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In the Wall Street Journal, heavyweight paleoanthropologist John Hawks reviews David Reich’s Who We Are:

Who We Are and How We Got Here’ Review: Ghosts in the Genome
By John Hawks
April 10, 2018 6:25 p.m. ET
Mr. Hawks is a professor of anthropology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

… Up to half of the ancestry of West African people may represent an ancient “ghost” population long diverged from other modern humans.

Thus, my latest Taki’s Magazine column is entitled “Ghosts of Africa.” By the way, is the West African figure really “up to half”? I thought the latest estimate for Yorubans was eight percent. Half would be immense.

Update: Okay, Reich and Patterson are inferring a merger event in the distant past that brought together two ghost populations from which most humans today are descended (less so the Bushmen). This is different from the new UCLA paper estimating 8% of Yoruban ancestry is from an archaic ghost population, which might be like the African version of Neanderthals or Denisovans.

By the way, this would drive Hawks crazy, but ancient “ghost” populations whose existence is inferred statistically from more recent DNA but for whom physical evidence is missing … are more or less genuine “missing links.” One of Hawks’ objections to the old term “missing link” is that many fossils may represent not links to later populations but evolutionary dead ends. One of my objections to the term “missing link,” in contrast, would be that if somebody has indeed dug up a missing link, well, then it’s not missing anymore, now is it?

But these statistical ghost populations that we are only aware about due to patterns in the DNA of their descendants are both missing and are links.

One of the most interesting chapters concerns India. There, Mr. Reich and his co-workers have documented a series of migrations, starting 4,000 years ago, that brought Indo-European languages and peoples into the subcontinent from the northwest. The science paints a scenario that seemingly parallels events described in the “Rig Veda,” the 3,500-year-old collection of Sanskrit hymns. …

As we see Mr. Reich’s field developing, we also see his development as a scientist. He seems a contradiction: Rising to the pinnacle of human genetics, he nonetheless exhibits incredible naiveté. He is surprised when German scientists withdraw their names from a paper showing results uncomfortably close to pre-Nazi racial theories. He laments Native American donors who seek to limit how scientists may use their DNA samples, suggesting that scientists need to find “an approach that does not require obtaining permission from every possible interested group.” But at the same time, he decides against submitting his own DNA for examination, claiming that the genetics of Ashkenazi Jews like him is “overstudied.” …

But when geneticists drill into ancient bones to remove parts of the inner ears, reduce them to a fine powder and turn the results into numbers, what do they learn of the individual who lived and breathed so many thousands of years ago?

Reich’s industrial scale grave robbing and bone grinding operation doesn’t sit well with Hawks, who has pointed out on Twitter that in the future it probably won’t be necessary to grind up so many ancient bones to find out this info. Hawks’ implication is, apparently, that Reich’s hurry to be first is pushing him into methodologies that will be looked back on as, at best, heroic and more likely destructive, the way Schliemann’s urge to discover Troy in the 1850s through brute force excavation of an incredibly rich archaeological site seems a little much today.

 
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  1. Anon[381] • Disclaimer says:

    Just *how* destructive is Reich’s grinding up of bones? Hopefully they’re saving 90% of the bone/genetic-material in a freezer to be thawed in the 22nd century.

    Let’s say that the non-divergent ghost population that makes up 50% of West Africans were a population of humans who left Africa (say to the Middle East) and then returned in the last 100,000 years where they mixed with this ghost population. Would that make the Out of Africa hypothesis wrong and the multi-regional model correct?

  2. • Replies: @Hubbub
    @Reg Cæsar

    Hawk - Clinton - Reich? Which one is the genetic throwback?

    , @Space Ghost
    @Reg Cæsar

    Wrong Reich

    Replies: @Reg Cæsar

  3. Anonymous[400] • Disclaimer says:

    … Up to half of the ancestry of West African people may represent an ancient “ghost” population long diverged from other modern humans.

    It’s increasingly looking like the Out-of-Africa hypothesis is dead. Sub-Saharan Africans appear to be a hybrid of modern humans from the Middle East who moved into Africa and a “ghost” population of non-human primates that haven’t been identified yet.

    • Replies: @jb
    @Anonymous

    "Up to half..."

    Yes, that is really, really interesting. (Imagine if Europeans had turned out to be half Neanderthal). I've always had this sense that the people of West Africa were in some way just... different from the rest of humanity. If they are in fact descended 50 percent from deeply diverged archaics that might account for it! (I wonder if there's any hope of DNA from the Iwo Eleru skull...?)

    , @Colleen Pater
    @Anonymous

    " non-human primates " duh

    , @ThirdWorldSteveReader
    @Anonymous


    Non-human primates
     
    Nope. All archaic admixture found in Africans up to now comes from Homo sapiens - lineages less divergent from modern populations than the Neanderthals and Denisovans were.
  4. Regardless of the merits of Reich’s research techniques, the German SJW “scientists” (who withdrew their names from a paper because the results were similar to “pre-Nazi” theories) deserve endless mockery and derision.

    • Replies: @SFG
    @AndrewR

    Ordinarily I'd agree, but you can get into serious legal trouble for looking too 'brown' over there, like jail time.

    Replies: @Dieter Kief

    , @Dave from Oz
    @AndrewR


    Regardless of the merits of Reich’s research techniques, the German SJW “scientists” (who withdrew their names from a paper because the results were similar to “pre-Nazi” theories) deserve endless mockery and derision.
     
    Cut those guys a little slack. In Germany, being a Nazi will put you in prison. Even looking like you might possibly maybe have some tenuous connection to Nazism will end your career.
  5. @Reg Cæsar
    https://img-aws.ehowcdn.com/877x500p/photos.demandstudios.com/getty/article/103/68/146809760.jpg

    https://www.progressiveshield.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/20140116-Reich-full.jpg

    Replies: @Hubbub, @Space Ghost

    Hawk – Clinton – Reich? Which one is the genetic throwback?

  6. @Reg Cæsar
    https://img-aws.ehowcdn.com/877x500p/photos.demandstudios.com/getty/article/103/68/146809760.jpg

    https://www.progressiveshield.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/20140116-Reich-full.jpg

    Replies: @Hubbub, @Space Ghost

    Wrong Reich

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
    @Space Ghost


    Wrong Reich
     
    He always was.

    Replies: @ThreeCranes

  7. Just how destructive are Reich’s methods? They used to grind up Egyptian mummies by the ton for “medicine” and paint. Isn’t Reich just taking tiny samples?

    • Replies: @Pat Boyle
    @Jack D

    The railroads in Egypt used to burn mummies to drive their choo-choos. Not much coal in Egypt. Even fewer trees but lots of nice dry easily combustible mummies.

  8. ancient “ghost” populations whose existence is inferred statistically from more recent DNA but for whom physical evidence is missing … are more or less genuine “missing links.”

    The near-total domination of R-M343 haplogroup Y-DNA on the British isles, especially in comparison to nearly any other comparable swath of continental European landmass – holds similar implications – both of a “ghost” population whose genes still live on today in British Islanders, and of a pre-historic genocide – though like such genocides in history and prehistory it was primarily men who endured it – archaic mtDNA (maternal) lives on, on the British isles, in that way that it tends to live on just about everywhere else.
    Autosomal DNA passed to children through their pre-invasion British Islander mothers who survived conquest likely makes their descendants today as much descendants of those conquered as of the conquerors, wee, itty-bitty R-M343 Y-DNA notwithstanding.

    • Replies: @Luke Lea
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    That might explain why the English are so different from, say, the Germans. I was wondering about that earlier today while rereading Goethe's Faust. So un-English somehow.

    Replies: @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    , @gcochran
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    No it does not. That Y-chromosome lineage came in with the Bell-Beakers, and t's pretty common other places in western Europe.

    The previous inhabitants, the people that built Stonehenge, were almost completely replaced: > 93%..

    Replies: @SimplePseudonymicHandle, @Wizard of Oz

  9. Robert Reich’s short stature stems from something called Fairbank’s Disease — according to him everyone else in the family was of expected height. Also he pronounces it “Reitsch” which to me sounds like a Frankenstein/Frankensteen sort of Teutonophobic countersignaling.

    • Replies: @It's All Ball Bearings
    @Anonymous

    Yes, Limbaugh always introduced Reich as "Rye-sssssshhha"

    , @Unzerker
    @Anonymous


    Frankenstein/Frankensteen sort of Teutonophobic countersignaling
     
    The stein/steen pronunciation has to do with the German/Yiddish difference in pronunciation.

    I wouldn't be surprised if this was the same case for Reich/Reits
    , @Harry Baldwin
    @Anonymous

    It's funny that while David Reich writes about genetics and race, the more famous Reich, the diminutive Robert, has been feverishly campaigning against that sort of science, as in the documentary "A Dangerous Idea" that featured him and that other genetics expert, Van Jones.

    https://www.unz.com/isteve/new-science-denialist-documentary-a-dangerous-idea/

  10. If only Schliemann had been foresighted enough to use archeological techniques developed in the 1960s, he’d almost certainly never have lived long enough to have proved the existence of Troy.

  11. You’ve got to wonder how many of these low coverage ancient genomes are because they rushed ahead before they had worked out the right technique. This sort of thing might be the sort of thing that you only get one shot at.

  12. @AndrewR
    Regardless of the merits of Reich's research techniques, the German SJW "scientists" (who withdrew their names from a paper because the results were similar to "pre-Nazi" theories) deserve endless mockery and derision.

    Replies: @SFG, @Dave from Oz

    Ordinarily I’d agree, but you can get into serious legal trouble for looking too ‘brown’ over there, like jail time.

    • Replies: @Dieter Kief
    @SFG


    Ordinarily I’d agree, but you can get into serious legal trouble for looking too ‘brown’ over there, like jail time.
     
    This is a tiny little bit over the top though, from my German perspective. - The decision of the German scientists to wthdraw their names from a paper because the results were similar to "pre-Nazi" theories, as AndreR stated - - this decision rested perfectly on the SJW mindset.

    (To me, that's frightning enough: And yes, commenter AndrewR again: Those SJW "scientists" "deserve endless mockery and derision". I agree and call this then the "Heinrich-Heine-Torture"!).

  13. True fact(according to this 2013 article), half of the first Denisovan bone discovered was lost when sent to a lab in California from Russia.

    “Derevianko decided to cut the bone in two. He sent one half to a genetics laboratory in California; so far he has not heard from that half again. He slipped the other half into an envelope and had it hand-delivered to Svante Pääbo, an evolutionary geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. It was there that the case of the Denisovan pinkie bone took a startling turn.”

    https://www.scribd.com/document/216987618/National-Geographic-Magazine-The-Case-of-the-Missing-Ancestor

  14. I think Steve is being a little “special” about about bones. For centuries bones have been cleared from Christian cemeteries to make way for fresher cold bones still wrapped in tissue. Hamlet cheerfully, if speculatively, handled the skull of his beloved Yorick with no qualms.

    • Replies: @Jay Ritchie
    @David

    My thoughts too. I can't figure out why anyone apart from primitive tribesmen with an ancestor fetish would mind what happens to old bones. Wouldn't most people want too see what could be learned?

    Replies: @Disordered

    , @Joe Walker
    @David

    The only one guilty of being special here is you. While Reich's techniques may be very good at uncovering genetic material it may turn out that his methods are even better at destroying it. Only time will tell if we have gained more by Reich's activities than we have lost. By the way, you do know that Hamlet and Yorick were fictional characters and not historical figures right?

    , @Olorin
    @David

    Oh, there were qualms alright.


    Good friend for Jesus' sake forbear,
    To dig the dust enclosed here.
    Bless't be the man that spares these stones,
    And cursed he that moves my bones.
     

    Replies: @vinteuil

  15. How much is Denisovan pinkie bone worth per gram? $1 million? $10 million?

    Eventually we might clone these ancient organisms a la Jurassic Park. How much will it be worth then?

    If they aren’t handling these specimens like they are the rarest of precious objects then they’re being careless and stupid.

  16. “Up to half of the ancestry of West African people may represent an ancient “ghost” population long diverged from other modern humans”

    Wait, didn’t the original study state that only up to 8 % of the DNA came from said ghost archaic homo species? I know that ancestry and DNA may differ, but I can’t understand what Hawk means.

  17. What an odd review by Hawks. Totally avoids the main issues at stake and clings to a PC limb on a secondary issue. He must be feeling the heat.

  18. Representative Al Green takes exception to the use of the term “missing link.”

  19. @David
    I think Steve is being a little "special" about about bones. For centuries bones have been cleared from Christian cemeteries to make way for fresher cold bones still wrapped in tissue. Hamlet cheerfully, if speculatively, handled the skull of his beloved Yorick with no qualms.

    Replies: @Jay Ritchie, @Joe Walker, @Olorin

    My thoughts too. I can’t figure out why anyone apart from primitive tribesmen with an ancestor fetish would mind what happens to old bones. Wouldn’t most people want too see what could be learned?

    • Replies: @Disordered
    @Jay Ritchie

    Some people like cremations, others like burials, others like bone ornaments, others like bone soup...
    It's just as cultural as other human rites - and perhaps evolutionary. Bones from loved ones feed earth as they fed us, human gathers things from earth to feed their loved ones, ergo burial of loved ones helps survival? Obviously there can be more readings (there's varying rites and standards even within Christian sects, for example; there are old European mansions with bone decor), and it is perhaps too primal an idea when compared to "let's use these bones to get ancient DNA". The earlier idea makes cultural sense, but the latter scientifical endeavor is not a wrong choice at all. The thing is, humans do better preserving first and experimenting after. I'd love to know all possible about our ancestry, but these ancient bones aren't come upon all the time, and perhaps it is better to keep some intact in case later more advanced techniques can help us know something new. And yeah the primal-cultural thing affects me too (raised Catholic, the priests still warn about spreading ashes other than at their holy grounds).

  20. Anonymous[321] • Disclaimer says:

    It was clear from Reich’s book that his lab and others are frequently not even attempting to sequence complete genomes from most of the samples, and that this is often not because of the condition of the samples, nor the shortcomings of current technology, but because of the expense.

    Also, there is a video out there, perhaps from the New York Times, but I cannot remember, of one of Reich’s female lab people extracting and grinding an inner ear bone. It looked extremely destructive to me. It seemed like they could have developed a way to drill a tiny hole into just the part they wanted and extract powder that way. It would require going to a German CNC machine tool manufacturer and getting devices customized for their work, including the ability to be cleaned and sanitized between extractions and perhaps purchasing a customized small animal CT scanner. But at this rate, Peak Bone is not far off, for Europe at least, so it seems worth it.

  21. Can someone please filter out all the PC euphemisms, and tell me in plain english what the new research found?

    • Replies: @emerson
    @Roger

    Agree. I don't know if Steve is attempting to be funny or sarcastic or what.
    One thing that did stand out is Reich's refusal to have a DNA test because caucasians with high IQs do not come from the loins of Abraham. The land of Ur is current day Iraq, where the people are extremely dark and the average IQ is in the mid eighties.
    Reich knows the Ashkenazi average IQ of 115 did not come from Abraham.
    It came from Khazaria (Russia).
    So can we trust Reich? Can we trust Sailer?

  22. @David
    I think Steve is being a little "special" about about bones. For centuries bones have been cleared from Christian cemeteries to make way for fresher cold bones still wrapped in tissue. Hamlet cheerfully, if speculatively, handled the skull of his beloved Yorick with no qualms.

    Replies: @Jay Ritchie, @Joe Walker, @Olorin

    The only one guilty of being special here is you. While Reich’s techniques may be very good at uncovering genetic material it may turn out that his methods are even better at destroying it. Only time will tell if we have gained more by Reich’s activities than we have lost. By the way, you do know that Hamlet and Yorick were fictional characters and not historical figures right?

  23. @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    ancient “ghost” populations whose existence is inferred statistically from more recent DNA but for whom physical evidence is missing … are more or less genuine “missing links.”
     
    The near-total domination of R-M343 haplogroup Y-DNA on the British isles, especially in comparison to nearly any other comparable swath of continental European landmass - holds similar implications - both of a "ghost" population whose genes still live on today in British Islanders, and of a pre-historic genocide - though like such genocides in history and prehistory it was primarily men who endured it - archaic mtDNA (maternal) lives on, on the British isles, in that way that it tends to live on just about everywhere else.
    Autosomal DNA passed to children through their pre-invasion British Islander mothers who survived conquest likely makes their descendants today as much descendants of those conquered as of the conquerors, wee, itty-bitty R-M343 Y-DNA notwithstanding.

    Replies: @Luke Lea, @gcochran

    That might explain why the English are so different from, say, the Germans. I was wondering about that earlier today while rereading Goethe’s Faust. So un-English somehow.

    • Replies: @SimplePseudonymicHandle
    @Luke Lea

    It very likely has something to do with it.
    The British are a rich pool of archaeo-European genes (i.e.: pre-Indo-European) and their primary Indo-European colonizers were Celts who came to Europe in a pre-historic era long before other Indo-Europeans arrived in Italy and Greece, or later still again, in north-central Europe.

    Add to that other invasions and occupations, often from Scandinavians, and there's every reason to expect distinctiveness.

    Replies: @gcochran, @Flip

  24. if somebody has indeed dug up a missing link, well, then it’s not missing anymore, now is it?

    Academia and media have a lot of Missing Thinks.

  25. grave robbing and bone grinding

    How much of the bone must be grinded?

  26. @Space Ghost
    @Reg Cæsar

    Wrong Reich

    Replies: @Reg Cæsar

    Wrong Reich

    He always was.

    • Replies: @ThreeCranes
    @Reg Cæsar

    Wait a minute. So there's a David Reich and a Robert Reich; now you're saying there's a third Reich?

  27. Anonymous[427] • Disclaimer says:

    When I was a kid we would go to this one flea market near St. Louis and there would always be this one old guy that had for sale old belt buckles, brass militaria, occasionally rusted knives or black powder guns, that kind of things. He always claimed he found this stuff with a metal detector but one day some guy accused him of digging up old graves.

    He denied it and they got into a bit of a scuffle. Later on though he was heard to mutter, “well, it comes doen to the living against the dead. I think you know who’s going to win that one.”

    If you want your remains undisturbed, don’t be buried with anything of any substantial value. Because starvation will make grave robbers out of most anyone, and history says starving people will be around sooner or later.

  28. Robert Reich’s short stature stems from something called Fairbank’s Disease — according to him everyone else in the family was of expected height.

    And Vincent Schiavelli’s unique visage stemmed from his Marfan’s syndrome.

    But, unlike (Robert) Reich, he could write, and he could cook. Boy, could he ever.

    Can David Reich write? Or is he a slog to go through? I won’t ask about his culinary skills.

  29. @Luke Lea
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    That might explain why the English are so different from, say, the Germans. I was wondering about that earlier today while rereading Goethe's Faust. So un-English somehow.

    Replies: @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    It very likely has something to do with it.
    The British are a rich pool of archaeo-European genes (i.e.: pre-Indo-European) and their primary Indo-European colonizers were Celts who came to Europe in a pre-historic era long before other Indo-Europeans arrived in Italy and Greece, or later still again, in north-central Europe.

    Add to that other invasions and occupations, often from Scandinavians, and there’s every reason to expect distinctiveness.

    • Replies: @gcochran
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    None of that is rue.

    Replies: @Anonymous, @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    , @Flip
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    Most of the ancestry calculators I've seen show the English and Germans to be pretty similar, along with the Irish and Dutch.

  30. @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    ancient “ghost” populations whose existence is inferred statistically from more recent DNA but for whom physical evidence is missing … are more or less genuine “missing links.”
     
    The near-total domination of R-M343 haplogroup Y-DNA on the British isles, especially in comparison to nearly any other comparable swath of continental European landmass - holds similar implications - both of a "ghost" population whose genes still live on today in British Islanders, and of a pre-historic genocide - though like such genocides in history and prehistory it was primarily men who endured it - archaic mtDNA (maternal) lives on, on the British isles, in that way that it tends to live on just about everywhere else.
    Autosomal DNA passed to children through their pre-invasion British Islander mothers who survived conquest likely makes their descendants today as much descendants of those conquered as of the conquerors, wee, itty-bitty R-M343 Y-DNA notwithstanding.

    Replies: @Luke Lea, @gcochran

    No it does not. That Y-chromosome lineage came in with the Bell-Beakers, and t’s pretty common other places in western Europe.

    The previous inhabitants, the people that built Stonehenge, were almost completely replaced: > 93%..

    • Replies: @SimplePseudonymicHandle
    @gcochran

    Be specific: what, exactly, "does not"?

    R-M343 is wildly more common on the British isles to the exclusion of all other groups, far more so than it is elsewhere in Europe. That's not saying it isn't common in the rest of Europe - it is - but it's pretty clear in a way that jumps off the page and grabs hold of the eyeballs that something "special" happened on the British isles sometime before people were keeping records.

    I don't think many anthropologists are hypothesizing that the British isles were colonized by the bell beakers.

    Replies: @gcochran

    , @Wizard of Oz
    @gcochran

    You are saying therefore that very few of the earlier population's mitochondrial DNA survived because few of the then native women of the generations when the Bell- Beaker people invaded survived to become mothers and grandmothers of the future generations? Or could it mostly be a result of the invaders bring very much more numerous, perhaps because their technology allowed for bigger populations?

    Replies: @gcochran

  31. @gcochran
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    No it does not. That Y-chromosome lineage came in with the Bell-Beakers, and t's pretty common other places in western Europe.

    The previous inhabitants, the people that built Stonehenge, were almost completely replaced: > 93%..

    Replies: @SimplePseudonymicHandle, @Wizard of Oz

    Be specific: what, exactly, “does not”?

    R-M343 is wildly more common on the British isles to the exclusion of all other groups, far more so than it is elsewhere in Europe. That’s not saying it isn’t common in the rest of Europe – it is – but it’s pretty clear in a way that jumps off the page and grabs hold of the eyeballs that something “special” happened on the British isles sometime before people were keeping records.

    I don’t think many anthropologists are hypothesizing that the British isles were colonized by the bell beakers.

    • Replies: @gcochran
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    They don't have to hypothesize: they now know.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25738

    The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe

    This was approximately known a long time ago, from skulls.

    Replies: @Anonymous, @SimplePseudonymicHandle

  32. jb says:
    @Anonymous

    … Up to half of the ancestry of West African people may represent an ancient “ghost” population long diverged from other modern humans.
     
    It's increasingly looking like the Out-of-Africa hypothesis is dead. Sub-Saharan Africans appear to be a hybrid of modern humans from the Middle East who moved into Africa and a "ghost" population of non-human primates that haven't been identified yet.

    Replies: @jb, @Colleen Pater, @ThirdWorldSteveReader

    “Up to half…”

    Yes, that is really, really interesting. (Imagine if Europeans had turned out to be half Neanderthal). I’ve always had this sense that the people of West Africa were in some way just… different from the rest of humanity. If they are in fact descended 50 percent from deeply diverged archaics that might account for it! (I wonder if there’s any hope of DNA from the Iwo Eleru skull…?)

  33. @Anonymous
    Robert Reich's short stature stems from something called Fairbank's Disease -- according to him everyone else in the family was of expected height. Also he pronounces it "Reitsch" which to me sounds like a Frankenstein/Frankensteen sort of Teutonophobic countersignaling.

    Replies: @It's All Ball Bearings, @Unzerker, @Harry Baldwin

    Yes, Limbaugh always introduced Reich as “Rye-sssssshhha”

  34. @gcochran
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    No it does not. That Y-chromosome lineage came in with the Bell-Beakers, and t's pretty common other places in western Europe.

    The previous inhabitants, the people that built Stonehenge, were almost completely replaced: > 93%..

    Replies: @SimplePseudonymicHandle, @Wizard of Oz

    You are saying therefore that very few of the earlier population’s mitochondrial DNA survived because few of the then native women of the generations when the Bell- Beaker people invaded survived to become mothers and grandmothers of the future generations? Or could it mostly be a result of the invaders bring very much more numerous, perhaps because their technology allowed for bigger populations?

    • Replies: @gcochran
    @Wizard of Oz

    Massacre, probably. The incoming Bell Beakers did very little farming, the previous inhabitants had farmed when possible.

  35. @AndrewR
    Regardless of the merits of Reich's research techniques, the German SJW "scientists" (who withdrew their names from a paper because the results were similar to "pre-Nazi" theories) deserve endless mockery and derision.

    Replies: @SFG, @Dave from Oz

    Regardless of the merits of Reich’s research techniques, the German SJW “scientists” (who withdrew their names from a paper because the results were similar to “pre-Nazi” theories) deserve endless mockery and derision.

    Cut those guys a little slack. In Germany, being a Nazi will put you in prison. Even looking like you might possibly maybe have some tenuous connection to Nazism will end your career.

  36. I think Schliemann didn’t start digging at Troy until the 1870s (he was probably still in California in at least the early 1850s). Also, in regards to his brute force methods, I wonder how much of Troy II-V would really be known today without them. If he had carefully uncovered Troy VI-VIIa and dated them to the right period, who would have ever agreed to the destruction of the beloved Homeric Troy to discover the characteristics of a settlement dating all the way back to 3000 BC? How much more do we know because of that?

    Not necessarily saying I prefer these methods, just that it needs to be considered, as in the case of DNA.

  37. @SFG
    @AndrewR

    Ordinarily I'd agree, but you can get into serious legal trouble for looking too 'brown' over there, like jail time.

    Replies: @Dieter Kief

    Ordinarily I’d agree, but you can get into serious legal trouble for looking too ‘brown’ over there, like jail time.

    This is a tiny little bit over the top though, from my German perspective. – The decision of the German scientists to wthdraw their names from a paper because the results were similar to “pre-Nazi” theories, as AndreR stated – – this decision rested perfectly on the SJW mindset.

    (To me, that’s frightning enough: And yes, commenter AndrewR again: Those SJW “scientists” “deserve endless mockery and derision”. I agree and call this then the “Heinrich-Heine-Torture”!).

  38. Anonymous[817] • Disclaimer says:

    In his WSJ article John Hawks makes the claim that ‘up to 50%’of the genome of ‘certain extant west African groups’ is attributable to archaic ‘ghost’ populations.

    This is huge.

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
    @Anonymous

    I thought it was 8 percent?

    Replies: @Anonymous

  39. @Anonymous
    In his WSJ article John Hawks makes the claim that 'up to 50%'of the genome of 'certain extant west African groups' is attributable to archaic 'ghost' populations.


    This is huge.

    Replies: @Steve Sailer

    I thought it was 8 percent?

    • Replies: @Anonymous
    @Steve Sailer

    Look at the article again.
    I had to double look. I'm sure he wrote 50%, or 'half'.

    Replies: @Steve Sailer, @MEH 0910

  40. Anonymous[817] • Disclaimer says:

    Regarding the ‘grinding and drilling’ of old human bones by the Reich team.

    In continental Europe, typically, a grave ‘site’ used for the inhumation of the dead is only ever ‘leased’ for a certain period of years – which can be as low as twenty-.After the elapse of this time period, the bones – as they now are – of the decedent are removed from the grave, and deposited in some sort of ‘ossuary’ type structure, often an underground ‘crypt’ of some sort, where over the course of years, the broad mass of bones from many hundreds of burials are jumbled together and impossible to distinguish. The grave is reused for another burial, the notion being that the relatives of the deceased have either ‘passed on’ themselves, or some sort of ‘limit’ has occurred to mourning.
    The implication is that after a sufficient time elapse, the remains are ‘forgotten’ in the sense of entering a nebulous oblivion. It is in this context in which the Reich team’s usage of ancient bone must be considered.

    In England, the law and custom is different, in that a grave is supposedly owned ‘in perpetuity’ and allegedly is never disturbed. But, it is normal practice to ‘reuse’ graves after around 70 to 80 years, the gravedigger placing the ‘old’ bones deeper in the same grave.
    The churchyards of ancient English churches are often a good yard higher than the surrounding ground. This represents an osseous layer of reinterred bones.

  41. Anonymous[817] • Disclaimer says:
    @Steve Sailer
    @Anonymous

    I thought it was 8 percent?

    Replies: @Anonymous

    Look at the article again.
    I had to double look. I’m sure he wrote 50%, or ‘half’.

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
    @Anonymous

    Hawks knows about a million times more about this stuff I do.

    Replies: @jb

    , @MEH 0910
    @Anonymous


    Up to half of the ancestry of West African people may represent an ancient “ghost” population long diverged from other modern humans.
     
    https://twitter.com/johnhawks/status/984427303223603200

    https://twitter.com/johnhawks/status/984428211814785025

    Replies: @utu

  42. @Anonymous
    @Steve Sailer

    Look at the article again.
    I had to double look. I'm sure he wrote 50%, or 'half'.

    Replies: @Steve Sailer, @MEH 0910

    Hawks knows about a million times more about this stuff I do.

    • Replies: @jb
    @Steve Sailer

    I haven't started reading Reich's book yet, and normally I like reading a book from beginning to end rather than jumping in in the middle, but I was interested enough in this case to make an exception. Without a more careful read it's hard to be certain, but it looks to me like Hawks (or a WSJ editor) may have gotten it wrong. Excerpting from page 212 in the chapter "Rejoining Africa to the Human Story":


    ...This could be explained if the West African populations harbor more ancestry from one of the early-splitting populations than is the case for non-African populations. Perhaps all present-day humans are a mixture of two highly divergent ancestral groups, with the largest proportion in West Africans, but all populations inheriting DNA from both.
    ...
    ...Because this mixture was closer to 50/50, it is not even clear which one of the source populations should properly be considered archaic and which modern...

     

    This is the closest I could find to "West Africans are 50 percent modern human and 50 percent archaic," but what actually seems to be being said here is that all modern humans may derive from an old merging of highly divergent groups, and that West Africans simply ended up with a bit more from one group than the rest of us. Much more in line with what I've been reading up to now (and considerably less incendary!)
  43. Anonymous[817] • Disclaimer says:

    Of course, if a body happens to be buried in an acidic soil, it will, over the course of time ‘leach away’ so that not a trace remains, apart from an outline shadow.

    A recent case involves Cardinal John Henry Newman, who was buried in a cemetery in Birmingham, England, over a hundred years ago.
    Around 10 years ago, it was decided to exhume Cardinal Newman’s remains in order to inter them as ‘sacred relics’ in a Catholic church. So, duelly, an exhumation team arrived at Cardinal Newman’s grave. On excavation, nothing was found except a few brass coffin fittings.

  44. @SimplePseudonymicHandle
    @Luke Lea

    It very likely has something to do with it.
    The British are a rich pool of archaeo-European genes (i.e.: pre-Indo-European) and their primary Indo-European colonizers were Celts who came to Europe in a pre-historic era long before other Indo-Europeans arrived in Italy and Greece, or later still again, in north-central Europe.

    Add to that other invasions and occupations, often from Scandinavians, and there's every reason to expect distinctiveness.

    Replies: @gcochran, @Flip

    None of that is rue.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
    @gcochran

    He'll rue the day he posted that comment.

    , @SimplePseudonymicHandle
    @gcochran

    Yes, yes, and the sun doesn't rise in the east either.

  45. @Wizard of Oz
    @gcochran

    You are saying therefore that very few of the earlier population's mitochondrial DNA survived because few of the then native women of the generations when the Bell- Beaker people invaded survived to become mothers and grandmothers of the future generations? Or could it mostly be a result of the invaders bring very much more numerous, perhaps because their technology allowed for bigger populations?

    Replies: @gcochran

    Massacre, probably. The incoming Bell Beakers did very little farming, the previous inhabitants had farmed when possible.

  46. @SimplePseudonymicHandle
    @gcochran

    Be specific: what, exactly, "does not"?

    R-M343 is wildly more common on the British isles to the exclusion of all other groups, far more so than it is elsewhere in Europe. That's not saying it isn't common in the rest of Europe - it is - but it's pretty clear in a way that jumps off the page and grabs hold of the eyeballs that something "special" happened on the British isles sometime before people were keeping records.

    I don't think many anthropologists are hypothesizing that the British isles were colonized by the bell beakers.

    Replies: @gcochran

    They don’t have to hypothesize: they now know.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25738

    The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe

    This was approximately known a long time ago, from skulls.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
    @gcochran

    The Beaker folk were brachycephalic.

    The modern English, as a rule are dolichocephalic. Brachycephaly is strongly connected with continental Europe, particularly east and central Europe ('Alpine' types).
    If 90% of English ancestry is attributable to Beaker folk, then there's a dichotomy here.

    , @SimplePseudonymicHandle
    @gcochran

    The subject is the British isles, it's interesting that you keep trying to change the subject.

    There were archaic (pre-Indo-European) peoples in north, north-west and north-central Europe long before the Bell Beakers.

    There's this Haplogroup you might want to look into, I. There's also a relationship between R-M343 and R-M420, you may wish to look into that relationship. There's a sort of waterfall pattern in the distribution of R-M420, R-M343, and R-M420/R-M343-v-I, that streams out as you move in a counterclockwise pattern from far-east to far-west Europe.

    These are available in maps and tables a Google's search away. There's a reason why we have different terms for "Nordic", "Scandinavian", "Celt", and "Aryan". It's going to require that you expand your knowledge beyond Bell Beakers and a possible dose of confirmation-bias to understand what those terms mean and why there isn't just one. You have nothing to be threatened by what you'll discover.

  47. @gcochran
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    None of that is rue.

    Replies: @Anonymous, @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    He’ll rue the day he posted that comment.

  48. @gcochran
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    They don't have to hypothesize: they now know.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25738

    The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe

    This was approximately known a long time ago, from skulls.

    Replies: @Anonymous, @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    The Beaker folk were brachycephalic.

    The modern English, as a rule are dolichocephalic. Brachycephaly is strongly connected with continental Europe, particularly east and central Europe (‘Alpine’ types).
    If 90% of English ancestry is attributable to Beaker folk, then there’s a dichotomy here.

  49. @Roger
    Can someone please filter out all the PC euphemisms, and tell me in plain english what the new research found?

    Replies: @emerson

    Agree. I don’t know if Steve is attempting to be funny or sarcastic or what.
    One thing that did stand out is Reich’s refusal to have a DNA test because caucasians with high IQs do not come from the loins of Abraham. The land of Ur is current day Iraq, where the people are extremely dark and the average IQ is in the mid eighties.
    Reich knows the Ashkenazi average IQ of 115 did not come from Abraham.
    It came from Khazaria (Russia).
    So can we trust Reich? Can we trust Sailer?

  50. @Anonymous
    Robert Reich's short stature stems from something called Fairbank's Disease -- according to him everyone else in the family was of expected height. Also he pronounces it "Reitsch" which to me sounds like a Frankenstein/Frankensteen sort of Teutonophobic countersignaling.

    Replies: @It's All Ball Bearings, @Unzerker, @Harry Baldwin

    Frankenstein/Frankensteen sort of Teutonophobic countersignaling

    The stein/steen pronunciation has to do with the German/Yiddish difference in pronunciation.

    I wouldn’t be surprised if this was the same case for Reich/Reits

  51. @Anonymous

    … Up to half of the ancestry of West African people may represent an ancient “ghost” population long diverged from other modern humans.
     
    It's increasingly looking like the Out-of-Africa hypothesis is dead. Sub-Saharan Africans appear to be a hybrid of modern humans from the Middle East who moved into Africa and a "ghost" population of non-human primates that haven't been identified yet.

    Replies: @jb, @Colleen Pater, @ThirdWorldSteveReader

    ” non-human primates ” duh

  52. @SimplePseudonymicHandle
    @Luke Lea

    It very likely has something to do with it.
    The British are a rich pool of archaeo-European genes (i.e.: pre-Indo-European) and their primary Indo-European colonizers were Celts who came to Europe in a pre-historic era long before other Indo-Europeans arrived in Italy and Greece, or later still again, in north-central Europe.

    Add to that other invasions and occupations, often from Scandinavians, and there's every reason to expect distinctiveness.

    Replies: @gcochran, @Flip

    Most of the ancestry calculators I’ve seen show the English and Germans to be pretty similar, along with the Irish and Dutch.

  53. jb says:
    @Steve Sailer
    @Anonymous

    Hawks knows about a million times more about this stuff I do.

    Replies: @jb

    I haven’t started reading Reich’s book yet, and normally I like reading a book from beginning to end rather than jumping in in the middle, but I was interested enough in this case to make an exception. Without a more careful read it’s hard to be certain, but it looks to me like Hawks (or a WSJ editor) may have gotten it wrong. Excerpting from page 212 in the chapter “Rejoining Africa to the Human Story”:

    …This could be explained if the West African populations harbor more ancestry from one of the early-splitting populations than is the case for non-African populations. Perhaps all present-day humans are a mixture of two highly divergent ancestral groups, with the largest proportion in West Africans, but all populations inheriting DNA from both.

    …Because this mixture was closer to 50/50, it is not even clear which one of the source populations should properly be considered archaic and which modern…

    This is the closest I could find to “West Africans are 50 percent modern human and 50 percent archaic,” but what actually seems to be being said here is that all modern humans may derive from an old merging of highly divergent groups, and that West Africans simply ended up with a bit more from one group than the rest of us. Much more in line with what I’ve been reading up to now (and considerably less incendary!)

  54. @gcochran
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    None of that is rue.

    Replies: @Anonymous, @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    Yes, yes, and the sun doesn’t rise in the east either.

  55. @gcochran
    @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    They don't have to hypothesize: they now know.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25738

    The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe

    This was approximately known a long time ago, from skulls.

    Replies: @Anonymous, @SimplePseudonymicHandle

    The subject is the British isles, it’s interesting that you keep trying to change the subject.

    There were archaic (pre-Indo-European) peoples in north, north-west and north-central Europe long before the Bell Beakers.

    There’s this Haplogroup you might want to look into, I. There’s also a relationship between R-M343 and R-M420, you may wish to look into that relationship. There’s a sort of waterfall pattern in the distribution of R-M420, R-M343, and R-M420/R-M343-v-I, that streams out as you move in a counterclockwise pattern from far-east to far-west Europe.

    These are available in maps and tables a Google’s search away. There’s a reason why we have different terms for “Nordic”, “Scandinavian”, “Celt”, and “Aryan”. It’s going to require that you expand your knowledge beyond Bell Beakers and a possible dose of confirmation-bias to understand what those terms mean and why there isn’t just one. You have nothing to be threatened by what you’ll discover.

  56. I think it was teeth they got the British Bell Beaker era DNA out of. The Bell Beakers buried elaborately and I suppose that the remains of an elite overclass (as Cochran and Harpending had the Indo Europeans in the 10000 YE book) were more likely to survive due to ceremonial interments, especially as the Bell Beakers went in for such practices. So Reich’s data may be predicated on the remains from the Eneolithic that are available for DNA analysis being a lot more representative of the population then they were. Living people with Bell Beaker characteristics (big short heads) are found in some parts of southwestern Ireland and north eastern Scotland, which suggests a hold over from the Bronze age (in difficult to get to areas not as affected by subsequent population movements).

  57. @Reg Cæsar
    @Space Ghost


    Wrong Reich
     
    He always was.

    Replies: @ThreeCranes

    Wait a minute. So there’s a David Reich and a Robert Reich; now you’re saying there’s a third Reich?

  58. @Anonymous
    @Steve Sailer

    Look at the article again.
    I had to double look. I'm sure he wrote 50%, or 'half'.

    Replies: @Steve Sailer, @MEH 0910

    Up to half of the ancestry of West African people may represent an ancient “ghost” population long diverged from other modern humans.

    • Replies: @utu
    @MEH 0910


    but I fear a man who wants to sequence every genome but his own
     
    Does he suspect that Reich is a reptilian?
  59. Anonymous [AKA "A little bird"] says:

    Best guess on where the 50% number comes from: some treemix graphs buried deep in the supplements of the Skoglund and Schlebusch papers. Skoglund finds 36%, Schlebusch 31%.

    Hawks and Reich might be rounding up. Or they might know something a little bird doesn’t.

    The trouble with this finding: it’s a giant bombshell that depends on complex inferences. If we had DNA for naledi or heidelbergensis or whatever this jungle creature was, it’d be way easier to come out and be like, hey FYI, Harvard just discovered that black people are only 2/3 homo sapiens, maybe that explains something? Naw…

    But it’s still nice to see that 2018 is starting to vindicate H.P. Lovecraft’s vision of racial anthropology. Maybe check Rising Star again to see if you missed a petrous bone? Also, figure 25 from Reich would look pretty good next to the World’s Most Important Graph…

  60. If I remember rightly, the inner ear data on Neanderthals showed that they lacked anything like the balance of modern humans. The shoulder structure of Neanderthals indicated they could not throw. Hawks was very annoyed to discover that Neanderthals were not just broad faced burly humans like him, but actually must have been shuffling targets for running and jumping “spear-chucky” modern humans.

    https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/MAGAZINE-for-whom-the-bell-beaker-tolls-archaeological-mystery-solved-1.5843019

    The Germans thought Reich’s paper was too similar to proto Nazi ideas about Aryans conquering fare and wide. However, Gustaf Kossinna never actually said the Bell Beakers of their new territories deliberately exterminated the indigenous populations. It seems that Adolf Hitler alone understood the true essence of Indo European-ness. Not the spear, but rather the Copper Dagger of Destiny was his eldritch talisman.

  61. @David
    I think Steve is being a little "special" about about bones. For centuries bones have been cleared from Christian cemeteries to make way for fresher cold bones still wrapped in tissue. Hamlet cheerfully, if speculatively, handled the skull of his beloved Yorick with no qualms.

    Replies: @Jay Ritchie, @Joe Walker, @Olorin

    Oh, there were qualms alright.

    Good friend for Jesus’ sake forbear,
    To dig the dust enclosed here.
    Bless’t be the man that spares these stones,
    And cursed he that moves my bones.

    • Replies: @vinteuil
    @Olorin

    There's just no way that the 17th Earl of Oxford could have written anything quite that bad.

  62. @Jay Ritchie
    @David

    My thoughts too. I can't figure out why anyone apart from primitive tribesmen with an ancestor fetish would mind what happens to old bones. Wouldn't most people want too see what could be learned?

    Replies: @Disordered

    Some people like cremations, others like burials, others like bone ornaments, others like bone soup…
    It’s just as cultural as other human rites – and perhaps evolutionary. Bones from loved ones feed earth as they fed us, human gathers things from earth to feed their loved ones, ergo burial of loved ones helps survival? Obviously there can be more readings (there’s varying rites and standards even within Christian sects, for example; there are old European mansions with bone decor), and it is perhaps too primal an idea when compared to “let’s use these bones to get ancient DNA”. The earlier idea makes cultural sense, but the latter scientifical endeavor is not a wrong choice at all. The thing is, humans do better preserving first and experimenting after. I’d love to know all possible about our ancestry, but these ancient bones aren’t come upon all the time, and perhaps it is better to keep some intact in case later more advanced techniques can help us know something new. And yeah the primal-cultural thing affects me too (raised Catholic, the priests still warn about spreading ashes other than at their holy grounds).

  63. @Jack D
    Just how destructive are Reich's methods? They used to grind up Egyptian mummies by the ton for "medicine" and paint. Isn't Reich just taking tiny samples?

    Replies: @Pat Boyle

    The railroads in Egypt used to burn mummies to drive their choo-choos. Not much coal in Egypt. Even fewer trees but lots of nice dry easily combustible mummies.

  64. I got my copy from Amazon in yesterday’s mail. Should I read this review today or wait?

  65. @Olorin
    @David

    Oh, there were qualms alright.


    Good friend for Jesus' sake forbear,
    To dig the dust enclosed here.
    Bless't be the man that spares these stones,
    And cursed he that moves my bones.
     

    Replies: @vinteuil

    There’s just no way that the 17th Earl of Oxford could have written anything quite that bad.

  66. @Anonymous
    Robert Reich's short stature stems from something called Fairbank's Disease -- according to him everyone else in the family was of expected height. Also he pronounces it "Reitsch" which to me sounds like a Frankenstein/Frankensteen sort of Teutonophobic countersignaling.

    Replies: @It's All Ball Bearings, @Unzerker, @Harry Baldwin

    It’s funny that while David Reich writes about genetics and race, the more famous Reich, the diminutive Robert, has been feverishly campaigning against that sort of science, as in the documentary “A Dangerous Idea” that featured him and that other genetics expert, Van Jones.

    https://www.unz.com/isteve/new-science-denialist-documentary-a-dangerous-idea/

  67. @MEH 0910
    @Anonymous


    Up to half of the ancestry of West African people may represent an ancient “ghost” population long diverged from other modern humans.
     
    https://twitter.com/johnhawks/status/984427303223603200

    https://twitter.com/johnhawks/status/984428211814785025

    Replies: @utu

    but I fear a man who wants to sequence every genome but his own

    Does he suspect that Reich is a reptilian?

  68. @Anonymous

    … Up to half of the ancestry of West African people may represent an ancient “ghost” population long diverged from other modern humans.
     
    It's increasingly looking like the Out-of-Africa hypothesis is dead. Sub-Saharan Africans appear to be a hybrid of modern humans from the Middle East who moved into Africa and a "ghost" population of non-human primates that haven't been identified yet.

    Replies: @jb, @Colleen Pater, @ThirdWorldSteveReader

    Non-human primates

    Nope. All archaic admixture found in Africans up to now comes from Homo sapiens – lineages less divergent from modern populations than the Neanderthals and Denisovans were.

  69. My understanding of the 8% or 50% issue is that they’re talking about two entirely different admixture events.

    The 8% regards ancestry well outside modern variation. This is the sort of test that picks up Neanderthal, Denisovan, etc: human variation that diverged well over 500Kya. Don’t call it “non-human” that’s incorrect. But a population that probably had a degree of incompatibility given the Neander/Denisova evidence.

    The <=50% figure regards a highly-diverged but modern population, somewhat more recently diverged from East- and Non-Africans than Khoi San populations.

    So West African ~= [~8% archaic] + [<=50% pop diverged ~200Kya] + [remainder diverged ~80Kya]. Don't quote me on the date estimates, doing this from memory.

    • Replies: @BB753
    @myb6

    With the implication that the remainder diverged ~80Kya came from the Middle East? Back to Africa?

    Replies: @myb6

  70. @myb6
    My understanding of the 8% or 50% issue is that they're talking about two entirely different admixture events.

    The 8% regards ancestry well outside modern variation. This is the sort of test that picks up Neanderthal, Denisovan, etc: human variation that diverged well over 500Kya. Don't call it "non-human" that's incorrect. But a population that probably had a degree of incompatibility given the Neander/Denisova evidence.

    The <=50% figure regards a highly-diverged but modern population, somewhat more recently diverged from East- and Non-Africans than Khoi San populations.

    So West African ~= [~8% archaic] + [<=50% pop diverged ~200Kya] + [remainder diverged ~80Kya]. Don't quote me on the date estimates, doing this from memory.

    Replies: @BB753

    With the implication that the remainder diverged ~80Kya came from the Middle East? Back to Africa?

    • Replies: @myb6
    @BB753

    @BB753

    I don't think the <=50% paper is actually out yet? Again, going off memory with the Reich book, hopefully someone who has it handy can look up any references. There was a Reich-lab Africa paper in September, but doesn't seem to have that claim. That was the paper that found a hunter-gatherer cline from East to South Africa with a migration of Near Eastern pastoralists within the last few thousand years. Little of that migration reached West Africa.

    I found the 8% archaic admixture citation, it's "Recovering signals of ghost archaic admixture in the genomes of present-day Africans", preprint on biorxiv, and I need to fix my last post: "*definitely* had a degree of incompatibility", not probably.

  71. @BB753
    @myb6

    With the implication that the remainder diverged ~80Kya came from the Middle East? Back to Africa?

    Replies: @myb6

    I don’t think the <=50% paper is actually out yet? Again, going off memory with the Reich book, hopefully someone who has it handy can look up any references. There was a Reich-lab Africa paper in September, but doesn't seem to have that claim. That was the paper that found a hunter-gatherer cline from East to South Africa with a migration of Near Eastern pastoralists within the last few thousand years. Little of that migration reached West Africa.

    I found the 8% archaic admixture citation, it's "Recovering signals of ghost archaic admixture in the genomes of present-day Africans", preprint on biorxiv, and I need to fix my last post: "*definitely* had a degree of incompatibility", not probably.

  72. Anonymous[817] • Disclaimer says:

    One nugget of information I gleaned from Reich’s book was the somewhat unpleasant and disturbing notion that the deep ancestors of extant sapiens and extant chimpanzees continued in a long period of ‘fornication’ right up to the definitive ‘speciation’ event.

    Apparently, Nick Patterson is the man to ‘credit’ with that unsettling fact.

  73. Jared Diamond reviews “Who We Are and How We Got Here” in the New York Times:

    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/20/books/review/david-reich-who-we-are-how-we-got-here.html

    As with any new scientific methodology, new genetic methods tend to alter previously held beliefs about the course of human history. And some readers will certainly find Reich’s conclusions unpalatable. Japanese may not like hearing that they share 80 percent of their DNA with Koreans. Reich’s collaborators from India didn’t like hearing that their own DNA samples attested to massive past migrations into the Indian subcontinent. Native Americans may not like hearing that 10,000-year-old Native American skeletons whose repatriation and reburial they seek have no demonstrable connection to tribes living in the same geographic area today. Those reactions are inevitable, but Reich bends over backward to present both the evidence and the uncertainties.

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