Jasmin S. Rees, Sergi Castellano and Aida M. Andrés
Modern humans inhabit a variety of environments and are exposed to a plethora of selective pressures, leading to multiple genetic adaptations to local environmental conditions. These include adaptations to climate, UV exposure, disease, diet, altitude, or cultural practice and have generated important genetic and phenotypic differences amongst populations. In recent years, new methods to identify the genomic signatures of natural selection underlying these adaptations, combined with novel types of genetic data (e.g., ancient DNA), have provided unprecedented insights into the origin of adaptive alleles and the modes of adaptation. As a result, numerous instances of local adaptation have been identified in humans. Here, we review the most exciting recent developments and discuss, in our view, the future of this field.