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When Did Pure Plate Glass Buildings Become (1) Feasible and (2) Fashionable?
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The Art Institute of Chicago’s 1942 Edward Hopper painting Nighthawks reminds me of a history of architecture question I’ve often wondered about: when did huge panes of plate glass become feasible and when did they become fashionable?

My native San Fernando Valley isn’t a hotbed of architectural history, except that it has a number of famous plate glass buildings in the Googie style of diners and car dealerships that are featured in Quentin Tarantino and Iron Man movies.

The late 1940s Casa de Cadillac building by Randall Duell on Ventura Blvd. and Beverly Glen is probably the best known. Here it is at Christmas 1955.

These days, it’s hard to reconstruct in the imagination how exciting a building made out of giant pieces of plate glass must have been in the 1940s, Apple Stores 60-70 years before Apple Stores. But clearly it had a big impact on people then, and still does on nostalgists of genius like Tarantino.

But even this famous example of postwar prosperity saw fit to to divide the vertical height into two panes of glass.

My impression is that huge pieces of plate glass started being used in diners in Hollywood around 1940, but then the explosion in these type of buildings was delayed by WWII until the late 1940s.

A question I’ve never heard the answer to is: how early could plate glass diners have been constructed? Perhaps if not for the stock market crash of 1929, they would have emerged in the early 1930s? Perhaps the technology was already available but people preferred decoration to streamlining?

Glass and iron greenhouses proliferated in England in the first half of the 19th Century, with the first colossal glass and metal building to come to fame in the metropolis being gardener Joseph Paxton’s famous Crystal Palace in London’s Hyde Park for the Great Exhibition, a world’s fair, in 1851. This greenhouse was 1,850 feet long and 168 feet high.

It was the first Modernist building. When people tell you that Modernism was a plot imposed on the public by a malign elite, recall that the Dickensian Era masses absolutely loved the light and bright Crystal Palace. Many historians date the transition from the oppressive Hard Times of the first half of the 19th Century to the optimist high Victorian age to the construction of the Crystal Palace: finally, industrialization and capitalism were, visibly, paying off.

The Crystal Palace was built, remarkably rapidly after procrastination over the design left the organizers of the Great Exhibition with less than a year to construct a vast building to house the displays, out of millions of panes of glass of the largest size that could be produced at the time: 49 inches by 10 inches.

Skyscrapers, in which a thin steel frame rather than thick masonry walls hold up a building so tall it requires elevators to reach the top floors, emerged in the American Midwest around 1890. Up through the great skyscrapers of the 1920s and 1930s, such as, in NYC, the Chrysler Building, the Empire State Building, and Rockefeller Center, architects typically restricted themselves to windows that only went from, roughly, hip high to the ceiling, with stone or brick or whatever forming the bottom three or four feet of each floor.

As far as I can tell, floor to ceiling windows, emerged in the 1940s. Was this due to technological or organizational improvements in making big pieces of plate glass (transporting huge pieces of glass safely is a challenge) or was it due to a change in tastes? Would people in 1929 have worried about falling out of a skyscraper with floor to ceiling windows?

Nighthawks appears to represent a transitional design for the designer: the plate glass doesn’t extend to the floor, but it extends lavishly toward a very high ceiling. The main piece of plate glass in the middle of the painting appears to be at least 10 feet tall and 30 feet wide, and perhaps 12′ by 36′: extremely lavish by the standards of 1942.

My guess is that while Hopper’s Nighthawks looks bleak, crimped, and nostalgic to us, to people in 1942, the diner looked avant-garde, sexy, and expensive.

 
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  1. Gamecock says:

    The glass in Nighthawks, as drawn, is load bearing. Leap from just big panes to structural.

  2. Mike Tre says:

    Crystal Palace, superb architecture captured in a 1 liter plastic bottle:

    • Replies: @Dani
  3. The Crystal Palace may have acted like a greenhouse bit it wasn’t designed to be one.

    • Replies: @Ralph L
  4. Brutusale says:

    Would people in 1929 have worried about falling out of a skyscraper with floor to ceiling windows?

    People did in 1976.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hancock_Tower

  5. Mr Mox says:

    Until the invention of the float glass process in the fifties (molten glass floating on a layer of molten tin) making large sheets of quality glass was a costly process.

    I have an old book; “Book of Inventions” from 1912. It describes glass plate being made from cutting and flattening large blown glass cylinders. This must have been how the plates for Crystal Palace were made.

    • Thanks: JimB
    • Replies: @Jack D
  6. The coefficients of thermal expansion for glass and steel are very close but still, glass becoming a practical exterior surface had to await the development of gaskets and sealants which could withstand the flex yet provide an effective seal. So, post WW2 synthetic, UV resistant rubbers, butyl and neoprene.

    Lack of such may have been why early glass buildings were structures where some leakage doesn’t matter, greenhouses and train stations.

  7. When I was a kid, I inherited a 1950s boy’s book titled How Things are Made from PiltdownBrother1. One of the things they described was the float glass process for affordably making huge sheets of glass, which was brand new back then, in the postwar years. But that doesn’t explain how the adoption of huge sheet glass windows began a decade or two earlier.

    • Replies: @James Speaks
  8. dearieme says:

    Was the Pilkington float glass process influential? It must, at least, have reduced the cost of plate glass.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Float_glass

  9. Fama says:

    The production of glass sheet was made economical by the Fourcault process beginning in the early 1900s and later the Float glass process in the 1950s. The use of large windows and skylights in factories was necessary before artificial illumination was perfected. Much of the Modernist aesthetic is derived from early twentieth century industrial architecture and design. It’s ironic that factories are built today with very few windows.

  10. megabar says:

    > It was the first Modernist building. When people tell you that Modernism was a plot imposed on the public by a malign elite, recall that the Dickensian Era masses absolutely loved the light and bright Crystal Palace.

    To me, the difference isn’t so much the materials or style. You can create beautiful things in a variety of styles, and while some designs are classics, there’s always the possibility of creating a new, beautiful style. Though, that becomes increasingly difficult over time.

    But in modern design, the point is to “challenge” the viewer, and not delight him. And by challenge, I mean punish.

    Smart people, who are able to override their emotions better than dim people, learn to like this ugliness, and then enjoy the feeling of superiority when they appreciate something that the lesser beings can’t.

    • Agree: Coemgen, Lurker
  11. When people tell you that Modernism was a plot imposed on the public by a malign elite, recall that the Dickensian Era masses absolutely loved the light and bright Crystal Palace.

    Not quite. Those who could see further, abhorred the Crystal Palace. It is the chief symbol of inhuman utopian future mercilessly attacked in Dostoevsky’s “Notes from the Underground”.

  12. Tom Verso says:

    I should think that heating and air-conditioning technology were necessary if not sufficent conditions for ‘glass buildings’.

    One cannot insulate glass walls so robust heating and air machinery have to be available.

    One sees on glass buildings massive utility machinery on the roof.
    There is no roof on the Empire State or Chrysler buildings to support such equipment.

    • Replies: @Muggles
    , @HammerJack
  13. Polistra says:
    @Gamecock

    The glass in Nighthawks, as drawn, is load bearing.

    He did show an interior column on the left, which could support the roof along with additional support offscreen to the right. OTOH, there is a thing called artistic license..

    What I want to know in relation to plate glass is why last year’s summer celebrations were called FloydFest and not Kristallnacht.

    PS. Christmas 1955 in SoCal. Looks like heaven.

  14. Polistra says:
    @Brutusale

    Has no one ever leveraged this with the NYC building at 9W57?

    I’d pay to watch the denouement.

    Ack. Needs moar curve.

  15. anon12 says:

    During WWII, bubble canopies were developed for fighter planes. Early model P51s and P47s had small glass panes divided by metal structural supports. Did advancements in glass manufacturing spurred by WWII help?

    • Replies: @JMcG
    , @Janbar
  16. Anonymous[141] • Disclaimer says:

    I don’t find that painting bleak or crimped. I wish we had a night diner like that near me.

    Note also the pretty curved piece of glass on the corner. That is expensive because you have to take the plate (from float process) and soften it over a mandrel. More bother than just cutting pieces from float glass. It’s also more of a hassle to transport. One of the reasons why car windshields cost so much.

    I worked in the corner of a 44th floor skyscraper once (almost all glass). Very disconcerting at first. You can see weather moving in the distance. Can see clouds under you. There is also the swaying of the building. Elevator takes a long time and different ones go to different floors.

  17. Anonymous[141] • Disclaimer says:
    @Gamecock

    I highly doubt that. Look at the corner. There is a gray fluted pillar (inside the room).

  18. guest007 says:

    How many windows did the Truck Park bar in St Paul Minnesota have when there was a shooting that killed one and injured 14.

    https://minnesota.cbslocal.com/2021/10/10/st-paul-bar-mass-shooting-1-dead-14-injured/

    What is interesting in the police force press conference is the bar was not named, a description of the shooter(s) was not made. It is left to the curious to look up information that government officials decided to skip over.

    Also, any prediction of the demographics of the shooter(s) and the victims?

  19. dearieme says:

    The Crystal Palace was so popular that it was eventually dismantled and reassembled in South London. There’s a Premier League football club named in honour of that second life.

    Anyhoo, the WKPD article is pretty good and gives an idea of the wonderful performance of the designer – who was of course not an architect – and the builders.

    Thus: Paxton left his meeting with Henry Cole on 9 June 1850 fired with enthusiasm … and it is a mark of Paxton’s ingenuity and industriousness that detailed plans, calculations and costings were ready to submit in less than two weeks. … the commission accepted the scheme and finally gave its public endorsement to Paxton’s design in July 1850. He was exultant, but now had less than eight months to finalize his plans, manufacture the parts and erect the building in time for the Exhibition’s opening, which was scheduled for 1 May 1851. Paxton was able to design and build the largest glass structure yet created, from scratch, in less than a year, and complete it on schedule and on budget.

    Time for a Sailerite question – is there anywhere in the advanced world that could pull off such a coup nowadays? ‘Commodity, firmness, and delight’, novelty, rapidity, economy, and high competence; just breathtaking.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Crystal_Palace

  20. Developments in indoor temperature control must have had something to do with it. Otherwise a glass-walled building would be too hot in summer or too cold in winter.

  21. George says:
    @Gamecock

    “The glass in Nighthawks, as drawn, is load bearing.”

    I didn’t think of that angle. The roof of the diner could be cantilevered and in the corner there is a bright green vertical column that might be a support.

    It is left to imagination but the stores across the street seem vacant, although they might be jewelry stores where everything is removed before closing. They don’t have riot gates. Thriving businesses or abandoned depression era real estate? While their dress does appear to be fancy by today’s shoddy t shirt look by the standard of the time it might have been normal.

    Large windows might date back to ancient Rome:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_glass
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Window_shopping#History

    I vaguely remember that window shopping in Victorian London was said to have been one of the important developments in class consciousness as the not rich could see what it was they could not afford and how much the stuff they made was selling for.

  22. I was going to guess that NYC’s Seagram Tower in the 50s was a groundbreaker for glass but I see the UN building and Lever House came slightly beforehand in the 50s. Then there’s that popular curvy one known as the Lipstick Building but that only dates from 1986

    Anyone else recall that smallish round glassy tower Bob Newhart and Emily supposedly lived in circa the early 70s?

    • Replies: @Inquiring Mind
  23. Off-topic. Another test of Sailer’s law on shootings:

    One killed, 14 wounded in shooting inside a St. Paul bar early Sunday morning
    St. Paul Police say preliminary information gathered at the scene indicates that there were several shooters, though no arrests have been made.

    https://www.startribune.com/one-killed-14-wounded-in-shooting-inside-a-st-paul-bar-early-sunday-morning/600105334/

    No names released yet.
    “One killed, 14 wounded” says shooter or shooters were black.
    Multiple shooters also suggests blacks, I think, maybe shooting at each other.

  24. J.Ross says:

    Rooms in the late Victorian Era were crammed with stuff, and were probably also more often dark than not, and for many families they would also be crammed with people. Love of the spacious and light Crystal Palace was probably a simple reaction to this. Many novelists, artists and utopianists of this larger period liked glass walls (universal in Bogdanov’s Red Star and appearing in several others), there again it was a reaction to the darkness and implicit horror of factories. Factories started to have that isotype zig zag roof with one plum wall of high windows to let in light.
    Didn’t this really start architecturally when there was a non-permanent display structure at the Chicago World’s Fair that was just going to be a glass box, but the architect noticed that it was greenhousing its own heat (which would have been a big deal by itself)? So at that point you have valid architectural reasons to do it, and as we all expect, architects give a policewoman’s best efforts at subduing an anorexic Quebecois teenager when it comes to what people enjoy beholding, but they’ll enthusiastically impose a city block of Crystal Palaces given a clever technical explanation.
    “What the hell am I looking at?
    (Grinning) “It’s cantilevered!” (winks at camera)
    I don’t remember if it was here or the chans but someone observed that the Silent and GI generations came out of the depression and wanted literally everything to be a quickly-sterilized kitchen counter. Their world was built as from flat-pack out of nice level planes with internally uniform patterns which could hide no dirt.

  25. J.Ross says:
    @megabar

    But it is worth bringing up the “lesson of Cabrini Green,” possibly a new iSteve law, that in urban planning what we seek to escape from was what we had previously advocated for.

  26. by the way we still have no clue how they built this:

    • Replies: @PiltdownMan
  27. slumber_j says:
    @megabar

    But in modern design, the point is to “challenge” the viewer, and not delight him. And by challenge, I mean punish.

    Smart people, who are able to override their emotions better than dim people, learn to like this ugliness, and then enjoy the feeling of superiority when they appreciate something that the lesser beings can’t.

    I guess I must have been really precocious at overriding my emotions in order to feel superior, because I found Modernism exciting as a child growing up in the Chicago suburbs…

    I’m kidding. I mean to indicate that aesthetic preferences vary, and what you don’t like may delight others. There’s no accounting for taste as they say–correctly in this case, I’d say.

    Anyway, we need to get our terms straight here. Modernism with a capital “M” is a style, and in tall buildings it generally manifests itself in curtain-wall construction, which is the expression missing in Mr. Sailer’s post. A curtain wall is a non-load-bearing exterior wall that hangs on a structural frame, generally made of fireproofed steel members or steel-reinforced concrete. The curtain wall as we think of it came into wide use around 1950, with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s twin Lakeshore Drive apartment buildings often cited as an early example.

    I don’t agree that Modernism as such was conceived to alienate people. It did have sort of stupid left-wing ideology underlying it: a mishmash of notions involving the rise of manufacturing, democratization of construction through standardization, devotion of resources to matters supposedly more important than ornament and a bunch of other incoherent stuff. In practice, none of it made sense: Mies’s very good but over-celebrated Seagram’s Building in Manhattan for example was an extraordinarily expensive building to erect, and what appear to be structural elements on its exterior are in fact unnecessary appliqué, added as ornament. Also, why did anyone think it would represent social progress to put artisans out of work by erecting supposedly ornament-free buildings? One could go on.

    And then there are the issues of taste and livability: as my 87-year-old mother reminded me on the phone the other day, Mies himself chose to live in a traditional building just behind his Lake Shore Drive masterpiece, because the apartments there had too little wall space on which to hang his extensive art collection.

    Nevertheless, I did love the look and feel of a lot of Modernist architecture as a child and still do–the better examples, obviously.

    When you say that in modern design the goal is to punish, maybe you’re referring to everything from the Bauhaus on, and many would agree with you although I obviously wouldn’t. But Brutalism for example I do think was that way, and a lot of contemporary stuff feels that way too–think Thom Mayne or the late Zaha Hadid. Brutalism was I guess a subset of Modernism in a sense, but I’d say that a lot of contemporary avant-garde architecture is something else entirely, and I agree with you that it’s essentially anti-human.

  28. @Brutusale

    Many high-rise hotels have adopted the all-glass look; if you live and work in more old-fashioned surroundings a stay up in one of these can be a little creepy.

    It’s my impression BTW that the science-fictiony all-glass look has become linked in people’s minds with soulless corporatism, so you might see a little backlash, the pendulum swinging back to more traditional designs.

  29. dearieme says:
    @slumber_j

    I used to live in Edinburgh. Modish architects there were forever recommending their notions for new buildings. Yet, almost to a man, they lived in Georgian tenements.

    • Agree: Gordo
  30. I’m only half joking but I’d imagine that you could date the proliferation of plate glass buildings back to whenever you first started seeing the comedic trope of the workers transporting a large sheet of glass across the path of some kind of coming chase in film and cartoons.

  31. Jack D says:

    to people in 1942, the diner looked avant-garde, sexy, and expensive.

    None of the above. This painting is really about light and more specifically about the unseen and then new fangled fluorescent lights that light up the scene. Fluorescents (especially the early ones before they improved the color rendering of the phosphors) always made everything look the opposite of sexy.

  32. Ralph L says:

    The Nighthawks glass is artistic license–he didn’t want anything dividing the scene. No one used glass that big. One angry teenager could cause a huge expense.

    The 1910 part of my great grandmother’s hotel had large (8×8?) plate glass on the raised first floor street frontage for the new lobby and her living room. I was 12 when it was torn down, so my perception may be off, but it started less than 2 feet from the floor.

    The waiting area of my doctor’s office has floor to ceiling glass on the fifth floor. I don’t like it one bit.

  33. Charon says:
    @Jack D

    This painting is really about light and more specifically

    Sorry, Mr Kinkade, this painting is really about a time when white people in cities could hang out late at night without getting their heads bashed in by angry negroes.

  34. Jack D says:
    @slumber_j

    A curtain wall is a non-load-bearing exterior wall that hangs on a structural frame, generally made of fireproofed steel members or steel-reinforced concrete. The curtain wall as we think of it came into wide use around 1950,

    “Skyscraper” construction, from the beginning, used non-load bearing exterior walls. It’s just that architects formerly sought to mimic historical styles of buildings which always had masonry exteriors. In a way this is silly because in a traditional masonry building all those arches and lintels and pillars and so on actually do something – they hold up the building. In a skyscraper type building, they are purely decorative and don’t actually do what they appear to do. The bricks don’t hold up the building – the building holds up the bricks.

    It’s possible to take old skyscrapers (the Commodore Hotel, for example in NY) and strip off the masonry skin and replace it with a glass curtain wall no problem. It’s just that prior to van der Rohe, everyone thought that this was ugly and lacking in detail and texture and made your building look like a factory or an agricultural greenhouse rather than a place where rich people would want to stay.

    Another aspect that Steve doesn’t mention is air conditioning. Prior to air conditioning, your building needed to have operable windows and operable windows have to be relatively small. The Casa de Cadillac is uninhabitable (especially in sunny California) without AC.

  35. Glass and iron greenhouses proliferated in England in the first half of the 19th Century, with the first colossal glass and metal building to come to fame in the metropolis being gardener Joseph Paxton’s famous Crystal Palace in London’s Hyde Park for the Great Exhibition, a world’s fair, in 1851. This greenhouse was 1,850 feet long and 168 feet high.

    It was the first Modernist building. When people tell you that Modernism was a plot imposed on the public by a malign elite, recall that the Dickensian Era masses absolutely loved the light and bright Crystal Palace. Many historians date the transition from the oppressive Hard Times of the first half of the 19th Century to the optimist high Victorian age to the construction of the Crystal Palace: finally, industrialization and capitalism were, visibly, paying off.

    I don’t think the Crystal Palace is a good example of Modernism even if it could be considered the first Modernist structure. You are right to see it in some ways as a conservatory on a massive scale, but couldn’t it also be seen as the culmination of the efforts of Gothic cathedral building – insofar as the effort was to minimize the wood and stone structural elements in order to maximize the interior natural light that was limited by the available materials? The Crystal Palace was ornate and looks in form much like an Empire style building – albeit with different materials.

    I think the more objectionable aspects of Modernism are the lack of ornamentation, emphasis on bare geometry, and the out-of-human-scale proportions.

  36. “Was this due to technological or organizational improvements in making big pieces of plate glass (transporting huge pieces of glass safely is a challenge) or was it due to a change in tastes? “

    To quote Woodward and Bernstein, follow the money, Steve. The book you might like here is called “Here’s the Deal,” which discusses the replacement of a diverse block of older buildings in the Loop with an empty lot for a long time, and then some lifeless modernist crap afterward.

    The reason that Chicago architects embraced glass was simple: the curtain wall was MUCH cheaper to install, requiring no bricklayers or stonemasons, and the material itself was lower in cost and less bulky. It allowed developers to more quickly build their towers and earn back their development cost.

    Part of this also was cheap energy. A curtain wall then might leak more heat into a frigid Chicago window and also require more heat removal in the summer. “During the summer, indoor temperatures ranged in the mid to upper 80s and in some areas frequently reached into the 90s.” All that glass created a real greenhouse effect.

    • Agree: bruce county
    • Thanks: El Dato
    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  37. @Jack D

    Yes, cheap energy and AC explain the curtain wall. Lifetime cost of the building is probably higher, but for the developer the curtain wall is faster, cheaper, and more likely to guarantee a “profit.” That profit is caused by shoving the externality of ugliness onto the city, strip-mining the beauty of a traditional area to attract people to live in a building that’s great to look out of, but not to look AT.

    15 Central Park West is a distinct counter to this for a recent building. I expect that its apartments will still sell for more than surrounding even when Manhattan gets turned into a prison island.

    • Replies: @Jack D
  38. prosa123 says:

    It’s possible to take old skyscrapers (the Commodore Hotel, for example in NY) and strip off the masonry skin and replace it with a glass curtain wall no problem.

    There are plans to demolish the Grand Hyatt, the reskinned Commodore, and replace it with a far taller mixed use building, though WFH has likely rendered this obsolete.

    • Replies: @JMcG
  39. kihowi says:
    @megabar

    Exceptionally well said, and so obviously true that it’s almost boring.

    Ugliness is an awful attack on your psyche, especially if you can’t escape it, or god forbid live in it. People need beauty to get through their day. What the insufferable elitists are saying when they’re praising any of that horrendous stuff is is “look, I’m so well off, I’m so comfortable in every aspect of my life that I can afford to do what in lesser people would cause depression and be ok”.

    • Agree: megabar
  40. From the St. Louis Republic (1901-10-30):

    Kokomo, Ind., Oct. 29. – The largest plate glass in the world was successfully finished at the Kokomo plant of the Pittsburg Plate Glass Company to-day. It weighed in the rough 2,500 pounds. When ground and polished the weight was 2,300 pounds. The plate is 18 feet 1 inch in length and 13 feet 1 inch in width.

    In 1921, a syndicated newspaper trivia column claimed that the largest plate-glass window pane in existence was 21 feet by 12 feet.

    At one point, the I.J. Fox store at 393 Fifth Avenue was said to have the largest plate-glass windows in New York. This was taken in 1929:

    Three-story Sears display windows in Chicago and Baltimore (1938):

  41. Dmon says:

    Speaking of the Valley, sometime in the mid-60’s, my dad took me to the Allstate Savings on Lankershim (a little south of Magnolia, if memory serves) to open a savings account with my \$5 birthday present (the rate was probably around 2%, and they were one of the few banking-type places open on Saturday for half a day). It was a 4 story glass building, and the outside wall of the elevator was glass as well. Every time we went there, it was a big treat to ride the elevator up to the 4th floor because to a little kid, it felt like you were floating in air outside the building. I think the view faced east, so you could see the magical land of Burbank glittering off in the distance. Haven’t been up that way in a while, so I’m not sure it’s still there, but in its’ day, it was North Hollywood’s answer to the Empire State Building.

  42. Thea says:

    We take glass and by extension mirrors for granted. The mirror in the The Arnolfini Portrait by van Eyck is too big for the time.

    The world was a very different place for our ancestors not too long ago. And soon we could return to a more primitive age at the rate e are going.

    • Agree: Gordo
  43. Curle says:

    “ As far as I can tell, floor to ceiling windows, emerged in the 1940s. Was this due to technological or organizational improvements in making big pieces of plate glass (transporting huge pieces of glass safely is a challenge) or was it due to a change in tastes?”

    FWIW, I’m told some municipal codes prohibit windows above a certain size in residences, earthquake reasons I think. I’ve a friend with a large thick window in her ‘50s era home she claims can’t be replaced if damaged because of municipal code.

  44. Wilkey says:
    @Gamecock

    The glass in Nighthawks, as drawn, is load bearing. Leap from just big panes to structural.

    What? The artist didn’t go to engineering school??? Tell me more!!!

    Nice observation, though.

    • Replies: @prosa123
  45. @Jack D

    1939 Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors

    Calcium Tungstate (Blue)
    Magnesium Tungstate (White-Blue)
    Zinc Silicate (Green)
    Zinc Beryllium Silicate (Yellow-White)
    Cadmium Silicate (Yellow-Pink)
    Cadmium Borate (Pink)

    https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/GOVPUB-C13-04edaf755dc1d597941f2a96ca598669/pdf/GOVPUB-C13-04edaf755dc1d597941f2a96ca598669.pdf

    I once had an imported Chinese-made CFL that had the strangest spectral power distibution that gave illuminated objects the oddest tinge.

    • Replies: @Jack D
    , @craig
    , @Reg Cæsar
  46. “while Hopper’s Nighthawks looks bleak, crimped, and nostalgic to us”

    I see first-class production design. Hopper’s strength as an illustrator is on display. There is nothing in Nighthawks that is bleak or nostalgic. It is romantic, and highlights an individualism that comes out at night in deserted cityscapes, after the minions have retired to their beds (or closets).

  47. SafeNow says:

    Aside from the cheaper-construction factor, studies showed that enhanced productivity and circadian-rhythm-related health benefits flowed from glass. The “qualitative” factors. But to some, glass is indeed punishing. The term “prison architecture” comes to mind; architecture can punish the spirit. This is subjective, of course. A woman I met once explained that she would prefer a house that looks like a dental building (my term), whereas I preferred an Addison Mizner design or something equally affectionate., A telling difference, I thought.

  48. “… perhaps 12′ by 36′: ..”

    Looks more like 8 x 20 to me.

  49. Jack D says:
    @TomSchmidt

    strip-mining the beauty of a traditional area

    One of the reasons the newfangled glass skyscrapers looked good is that they would reflect images of the traditional architecture around them. I mean reflect literally, like a mirror. Once all there was to reflect was more glass skyscrapers, the overall effect looked dismal.

    All of this is well covered in Tom Wolfe’s From Bauhaus to Our House.

    • Thanks: Rob
  50. @slumber_j

    “it’s essentially anti-human”

    The most attractive aspect of Brutalism. We should encourage a twilight struggle between Brutalism and ornate Victorianism. The product of this battle will be the design template for posthuman urban planners.

  51. Alfa158 says:
    @slumber_j

    The narrative I read on the Seagram’s building was that van der Rohe wanted to leave the structural elements exposed to show the honest bones of the building, but ran up against fire code. The structural skeleton has to be covered with some insulating material such as concrete and asbestos to slow down the heating of the beams and connectors in a large fire that might lead to structural building collapse. (or alternatively, depending on your mindset, to hide the micro-thermite that is painted onto the beams by CIA/Mossad agents in case sometime in the future they find it necessary to collapse the building)
    Van der Rohe therefore added ornamentation to his non-ornamented building in order to suggest the now hidden structural bones.

  52. Anon[944] • Disclaimer says:

    Skyscrapers, in which a thin steel frame rather than thick masonry walls hold up a building so tall it requires elevators to reach the top floors, emerged in the American Midwest around 1890. Up through the great skyscrapers of the 1920s and 1930s, such as, in NYC, the Chrysler Building, the Empire State Building, and Rockefeller Center, architects typically restricted themselves to windows that only went from, roughly, hip high to the ceiling, with stone or brick or whatever forming the bottom three or four feet of each floor.

    The Reliance Building in Chicago was the first building to have large plate glass windows make up the majority of its surface area. It was also the first to be made primarily of a steel skeleton with the outer walls tacked on the the steel frame. this building was what led to modernist buildings that had large plate glass windows as walls. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reliance_Building

  53. The last office I worked in that was not across the hall from my bedroom had floor-to-ceiling glass panes that were fused together with some kind of transparent epoxy. That made possible a true all-glass wall from end-to-end with hardly any seams between the massive pieces of glass. Only the corner had a structural element, as narrow as possible, and the other wall had the same, uninterrupted glass. The structure itself had to have somehow been a bit cantilevered or supported from above, because there was no support for the roof at all along the entirety of both sides.

    This is a nice effect, but one wonders how high the heating bill is there in New England winters.

    Older buildings and homes here in the colonial style have large glass areas that are broken up by white, wooden rectangles. That is of course because only small panes of glass were available two and three centuries ago. There are times and places where the eye wants this. Big, open, blank rectangles just look cheap and sad. You want those old structures because they just look right, even though you could have pure, transparent walls like I had.

    When remodeling this fixer-upper we bought here, I had a large, uninterrupted piece of glass installed in the kitchen wall. It has a great view of nature, but it always looks a little bare, because I did not give it the traditional, New England structure. It’s a tradeoff. My wife loves it, and she spends more time there than I do, so it is all good…

    Hitler is said to have had a “Great Window” installed at his Berghof home:

    • Replies: @Ralph L
    , @Jack D
  54. Anonymous[306] • Disclaimer says:

    I believe that the technological breakthrough in producing large undivided panes of glass came with the so called ‘float glass’ process developed by the English firm of Pilkington’s – the breakthrough being that the molten sheet glass is cast on a bed of liquid tin, thus giving a flat surface and minimising thermal cooling stresses.
    Previous to this, sheet glass was produced using mechanical rollers. In the not too distant past, panes of glass could only be produced by a glass blower blowing out a large ‘bubble’ of molten glass, and ‘slitting’ the bubble while spinning his pipe rapidly – hence previous to the mid nineteenth century, big panes of glass did not exist, and windows from that period are divided by wooden glazing bars.

  55. @slumber_j

    American architecture tends to revolve around single family homes whereas in Europe you had the Bauhaus movement which was geared towards communities.

    The Soviet Union took this one step further. They ‘fetishized’ the new modern building materials and were obsessed with producing steel, glass, cement, etc. I’ve collected posters for years and it is super obvious when you look at the propaganda produced starting with the first of their 5 year plans. To them, everything was propaganda including their apartments and factories.

    • Replies: @Ganderson
  56. @Alfa158

    Van der Rohe therefore added ornamentation to his non-ornamented building in order to suggest the now hidden structural bones.

    That’s exactly right. At least I think that’s what I remember reading in From Bauhaus to Our House.

  57. Sue D. Nim says: • Website

    Between 1953 and 1957, Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff invented the float glass process, a revolutionary method of high-quality flat glass production by floating molten glass over a bath of molten tin, avoiding the costly need to grind and polish plate glass to make it clear.[2] Pilkington then allowed the Float Process to be used under licence by numerous manufacturers around the world.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilkington

  58. jb says:

    The Nighthawks window looks to me like a huge target for casual vandalism (by kids maybe), or even just a stone kicked up by a passing car. Was this much of a problem?

    • Replies: @S Johnson
    , @Philip Neal
  59. Ralph L says:
    @Buzz Mohawk

    Hitler’s big window had multiple panes of glass in frames that could all be removed by motors when the weather was nice.

  60. Jack D says:
    @Alfa158

    The thin vertical elements don’t look thick enough to hold up anything, but the horizontal bands between the floors indeed mimic the hidden fireproofed steel beams that are behind them.

  61. J.Ross says:

    OT immunity (from prosecution)

    Under oath the Maine CDC director was forced to admit that 661 Mainers died within 28 days of the shot. That is almost the same amount that died from covid in almost 2 years.

    Leaked Hearing footage (short)

    • Replies: @El Dato
    , @Jack D
    , @BB753
  62. The answer to Steve’s question seems to be Alastair Pilkington in the late 1950s (https://www.pilkington.com/en-gb/uk/about/heritage/inventor-of-float-glass) but I vaguely remember a programme that named an earlier American process that probably accounts for the designs referred to.

    I’ve only ever been in one high building that used large floor-to-ceiling windows, in the communal areas next to the lifts, and above the second floor, I couldn’t go near them without feeling unsteady on my feet.

  63. @Gamecock

    What about the support column at left-center?

  64. Ralph L says:

    Mies’s glass-walled Farnsworth House was designed in ’45-7 (before Philip Johnson’s Glass House of ’49) but not finished until ’51. They’re both museums now. Johnson used floor-t0-ceiling glass in his Booth House in ’46.

  65. @Gamecock

    The glass in Nighthawks, as drawn, is load bearing. Leap from just big panes to structural.

    Yep. Nothing like that could exist. And it looks weird. I’m too clueless to parse through the exact motivations–laziness, provocation, minimalism, artistic insouciance.

    It’s also not a pleasant looking space. I wouldn’t particularly want to sit there longer than for a meal and really wouldn’t want to work there. Many of the Taco Bells i’ve been in would be more pleasant … but for some of the other patrons.

    • Replies: @Jack D
  66. @Alfa158

    “The structural skeleton has to be covered with some insulating material such as concrete and asbestos to slow down the heating of the beams and connectors in a large fire that might lead to structural building collapse. (or alternatively, depending on your mindset, to hide the micro-thermite that is painted onto the beams by CIA/Mossad agents in case sometime in the future they find it necessary to collapse the building)”

    The Men of Unz suddenly discover strange new respect for corrupt, meddling local bureaucrats when it helps justify their larger agenda. I prefer to trust the science.

    • Replies: @Alfa158
  67. Jack D says:
    @Buzz Mohawk

    the traditional, New England structure.

    Ironically, the traditional New England structural method (“post and beam”) always had the capability to allow for large openings (think barn door). In houses, they nevertheless filled in the space between the posts with wood and left only small openings for reasons of cost (windows were expensive) and energy efficiency.

  68. mc23 says:
    @megabar

    Thought there might be something to this article below-

    “In recent years, several authors and physicians have described the father of modernism, Le Corbusier (1887-1965), the Swiss-French architect, as autistic.”

    https://commonedge.org/the-mental-disorders-that-gave-us-modern-architecture/

    The only thing Brutalist architecture has going for it is that it’s difficult to tear down.

  69. Best Seagram’s fact I recall from reading a bio of Philip Johnson or Mies (forget which, both by the same guy) was that Johnson had always avoided the NY licensing exam (which would have exposed his technical incompetence) so he worked out of Connecticut, which had no licensing requirement (hence that’s where his famous Glass House residence was built); if necessary, he had local architects sign off on the plans.

    Mies also had no license, but the NY State Education Department (which oversees all professional licenses) determined that his German technical high school diploma was the equivalent of an M.Arch. and grandfathered him in to work on the Seagram building. (and supervise Phil).

    The lesson I drew was that they aren’t kidding about German education, at least pre-War.

  70. “When people tell you that Modernism was a plot imposed on the public by a malign elite, recall that the Dickensian Era masses absolutely loved the light and bright Crystal Palace. Many historians date the transition from the oppressive Hard Times of the first half of the 19th Century to the optimist high Victorian age to the construction of the Crystal Palace: finally, industrialization and capitalism were, visibly, paying off.”

    Well, that’s one way to look at it. However, from Dostoyevsky (see Notes from Underground or Beneath the Floorboards as Nabokov insisted) on, the Crystal Palace has been the right-wing’s go to metaphor for the soul-destroying nature of capitalism. See John Carroll’s Break-out from the Crystal Palace;: The anarcho-psychological critique; Stirner, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky (Routledge International library of sociology, 1974).

    The malign elite of the “Dissident Right” — Dostoyevsky, Nietzsche. Heidegger, Evola, Dugin, etc. — agree that the Crystal Palace must be razed! Only then will we once more become happy peasants toiling under the benevolent rule of Russia, the Third Rome. Or something like that.

  71. epebble says:

    Crystal Cathedral was built in the 1970’s in Garden Grove, CA

  72. @Jack D

    Another aspect that Steve doesn’t mention is air conditioning. Prior to air conditioning, your building needed to have operable windows and operable windows have to be relatively small. The Casa de Cadillac is uninhabitable (especially in sunny California) without AC.

    Kudos to JackD.

    There are “super charger” destabilizing changes which affect everything.

    Feminism utterly dependent upon modern electrical appliances. Movies in then television–bypassing traditional and local norms/authority–in changing and supplanting social norms. The rise of the WASPs and their minoritarianism and our current crisis.

    Automobiles get all the attention–and rightly so, they’re huge game changes–but you really can’t understand changes to American geography/demography–in allowing the opening up the South, also played upon racial norms–without the role of AC.

  73. Jack D says:
    @AnotherDad

    I wouldn’t say that it’s entirely impossible – you could cantilever the 2nd floor or else use really thick glass that is load bearing.

    However, it’s not anything that anyone in the 1940s would have actually done. Supposedly Hopper was inspired by an actual site in Greenwich Village but the real structure would have had much thicker masonry columns breaking up the glass. Unfortunately, the columns would have also broken up his composition. This is a work of imagination, not an engineering drawing.

    Nor is it meant to be pleasant looking. It is meant to invoke the loneliness and anonymity of the big city.

    • Thanks: Bill Jones
  74. Here is another way to get good views: A man in Bosnia has built a rotating house so his wife can see everything:

    Bosnian Man Makes Rotating House a Monumenet of Love for His Wife

    All I did was have a big glass window installed in the kitchen for my wife. This man has outdone me.

    • Replies: @Mr. Anon
    , @Known Fact
  75. Off-topic while being topical with respect to the woke era:

    https://nypost.com/2021/10/09/nyc-drug-store-shelves-empty-amid-shoplifting-surge/

    At this rate, big city retail with woke prosecutors who don’t go after shoplifters may resemble old time retailers where all the goods were safely stored behind counters*, and customers had to page through catalogs or ask the counter help for specific items. Could Service Merchandise or Best Products make a comeback?

    * Maybe behind bulletproof windows and goods carousels prevalent among retailers in some Caribbean countries.

  76. @Jack D

    It is meant to invoke the loneliness and anonymity of the big city.

    Precisely.

  77. prosa123 says:
    @Wilkey

    Hopper’s depiction of the window in this manner likely was intentional. Nighthawks is a study of loneliness, and by using as big windows as possible he made the diner with its self-absorbed, non-interacting patrons an extension of the deserted streets. Adding any more structural elements would have interfered with this extension.
    Hopper may not have gone to engineering school, but given that at one point he planned to go into naval architecture, and that he painted many scenes of buildings and architectural elements, he undoubtedly knew that the windows in Nighthawks were not structurally realistic.

    • Thanks: AnotherDad
    • Replies: @Wilkey
    , @HA
  78. El Dato says:

    That painting has a pane of glass doing a 90° bend.

    I think those are difficult to produce, install … and keep intact.

    We had one of those in the uni cafeteria, installed near the entrance door. The first thing I thought was that it might come under too much stress if that door was being used all day.

    Sure thing, after a couple of months a crack developed.

    Trivia from Jimbo’s Trivia outlet:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nighthawks_(painting)

    Nighthawks also influenced the “future noir” look of Blade Runner; director Ridley Scott said “I was constantly waving a reproduction of this painting under the noses of the production team to illustrate the look and mood I was after”. In his review of the 1998 film Dark City, Roger Ebert noted that the film had “store windows that owe something to Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks.” Hard Candy (2005) acknowledged a similar debt by setting one scene at a “Nighthawks Diner” where a character purchases a T-shirt with Nighthawks printed on it.

    It would make a nice set for a short movie version of Brian Aldiss’ “Last Orders”. Earth being evacuated because it is having a bad case of Moonfall or something, and an officer making a sweep for survivors stumbles upon a bar where a few people are having a last drink reminiscing about their earlier. Soon enough, they have convinced to drop his official business and service pistol and have a “last one for the road”. Eventually hear the ship take off, but well, so be it. There are stories to tell and “why not have another one?”

  79. Mr. Anon says:
    @Buzz Mohawk

    I wonder how he handles the utilities connections?

    • Replies: @res
  80. El Dato says:
    @Gamecock

    OTOH, there does seem to be a cast iron column on the left.

    • Replies: @Gamecock
  81. Read Tom Wolfe’s “From Bauhaus to Our House.” The International Style did start out as a socialist movement to produce inexpensive “machines for living.” But it appealed to capitalists because undecorated glass-curtain-walled boxes are a lot cheaper than ornamented masonry facades.

    Meanwhile, many of the architects pushing the style were contemptuous, arrogant egotists who wanted to punish ordinary people. Sound familiar?

    Perhaps the worst was Le Courbosier, who wanted to demolish Paris and replace it with identical boxes. His buildings, and his successors’, are vicious assaults on the public.

    Our world becomes uglier and uglier because of these people and their allies.

    • Replies: @El Dato
  82. I know it’s a bit late after 8 years to be nit-picky but inquiring minds want to know is it
    Casa Marbisa or Casa Mabisa ?

  83. Mr. Anon says:

    Big open windows (like expansive porticos and arcades in the past) are a feature of a high-trust society on the upswing. As neo-feudalism becomes entrenched, expect things to get smaller and narrower. Think big-box stores with their single bank of doors and no windows to limit access. This will also be justified for climate-crisis reasons. Or consider the sally-ports in modern hospital ERs (sally-port being a term from medieval castle architecture). As a feature of the nascent bio-security state, all public buildings will soon have sally-ports (perhaps with positive pressure) for body-temperature monitoring and maybe even pathogen testing.

    Of course the rich will still have nice buildings and nice things. But for many of the rest of us, our lives will start to resemble the world of Ready Player One. You’ll live in a shipping crate, collecting UBI, and playing video games. Oh, and of course ……………… you’ll be happy. Or else.

    • Agree: S Johnson
    • Replies: @S Johnson
    , @S Johnson
  84. In the mid to late 19th century, departments stores were invented in the Midwest and all the rage. Then display windows were invented and were all the rage. There you have it: your origin of big plate glass windows.

  85. Wilkey says:
    @prosa123

    Thanks. Comments like this are why I read the comments.

    • Agree: ic1000, JMcG
  86. I watched a couple videos on the manufacturing process of float glass. Impressive.

    Whenever i see anything about industry, manufacturing it’s just incredibly striking the difference between our incredibly high capability–very rational, very male driven–on the engineering side upon which our society utterly depends

    and the absolute silliness–ideological, mental and moral–of our government, legal, media, academic, finance and corporate “elites” on the other side.

    The performance gap between the math vs. verbal (or things vs. people) people has never been greater. We have the most impressive technological capability ever … coupled with the most ridiculous minoritarian ideological nonsense a society could possibly have. If they demanded everyone walked on their hands it would be only marginally more ridiculous.

    One set of people literally keep this society afloat–allow it to exist at all. And the other set cavalierly–parasitically–trashes it.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
    , @Bill Jones
  87. @Jack D

    Fluorescents (especially the early ones before they improved the color rendering of the phosphors) always made everything look the opposite of sexy.

    MuLuMeTheMusicKitty
    3 years ago
    Very interesting! Glad to know and have a chance to see a proof showing that people from the 40s actually did use Fluorescent Lights with lower/normal color temperature (<4000K) instead of Blue tint "Cloudy Daylight" 6500K Fluorescent Lights. Thank you for the uploads! : )

    • Replies: @Jack D
  88. @TomSchmidt

    The reason that Chicago architects embraced glass was simple: the curtain wall was MUCH cheaper to install…

    Finally, someone gets it. The most important line in architecture is the bottom.

    The “van der Rohe” was a fake Dutch curtain wall; he was prohibited from using the German von.
    Le Corbusier came from the birthplace of Calvinism. “Four walls and a sermon.” Just saying…

  89. @Jack D


    Unfortunately, the columns would have also broken up his composition. This is a work of imagination, not an engineering drawing.

    Nor is it meant to be pleasant looking. It is meant to invoke the loneliness and anonymity of the big city.

    Agree. That’s the gist of it, well stated.

    And yeah, i’m not a “city guy”. I’d rather have a beer on my back deck. Or under a tree on my cousin’s farm, looking out over the cows in the pasture.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  90. BB753 says:

    The day civilization started to die was when they started erecting steel and glass structures. May God forgive them!

    • Disagree: El Dato
  91. @AnotherDad

    One set of people literally keep this society afloat–allow it to exist at all. And the other set cavalierly–parasitically–trashes it.

    That sounds so Randian. Was Howard Roark Modernist or Art Deco?

  92. @PiltdownMan

    Tempered glass is held in tension while the inside cools and this compresses the outside. This makes the glass stronger in bending. We’re the early glass skyscrapers clad in tempered glass?

  93. anon[307] • Disclaimer says:

    question for kermit the fake, steve:

    it’s been 114 years of Horst Ludwig Georg Erich Wessel.

    you have a super weak chin (like horst himself) steve.

    genetic!?

    sadness of sadnesses all is sadness.

    • Troll: Calvin Hobbes
    • Replies: @El Dato
    , @Jack Armstrong
  94. @AnotherDad

    I’d rather have a beer on my back deck.

    Back decks are the ruin of exurban architecture. Civilized village life had front porches. Today, the front is giant garages which make the “neighborhood” look little different from the storage locker facilities proliferating in the same areas. (There is not as much room in those “McMansions” as they’d have you believe!)


    One set of people literally keep this society afloat…

    Sorry, but this is irresistable:

    [MORE]

  95. OFF TOPIC: Sailer’s law? Mutual Combat?

    One woman is dead and 14 people wounded in an early morning shootout at a St. Paul bar, the largest mass shooting in the city in recent history.

    Shortly after midnight Sunday morning, police said people began “frantically” calling 911 and begging for help. Police arrived to a chaotic scene at Seventh Street Truck Park, a busy bar and food hall on the 200 block of Seventh Street West, to find more than a dozen gunshot victims. A woman in her 20s was pronounced dead at the scene, authorities said.

    “My heart breaks for the woman who was killed, her loved ones and everyone else who was in that bar this morning,” said St. Paul Chief of Police Todd Axtell in a statement. “In an instant, they found themselves caught in a hellish situation. I want them to know that we have the best investigators in the country, and we won’t stop until we find the people responsible for this madness. We will do our part to hold them accountable.”

    Police have arrested three men, ages 33, 32 and 29, who were injured in the shootout and taken to area hospitals for treatment. The Star Tribune does not typically name suspects until they are charged.

    Reg C, what’s the scuttlebutt?

    • Replies: @El Dato
  96. The Minnesota shooting…One dead,fourteen wounded. Sailers Law?

  97. anon[182] • Disclaimer says:

    It’s interesting that both modern glass and steel manufacturing processes are relatively new, developed after WW 2.

    The flotation method of glass was perfected in the 50’s and the basic oxygen furnace or BOF steel making was also a 50’s development. Steel is now migrating to electric arc methods.

    BOF is more efficient than open hearth methods, and the US lagged Germany and Japan in adopting it in the 1970’s.

    US Steel (X) was the largest corporation in the world when it was assembled over 100 years ago and is now a small cap stock.

  98. @Reg Cæsar

    Back decks are the ruin of exurban architecture. Civilized village life had front porches.

    Civilized village life have civilized people without lots of effectively anonymous ultra-violent criminals with small weapons that could strike at a distance. Also see other cultures where anyone of means has a much less flammable walled compound to keep out not only predatory criminals but also hinder predatory government functionaries.

    • Replies: @Jack D
  99. HA says:
    @prosa123

    “Hopper’s depiction of the window in this manner likely was intentional.”

    There is very little doubt about that, given what we know of Hopper. Everything about Nighthawks was indeed precisely calculated:

    Finding the right subject matter crippled him with anxiety. Once he decided, there followed months of research, preparation, and mostly sketching. There are 19 surviving sketches for Nighthawks [that detail its development], but he would have done many more…He planned “Nighthawks” like a film director, storyboarding the painting ahead of its creation, he prepared props, the position of hands…

    In addition to being a movie addict (to the extent that you should expect some reference to Hitchcock’s work in any assessment of Hopper’s), “Politically, Hopper was ‘a sort of McKinley conservative,’ his friend the novelist John Dos Passos remarked. The artist scorned the New Deal art programs of the thirties as sops to mediocrity.”

  100. @Calvin Hobbes

    UPDATE on the test from earlier today of Sailer’s law of mass shootings:

    Terry Lorenzo Brown, Jr., 33; Devondre Trevon Phillips, 29; and Jeffrey Orlando Hoffman, 32 have been taken into custody and are being treated at the hospital for their injuries, police announced shortly before noon Sunday.

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
  101. @Calvin Hobbes

    Multiple shooters also suggests blacks, I think, maybe shooting at each other.

    Hmmm. Sounds like the new doctrine of “mutual combat” applies for these multiple shooters. Case dismissed! ** Sound of judge’s gavel **

    • Thanks: Calvin Hobbes, HammerJack
    • Replies: @Calvin Hobbes
    , @Reg Cæsar
  102. El Dato says:
    @Bizarro World Observer

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brusselization

    In urban planning, Brusselization (UK and US) or Brusselisation (UK variant) (French: bruxellisation, Dutch: verbrusseling) is “the indiscriminate and careless introduction of modern high-rise buildings into gentrified neighbourhoods” and has become a byword for “haphazard urban development and redevelopment”.

    The notion applies to anywhere whose development follows the pattern of the uncontrolled development of Brussels in the 1960s and 1970s, that resulted from a lack of zoning regulations and the city authorities’ laissez-faire approach to city planning.

  103. Without bothering to look on the web, my initial guess would be that big sheets of glass became feasible once clever materials-science chappies found a way to laminate large sheets of glass into ‘sandwich glass’ while still being transparent.

    I recall being fascinated (as a 9 year old) upon reading that glass is liquid at room temperature. Very high viscosity, but liquid nonetheless. (Nowadays the first thing that comes to mind is “Define ‘room temperature’ and ‘glass’, or GTFO“).

  104. El Dato says:
    @Jack Armstrong

    “Mutual Combateers” should be called “Muckers”

    Directly from Stand on Zanzibar

    Many futuristic concepts, products and services, and slang are presented. A supercomputer named Shalmaneser is an essential plot element. The Hipcrime Vocab and other works by the fictional sociologist Chad C. Mulligan are frequent sources of quotations. Some examples of slang include “codder” (man), “shiggy” (woman), “whereinole” (where in hell?), “prowlie” (an armoured police car), “offyourass” (possessing an attitude), “bivving” (bisexuality, from “ambivalent”) and “mucker” (a person running amok). A new technology introduced is “eptification” (education for particular tasks), a form of mental programming. Another is a kind of interactive television that shows the viewer as part of the program (“Mr. & Mrs. Everywhere”). Genetically modified microorganisms are used as terrorist weapons.

    • Replies: @mc23
  105. El Dato says:
    @anon

    Unless this is a allusion to George Floyd and Antifa, I don’t get it.

  106. Jack D says:
    @Joe Stalin

    I suppose it’s possible that the tubes (and not just the fixture) were original from the 1940s but I would tend to doubt it. Some modern linear tubes driven by electronic ballasts might last 24,000 hrs+ (and even that is not a lot divided over 70 years) but I doubt that early production tubes had anywhere like that kind of life. I didn’t watch the whole video but did the guy say that the tubes were verified to be originals from the ’40s?

    Color temperature doesn’t tell the whole story – you also have to look at color rendering index. If you look at a fluorescent tube (again especially the early ones) thru a spectroscope you’ll see that they don’t emit light evenly in all frequencies but with sharp spikes corresponding to the frequencies emitted by each phosphor so even if the temperature is below 4000K it still doesn’t look natural.

    • Replies: @Joe Stalin
  107. Ralph L says:
    @Eugene Norman

    It actually enclosed several large trees in Hyde Park, so it was in fact a greenhouse with a little extra stuff.

  108. Jack D says:
    @That Would Be Telling

    The American house with its unfenced front yard and open porch was considered to be the physical manifestation of American openness. To this day, it is considered anti-social (and often illegal or against the rules of the homeowners association) in a suburban subdivision to erect a fence in your front yard or anything beyond a symbolic low picket fence which hides and protects nothing, especially since there is often a large “picture” window at the front of the house as well. “My life is an open book.” ” I do not fear my neighbors.”

    OTOH, in parts of Philly, especially the Latino sections, it is now the custom to enclose the front porch of your row house with metal bars. If this is done well it can have some decorative effect but done badly it makes the front of your house look like a jail cell. Maybe that makes some of the inhabitants feel more at home.

    These are called cobertizos (usually translates as “shed” but in Philly Spanish it means these covered porches enclosed in iron).

    • Thanks: El Dato
  109. This post got me thinking about transparent solar panels:

    https://solarmagazine.com/solar-panels/transparent-solar-panels/

    Pretty neato. They pass optical light through but use the non-optical wavelengths to produce electricity – at about 10% efficiency.

    People would then need to design building windows to most efficiently capture this radiation for conversion to electricity.

    Seems a bit of a stretch but interesting to think about. I could imagine these things being able to pay for themselves over their lifespan – and maybe more.

    • Replies: @David Davenport
  110. for steve’s GMAT, SAT, and 23&me.

    have feeling will be waiting forever as steve is a FRAUD.

    sad.

    • Replies: @El Dato
    , @Reg Cæsar
    , @Jack D
  111. El Dato says:
    @J.Ross

    661 Mainers died within 28 days of the shot.

    But of what did they die exactly? Was it related to the shot? And what shot, they are all different. First or second shot? Don’t make us watch random “leaked hearing footage” from Susan’s ad-pusher asylum where things are not being denied. Come on!

    That is almost the same amount that died from covid in almost 2 years.

    I don’t believe for an instant that only ~700 people in Maine died because COVID gave them the final shove (to avoid the distinction whether someone died with or of COIVD) unless Maine is a hotbed of super-resistance. National mean would give ~2900 people. Might still be a bad deal

    Stuff getting tiresome with Mike Whitney apparently praying vaxxed people keel over really soon now (it’s all planned you know by Schwab & Gates; apparently Gates doesn’t realize there will be nobody to profit from Windows 11) otherwise he loses his vaxocaust book deal.

    • Replies: @That Would Be Telling
  112. El Dato says:
    @Still Waiting...

    > Asking for SAT like a high schooler

    It’s time to fire the the intern in charge of post filtering.

    • Agree: HammerJack
  113. J.Ross says:

    Chinese asset Joseph Biden has hurt the American economy every way he can, but he has most recently imposed a totally unjustified and legally untenable injection mandate, with the result so far that Southwest Airlines is missing pilots and Jacksonville Airport may be missing air traffic controllers. More to come, or, I mean, less. The story is supposedly throttled but must break open during the week.
    https://www.msn.com/en-us/travel/news/southwest-airlines-cancels-more-than-1000-flights-due-to-disruptive-weather/ar-AAPltH9

  114. Anonymous[950] • Disclaimer says:

    Meanwhile, one of Biden’s Illegal Aliens is caught and charged with setting fire to a southern Baptist church. The NYT must be very confused right now…

    https://www.wsfa.com/2021/10/06/bond-increased-montgomery-church-arson-suspect/

  115. @AnotherDad

    and the absolute silliness–ideological, mental and moral–of our government, legal, media, academic, finance and corporate “elites” on the other side.

    The Z-man uses a simple one liner to describe these people

    “They have never signed the front of a paycheck.”

    They have never had to make the connection between actions and proven value.

    We have the Treasury secretary wanting to audit all transfers of \$600, while the CDC has just Okayed a billion dollar contract with Merck to buy it’s revamped Ivermectin at 40 times Merck’s production cost when the CDC paid for its development.
    The WHO and CDC launched a program in Uttar Pradesh, India that wiped out covid in less than 6 weeks with test kits, oxymeters, Ivermectin and HDQ dose at less than \$3 per patient.

    https://www.thedesertreview.com/opinion/columnists/indias-ivermectin-blackout---part-v-the-secret-revealed/article_9a37d9a8-1fb2-11ec-a94b-47343582647b.html

    And the question of the day
    “Why do the protected need to be protected from the unprotected by forcing the unprotected to use the protection that didn’t protect the protected in the first place?” the nurse asks the San Diego County Board of Supervisors.

    • Agree: El Dato
  116. @Jack D

    I didn’t watch the whole video but did the guy say that the tubes were verified to be originals from the ’40s?

    No, he showed the double lamp holder having Sears and Westinghouse lamps.

    Apparently, as of 1945, major US fluorescent tube manufacturers were still using the 1939 silicate phosphor.

    http://www.lamptech.co.uk/FL%20Linear.htm

    The black bakelite endcaps may indicate 1950 manufacture with possibly halophosphor technology.

  117. epebble says:
    @Jack D

    Prior to air conditioning, your building needed to have operable windows and operable windows have to be relatively small. The Casa de Cadillac is uninhabitable (especially in sunny California) without AC.

    When we had Enron inspired blackouts in California in 2001, all of us working in the glass house offices had to be sent home when the Air conditioning stopped. Only then I discovered we don’t have working windows! If we have any shortage of power and air conditioning becomes difficult to use, trillions of dollars of commercial real estate will become worthless.

  118. Art Deco seemed to have a fascination with sun and shine. The Chrysler Building in NYC is so shiny that looking at its roof on a sunny summer day can be blinding.

  119. @Captain Tripps

    Hmmm. Sounds like the new doctrine of “mutual combat” applies for these multiple shooters. Case dismissed! ** Sound of judge’s gavel **

    And if a few people not involved in the “mutual combat” get shot, then it’s their fault. They should have known better than to be in the vicinity.

    Derbyshire’s “The Talk: The Non-Black Version” said that if you see a lot of blacks in your vicinity, get out of that vicinity. Now, with the “mutual combat” doctrine, there’s even more reason to follow that advice.

    • Agree: Captain Tripps
    • Thanks: Calvin Hobbes
  120. @Jack D

    These are called cobertizos (usually translates as “shed” but in Philly Spanish it means these covered porches enclosed in iron).

    Arturo «Dos Cobertizos» Ibáñez:

  121. Jack D says:
    @Still Waiting...

    Judging by your lack of capitalization and grammar, your SAT didn’t break 1000 (on the 2400 point scale).

    • Agree: Calvin Hobbes
  122. mc23 says:
    @Jack D

    In the 1930’s , during a heat wave, my parent were children in this neighborhood would sleep on their porches and small backyards with no threat to their safety. I was told people would sleep on fire escapes for the apartments or on public benches and large numbers of people would go to the public parks and bed down for the night with no fear of danger or interference from authorities.

    Now the residents are prisoners in their own homes and the police are helpless.

  123. mc23 says:
    @El Dato

    Unfortunately Brunner seems to have been a prophet.

  124. @Brutusale

    I still worry about it today. Probably from watching Sharky’s Machine as a teenager.

  125. @anon

    Still sounds like “How Great Thou Art” to me.

  126. Jack D says:
    @Joe Stalin

    In the video, they said “faggot”. No one says faggot anymore (referring to a burning stick).

    All the scientists in the video where white males. The people who worked in the lamp factory were all white women (I suppose that they thought women were more suitable for working with these delicate items). Not a person of color to be seen (probably the janitor was black but you don’t see him). Even the phosphors were white. Thank god that fluorescents have been cancelled already or we would need to cancel them anyway.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  127. Jack D says:
    @Mr Mox

    The cylinder glass process was replaced by various flat drawn processes after WWI. Flat drawn glass is not as clear as float glass but it was a continuous process while cylinder glass had to be made 1 cylinder at a time. For any kind of industrial operation, a continuous process is almost always more economical than a batch process.

    Cylinder glass was ridiculously labor intensive by modern standards. Here is a video of one of the last guys who makes cylinder glass for historic buildings. I’m sure that each sheet of glass must cost 10x what float glass costs if not more due to all the labor involved. You start out by blowing a cylindrical shaped bottle in a mold. You then cut off the top and bottom of the bottle and are left with a tube. You then heat the tube up again until it is soft and you slit it lengthwise and coax it into a more or less flat rectangle. In between are all sorts of heating and cooling steps so it takes many hours to make a single piece of glass.

  128. Alfa158 says:
    @James J O'Meara

    Same here I’ve always gone with the science. Hence I sweated it out to get a physics degree even though I was stretching myself to get through it. The professors and some of my fellow students were pretty much my first real exposure to scarily bright people.

  129. @blake121666

    They pass optical light through but use the non-optical wavelengths to produce electricity – at about 10% efficiency.

    I.e., poor efficiency, not much good.

    • Replies: @Jack D
  130. @Reg Cæsar

    Back decks are the ruin of exurban architecture. Civilized village life had front porches.

    Agree on the bold part. Front porches make for neighborliness and community.

    BTW, i’ve got both here. I replaced the small original deck in back, but also had AnotherBrother header off and take out the kitchen front wall and have sliders and front deck so we can be out there visible and available to chat with our neighbors. (Unfortunately it’s Seattle, and i’d have to raise the whole roof line to actually make it a proper covered porch.)

    If i was a residential developer, i’d build a neighborhood with the houses all having proper front porches. People would miraculously find such a neighborhood more “friendly”.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  131. res says:
    @Mr. Anon

    Interesting question. One way would be to have a non-rotating core with the utility connections. Some relevant discussion (about another building) here:
    https://www.quora.com/How-are-the-services-especially-plumbing-planned-in-dynamic-rotating-tower-buildings

  132. JMcG says:
    @anon12

    They weren’t glass, but Perspex. Plastic, in other words. Some fighters were fitted with armored glass windscreens which were l, I believe, actually made from glass.

    • Replies: @That Would Be Telling
  133. JMcG says:
    @prosa123

    I’ve seen the bright lights of Memphis,
    And the Commodore Hotel…

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
  134. craig says:
    @Joe Stalin

    At the new building at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston is a corridor lit with intense yellow, probably fluorescent lights which have the uncanny property of making skin look gray. It’s like stepping into a black and white movie.

  135. JMcG says:
    @Jack D

    Is the back caged as well?

    • LOL: El Dato
  136. I am fortunate enough to live in an affluent neighborhood in the Bay Area where when a house is sold the new owners level it and built laterally to the maximum width. The trend is that they push the houses up front as far as they can and put up a fence with an electronic a gate. The houses mostly have a courtyard in the back where everyone hangs out in private, usually with a pool.

    It is actually quite depressing. There is a .00001 % chance that there will be a home invasion, certainly not from their neighbor, but they feel compelled to make the place into Fort Knox. It is not in keeping with the neighborhood. Nobody has contact with each other and I could not pick my neighbor out of a lineup. Ironically what they really want is to recreate the neighborhood that was here 50 years ago only with none of the people.

    • Replies: @Emil Nikola Richard
  137. @AnotherDad

    In a healthy country, Thomas Kinkade would have been a busy architect. Instead, his paintings are sold in malls and hang in “homes” that look nothing like them.

  138. megabar says:
    @slumber_j

    > I’m kidding. I mean to indicate that aesthetic preferences vary, and what you don’t like may delight others.

    Sure, but there’s a pattern in that 1. Residential styling is more conservative/traditional than commercial/public buildings; 2. Art purchased for home use is usually less “challenging” than that in exhibits, even when modern; 3. Experimental and jazz music is less popular than pop, rock, or country.

    That is, most people don’t actually like the academic aesthetic very much.

    I’ve talked to a few artists who have said that traditional stuff is thoroughly explored, and it doesn’t excite them. And that they need to feel excited by something to do their best work.

    While that’s understandable, it’s important to understand that when you target your own artistic interests, and the interests of colleagues, you are very possibly producing less valuable work.

  139. S Johnson says:
    @jb

    The huge plate glass windows of 20th century storefronts are visible symbols of a very high trust society. Owners didn’t worry much about the cost of replacing them if they were smashed. Even events like Kristallnacht in 1938 were very much exceptions. So stores across America boarding up their plate glass windows last year were also a sign of that high trust society disappearing.

    • Replies: @Prof. Woland
  140. @Jack D

    OTOH, in parts of Philly, especially the Latino sections, it is now the custom to enclose the front porch of your row house with metal bars. If this is done well it can have some decorative effect but done badly it makes the front of your house look like a jail cell. Maybe that makes some of the inhabitants feel more at home.

    My impression is that bars across windows are prevalent in many societies with far lower crime rates, where killing home invaders is considered a serious crime. Stateside, where home invader deaths aren’t even prosecuted in many cases, burglaries are rarer, or at least less reported.

  141. S Johnson says:
    @Mr. Anon

    One of the crucial scenes in Fritz Lang’s “M” is the killer noticing a child in a reflection in one of Berlin’s expansive storefront windows. In America Lang also made “The Woman in the Window”, which I haven’t seen but which also turns on someone being noticed through a large department store window. So many of the classic stories of the 19th and 20th centuries turn on chance encounters in the large, open and easily-negotiated shared public spaces then available–John Buchan’s stories, which inspired Hitchcock (who of course made “Rear Window”), often start with the narrator wandering around London with nothing to do and happening across an old acquaintance. Life now is more like hopping from one enclosed and air-conditioned space to another (in sealed air-conditioned cars show you the outside world through a tinted screen). The best film I’ve seen reflecting this new reality was “I Care a Lot” (this year) which focuses on the residential home industry.

    • Replies: @Known Fact
  142. @S Johnson

    I can remember milling in a line outside of a sandwich shop and looking up at a 1950s plate glass window. Posted right in front was a hastily written sign saying how their business ‘stood’ with BML. It instantly stuck me that the sign was there purely to ward off a ‘vibrant’ from putting a rock through it.

  143. S Johnson says:
    @Mr. Anon

    In the future, my daughter will likely be shocked when I tell her that until 2019 we were just sort of allowed to… go anywhere, and even enter places without asking permission.

  144. @Captain Tripps

    Multiple shooters also suggests blacks, I think, maybe shooting at each other.

    Hmmm. Sounds like the new doctrine of “mutual combat” applies for these multiple shooters. Case dismissed! ** Sound of judge’s gavel **

    Saint Paul had a cynical sort of amnesty for gangsters a century ago. They were free from arrest within the city limits if they agreed not to commit any crime there. Dillinger took advantage of the policy.

    Today gangster tours are given in the city:

    https://www.visitsaintpaul.com/discover-saint-paul/gangster-past/gangster-tours/

    • Thanks: Captain Tripps
  145. @Jack D

    In the video, they said “faggot”. No one says faggot anymore (referring to a burning stick).

    Where can you get faggots and peas in this country? I had them at the Hope and Anchor in Loves Park, Ill., and they were the best meat dish I’d ever eaten. A few years later, they were taken off the menu, but they’d still make them if you asked. (Kind of like dog at some Asian restaurants.)

    It is made from meat off-cuts and offal, especially pork. A faggot is traditionally made from pig heart, liver and fatty belly meat or bacon minced together, with herbs added for flavouring and sometimes breadcrumbs. The mixture is shaped in the hand into balls, wrapped round with caul (a membrane from the pig’s abdomen), and baked.

    https://welshicons.org/cymrupedia/food-drink/faggot-and-peas/

    Sorry, they are not kosher, halal, or vegan. Not by a long shot. Hey… Jamie Oliver could invite that lawyer Lawrence Organ on his show to cook some. That’d be as funny as anything on Top Gear.

    It would be fun to enter a mock British pub anywhere in the US and call out, “Do you serve faggots with spotted dick? If not, we’ll go elsewhere.”

  146. @Emil Nikola Richard

    There was a very simple and elegant calculation done some years ago, to determine the size of the workforce needed to erect the Great Pyramid. The link below has details.

    It looks like the story, by Herodotus, of 20,000 men toiling away for ages, was a vast overestimate or exaggeration.

    As few as 900 men could have done it, in 20 years.

    https://spectrum.ieee.org/how-many-people-did-it-take-to-build-the-great-pyramid

    • Thanks: Emil Nikola Richard
    • Replies: @Anonymous
  147. Jack D says:

    the story, by Herodotus,

    Even though Herodotus wrote over 2,000 years ago, the Great Pyramid had been built over 2,000 years before his time and so he likely had no f’ing idea how they built it and was just making stuff up.

    • Agree: PiltdownMan
  148. @JMcG

    The disk jockeys at the Rice U. radio station were near unanimous in considering Little Feat to be the best band in America.

    • Replies: @JMcG
  149. S Johnson says:
    @Johann Ricke

    When I visited Dr Johnson’s house in Gough Square, London, I was surprised to see bars behind the (high) ground floor windows (to prevent Oliver Twist-like thieves from breaking in), and sharp pikes underneath them (to impale them if they did). It’s probably the only Georgian house in London that’s been preserved inside. By the later Victorian period such home defence measures (which really made an Englishman’s home feel like a castle) were no longer necessary.

  150. @Brutusale

    A guy fell out of the Prudential Building in Chicago in the 1980s while playing touch football in a hallway on the Fourth of July.

  151. @Joe Stalin

    “Millions of years ago, when man first carried a flaming faggot into his cave…”

    Some things are timeless…

    [MORE]

  152. @Steve Sailer

    A guy fell out of the Prudential Building in Chicago in the 1980s while playing touch football in a hallway on the Fourth of July.

  153. Dani says:

    OMG – THAT is where I remember hearing that name before – Crystal Palace…vodka. I bought a bottle in December of 2005 and I think it was \$5.99. I was going through a horrible time (due to my drinking). I got quite sick from that swil, as I recall.
    I had completely forgotten about that & seeing that picture you posted – wow, damn. Well, at least I was able to quit for good about 2 months later – perhaps Crystal Palace was a blessing in disguise, lol.

  154. Anonymous[396] • Disclaimer says:
    @Jack D

    The fire evacuation risk of this type of railing is obvious.

    Any sensible local authority would outlaw them on this fact alone.

  155. anonymous[176] • Disclaimer says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    The distinctively American front porch veranda in a home, was cultural appropriation from Africans and then in the 18th century given a grand boost by the genteel slave-owning plantation lifestyle, later becoming an American standard for much of the 19th century middle class

    With those roots in cultural appropriation and slave-owner lifestyle, we can expect that the ‘front porch’ must be cancelled as yet another ‘institution of white supremacy’

    Some of the first porches in America were built by the immigrants from Africa. Possible derived from the houses of West Africa, the shotgun house, built by the African slave, appeared as one of the first American houses to universally exhibit a front porch. Perhaps it was this African influence that served as an impetus for all porches in the new world. Professor James Deetz advances this point in his work In Small Things Forgotten.

    http://www.xroads.virginia.edu/~CLASS/am483_97/projects/cook/roots.htm

    A ‘shotgun’ house or apartment btw is one room wide but several rooms deep

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  156. JMcG says:
    @Steve Sailer

    There’s a video of Little Feat on YT from the old Midnight Special TV show. They do Dixie Chicken and have Bonnie Raitt and Emmy Lou Harris singing backup. Which is pretty extravagant. It’s a lot of fun.

  157. The Majestic on Ponce in Atlanta dates to 1929.

  158. @Prof. Woland

    This neighborhood planning style maybe got its start in Capetown and New Orleans. Nothing might signify modernity more than a million dollar house with razor wire on top of the fence.

    I would love to see good stats on percentage of burglaries where the burglars knew what was inside before breaking and entering. A cop once told me the way to burglar proof your house was to omit from the contents:

    cash
    drugs (esp cocaine)
    jewelry (esp diamonds)
    guns

    You know you live in a crappy neighborhood when they break into your house to take your food and clothes. George Floyd’s greatest hit was a home invasion and what he wanted was cash and cocaine.

  159. @Steve Sailer

    A lawyer in Toronto had a habit of throwing himself against the windows of his office. It did not end well.

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Garry_Hoy

    Garry Hoy (January 1, 1955 – July 9, 1993) was a lawyer for the law firm of Holden Day Wilson in Toronto who died when he fell from the 24th floor of his office building in Toronto. In an attempt to prove to a group of prospective articling students that the glass windows of the Toronto-Dominion Centre were unbreakable, he threw himself against the glass. The glass did not break when he hit it, but the window frame gave way and he fell to his death.

    • Replies: @Mr Mox
  160. Ganderson says:
    @Prof. Woland

    The Moscow suburbs are awesomely awful, or at least were, when I was there in 1989- blocks and blocks of ugly, massive, (and crumbling) concrete apartment buildings- these were big boxes, as opposed to (that commie) Malvina Reynolds’ “Little Boxes”

    The only redeeming thing in the neighborhood surrounding the Warshavska subway station, was the sound of skates, sticks, pucks and boards echoing through the cold evenings.

    • Replies: @Sam Malone
    , @Prof. Woland
  161. Janbar says:
    @anon12

    Aircraft blister canopies were plastic, not glass.

  162. @Inquiring Mind

    Thanks, they did use shots of Marina City among other iconic Chicago locations but that’s not the one I’m thinking of. I checked the opening and they used establishing shots of a very traditional modern apartment tower — so I’m not sure about that smaller, round black-glass building, maybe it was just another Chicago scene they threw in — or maybe I’m thinking of another show entirely.

    I know this is very trivial but look at how people obsess over the homes and buildings used for famous establishing shots — the Brady Bunch house, Mary’s house, the diner on Seinfeld and so on.

  163. @El Dato

    661 Mainers died within 28 days of the shot.

    But of what did they die exactly? Was it related to the shot? And what shot….

    These people aren’t interested in the truth, just defending their position which is getting harder and harder the longer we vaxxed go without dying as they’ve predicted starting before the vaccines got emergency approvals. Besides correlation does not imply causation, they remain studiously ignorant of actuarial science. To repeat a general take on that:

    Bob Wachter of UCSF had a very good thread on Twitter about vaccine rollouts the other day, and one of the good points he made was this one. We’re talking about treating very, very large populations, which means that you’re going to see the usual run of mortality and morbidity that you see across large samples.

    Specifically, if you take 10 million people and just wave your hand back and forth over their upper arms, in the next two months you would expect to see about 4,000 heart attacks. About 4,000 strokes. Over 9,000 new diagnoses of cancer. And about 14,000 of that ten million will die, out of usual all-causes mortality. No one would notice. That’s how many people die and get sick anyway.

    Pretty sure a lot of them aren’t good at math let alone used to applying it to new problems, but that’s a slam dunk prediction about any country wide population. But all that’s needed to use the above is there, except that the population that’s getting vaccines, at least early in the game, largely had lower life expectancies to begin with, so at minimum allow some slop in the results.

    Stuff getting tiresome with Mike Whitney apparently praying vaxxed people keel over really soon now (it’s all planned you know by Schwab & Gates; apparently Gates doesn’t realize there will be nobody to profit from Windows 11) otherwise he loses his vaxocaust book deal.

    It’s much worse than that. At this point he’s a proven stone-cold liar and doesn’t give a damn about that being revealed.

    In his last thread his very first claim was that the FDA knew all the animals in previous SARS type coronavirus tests had died. It didn’t take me very long at all to prove that was a lie for two out of the three MERS vaccines which then got human Phase I trials long before COVID showed up (third trial also makes the claim at least implicitly, but does not specify that there were challenge trials, that is after they got the vaccine, mice or non-human primates were inoculated with MERS).

    It was also an idiotic point, since what mattered for the FDA was the results from animal trials from the newer vaccines for COVID. These people grant scientists no agency, the latter are forever condemned to repeat the same failures instead of, you know, doing the science thing and figuring out what went wrong and fixing that. Of course, I suppose that’s plausible if you believe almost the entire scientific community is trying to kill of most of humanity.

    I glanced at his latest screed and he did learn his lesson, it appears that he’s now setting up a proposition that his acolytes won’t be able to falsify themselves, even if they were inclined to do so, since he’s now just predicting some people will drop dead because of vaccines they took a while ago (is that take correct?).

    Actually, if there’s another Delta or follow-on even more transmissible or whatever variant wave, or we see a return of the flu now that a lot of people aren’t social distancing or as much, it would require relatively fine grained actuarial data to detect what’s probably a faint signal (did not look at his predicted numbers, assuming if there were any), while of course every anecdote that could plausibly be from this will be trumpeted.

    But from a steadily smaller pool of people, we’re now up to 78.2% of those 18 and older having gotten their first dose, 67.8% “fully vaccinated” (two weeks after last dose, not counting the boosters which as one scientist and/or doctor remarked in the CDC’s (warning!) hearing probably should have been part of the initial regimen to begin with, as two or more boost doses are for a number of vaccines after the first prime dose). But don’t worry, I’m in a Red state flyover part of the country where “vaccine hesitancy” is extremely high and will continue reporting what happens with a largely unvaxxed population. While our (first?) Delta wave has been subsiding for some time now, we still continue to see the delayed age stratified deaths that have roughly equal tolls for those under and over 60-65, those older having substantially higher vaccination rates.

    (BTW, did he explain how the vaccine is worse than getting the actual unrestrained disease with its quasi-infinitely greater number of cells hijacked, “everywhere” in the worse cases, and quasi-infinitely more spike proteins, as well as long established much higher rates of “adverse events” like heart and heart lining inflammation (myocarditis and pericarditis), with those caused by an actual serious infection?)

    • Agree: BB753
  164. @Buzz Mohawk

    There’s a wonderful handful of 1960-ish sci-fi stories by Irishman Bob Shaw focused on an invention he called “slow glass.” These were panes of varying sizes that recorded and played back whatever view or person they were pointed at, and also could be used as solar panels, “recording” sunlight for later playback.

    So entrepreneurs would set up window-sized panes at some beautiful seashore or mountain range, set them on “record” for a 24-hour cycle and then sell them to city-dwellers or anyone else who wanted a jaw-dropping view out their (fake) window

  165. Jack D says:
    @David Davenport

    Regular solar panels are somewhere in the range of 15 to 18% efficiency nowadays, so 10% is not that far off. If you could get the glass to serve double duty (both as a building skin and as a source of power) then the lower efficiency could be justified.

    • Replies: @Ralph L
  166. Jack D says:
    @J.Ross

    661 Mainers died within 28 days of the shot.

    The vaccine does not give you immunity from death from all causes? In that case I’m not taking it.

    • Replies: @J.Ross
  167. Large pieces of glass are still very expensive and have to be special ordered.

    I know someone with an expensive home that has large rectangular windows. Some of the 70s/80s homes had them added as a luxury gimmick. He hates them and has had two crack under extreme cold to hot weather changes.

    They are also more prone to accidents during delivery and installation. Compare to standard size windows where some company can just come out and replace them. With those huge pieces of glass you can’t just call your local window company. Once you find someone to do it you have to coordinate with the manufacturer. Sometimes it takes months to get one.

    The real problem with creating a building like the cafe in Nighthawks in the city is that some goon can come by and crack it. In the 1940s I’m sure they didn’t have the problem of Antifa or some crackhead breaking the windows just because.

    You could use a tempered glass but it wouldn’t look as nice as it would have to be pretty strong. Just not worth the headache.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  168. @Johann Ricke

    OTOH, in parts of Philly, especially the Latino sections, it is now the custom to enclose the front porch of your row house with metal bars. If this is done well it can have some decorative effect but done badly it makes the front of your house look like a jail cell. Maybe that makes some of the inhabitants feel more at home.

    My impression is that bars across windows are prevalent in many societies with far lower crime rates, where killing home invaders is considered a serious crime. Stateside, where home invader deaths aren’t even prosecuted in many cases, burglaries are rarer, or at least less reported.

    “Stateside” is comprised of a now huge number of jurisdictions with different polices about prosecuting cases of self-defense. Back in the 1980s I spent too much time in a Massachusetts county where the prosecutor had a universal policy of charging citizens with first degree murder, “the jury will sort it out” or some such. Was also a key part in higher office in the Fells Acres Day Care Center persecutions.

    Philadelphia isn’t the city of Frank Rizzo anymore (and to a degree that’s good, Waco was preceded by his execution of a bunch of MOVE people in 1985), and has had a Soros (((District Attorney))) since 2918. Can’t remember how pro-criminal it was before then, but it had black DAs going back to 2010. And the one starting that year “was indicted on 23 counts of bribery, extortion, and fraud” in 2017, and plead guilty on one charge of bribery and resigned in three months.

    He also also hired and refused to fire three Porngate prosecutors who I take it lost their jobs. And what do you know, this entirely Democratic party scandal doesn’t have a Wikipedia page, when it resulted in the state Attorney General becoming a felon and being sentenced to “10-23 months in prison.” She’s very anti-gun, which is why I knew about the scandal in the first place.

    So, yeah, nostalgia for the home country, and/or a reflection of the establishment being on the side of criminals in today’s classic anarchy-tyrranny formula, I can see why these barred porches are a thing in the city of brotherly hate.

    • Agree: Johann Ricke
  169. @Known Fact

    Yes, the slow glass SF stories were excellent, especially as the author and I assume his editors and fans worked out the implications of such a technology. Eventually getting to a point where all public spaces could easily be put under after the fact surveillance for solving crimes (yeah, I know as we’ve been discussing that’s becoming an obsolete concept in the US, but still very interesting).

    • Replies: @Known Fact
  170. @JMcG

    Some [WWII] fighters were fitted with armored glass windscreens which were l, I believe, actually made from glass.

    Haven’t heard of that. As I recall, another use of glass in the cockpit of fighters was for gun sights.

    • Replies: @JMcG
  171. @anonymous

    A ‘shotgun’ house or apartment btw is one room wide but several rooms deep

    Sounds ideal for the French.


    Indeed, that may be whence the name came.

    https://bigthink.com/strange-maps/478-the-shotgun-tracts-of-the-lower-mississippi/

  172. Ralph L says:
    @Jack D

    They’d only get half a day’s sun mounted vertically on the east or west facade, only half a year’s on the south. Another high rise could shade it, or a tree or neighbor if on a house. IOW, interesting but not worth the trouble and expense.

  173. Muggles says:
    @Tom Verso

    One cannot insulate glass walls so robust heating and air machinery have to be available.

    Not exactly true.

    For some time (though fairly new) you can buy double or even triple pane insulated glass windows. They have an inert gas layer in between the panes.

    Pretty expensive. I have replaced all of my home windows with this over the years. I live in a warm sunny climate.

    I am not sure if this glass works as well in very cold temperatures.

    • Replies: @Tom Verso
  174. @That Would Be Telling

    Philadelphia isn’t the city of Frank Rizzo anymore (and to a degree that’s good, Waco was preceded by his execution of a bunch of MOVE people in 1985)

    That was Wilson Goode, not Rizzo. Woodrow Wilson Goode:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilson_Goode#Mayor_of_Philadelphia

    He’s not much older than Nancy, Bernie, and Joe. Perhaps a comeback?

    Now for something completely different, a headline in the New York Post: Tom Cruise looks like a whole new person at baseball game

    He sure does–Norm Macdonald!

    [MORE]

    • Thanks: That Would Be Telling
  175. @That Would Be Telling

    Shaw did presage later innovations like the camcorder, camera phone and CCTV cameras everywhere. And slow glass was discovered (in the stories) when the attempt to create an ultra-safe windshield terribly backfired with increased road fatalities.

    Apropos of Steve’s post, I could imagine an entire skyscraper clad in slow glass — you could create an artificial reality for the people inside or out.

    Light of Other Days is the definitive Shaw story and I believe it’s still available for reading online

    • Thanks: That Would Be Telling
  176. Mr Mox says:
    @Stan Adams

    24 floors means about 4.5 seconds to regret – or to watch your life flash before your eyes.

  177. JMcG says:
    @That Would Be Telling

    I just looked it up, it was two heavy sheets of glass with a layer of plastic in between. The stuff the Germans used on their fighters was 3.5 inches thick. Too heavy to make an entire canopy out of, I would think.

  178. @S Johnson

    Life now is more like hopping from one enclosed and air-conditioned space to another

    And as people flee public spaces behind their tinted car windows and electronic cocoons, modern writers also no longer have public payphones to work with. In a very Hitchcockian style, one Mannix episode begins with a man discussing a murder over the phone, while an astonished deaf woman across the street lip-reads the plan through the phone-booth glass. Not gonna happen in 2021.

    BTW there was one Philip Marlowe film where you see everything through the detective’s eyes — so you only see actor Robert Montgomery when he looks in a mirror, storefront window or other reflective surface. Lady in the Lake, late ’40s

    • Agree: S Johnson
    • Replies: @Mr. Anon
  179. @Ganderson

    What were you doing in Moscow in 1989 out of curiosity? What was your impression of 1989 Russia generally?

    • Replies: @Ganderson
  180. BB753 says:
    @J.Ross

    Dr. Fleming is filing a criminal case in an international court against the US government for the covid fiasco. Charges include use of bioweapons against the population.
    https://rokfin.com/stream/9823

  181. J.Ross says:
    @Jack D

    You must have missed the redefinition of “all causes,” it was around the same time they redefined “vaccination.”

    • Replies: @That Would Be Telling
  182. @Ganderson

    It is not that they built that many modern apartments with glass but they relentlessly promoted them or showcased the one architectural gem they did build using posters and magazines. Ironically, it was the ‘modern’ factories and dams that lasted. They also had a lot of slogans and posters of zeppelins but never built those either.

    The most famous was the ‘apartment on the embankment’. It was ugly then and ugly now but it had the best location. Unfortunately, it was also the kiss of death for many of the apparatchiks that lived there. I went by it while I was there and it looks crumbling and shabby up close.

    I was in Moscow a couple of three months ago and stayed in a ‘Stalin’ era apartment that we rented. Built right after the war it was small but built like a brick shithouse. It was close to the Kremlin so they lavished materials and made it architecturally appealing. Whoever lived there was important and lived well. For how long I do not know. It is during the Khrushchev era when apartments were famous for being poorly made. They just did not have the resources after ww2. In fact they are simply know as Khrushchev apartments and everybody knows what that means.

  183. Gamecock says:
    @El Dato

    there does seem to be a cast iron column

    I’m impressed that you are able to determine it’s iron.

    • Replies: @Jack D
  184. Anonymous[421] • Disclaimer says:

    F’s in the chat for “Web 1.0” legend Garry Hoy… Remembering back to when Snopes was fun because it still had two or three true stories buried in the catalog

  185. Anon7 says:
    @Known Fact

    Shaw wrote some excellent stories using the “scenedow” idea, but he wasn’t the first to use the idea. As far as I know, the basic physics idea was used first in “The Exhalted”, by L. Sprague de Camp, published in Astounding Science Fiction in 1940. It was used in a weapon.

    The first story to use the idea, minus the physics, was probably “The Mirror That Remembered” (1932) by Christopher Blayre.

  186. If i was a residential developer, i’d build a neighborhood with the houses all having proper front porches. People would miraculously find such a neighborhood more “friendly”

    Unless it became enriched with vibrant diversity.

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
  187. Jack D says:
    @Gamecock

    Well you can’t do metallurgical analysis on a picture, but the painting does show what appears to be a fluted column, painted green behind the glass on the left side of the picture. In that part of NY, a structural column of that style would typically date from the 19th century where cast iron was used as columns and they were cast in decorative shapes resembling classical columns.

    One of my favorite New York in the 1970s stories concerns the South Street Seaport. When they were redeveloping this area, one of the things that they did was to take down a historic 19th century structure with a cast iron façade. They stored the pieces on a vacant lot in the area. The plan was to reassemble the building later. When it came time to put the building back together, someone had stolen the building and they had to put up a modern structure instead. I don’t think they ever found the stolen building.

  188. Ganderson says:
    @Sam Malone

    We took a group of high school aged kids there. We were among the first to be allowed to stay in people’s homes. We met many nice people, but I think the trip was best summed up when the guy I was staying with said to me (imagine Boris Badenov type accent) “ I know. You think we Russians drink and smoke too much. If you lived here you’d drink and smoke too much , too”. Seemed about right. Had many good meals in the homes of our Russian pals, but the restaurant food was among the worst I’ve ever eaten. And the drinking- my word….

    • Replies: @That Would Be Telling
  189. @jb

    The oldest British examples of street-level glass curtain walls I can think of date to the 1930s and are found in two sorts of location. One, department stores with picture windows, which presumably paid for themselves with damage priced in. Two, arcades. This in the special sense of a city block, consisting of one large building, cut through by a ground-level corridor from street to street lined with small stores. No pebbles accidentally flying from the road traffic, and no crowd for a vandal to merge into. (Heals department store on Tottenham Court Road and South Kensington Underground station, for those who know London.)

  190. @Boy the way Glenn Miller played

    In the late 1990s, I looked at a new Chicago exurban development that was intentionally built like an old time small town with a village green and houses with front porches overlooking it, and streets for cars in the back. So kids could leave their houses to play sports on the green without crossing traffic.

    I liked it, but the extra land that the design required added about 35% to the price.

  191. @That Would Be Telling

    Back in the 1980s I spent too much time in a Massachusetts county where the prosecutor had a universal policy of charging citizens with first degree murder, “the jury will sort it out” or some such. Was also a key part in higher office in the Fells Acres Day Care Center persecutions.

    You must be referring to Martha Coakley. Figures. There’s never just one roach. Weirdly enough, she lost to Scott Brown for MA’s Senate seat and then again to Charlie Baker for MA governor. Is there such a thing as too liberal for MA?

    • Replies: @That Would Be Telling
  192. @Steve Sailer

    You are really shit-out-of-luck when the building windows decide your fate…

    A woman was killed today when she was struck in the head by a piece of glass that fell from a Loop building at South Wabash Avenue and Jackson Drive.

    The woman was taken to Northwestern Memorial Hospital after the accident near CNA Plaza, where a hospital spokeswoman said she was pronounced dead. The victim’s name was being withheld pending notification of family members.

    The woman was walking with a child about 12:30 p.m. when the glass fell from the CNA building. Witnesses said the woman was struck in the head and appeared to be dead at the scene.

    The glass fell from the building’s 29th floor, police said; city building inspectors determined after the accident that the glass had been cracked before it fell.

    https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1999-10-08-9910120006-story.html

    Lawyer field day.

    \$18 MILLION SETTLEMENT IN DEATH OF PEDESTRIAN FROM FALLING GLASS FROM CNA WINDOW

    https://www.corboydemetrio.com/newsroom-news-Death-from-Fall-of-Window

    • Replies: @JMcG
    , @Reg Cæsar
  193. @J.Ross

    You must have missed the redefinition of “all causes,”

    How can you “redefine” a term which means “all death certificates we receive, whatever the cause listed on them,” unless you remove obvious immediate trauma deaths which does not help your case?

    it was around the same time they redefined “vaccination.”

    Here you’re so ignorant you should spend a few days reading up on the subject before bothering the rest of us with lies.

    These vaccines present antigens to the adaptive immune systems just like every other vaccine does and ever did. For the US licensed COVID vaccines, in the end they work in exactly the same way as the very first vaccine, named for Jenner’s Latin for Variolae vaccinae for smallpox of the cow; like all “active” vaccines a means to the end of getting mRNA to make viral proteins inside of a cell. Back then, a much less pathogenic DNA virus making mRNA which then makes proteins, DNA->mRNA->proteins being the way all proteins are made, with viruses and active vaccines hijacking cells to do so.

  194. @Ganderson

    but the restaurant food was among the worst I’ve ever eaten

    Heinlein in Expanded Universe or maybe one of the earlier editions of the work explained one reason for this: a lot of restaurants had quotas of leftover or spoiled food for animals on farms.

    A very interesting bit of non-fiction, that visit, for example it appears a failed space mission was memory holed while they were their, and he, his wife, and a military officer who knew logistics each came up with the roughly the same figure for the population of Moscow which was way below the official one. He wondered why our government didn’t call them on this obvious lie.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  195. @Johann Ricke

    Back in the 1980s I spent too much time in a Massachusetts county where the prosecutor had a universal policy of charging citizens with first degree murder, “the jury will sort it out” or some such. Was also a key part in higher office in the Fells Acres Day Care Center persecutions.

    You must be referring to Martha Coakley. Figures. There’s never just one roach.

    True enough about the latter, but both are from the 1980s, she didn’t become the DA of Middlesex County until 1999. Which was in time to lobby the woman governor to deny clemency to Gerald Amirault after his mother and sister’s convictions were overturned.

    This was also another example of the state’s supreme court showing why they were about the worst in the nation, in the cases of the latter two they reinstated the convictions citing a need for “finality.” This is the same august body which kept rewriting the law to require people to retreat from their dwellings in a home invasion, even if that was physically impractical to impossible, or required abandoning a child to the tender mercies of the criminal. I did not look backwards when I left that state for good.

    • Thanks: Johann Ricke
    • Replies: @RobinG
  196. Dmitry says:

    when did they become fashionable

    I would guess it also relates to the introduction of automobiles.

    By the 1950s architecture in Los Angeles, is designed to be visible to people in cars, and you can see this in the larger signs that are used for buildings (which you can read even while moving fast inside the car).

    Commercial streets become like an advertising competition to attract the eyes of drivers. Meanwhile buildings can be lengthened as the car allows people to transverse distances much more easily than walking.

    Los Angeles is also city with a lot of nightime economy, and looking at long illuminated windows of cafes, restaurants or bars, appears an invitation when you are driving across the street in the night.

    There is also a change through the automobile, where the place you stop becomes more voluntary. Whereas in pre-automobile city there is a more pre-determined throughput of the people, and shops, cafes and restaurants only need to be located in the areas where this has been already set.

  197. Mr. Anon says:
    @Known Fact

    BTW there was one Philip Marlowe film where you see everything through the detective’s eyes — so you only see actor Robert Montgomery when he looks in a mirror, storefront window or other reflective surface. Lady in the Lake, late ’40s.

    There’s another movie from the late 40’s that did that. Dark Passage with Humphrey Bogart, released a year after Lady in the Lake. Bogart is an escaped prisoner who gets plastic surgery to hide his identity. Up until the surgery, the camera assumes his POV; after the surgery his new face is that of Bogart. Also with Lauren Bacall (meh) and Agnes Moorehead, who was a higly underrated actress.

    • Replies: @Known Fact
  198. @Tom Verso

    One sees on glass buildings massive utility machinery on the roof.
    There is no roof on the Empire State or Chrysler buildings to support such equipment.

    And yet these magnificent towers (and many more like them) are most assuredly air-conditioned. Where is their equipment located? On lower-floor setbacks, I presume?

    The archetypal modern high-rise building doesn’t have setbacks.

    • Replies: @Tom Verso
  199. @Catdompanj

    That wasn’t Rizzo liar.

    Which might have something to do with my giving Thanks to the guy who corrected my faulty memory from the mid-1980s….

  200. RobinG says:
    @That Would Be Telling

    the law to require people to retreat from their dwellings in a home invasion

    Has that been reversed since then? The last I recall, a friend (retired firefighter) said he’d been advised to drag the body in his house if he shot anybody.

    PS… My situation (of Covid isolation) is similar to yours, but I’m in DC, edge of city. Many, maybe most, people here seem back to business as usual, more or less.

    • Replies: @That Would Be Telling
  201. @Mr. Anon

    Not underrated by me! While Moorehead played kind of austere serious roles in the 40s, by the 60s she was the hilariously haughty mother-in-law on Bewitched — very much resembling one of my own grandmothers! Nice classy lady but she and my dad were like oil and water.

    In the same vein Moorehead colorfully played a villainess on The Wild Wild West. While plotting to take over the government she had also invented a steampunk version of a computer-dating system, so she’s got West tied up for the kill but first is asking him if he prefers blonde or brunette.

    • Thanks: Charon
    • Replies: @Mr. Anon
  202. JMcG says:
    @Joe Stalin

    There was a guy killed in North Jersey a few years ago when a tape measure hit him after being dropped from a building under construction.
    https://people.com/celebrity/man-struck-killed-by-falling-tape-measure/

  203. Mr. Anon says:
    @Known Fact

    Moorehead’s performance in The Magnificent Amberson’s (Orson Welle’s other great movie) was one of the best performances by any actress ever. She was a classy dame. She was also fairly conservative and a deeply devout Christian.

    • Replies: @Known Fact
    , @Charon
  204. Tom Verso says:
    @HammerJack

    You wrote:

    “Where is their equipment located? ”

    Good question. I never thought of it until this glass building thread opened.

    My point was that well insulated buildings like the ‘old time’ masonry walled sky scrappers placed less demand on heating and air conditioning systems then what I believe to be less well insulated glass walls.

    But, now that the question has come to mind. I will be more cognizant of the issue in the future.

  205. Tom Verso says:
    @Muggles

    Good point. I over stated the case about insulating glass.

    I should have said glass walls are ‘less well insulated” than masonry walls.

    At least I think that is the case. Being a northern New. Yorker I can’t imagine a winter in a glass walled house.

    • Replies: @Ralph L
    , @Muggles
  206. @Mr. Anon

    I didn’t know she was a conservative Christian. Was she a lesbian as well or am I thinking of someone else?

    (By the way Moorehead is another example of performers in bland or silly old sitcoms who actually are terrific serious actors — Fred MacMurray, Carl Betz etc etc)

  207. Ralph L says:
    @Tom Verso

    The best residential windows are about R5, and they can greatly reduce solar heat gain. Insulation code was R15 for walls here in NC 20 years ago. It’s bound to be higher in the North now.

  208. @megabar

    Steven Pinker had a chapter about this in one of his books. Claiming to appreciate art/music most people don’t like is a way to signal your superior intelligence to potential mates.

  209. Charon says:
    @Mr. Anon

    Not to be dismissed: The Lady From Shanghai and Touch of Evil.

    PS: watch those apostrophe’s!

    • Agree: Mr. Anon
    • Replies: @Mr. Anon
  210. @RobinG

    the law to require people to retreat from their dwellings in a home invasion

    Has that been reversed since then? The last I recall, a friend (retired firefighter) said he’d been advised to drag the body in his house if he shot anybody.

    The Massachusetts legislature, which was significantly more based at least back then and state supreme court went back and forth on this several times, the former passing “this time we mean it” laws that eventually stuck. Per the latest printed general guide, the third edition of Massachusetts resident and lawyer Andrew Branca’s The Laws of Self Defense, page 221, the state of course has a general duty to retreat before using “ANY” force, but “No Retreat in Castle (dwelling).” It’s the nature of Branca’s slim guides that they wouldn’t be aware of case law in all states, but I’d expect him to be following his own.

    The best guide for case law, but now too old to be trusted, is Vilos and Vilos’ second edition of Self-defense Laws of all 50 States, and it says as of 2013 minus the time it took to go in press that the statutory law is horrible in providing guidance except for the above mentioned law. Which simply codifies common law, and the authors worry it would not apply to threat of rape, and they’re right based on previous case law (yes, that state’s judicial system hates women).

    Does not apply to exterior stairs or porches. And consistent with what I remember hearing about being carved out of these laws prior 1999 there’s a case law exception to its weak castle doctrine law where the state’s universal duty to retreat applies to co-habitants like roommates, a spouse or guests. Yes, seriously, they have a duty to retreat, as I recall from an earlier court decision that one depended on who’s names are on the lease of a rental, don’t know about a home jointly owned.

    In general, I advise you to retreat from your Massachusetts home, ideally all the way out of the state. It’s getting steadily more anti-gun owner, for example now all gun ownership is like NYC, in MA at the whim of your local police chief, and the prosecutors and courts can be depended on to not give you a break (the police can be a lot better; juries are sheep, though). If you can’t leave the state, and even then, get the best self-defense insurance possible. I recommend CCW Safe although I think you might not be able to get it unless you have what the state calls a “License to Carry,” which as usual for state law may not let you carry but does let you own a handgun.

    In general, if you’re in one of our eight slave states without “shall issue” concealed carry, get out now. If the state is otherwise anti-gun or going so like Virginia, get out now.

    Never, ever follow the insane advice of tampering with a crime scene and lying about what happened. That will tell to the police and prosecutors you can’t be believed about anything you say, which is not a good posture for their deciding whether to prosecute based on what you say (through your lawyer prior to trial), or your defending with anything you said, what the tampered crime scene says, etc. Plus that advice is irrelevant in this example of judicial tyranny, for the problem was with responding with a perp already in your dwelling.

    It’s also generally extremely ill advised in every way from tactics to the response of the authorities to venture outside your dwelling when something is happening outside that might require your using lethal force. Make the perpetrator come to you, and don’t make it easy for him, place yourself in a hidden corner. Ideally outside the first room he’ll enter just in case he’s a stupid drunk making a mistake about which house he’s at, who might upon entering realize that.

  211. Muggles says:
    @Tom Verso

    At least I think that is the case. Being a northern New. Yorker I can’t imagine a winter in a glass walled house.

    Weren’t several of Frank Lloyd Wright’s large glass window houses built in cold climates (PA, upstate NY, etc.)?

    And others.

    I have seen “jewel box” glass houses featured in architecture magazines and the like, all oohing and ahhing about how wonderful and “natural” they are.

    I’ve assumed they were at least double paned glass walls but am not sure.

    One famous such home (by someone, probably not Wright) was totally clear other than a small internal closet sized room which I assume was the toilet. Yuck. At night such places would be dark horrors looking out.

    I was raised in a home in very cold city where our living room had a fairly large single pane window facing north. Built in the early 50s or so, the style then. That got very cold and even frosted inside in the winter. One a fairly recent trip I was able to visit it and that window had been replaced.

    • Replies: @Tom Verso
  212. Tom Verso says:
    @Muggles

    I suppose there are architecture specialty houses meant for artistic purposes.

    But, your mention of a home in the 1950s with large north window was built when heating gas and oil was very very cheap.

    Interestingly, the recent owners replaced it; I’m sure after the 1970’s gas and oil shock.

  213. Mr. Anon says:
    @Charon

    The Lady From Shanghai is certainly a good movie – a very strange Film Noir.

  214. Anonymous[192] • Disclaimer says:
    @PiltdownMan

    The work would have been done in the months when the Nile was flooded and farmers had nothing to do, so there was a large idle workforce to hand. The high water level would also have facilitated transportation of stones, workers and other materials.

  215. Anonymous[192] • Disclaimer says:
    @John Johnson

    The real problem with creating a building like the cafe in Nighthawks in the city is that some goon can come by and crack it. In the 1940s I’m sure they didn’t have the problem of Antifa or some crackhead breaking the windows just because.

    In the 1940s any goon who smashed that window would be tracked down and dealt with by the local mob. This is what storeowners got for their protection payments.

  216. Anonymous[192] • Disclaimer says:
    @That Would Be Telling

    That’s the “Pravda means ‘Truth’” article.

  217. @Joe Stalin

    Was CNA insured for this?

    https://www.cna.com/web/guest/cna/home

    What about John Hancock in Boston? Why, yes, it was:

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