noticed such a phenomenon. I intentionally choose as examples peers of comparable ability and fame in an effort to compare apples to apples; if I’d cited the silliness of writing, say, “William Shakespeare, the Hamlet author” or “Charles Dickens, the David Copperfield author” one might rightly point out the greater fame of those two latter men).

    I’m not impugning you. I just notice whenever anyone commenting at The Unz Review mentions Robert Howard, they seem to feel compelled to point out that he created Conan, in a way they do not point out the famous characters of any other author. It’s a curious phenomenon to me. Do those doing it all find their social acquaintances ignorant of Mr. Howard and his work? Is my own social circle anomalous for mostly being aware of him? (Anyway, if we’re to carry on that way, can we at least mix it up? Maybe once in awhile Mr. Howard can be “the Solomon Kane author” or “the Kull author….”

    • Replies: @obwandiyag
    Robert Howard's name is common and nondescript. Like John Smith or something. It could be confused with any number of other names and people. Therefore it needs elucidation.

    On the other hand, who in the world is going to confuse the name H.P. Lovecraft with anybody else.
    , @South Texas Guy

    Can’t he just be “Robert Howard?”
     
    Point taken, but genre authors are still genre authors. Without mentioning 'Conan' I doubt even most readers would know who Howard is. Out side of the fan base, Lovecraft is practically unknown, and Clark Ashton Smith faded out of sight decades ago.

    That being said, Howard is probably my first or second favorite author. He built a writing career out of sheer force of will. If you're a Howard fan, check out the autobiography of Novalyne Pryce or the movie based on the book, 'The Whole Wide World.'
    , @J.Ross
    David X. Cohen, co-creator and primary writer for Futurama and a writer for the Simpsons, added the X because show business writers are registered in a guild and cannot publicly use the exact same name to prevent authorship confusion. Pulp writers in the twenties wouldn't have the same rule but they would have the same concern.
    , @ScarletNumber
    Methinks thou doth protest too much.

    Wikipedia lists 24 Robert Howards, so it makes sense to specify which one is meant. I never heard of any of them, and creating Conan the Barbarian does not make one notable in 2020, as Conan generally refers to the talk-show host.
    , @duncsbaby
    I would add that the author of Conan is known as Robert E. Howard & rarely is referred to as just plain old Robert Howard. Although he did have some of his friends call him Two-Fisted Bob.
  64. Anonymous[277] • Disclaimer says:
    @Tono Bungay
    I wasted a lot of time on a similar recommendation when I was young. "See Without Glasses" and other books promoted the Bates method of exercise to overcome myopia. Didn't work for me, and I bet your suggestion won't work either.

    That’s not the Bates method. The Bates method and other old school methods involved bizarre exercises like “sunning”, or trying to look directly at the sun.

    The “print pushing” method described by Todd Becker is different from Bates and these other old fashioned snake oil style methods. Moreover, while the actual practice of “print pushing” is simple and easy, it’s not some immediate cure. It takes months and years, depending on how bad the myopia is, of using the method while engaging in extended reading. Just as myopia takes years to develop, it generally takes years of “print pushing” to reverse the myopia. A lot of people don’t bother sticking with it because of the inconvenience and time. On the other hand, people with bad myopia tend to be heavy readers who engage in extended reading daily or frequently already, so it’s relatively easy for them to incorporate “print pushing” in their reading habit. And kids and young people who are just starting school or becoming heavy readers should be taught to use reading glasses whenever reading to prevent myopia from developing in the first place. Reading glasses move images further away, so the book that’s physically 1 ft. away from your face is to your eyes an image further away than 1 ft. when you’re wearing reading glasses. The stronger the reading glasses prescription, there further it pushes images away.

    See Todd Becker’s presentation and video here:

    https://gettingstronger.org/2014/08/myopia-a-modern-yet-reversible-disease/

    • Replies: @JMcG
    My niece did this successfully under her doctor’s supervision. It took her about three years, starting from age 8 or so.
  65. @Lot
    One of the other “3 dead accusers” is a guy who wrote very depressing books (his short story collection was entitled “Sad as Hell”) and was married to and recently divorced a Norwegian princess. His bombshell was Spacey groped him under a table at an awards dinner in 2007 when he was 34.

    You know, there are actual occurrences of actual rape in nearly every society on earth. Jokers like this guy (and a long list of pseudo-feminists) aren’t helping their cause. Or “weren’t” helping, in his case.

    Japan seems to have rapes, even; though they appear to be limited to attacks by American Servicemen of Color. Can’t imagine why them nips resent our presence..

  66. Wow, 20-9 is near the theoretical limit for human vision. I was studying the theory behind how high the resolution can be on displays before increases are no longer visible,(4K, 8K etc.).
    There is a surprisingly large (3:1) range among individuals in the density of the receptor cells in the fovea of the human retina where all the precise seeing occurs. The density ranges from 100,000 cells per square mm to over 300,000. People with 20/20 vision can resolve one arc-minute. People with the highest possible density and perfect eyeball optics would have a resolution of 21 arc-seconds or about 20/7 vision.

    These studies on the cause of myopia seem to blow up one my favorite crackpot hypotheses I have seen on the cause. That was that myopia has a reproductive selection advantage. Men who are near-sighted don’t go out on hunting parties. As a result they aren’t out there getting killed by rampaging aurochs or wooly mammoths like the sharp eyed men, and instead become arrowhead chippers or shamans and spend their days back at the village or cave with lots of access to the womenfolk.

    • Replies: @Rob
    Myopia is correlated with IQ, so that could be why it’s so common in more intelligent populations.
    , @danand

    "There is a surprisingly large (3:1) range among individuals in the density of the receptor cells in the fovea of the human retina where all the precise seeing occurs. The density ranges from 100,000 cells per square mm to over 300,000. People with 20/20 vision can resolve one arc-minute. People with the highest possible density and perfect eyeball optics would have a resolution of 21 arc-seconds or about 20/7 vision."
     
    Alfa158, looks like you have hit it on the head, or the ball with the bat, as it were. People are born with a fixed number of receptor cells in the fovea (genetics). Perfect eyeball optics (which can be corrected via prosthetics including good old spectacles, contact lens, etc.., or surgery) are not sufficient. You've got to be born with a major league fovea count, to take it all in; visually at least.

    Individuals with 20/20 vision cannot see pixels smaller than 60 arc seconds. In order to resolve a pixel the size of 31.5 an individual would need 20/7.1 vision.

    Even though we may have great focus, most of us are High Definition, if were lucky; the few are 8K.

    Chuck Yeager mentions in this piece that eyesight was the maker/breaker of the premiere fighter pilot (@ the 11 minute mark)

    https://youtu.be/Yh_mKBVzpA8
  67. @Autochthon
    Can't he just be "Robert Howard?" I reckon he is famous enough. Folks don't typically write "H.P. Lovecraft, the Cthulu author," or "Edgar Rice Burroughs, the Tarzan author," after all. (Or do they? I've not noticed such a phenomenon. I intentionally choose as examples peers of comparable ability and fame in an effort to compare apples to apples; if I'd cited the silliness of writing, say, "William Shakespeare, the Hamlet author" or "Charles Dickens, the David Copperfield author" one might rightly point out the greater fame of those two latter men).

    I'm not impugning you. I just notice whenever anyone commenting at The Unz Review mentions Robert Howard, they seem to feel compelled to point out that he created Conan, in a way they do not point out the famous characters of any other author. It's a curious phenomenon to me. Do those doing it all find their social acquaintances ignorant of Mr. Howard and his work? Is my own social circle anomalous for mostly being aware of him? (Anyway, if we're to carry on that way, can we at least mix it up? Maybe once in awhile Mr. Howard can be "the Solomon Kane author" or "the Kull author...."

    Robert Howard’s name is common and nondescript. Like John Smith or something. It could be confused with any number of other names and people. Therefore it needs elucidation.

    On the other hand, who in the world is going to confuse the name H.P. Lovecraft with anybody else.

    • Replies: @res
    Agreed. One possible elucidation is to just include the middle initial.
    Robert E. Howard
  68. @Alfa158
    Wow, 20-9 is near the theoretical limit for human vision. I was studying the theory behind how high the resolution can be on displays before increases are no longer visible,(4K, 8K etc.).
    There is a surprisingly large (3:1) range among individuals in the density of the receptor cells in the fovea of the human retina where all the precise seeing occurs. The density ranges from 100,000 cells per square mm to over 300,000. People with 20/20 vision can resolve one arc-minute. People with the highest possible density and perfect eyeball optics would have a resolution of 21 arc-seconds or about 20/7 vision.

    These studies on the cause of myopia seem to blow up one my favorite crackpot hypotheses I have seen on the cause. That was that myopia has a reproductive selection advantage. Men who are near-sighted don't go out on hunting parties. As a result they aren't out there getting killed by rampaging aurochs or wooly mammoths like the sharp eyed men, and instead become arrowhead chippers or shamans and spend their days back at the village or cave with lots of access to the womenfolk.

    Myopia is correlated with IQ, so that could be why it’s so common in more intelligent populations.

  69. @HeapBigHunter
    Another example: Brigadier General Chuck Yeager, West Virginia farm boy with 20/10 vision. His autobiography recounts that he hunted squirrels from an early age.

    I had 20/10 when I was young and my son currently sports 20/10. Both of us hunted from an early age. I think that’s enough data points to publish!

  70. @Rob
    I wonder if this is part of the positive selection for light eyes at high latitudes in Europe. Lighter eyes let in more light, which, if the light-vision connection is real, would give lighter-eyed people slightly better vision if they grow up in fairly dim areas.

    How can that be? Isn’t it the pupil that controls the amount of light entering the eye? Why would iris color matter?

    • Replies: @Rob
    People with lighter eyes are more sensitive to light. I assume a bit of light leaks through the iris, but I don’t actually know.
  71. @Anonymous
    That's not the Bates method. The Bates method and other old school methods involved bizarre exercises like "sunning", or trying to look directly at the sun.

    The "print pushing" method described by Todd Becker is different from Bates and these other old fashioned snake oil style methods. Moreover, while the actual practice of "print pushing" is simple and easy, it's not some immediate cure. It takes months and years, depending on how bad the myopia is, of using the method while engaging in extended reading. Just as myopia takes years to develop, it generally takes years of "print pushing" to reverse the myopia. A lot of people don't bother sticking with it because of the inconvenience and time. On the other hand, people with bad myopia tend to be heavy readers who engage in extended reading daily or frequently already, so it's relatively easy for them to incorporate "print pushing" in their reading habit. And kids and young people who are just starting school or becoming heavy readers should be taught to use reading glasses whenever reading to prevent myopia from developing in the first place. Reading glasses move images further away, so the book that's physically 1 ft. away from your face is to your eyes an image further away than 1 ft. when you're wearing reading glasses. The stronger the reading glasses prescription, there further it pushes images away.

    See Todd Becker's presentation and video here:

    https://gettingstronger.org/2014/08/myopia-a-modern-yet-reversible-disease/

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5Efg42-Qn0

    My niece did this successfully under her doctor’s supervision. It took her about three years, starting from age 8 or so.

    • Replies: @res
    Could you please elaborate? Did she just wear glasses for reading, or did she wear them for other inside or close work (e.g. school) as well?

    Did the doctor suggest this or just supervise? If not, who did?
  72. anon[397] • Disclaimer says:
    @Coemgen
    It's very likely that the increase in myopia is due to toddlers spending too little time outside. There's a window of opportunity for eye-related brain development similar to there being a window of opportunity for ear-related brain development (i.e., no-one develops absolute pitch after age six or so).

    This has been demonstrated in animals.

    If the eye is stimulated enough before a certain age, vision will be normal. If the eyes are not exposed to light by a certain age, vision related brain development will not occur and the animal will be permanently blind. It's likely that "not enough" exposure to sunlight by a certain age will lead to underdeveloped eye-brain development and vision loss.

    We do not know what age this is in humans but toddlers should spend a lot of time in sunlight to ensure proper eye-related brain development.

    We do not know what age this is in humans but toddlers should spend a lot of time in sunlight to ensure proper eye-related brain development.

    Myopia has more to do with the actual shape of the eyeball than with brain perception.
    The optics engineer up thread has a clear explanation of this.

    It is possible that the physical shape of the eyeball is affected by patterns of use in the toddler years, but I do not know of any research in that area.

    • Replies: @Coemgen
    We shouldn't assume that a physical limitation cannot be offset by "software."

    Occam's Razor: Toddlers are inside playing on the iPad instead of outside finding their way around the world - especially in ultra-urbanized China.
  73. read many years ago of sailors stranded on islands during the war whose vision improved while away from civilization. When rescued their vision returned to pre war poor after a few weeks of reading to “catch up”

  74. @Autochthon
    Can't he just be "Robert Howard?" I reckon he is famous enough. Folks don't typically write "H.P. Lovecraft, the Cthulu author," or "Edgar Rice Burroughs, the Tarzan author," after all. (Or do they? I've not noticed such a phenomenon. I intentionally choose as examples peers of comparable ability and fame in an effort to compare apples to apples; if I'd cited the silliness of writing, say, "William Shakespeare, the Hamlet author" or "Charles Dickens, the David Copperfield author" one might rightly point out the greater fame of those two latter men).

    I'm not impugning you. I just notice whenever anyone commenting at The Unz Review mentions Robert Howard, they seem to feel compelled to point out that he created Conan, in a way they do not point out the famous characters of any other author. It's a curious phenomenon to me. Do those doing it all find their social acquaintances ignorant of Mr. Howard and his work? Is my own social circle anomalous for mostly being aware of him? (Anyway, if we're to carry on that way, can we at least mix it up? Maybe once in awhile Mr. Howard can be "the Solomon Kane author" or "the Kull author...."

    Can’t he just be “Robert Howard?”

    Point taken, but genre authors are still genre authors. Without mentioning ‘Conan’ I doubt even most readers would know who Howard is. Out side of the fan base, Lovecraft is practically unknown, and Clark Ashton Smith faded out of sight decades ago.

    That being said, Howard is probably my first or second favorite author. He built a writing career out of sheer force of will. If you’re a Howard fan, check out the autobiography of Novalyne Pryce or the movie based on the book, ‘The Whole Wide World.’

  75. My impression is that soibois wear glasses at a vastly higher rate than the general population. Perhaps a result of being weak, dorky, and staying indoors more as children?

  76. @Bard of Bumperstickers
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/11/07/nearsightedness.aspx
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/12/19/sunlight-reduce-risk-nearsightedness.aspx
    https://www.lewrockwell.com/2014/07/joseph-mercola/can-you-retrain-your-eyes/
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2019/11/06/blue-light-accelerates-aging.aspx
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2018/08/29/blue-light-blindness-study.aspx
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/09/19/foods-improve-vision.aspx
    https://www.google.com/search?q=eye+exercises+mercola&oq=eye+exercises+mercola&aqs=chrome..69i57j0.4655j0j8&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
    There's a lot more out there on the series of tubes with search terms about sunlight and blue screens and nutrients and eye exercises. Who'd'a thunk our eyes were designed to thrive in nature? Crazy, innit?

    I’m not clicking on any of the links but I am familiar with Mercola. Take everything you read/hear from Mercola with a grain-of-salt. He is trying to sell something…

  77. It seems to me that the most likely cause is too much focusing on close objects, like books or tablets. If so, then it ought to be possible to ameliorate this by giving reading glasses (eg, +1.00) to kids.

    I did not know that the English say “short-sighted” instead of “near-sighted”.

  78. @Lot
    One of the other “3 dead accusers” is a guy who wrote very depressing books (his short story collection was entitled “Sad as Hell”) and was married to and recently divorced a Norwegian princess. His bombshell was Spacey groped him under a table at an awards dinner in 2007 when he was 34.

    Why did you place “3 dead accusers” in quotation marks?

    3 of his accusers really have died in the past year. The last death occurring right after Kevin Spacey made his video.

    Coincidence, I’m sure.

    Like Epstein’s death.

    • Replies: @Lot
    Kaus thinks he was killed by “an ethnic gang that runs the prison.” I lack the energy to care, good outcome however it happened.
  79. @Harpo of Wolli Creek
    Might be diet related. In my mid thirties I was tested here in New South Wales when I renewed my drivers licence and I was told that I must wear glasses when driving. Every five years after that through my forties and fifties my eyesight was tested and the stipulation that I wear glasses remained. In my mid fifties I started eating mostly paleo and cut way back on carbohydrates. When I did my most recent test at the age of sixty, my eyesight was much improved and I am no longer required to wear glasses when driving.

    diet and sunlight – bilberry and other supplements help some people

    Looking into the sun with your eyes closed is a traditional folk cure for bad vision – one of the techniques of the Bates method

  80. @Reg Cæsar
    Linda Culkin sounds even more deranged than Spacey.

    Culkin was a nursing assistant who was reportedly obsessed with Spacey and had threatened to kill the actor, according to prosecutors. She sent bomb threats to two of Spacey's workplaces and also sent threats to his coworkers and associates. Radar claims that her threats to Spacey and his team began after one of Culkin's patients told her about allegedly being attacked by Spacey.

    In 2014, Culkin was sentenced in 2014 to 51 months in prison, three years of probation and ordered to pay more than $125,000 in restitution after pleading guilty in federal court to sending threats to the mail and over the internet, sending threats and false information regarding explosives and sending threats about biological agents.

    https://popculture.com/trending/2019/05/02/kevin-spacey-accuser-found-dead-after-being-struck-by-vehicle/
     

    I’m not sure why you would label Culkin as “deranged.”

    See quote from your article.

    Radar claims that her threats to Spacey and his team began after one of Culkin’s patients told her about allegedly being attacked by Spacey.

    We know that Kevin Spacey has been accused of molestation by a lot of people. So it’s likely that one of his patients experienced significant sexual abuse from Spacey.

    Threatening to kill a sexual abuser hardly constitutes “deranged” behavior.

    Now, apparently, this individual who was angry at Spacey is now dead.

    • Replies: @Roger
    Desiring revenge is not deranged. Threatening to kill is deranged.
    , @Reg Cæsar

    I’m not sure why you would label Culkin as “deranged.”
     
    In many cases, the victims are deranged-- it's why they were chosen in the first place. (A fun fictional twist on this phenomenon is James Thurber's "The Catbird Seat".)

    But Linda Culkin wasn't even his victim, just an acquaintance of one.

    Someone else on this forum chewed me out for suggesting concealed carry for potential targets of a Harvey Weinstein. I never suggested pulling the trigger, or even brandishing the weapon. (Unless Harv brandished his.) This chick went way beyond that.

    There are legal means, and some fun ones, for a Linda Culkin to address a Kevin Spacey.

    Incidentally, what was the sex of "one of her patients"? And is her behavior within the scope of the Hippocratic Oath? She knowingly violated the law, and they made a federal case of it. Literally.
  81. @Autochthon
    Can't he just be "Robert Howard?" I reckon he is famous enough. Folks don't typically write "H.P. Lovecraft, the Cthulu author," or "Edgar Rice Burroughs, the Tarzan author," after all. (Or do they? I've not noticed such a phenomenon. I intentionally choose as examples peers of comparable ability and fame in an effort to compare apples to apples; if I'd cited the silliness of writing, say, "William Shakespeare, the Hamlet author" or "Charles Dickens, the David Copperfield author" one might rightly point out the greater fame of those two latter men).

    I'm not impugning you. I just notice whenever anyone commenting at The Unz Review mentions Robert Howard, they seem to feel compelled to point out that he created Conan, in a way they do not point out the famous characters of any other author. It's a curious phenomenon to me. Do those doing it all find their social acquaintances ignorant of Mr. Howard and his work? Is my own social circle anomalous for mostly being aware of him? (Anyway, if we're to carry on that way, can we at least mix it up? Maybe once in awhile Mr. Howard can be "the Solomon Kane author" or "the Kull author...."

    David X. Cohen, co-creator and primary writer for Futurama and a writer for the Simpsons, added the X because show business writers are registered in a guild and cannot publicly use the exact same name to prevent authorship confusion. Pulp writers in the twenties wouldn’t have the same rule but they would have the same concern.

    • Replies: @ScarletNumber
    Well he added the X in an attempt to be mysterious, as his actual middle initial is S, which he used on The Simpsons.
  82. He was the best high school player in New Jersey, but how good are New Jersey high school players?

    Historically speaking, not very. The only one who is in the Hall of Fame that I can think of is Larry Doby, and he was put there by the Veterans Committee, not the writers. With the writers he topped out at 3.4 % in 1967. Doby is famous for breaking the color barrier in the American League.

    Orel Hershiser had a solid career, but not close to HOF standards, topping out at 11.2 % on his first ballot.

    Johnny Vander Meer is probably the most famous player to come out of New Jersey because of his no-hitter record. He topped out at 29.8 % for the HOF.

    • Replies: @kaganovitch
    Goose Goslin, Sliding Billy Hamilton,and Ducky Joe Medwick were all born in Joisey and HOFs.
  83. Bill James said that Rogers Hornsby famously didn’t read or watch movies in fear of hurting his eyesight.

  84. @JohnnyWalker123
    I'm not sure why you would label Culkin as "deranged."

    See quote from your article.

    Radar claims that her threats to Spacey and his team began after one of Culkin’s patients told her about allegedly being attacked by Spacey.
     
    We know that Kevin Spacey has been accused of molestation by a lot of people. So it's likely that one of his patients experienced significant sexual abuse from Spacey.

    Threatening to kill a sexual abuser hardly constitutes "deranged" behavior.

    Now, apparently, this individual who was angry at Spacey is now dead.

    Desiring revenge is not deranged. Threatening to kill is deranged.

  85. While we’re on a subject related to baseball, it seems apposite to mention that the Astros’ sign-stealing saga has moved on up to another level.

    It’s now being reported that some of the Astros’ big stars have been wearing electronic buzzers on their torsos used to signal to them what kind of pitch was coming. See the following twitter thread:

    • Replies: @Autochthon
    https://youtu.be/jlzEjXu6QGQ

    https://youtu.be/p0UxTe76Vmk
  86. @JohnnyWalker123
    I'm not sure why you would label Culkin as "deranged."

    See quote from your article.

    Radar claims that her threats to Spacey and his team began after one of Culkin’s patients told her about allegedly being attacked by Spacey.
     
    We know that Kevin Spacey has been accused of molestation by a lot of people. So it's likely that one of his patients experienced significant sexual abuse from Spacey.

    Threatening to kill a sexual abuser hardly constitutes "deranged" behavior.

    Now, apparently, this individual who was angry at Spacey is now dead.

    I’m not sure why you would label Culkin as “deranged.”

    In many cases, the victims are deranged– it’s why they were chosen in the first place. (A fun fictional twist on this phenomenon is James Thurber’s “The Catbird Seat”.)

    But Linda Culkin wasn’t even his victim, just an acquaintance of one.

    Someone else on this forum chewed me out for suggesting concealed carry for potential targets of a Harvey Weinstein. I never suggested pulling the trigger, or even brandishing the weapon. (Unless Harv brandished his.) This chick went way beyond that.

    There are legal means, and some fun ones, for a Linda Culkin to address a Kevin Spacey.

    Incidentally, what was the sex of “one of her patients”? And is her behavior within the scope of the Hippocratic Oath? She knowingly violated the law, and they made a federal case of it. Literally.

  87. They are challenging old ideas that myopia is the domain of the bookish child and are instead coalescing around a new notion: that spending too long indoors is placing children at risk. …

    My father had a children’s book on health, written in the 1940’s, that said the same thing. It advocated plenty of outside activity for good eyes.

  88. @Bill P
    I have been a compulsive reader from about the age of seven on, and my eyesight isn't bad (although now in my 40s it ain't what it used to be). Maybe that's because my parents made me play a sport every season of the year and thereby kept me outside a lot.

    The Inuit are an interesting group to study, because they traditionally kept their kids inside for about half the year. So it may be that if kids get enough outdoor time in the summer that's enough to prevent myopia.

    As for baseball and vision, the best I ever saw in my life was when I was pitching a game as a teenager. I threw a fastball and the batter nailed it for a line drive headed directly toward my face. I don't know how it happened, but suddenly everything slowed down and I could clearly see every stitch on the ball and its rotation (slow, clockwise, near-vertical axis) as it rocketed toward me. Because of this really weird distortion of time and heightened focus, I was able to get my glove up and shield my face in time to prevent what would otherwise have been a very painful reckoning. Keep in mind that this isn't easy to coordinate when you are off balance after following through on a pitch.

    If I had been able to conjure up that ability every time I stepped up to bat, I could have hit the ball when and where I wanted (against high school pitchers at least). I think top level MLB hitters can see about that well normally, and that's really amazing to me.

    I’ve read that WW2 fighter pilots, in the stress of dogfights, would experience a form of telescopic vision trying to identify friend from foe. The national insignias of the plane they were looking at would take up their entire field of vision.

    • Replies: @Bill P
    I believe it. People can come up with incredible abilities when facing death.
  89. @J.Ross
    David X. Cohen, co-creator and primary writer for Futurama and a writer for the Simpsons, added the X because show business writers are registered in a guild and cannot publicly use the exact same name to prevent authorship confusion. Pulp writers in the twenties wouldn't have the same rule but they would have the same concern.

    Well he added the X in an attempt to be mysterious, as his actual middle initial is S, which he used on The Simpsons.

    • Replies: @J.Ross
    Right, the writer's guild told him there was already a David S. Cohen at the level ("created by"?) he wanted.
  90. @Autochthon
    Can't he just be "Robert Howard?" I reckon he is famous enough. Folks don't typically write "H.P. Lovecraft, the Cthulu author," or "Edgar Rice Burroughs, the Tarzan author," after all. (Or do they? I've not noticed such a phenomenon. I intentionally choose as examples peers of comparable ability and fame in an effort to compare apples to apples; if I'd cited the silliness of writing, say, "William Shakespeare, the Hamlet author" or "Charles Dickens, the David Copperfield author" one might rightly point out the greater fame of those two latter men).

    I'm not impugning you. I just notice whenever anyone commenting at The Unz Review mentions Robert Howard, they seem to feel compelled to point out that he created Conan, in a way they do not point out the famous characters of any other author. It's a curious phenomenon to me. Do those doing it all find their social acquaintances ignorant of Mr. Howard and his work? Is my own social circle anomalous for mostly being aware of him? (Anyway, if we're to carry on that way, can we at least mix it up? Maybe once in awhile Mr. Howard can be "the Solomon Kane author" or "the Kull author...."

    Methinks thou doth protest too much.

    Wikipedia lists 24 Robert Howards, so it makes sense to specify which one is meant. I never heard of any of them, and creating Conan the Barbarian does not make one notable in 2020, as Conan generally refers to the talk-show host.

  91. @ScarletNumber
    Well he added the X in an attempt to be mysterious, as his actual middle initial is S, which he used on The Simpsons.

    Right, the writer’s guild told him there was already a David S. Cohen at the level (“created by”?) he wanted.

  92. @The Last Real Calvinist
    While we're on a subject related to baseball, it seems apposite to mention that the Astros' sign-stealing saga has moved on up to another level.

    It's now being reported that some of the Astros' big stars have been wearing electronic buzzers on their torsos used to signal to them what kind of pitch was coming. See the following twitter thread:

    https://twitter.com/NYYDJ2/status/1217196077927084043

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
    Thanks.
  93. @Autochthon
    https://youtu.be/jlzEjXu6QGQ

    https://youtu.be/p0UxTe76Vmk

    Thanks.

  94. @anon
    We do not know what age this is in humans but toddlers should spend a lot of time in sunlight to ensure proper eye-related brain development.

    Myopia has more to do with the actual shape of the eyeball than with brain perception.
    The optics engineer up thread has a clear explanation of this.

    It is possible that the physical shape of the eyeball is affected by patterns of use in the toddler years, but I do not know of any research in that area.

    We shouldn’t assume that a physical limitation cannot be offset by “software.”

    Occam’s Razor: Toddlers are inside playing on the iPad instead of outside finding their way around the world – especially in ultra-urbanized China.

  95. @Alfa158
    Wow, 20-9 is near the theoretical limit for human vision. I was studying the theory behind how high the resolution can be on displays before increases are no longer visible,(4K, 8K etc.).
    There is a surprisingly large (3:1) range among individuals in the density of the receptor cells in the fovea of the human retina where all the precise seeing occurs. The density ranges from 100,000 cells per square mm to over 300,000. People with 20/20 vision can resolve one arc-minute. People with the highest possible density and perfect eyeball optics would have a resolution of 21 arc-seconds or about 20/7 vision.

    These studies on the cause of myopia seem to blow up one my favorite crackpot hypotheses I have seen on the cause. That was that myopia has a reproductive selection advantage. Men who are near-sighted don't go out on hunting parties. As a result they aren't out there getting killed by rampaging aurochs or wooly mammoths like the sharp eyed men, and instead become arrowhead chippers or shamans and spend their days back at the village or cave with lots of access to the womenfolk.

    “There is a surprisingly large (3:1) range among individuals in the density of the receptor cells in the fovea of the human retina where all the precise seeing occurs. The density ranges from 100,000 cells per square mm to over 300,000. People with 20/20 vision can resolve one arc-minute. People with the highest possible density and perfect eyeball optics would have a resolution of 21 arc-seconds or about 20/7 vision.”

    Alfa158, looks like you have hit it on the head, or the ball with the bat, as it were. People are born with a fixed number of receptor cells in the fovea (genetics). Perfect eyeball optics (which can be corrected via prosthetics including good old spectacles, contact lens, etc.., or surgery) are not sufficient. You’ve got to be born with a major league fovea count, to take it all in; visually at least.

    Individuals with 20/20 vision cannot see pixels smaller than 60 arc seconds. In order to resolve a pixel the size of 31.5 an individual would need 20/7.1 vision.

    Even though we may have great focus, most of us are High Definition, if were lucky; the few are 8K.

    Chuck Yeager mentions in this piece that eyesight was the maker/breaker of the premiere fighter pilot (@ the 11 minute mark)

    • Replies: @Charon
    The times they are a-changing...

    https://www.cnet.com/news/a-single-contact-lens-could-give-your-entire-life-a-head-up-display/
  96. @Hypnotoad666

    My own theory is your eyes are better if you often look as far as the horizon.
     
    Clearly it has to be the modern environment of indoor close work that is triggering all this myopia. If our caveman ancestors were this nearsighted they would have starved to death in short order. It's kind of hard to hunt or gather when you can't see sh*t.

    Once upon a time there was an idea going around that you could avoid myopia and strengthen your eyes by doing exercises in which you switched back and forth between close and distant focal points.

    I wonder if that was ever tested scientifically, or turned out to have any merit.

    My Dad has a book about eye exercises to prevent near and far sightedness. I don’t think it worked.

  97. @Paul Mendez
    I’ve read that WW2 fighter pilots, in the stress of dogfights, would experience a form of telescopic vision trying to identify friend from foe. The national insignias of the plane they were looking at would take up their entire field of vision.

    I believe it. People can come up with incredible abilities when facing death.

  98. @ScarletNumber

    He was the best high school player in New Jersey, but how good are New Jersey high school players?
     
    Historically speaking, not very. The only one who is in the Hall of Fame that I can think of is Larry Doby, and he was put there by the Veterans Committee, not the writers. With the writers he topped out at 3.4 % in 1967. Doby is famous for breaking the color barrier in the American League.

    Orel Hershiser had a solid career, but not close to HOF standards, topping out at 11.2 % on his first ballot.

    Johnny Vander Meer is probably the most famous player to come out of New Jersey because of his no-hitter record. He topped out at 29.8 % for the HOF.

    Goose Goslin, Sliding Billy Hamilton,and Ducky Joe Medwick were all born in Joisey and HOFs.

    • Replies: @ScarletNumber
    Goslin turned pro while he was still of high-school age and Hamilton didn't grow up in New Jersey.

    I will give you Ducky, though. He was the pride of Carteret High School and he was elected to the HOF by the writers. So, until Trout finishes up his career, I would say he was the greatest player to come out of New Jersey high school baseball.
  99. @Harpo of Wolli Creek
    Might be diet related. In my mid thirties I was tested here in New South Wales when I renewed my drivers licence and I was told that I must wear glasses when driving. Every five years after that through my forties and fifties my eyesight was tested and the stipulation that I wear glasses remained. In my mid fifties I started eating mostly paleo and cut way back on carbohydrates. When I did my most recent test at the age of sixty, my eyesight was much improved and I am no longer required to wear glasses when driving.

    I think there’s something to that. I was starting to need reading glasses for the last 5 years for computer and book usage. After a few months of intermittent fasting and getting down to my college weight I don’t need them any more. My readers just sit on my desk unused.

  100. @kaganovitch
    Goose Goslin, Sliding Billy Hamilton,and Ducky Joe Medwick were all born in Joisey and HOFs.

    Goslin turned pro while he was still of high-school age and Hamilton didn’t grow up in New Jersey.

    I will give you Ducky, though. He was the pride of Carteret High School and he was elected to the HOF by the writers. So, until Trout finishes up his career, I would say he was the greatest player to come out of New Jersey high school baseball.

  101. @Autochthon
    Can't he just be "Robert Howard?" I reckon he is famous enough. Folks don't typically write "H.P. Lovecraft, the Cthulu author," or "Edgar Rice Burroughs, the Tarzan author," after all. (Or do they? I've not noticed such a phenomenon. I intentionally choose as examples peers of comparable ability and fame in an effort to compare apples to apples; if I'd cited the silliness of writing, say, "William Shakespeare, the Hamlet author" or "Charles Dickens, the David Copperfield author" one might rightly point out the greater fame of those two latter men).

    I'm not impugning you. I just notice whenever anyone commenting at The Unz Review mentions Robert Howard, they seem to feel compelled to point out that he created Conan, in a way they do not point out the famous characters of any other author. It's a curious phenomenon to me. Do those doing it all find their social acquaintances ignorant of Mr. Howard and his work? Is my own social circle anomalous for mostly being aware of him? (Anyway, if we're to carry on that way, can we at least mix it up? Maybe once in awhile Mr. Howard can be "the Solomon Kane author" or "the Kull author...."

    I would add that the author of Conan is known as Robert E. Howard & rarely is referred to as just plain old Robert Howard. Although he did have some of his friends call him Two-Fisted Bob.

  102. @danand

    "There is a surprisingly large (3:1) range among individuals in the density of the receptor cells in the fovea of the human retina where all the precise seeing occurs. The density ranges from 100,000 cells per square mm to over 300,000. People with 20/20 vision can resolve one arc-minute. People with the highest possible density and perfect eyeball optics would have a resolution of 21 arc-seconds or about 20/7 vision."
     
    Alfa158, looks like you have hit it on the head, or the ball with the bat, as it were. People are born with a fixed number of receptor cells in the fovea (genetics). Perfect eyeball optics (which can be corrected via prosthetics including good old spectacles, contact lens, etc.., or surgery) are not sufficient. You've got to be born with a major league fovea count, to take it all in; visually at least.

    Individuals with 20/20 vision cannot see pixels smaller than 60 arc seconds. In order to resolve a pixel the size of 31.5 an individual would need 20/7.1 vision.

    Even though we may have great focus, most of us are High Definition, if were lucky; the few are 8K.

    Chuck Yeager mentions in this piece that eyesight was the maker/breaker of the premiere fighter pilot (@ the 11 minute mark)

    https://youtu.be/Yh_mKBVzpA8
  103. @JMcG
    How can that be? Isn’t it the pupil that controls the amount of light entering the eye? Why would iris color matter?

    People with lighter eyes are more sensitive to light. I assume a bit of light leaks through the iris, but I don’t actually know.

  104. @Reactionary Utopian
    People, the entire cause of myopia is that the power (reciprocal focal length) of the eyelens is too great to work with the length (lens to retina) of the eyeball. The image of distant objects is formed forward of the retina. At nearer object distances, the relaxed eye forms the image at the retina. Thus, “nearsightedness.” No visual effort can offset myopia, because the squeezing of the sphincter muscle increases the power, which is necessary in varying degrees for objects closer than infinity (which, optically, is shorthand for about a hundred focal lengths, or more). The opposite refractive error, too little power for the eyeball length, is called hyperopia or farsightedness. It is much less common than myopia, but by no means rare. Hyperopia can, in principle, be offset by constant accommodative effort. Myself, I imagine I’d rather wear glasses. But then, like most people, I’m myopic, so I can’t say from experience.

    The other bit of bad news for us all is presbyopia, which is the loss of accommodation that quite predictably accompanies aging. It’s caused by both the weakening of the aging sphincter muscle and decreasing compliance of the eyeball. This, too, can in principle be mitigated by eyeball exercise, although I’ve never known anyone who claimed substantial success from this.

    If myopia is becoming more common in East Asia, or anywhere else, I’d guess it might have to do with more widespread (and more sensitive) vision screening, more willingness to do something about it (for most people, moderate myopia is something you can “get along with”), or maybe genetics: there might be some reason why the myopic are having relatively more children. After all, that’s close work, unless their bedrooms are really big!

    And yes, I am a (retired) optical engineer, who had professional reasons for knowing something about the mechanics of vision.

    myopia can be induced by the use of lenses. the length of the eyeball can change in response to stimuli. eg hyperoptic defocus and the aforementioned “lens induced myopia”. this can be exploited in reverse to bring the focal length of the eyeball back to health.

  105. @obwandiyag
    Robert Howard's name is common and nondescript. Like John Smith or something. It could be confused with any number of other names and people. Therefore it needs elucidation.

    On the other hand, who in the world is going to confuse the name H.P. Lovecraft with anybody else.

    Agreed. One possible elucidation is to just include the middle initial.
    Robert E. Howard

  106. @JMcG
    My niece did this successfully under her doctor’s supervision. It took her about three years, starting from age 8 or so.

    Could you please elaborate? Did she just wear glasses for reading, or did she wear them for other inside or close work (e.g. school) as well?

    Did the doctor suggest this or just supervise? If not, who did?

    • Replies: @JMcG
    I just checked with my brother. She was much younger than I remembered. She was bumping into things at age three. She went to an ophthalmologist at CHOP in Philadelphia. She was told she’d need glasses and was prescribed a +5.5 lens.
    My brother then took her to a local ophtalmogist who told him that her eyes needed to be worked harder.
    He prescribed her a +3, which she then started wearing. She would see him every six months, generally gettin a new prescription each time.
    There was apparently some concern about strabismus in there as well that he had to work with.
    In any case, just after her tenth birthday, she was sitting at 20/30 vision, which is the standard required for a driver’s license here. They elected not to go any further than that. That was three years ago, and she’s stable at 20/30.
    I hope that helps.
  107. @JohnnyWalker123
    Why did you place "3 dead accusers" in quotation marks?

    3 of his accusers really have died in the past year. The last death occurring right after Kevin Spacey made his video.

    Coincidence, I'm sure.

    Like Epstein's death.

    https://twitter.com/nypost/status/1217837860054806532

    Kaus thinks he was killed by “an ethnic gang that runs the prison.” I lack the energy to care, good outcome however it happened.

  108. I vaguely recall a study comparing ethnic Chinese children from Singapore and Sydney (I think ).
    Short sightedness was much MUCH more prevalent among the Singaporese

    I think they put the comparitive difference down to the very indoor life the Singaporese children led – caused by a combination of nerdism and climate

  109. @res
    Could you please elaborate? Did she just wear glasses for reading, or did she wear them for other inside or close work (e.g. school) as well?

    Did the doctor suggest this or just supervise? If not, who did?

    I just checked with my brother. She was much younger than I remembered. She was bumping into things at age three. She went to an ophthalmologist at CHOP in Philadelphia. She was told she’d need glasses and was prescribed a +5.5 lens.
    My brother then took her to a local ophtalmogist who told him that her eyes needed to be worked harder.
    He prescribed her a +3, which she then started wearing. She would see him every six months, generally gettin a new prescription each time.
    There was apparently some concern about strabismus in there as well that he had to work with.
    In any case, just after her tenth birthday, she was sitting at 20/30 vision, which is the standard required for a driver’s license here. They elected not to go any further than that. That was three years ago, and she’s stable at 20/30.
    I hope that helps.

    • Thanks: res
  110. True. But that’s cause to refer to him as “Robert E. Howard,” not “Robert Howard, the Conan author….” “Lewis” is a common name, but folks write “C.S. Lewis,” not “Lewis, the Pevensie author.”

    It’s funny because schools increasingly choose to place less emphasis upon inarguably great authors like Milton, Dickens, Chaucer, and Melville to ostensibly make things “accessible.” But do they augment or replace such men’s work with the likes of great authors like Lieber, Kipling, Heinlein, Howard, Lovecraft, Burroughs, and Lewis (who certainly employ more modern diction and wrote books with more action engaging to young persons?) – no! Instead they choose mediocre, equally unappealing to young persons garbage by Ta-Nehisi Coates, Maya Angelou, and Amy Tan. Hell, even if they insist the authors be swarthier or not British and American, they could teach works by geniuses like Italo Calvino, Pablo Coehlo, Gabriel García Márquez, and Chinua Achebe, but they do not, because the real goal is to dumb it down and teach hatred of the West.

  111. anon[144] • Disclaimer says:

    Just a few links on myopia.
    tl;dr it’s a mix of genetics and environment. A child who has one myopic parent is more likely to become myopic. The body is more plastic than many people realize, the eye adapts to the demands placed on it in childhood, therefore it is possible for the eyeball to elongate in response to a lot of near-field vision with minimal far field vision. There is a control technique using contact lenses called Orthokeratology.

    The study that compared children in Singapore vs. Sydney, Australia
    https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/fullarticle/420394

    Cohort study of Singapore from 2006
    https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2125441

    Article from 2001 on Singapore’s approach, it is available free as PDF
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1723957/

    Popular press article from 2019 on Singapore’s approach
    https://www.asianscientist.com/2019/08/health/snec-seri-myopia-centre-singapore/

    Singapore public health approach to myopia
    https://bjo.bmj.com/content/85/5/521

    Meta-analysis regarding myopia and time outside
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28251836

    This site is interesting by offering alternative paths to myopia control including special night-time optical lens-shaping “OrthoK” and atropine drops.
    https://www.myopiainstitute.com/types-of-myopia-control/

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