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New Meta-Analysis of 193,518 Twins Points Out Both Nature and Nurture Matter in Educational Attainment
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It was finally established in the early 20th Century that twins came in two types: identical and fraternal. That allowed the twin studies first propounded for disentangling nature and nurture by Galton to be made rigorous. Among twins raised in the same household, how different are identical twins vs. fraternal twins?

From Nature:

Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment: an individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts
Karri Silventoinen, Aline Jelenkovic, […] Jaakko Kaprio

Published: 29 July 2020

Abstract
We investigated the heritability of educational attainment and how it differed between birth cohorts and cultural–geographic regions. A classical twin design was applied to pooled data from 28 cohorts representing 16 countries and including 193,518 twins with information on educational attainment at 25 years of age or older. Genetic factors explained the major part of individual differences in educational attainment (heritability: a2 = 0.43; 0.41–0.44), but also environmental variation shared by co-twins was substantial (c2 = 0.31; 0.30–0.33). The proportions of educational variation explained by genetic and shared environmental factors did not differ between Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia. When restricted to twins 30 years or older to confirm finalized education, the heritability was higher in the older cohorts born in 1900–1949 (a2 = 0.44; 0.41–0.46) than in the later cohorts born in 1950–1989 (a2 = 0.38; 0.36–0.40), with a corresponding lower influence of common environmental factors (c2 = 0.31; 0.29–0.33 and c2 = 0.34; 0.32–0.36, respectively). In conclusion, both genetic and environmental factors shared by co-twins have an important influence on individual differences in educational attainment. The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.

So, as usual, both nature and nurture matter.

 
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  1. Among twins raised in the same household, how different are identical twins vs. fraternal twins?

    Half of fraternal pairs are opposite-sex pairs, such as all four of the Bobbsey Twins. Is this taken into account?

    Why are identical twins prohibited from marrying each other? What’s that about?

    • Replies: @Bill Jones
    @Reg Cæsar

    "Why are identical twins prohibited from marrying each other?"

    Buck v Bell

    "Three generations of imbeciles are enough"

    Let's cut it off at the pass

    Replies: @JSM, @Reg Cæsar

    , @dearieme
    @Reg Cæsar

    The question about mixed-sex twin pairs is excellent. It also made me wonder whether there was any sign of a difference between female identical pairs and male identical pairs.

  2. The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.

    Isn’t this just ‘more people go to college now’?

    • Agree: GoRedWings!
    • Thanks: Bill Jones
  3. Anonymous[111] • Disclaimer says:

    OT: Stumbling bumbling fumbling GOP can’t take any credit but the Dems are caving on key issues.

    1 Schumer and Cuomo both come out strong for reopening schools.

    2 Pelosi the Dim Witch lowers her 3 trillion ask to 2 trillion.

    3 Moron Mayor Ted Wheeler accuses rioters of being murderers in Portland.

    Craven gutless idiotic GOP not responsible for any of it. Trump individually deserves some small credit.

    • Agree: Bill Jones
  4. OT: Trump has lost Germany!

    I live in Münchberg bei Schweinsbach, and there is literally nothing but Biden signs. Even when I go somewhat outside of the city I still see Biden signs. I of course, didn’t see this with Hiliary nor Obama. But they’re mad at Trump because of how he mishandled the pandemic. Alot of people lost their family members due to COVID-19, and now they want Trump out because of it. Schweinsbach may actually be going blue and vote for Biden…

    • Replies: @Anonymousse
    @J.Ross


    Alot of people lost their family members due to COVID-19
     
    I’ll take “things that never happened” for €500 Herr Alex

    Replies: @J.Ross

  5. Whoaaaa….. water is wet.

  6. Libtard response will reduce to MUH BLANQUE SLATE!

    Whatever. Doesn’t matter.

    • Replies: @axually it does
    @anon

    Yes, never mind that the 'blank slate' idea was central to John Locke's philosophy and:

    'The single most important influence that shaped the founding of the United States comes from John Locke, a 17th century Englishman who redefined the nature of government...'

    Let's just argue with slogans and forget about what they mean, right?

    Replies: @anon, @J.Ross

  7. Did the authors track twins, from the same household, whose education paths diverged into public and private schools?

    Crappy Schools Theory predicts that among twins who spent equal number of (their first 18) years in school, those went to private schools ultimately attained higher levels of mastery.

  8. The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.

    Does this mean that economic and social inequality has increased among people born after 1950? These would be late boomers, generation X-ers, and millennials.

    • Replies: @Bill in Glendale
    @Peter Frost

    Are environmental effects stronger as national wealth (and welfare) increased? Including stronger negatives as drugs and dysfunction affected some?

    , @Muggles
    @Peter Frost

    >>"The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s."

    Does this mean that economic and social inequality has increased among people born after 1950? These would be late boomers, generation X-ers, and millennials.<<

    Good question, but misplaced.

    This kind of academic bafflegab isn't meant to be understood by ordinary people. You have to have your brain damaged by several years of post grad university instruction to grasp the impenetrability of that conclusion.

    Replies: @James Bowery

  9. @Peter Frost
    The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.

    Does this mean that economic and social inequality has increased among people born after 1950? These would be late boomers, generation X-ers, and millennials.

    Replies: @Bill in Glendale, @Muggles

    Are environmental effects stronger as national wealth (and welfare) increased? Including stronger negatives as drugs and dysfunction affected some?

  10. as usual, both nature and nurture matter

    Yes, but if you mention the first of those two, you’re racist.

    Incidentally, some ‘nurture’ people neglect the ‘nurture’ thing.

    As the “Nice White Parents” juggernaut explains, nurturing itself is racist.

    And therefore

  11. @Peter Frost
    The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.

    Does this mean that economic and social inequality has increased among people born after 1950? These would be late boomers, generation X-ers, and millennials.

    Replies: @Bill in Glendale, @Muggles

    >>”The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.”

    Does this mean that economic and social inequality has increased among people born after 1950? These would be late boomers, generation X-ers, and millennials.<<

    Good question, but misplaced.

    This kind of academic bafflegab isn't meant to be understood by ordinary people. You have to have your brain damaged by several years of post grad university instruction to grasp the impenetrability of that conclusion.

    • Replies: @James Bowery
    @Muggles

    Word salad is symptomatic of cognitive dissonance -- particularly in the conclusion.

  12. @Muggles
    @Peter Frost

    >>"The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s."

    Does this mean that economic and social inequality has increased among people born after 1950? These would be late boomers, generation X-ers, and millennials.<<

    Good question, but misplaced.

    This kind of academic bafflegab isn't meant to be understood by ordinary people. You have to have your brain damaged by several years of post grad university instruction to grasp the impenetrability of that conclusion.

    Replies: @James Bowery

    Word salad is symptomatic of cognitive dissonance — particularly in the conclusion.

  13. @Reg Cæsar

    Among twins raised in the same household, how different are identical twins vs. fraternal twins?
     
    Half of fraternal pairs are opposite-sex pairs, such as all four of the Bobbsey Twins. Is this taken into account?


    https://dy3naiqkehybb.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/28121921/IMG_20200227_121542605-scaled.jpg


    Why are identical twins prohibited from marrying each other? What's that about?

    Replies: @Bill Jones, @dearieme

    “Why are identical twins prohibited from marrying each other?”

    Buck v Bell

    “Three generations of imbeciles are enough”

    Let’s cut it off at the pass

    • Replies: @JSM
    @Bill Jones

    ? How are identical twins gonna conceive imbeciles? How do two girls or two boys do that, exactly? And if someone were to argue, well, same sex couples can't get married, um.....

    Replies: @Bill Jones

    , @Reg Cæsar
    @Bill Jones



    “Why are identical twins prohibited from marrying each other?”
     
    Buck v Bell

    “Three generations of imbeciles are enough”
     
    Not to mention four:




    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=-ekRRuSa_UQ
  14. What’re “co-twins”? I suppose it must mean ‘twin pairs’.

    I can see that it might be hard to write unambiguously about populations of twins: you’d need to distinguish between ‘twin pairs’ and ‘twinkind’. ‘Twinkind’: so elegant that its use should become compulsory.

    P.S. Reg Caesar’s question is excellent.

  15. @Reg Cæsar

    Among twins raised in the same household, how different are identical twins vs. fraternal twins?
     
    Half of fraternal pairs are opposite-sex pairs, such as all four of the Bobbsey Twins. Is this taken into account?


    https://dy3naiqkehybb.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/28121921/IMG_20200227_121542605-scaled.jpg


    Why are identical twins prohibited from marrying each other? What's that about?

    Replies: @Bill Jones, @dearieme

    The question about mixed-sex twin pairs is excellent. It also made me wonder whether there was any sign of a difference between female identical pairs and male identical pairs.

  16. @Bill Jones
    @Reg Cæsar

    "Why are identical twins prohibited from marrying each other?"

    Buck v Bell

    "Three generations of imbeciles are enough"

    Let's cut it off at the pass

    Replies: @JSM, @Reg Cæsar

    ? How are identical twins gonna conceive imbeciles? How do two girls or two boys do that, exactly? And if someone were to argue, well, same sex couples can’t get married, um…..

    • Replies: @Bill Jones
    @JSM

    You haven't been keeping up.

    Possession of a uterus is less limiting than it used to be,

  17. So, you’re half-assedly admitting that environment affects how much and well people learn. Let’s put a pin in that.

  18. @Bill Jones
    @Reg Cæsar

    "Why are identical twins prohibited from marrying each other?"

    Buck v Bell

    "Three generations of imbeciles are enough"

    Let's cut it off at the pass

    Replies: @JSM, @Reg Cæsar

    “Why are identical twins prohibited from marrying each other?”

    Buck v Bell

    “Three generations of imbeciles are enough”

    Not to mention four:

  19. @anon
    Libtard response will reduce to MUH BLANQUE SLATE!

    https://i.pinimg.com/originals/42/da/6c/42da6c8d96a07bf6ec07c26d8f0410e2.png


    Whatever. Doesn't matter.

    https://i.imgflip.com/3wnfz0.jpg

    Replies: @axually it does

    Yes, never mind that the ‘blank slate’ idea was central to John Locke’s philosophy and:

    ‘The single most important influence that shaped the founding of the United States comes from John Locke, a 17th century Englishman who redefined the nature of government…’

    Let’s just argue with slogans and forget about what they mean, right?

    • Replies: @anon
    @axually it does

    Yes, never mind that the ‘blank slate’ idea was central to John Locke’s philosophy and:

    ‘The single most important influence that shaped the founding of the United States comes from John Locke, a 17th century Englishman who redefined the nature of government…’

    So?

    Let’s just argue with slogans and forget about what they mean, right?

    Nope. Let's deal with reality as it is, not as we wish it was. Or as liars have falsely claimed it is. Or as long-dead philosophers claimed in error.

    No slogans required or even desired.

    , @J.Ross
    @axually it does

    >there is no difference between tabula rasa as understood by one of the greatest Western philosophers to ever live and blank slate as mouthed by a peaceful arsonist
    Okay.

  20. @J.Ross
    OT: Trump has lost Germany!

    I live in Münchberg bei Schweinsbach, and there is literally nothing but Biden signs. Even when I go somewhat outside of the city I still see Biden signs. I of course, didn't see this with Hiliary nor Obama. But they're mad at Trump because of how he mishandled the pandemic. Alot of people lost their family members due to COVID-19, and now they want Trump out because of it. Schweinsbach may actually be going blue and vote for Biden...
     

    Replies: @Anonymousse

    Alot of people lost their family members due to COVID-19

    I’ll take “things that never happened” for €500 Herr Alex

    • Replies: @J.Ross
    @Anonymousse

    It's part of a series of painfully fake shilling ("I live in Kabul, which hasn't gone blue since 1979, and was solidly red for years. But you can't fling a dead raped little boy without hitting a Biden sign. Or an IED, but it's mainly Biden signs.")

  21. @JSM
    @Bill Jones

    ? How are identical twins gonna conceive imbeciles? How do two girls or two boys do that, exactly? And if someone were to argue, well, same sex couples can't get married, um.....

    Replies: @Bill Jones

    You haven’t been keeping up.

    Possession of a uterus is less limiting than it used to be,

  22. Looks like most of the effects of shared environment have already been wrung out of our current society by broad access to higher education.

    Paige Harden, though, is still doing an endzone dance over the imaginary defeat of behavioral geneticists. (She’s up the twitter thread.)

    • Replies: @Uhh
    @candid_observer


    Together, we had educational data from 193,518 twins (54% women) including 81,894 complete twin pairs; 40% of the complete twin pairs were monozygotic (MZ), 39% same-sex dizygotic (SSDZ) and 21% opposite-sex dizygotic (OSDZ).
     
    Means that only 33% of participants were MZ twins. This is buried deep down the published study. What's the point including single twin individuals? And why lump MZ and DZ twins together in a study? They might have as well included non-twin siblings raised in the same environment.

    Having too many variables creates too much noise for a study to provide answers on the nature vs nurture debate. I'd rather wait and see more studies with one fixed variable (i.e. of MZ twins).
  23. anon[316] • Disclaimer says:
    @axually it does
    @anon

    Yes, never mind that the 'blank slate' idea was central to John Locke's philosophy and:

    'The single most important influence that shaped the founding of the United States comes from John Locke, a 17th century Englishman who redefined the nature of government...'

    Let's just argue with slogans and forget about what they mean, right?

    Replies: @anon, @J.Ross

    Yes, never mind that the ‘blank slate’ idea was central to John Locke’s philosophy and:

    ‘The single most important influence that shaped the founding of the United States comes from John Locke, a 17th century Englishman who redefined the nature of government…’

    So?

    Let’s just argue with slogans and forget about what they mean, right?

    Nope. Let’s deal with reality as it is, not as we wish it was. Or as liars have falsely claimed it is. Or as long-dead philosophers claimed in error.

    No slogans required or even desired.

  24. @candid_observer
    https://twitter.com/adamlewisgreen/status/1291837781615026184?s=20

    Looks like most of the effects of shared environment have already been wrung out of our current society by broad access to higher education.

    Paige Harden, though, is still doing an endzone dance over the imaginary defeat of behavioral geneticists. (She's up the twitter thread.)

    Replies: @Uhh

    Together, we had educational data from 193,518 twins (54% women) including 81,894 complete twin pairs; 40% of the complete twin pairs were monozygotic (MZ), 39% same-sex dizygotic (SSDZ) and 21% opposite-sex dizygotic (OSDZ).

    Means that only 33% of participants were MZ twins. This is buried deep down the published study. What’s the point including single twin individuals? And why lump MZ and DZ twins together in a study? They might have as well included non-twin siblings raised in the same environment.

    Having too many variables creates too much noise for a study to provide answers on the nature vs nurture debate. I’d rather wait and see more studies with one fixed variable (i.e. of MZ twins).

  25. @Anonymousse
    @J.Ross


    Alot of people lost their family members due to COVID-19
     
    I’ll take “things that never happened” for €500 Herr Alex

    Replies: @J.Ross

    It’s part of a series of painfully fake shilling (“I live in Kabul, which hasn’t gone blue since 1979, and was solidly red for years. But you can’t fling a dead raped little boy without hitting a Biden sign. Or an IED, but it’s mainly Biden signs.”)

  26. @axually it does
    @anon

    Yes, never mind that the 'blank slate' idea was central to John Locke's philosophy and:

    'The single most important influence that shaped the founding of the United States comes from John Locke, a 17th century Englishman who redefined the nature of government...'

    Let's just argue with slogans and forget about what they mean, right?

    Replies: @anon, @J.Ross

    >there is no difference between tabula rasa as understood by one of the greatest Western philosophers to ever live and blank slate as mouthed by a peaceful arsonist
    Okay.

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