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AP: It's Unfair That Blacks Are Given Bonus Points on a Cognitive Test for Being Black
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The AP in the Guardian:

… Race-based adjustments for neurology – known as “Heaton norms” – were designed in the early 1990s by Dr Robert Heaton to estimate how socioeconomic factors affect someone’s health. They are widely used, but in recent years, scientists in the field have begun to recognize the limitations of the normative comparison groups they have used for years.

The small sample group of Blacks Heaton chose to create his adjustment protocol came entirely from San Diego, a military town where the Black population hardly reflected the diversity of Blacks across the US.

If San Diego is like Honolulu, another Navy town, blacks in San Diego likely did above the national black average: black students score quite high in Hawaii.

The racial classifications are also binary – Black or white — even though hundreds of NFL retirees, and millions of Americans, identify as mixed race.

People always think this is some kind of Ultimate Gotcha, but, once again, it works backwards. If you dropped people like Barack Obama with one white parent as black from the ranks of blacks, the average black IQ would almost certainly go down a little.

’White and Black retired NFL players may be more similar to each other than they are to the reference populations … used to develop Heaton or (other) race-specific norms,” Manley wrote in her brief in the Davenport lawsuit.

You might think, but a 2012 study found that white NFL draft picks scored 16 IQ points higher than black draft picks on the Wonderlic cognitive test given to college players with draft potential by the NFL.

… The NFL’s dementia testing evaluates a person’s function in two dozen skills that fall under five sections: complex attention/processing speed; executive functioning; language; learning and memory; and visual perception. A player must show a marked decline in at least two of them to get an award.

In an example shared with The Associated Press, one player’s raw score of 19 for “letter-number sequencing” in the processing section was adjusted using “race-norming” and became 42 for whites and 46 for Blacks.

In other words, they are giving blacks bonus points for being black, like affirmative action.

The raw score of 15 for naming animals in the language section became a 35 for whites and 41 for Blacks. And the raw score of 51 for “block design” in the visual perception section became a 53 for whites but 60 for Blacks.

Taking the 24 scores together, either a white or Black player would have scored low enough to reach the settlement’s 1.5-level of early dementia in “processing speed.” However, in the language section, the scores would have qualified a white man for a 2.0-level, or moderate, dementia finding – but shown no impairment for Blacks.

Overall, the scores would result in a 1.5-level dementia award for whites – but nothing for Blacks. Those awards average more than $400,000 but can reach $1.5 million for men under 45, while 2.0-level dementia yields an average payout of more than $600,000 but can reach $3 million.

Breton Asken, a neuropsychology fellow at the UCSF Memory and Aging Center, helped administer several assessments around 2016, when he was a student at the University of Florida. The assessments he was involved in took 4 to 6 hours, and produced a score, which would then be adjusted based on the Heaton norms.

“So the male Black athletes that we saw would be compared essentially to a group of otherwise healthy Black individuals with a similar number of years of education and of the same age,” Asken said.

The reason for that race-norming has become standard is otherwise a huge fraction of blacks would be declared neuropsychologically impaired.

Published online 2011 Jun 24.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol.

Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version

Marc A. Norman,1 David J. Moore,1 Michael Taylor,1,3 Donald Franklin, Jr.,1 Lucette Cysique,1,2 Chris Ake,1 Deborah Lazarretto,1 Florin Vaida,1 Robert K. Heaton,1 and the HNRC Group

Abstract
Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. …

The sample consisted of 246 healthy individuals recruited as comparison participants (HIV uninfected controls) in a longitudinal study of HIV infected participants at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC). One hundred forty three participants self identified as Caucasian and 103 self identified as African-American.

The kind of whites and blacks who live near UCSD in La Jolla, CA are likely above national averages for their races.

In the first step, African American and Caucasian raw scores on each of the neuropsychological measures examined in this study were compared to analyze the effects of race/ethnicity. Table 5 demonstrates significant Caucasian and African American differences on all measures, such that Caucasians performed better in each instance. Table 5 also depicts medium to large effect sizes on most learning, memory and executive functioning indices; the only exceptions were small to medium effect sizes on HVLT-Delayed Recall and Stroop Color Naming and Word Reading.

The gaps on various tests ranged from 0.37 standard deviations on Cohen’s d to 0.73.

Figure 1 shows the results for the African American group. When applying previously published normative corrections to this sample, 24–49% of normal individuals were classified as NP impaired depending on the test score examined. Using our newly generated normative data the impairment rates significantly improved and ranged from 13–16%. The impairment rates for the African American sample with the previously published norms are significantly greater than what would be expected from the normal distribution with the selected 1 SD cutoff (Golden, 1978).

Under the old norms, between 21% and 49% of blacks registered as suffering neuropsychological impairment on the various tests. Heaton’s new norms reduce that figure to 15%, about the same as for whites under their separate scoring system. Here’s the old and new performance of whites under Heaton’s new set of adjustments:

Now it could be that Heaton is over-equalizing the races by making them both come out around 15% impaired. Perhaps blacks really are more impaired than whites on average, due to more knocks on the head, more drug abuse, or whatever.

But there was a lot of demand for a way to test blacks without coming up with a huge fraction of normal blacks being classified as impaired.

These findings strongly support the use of separate norms for African-American and Caucasian examinees on the tests used here and, when combined with previously published results in the same ability domains, on learning, memory and executive functioning measures more generally. Consistent with prior findings on the Wechsler Intelligence and Memory Scales (Heaton, et al., 2003) and expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery (Heaton, et al., 2004), we found, in our sample of 103 African-Americans and 143 Caucasians, that African-American participants obtained lower raw scores on visual and verbal learning and memory and executive functioning measures.

There are multiple background differences between African American and Caucasian adults within U.S. society today that may place African Americans at a disadvantage on standardized NP testing. The observed raw NP score differences may be consistent with disparities in quality of formal and informal educational experiences; however, other factors may also contribute to these discrepancies. It is considered unlikely that race has a direct causal effect on differences in adult cognition, so race/ethnicity is viewed as a proxy for other factors, much like has been discussed about education (Manly, Byrd, Touradji, & Stern, 2004). Factors potentially contributing to raw NP score differences between African American and Caucasian groups may include academic exposure, education quality, academic resources, acculturation, socioeconomic status, social exposure, “test wiseness”, societal discrimination (Byrd, Sanchez, & Manly, 2005; Manly, et al., 2004) and lifelong experiences contributing to low group and self-expectations (Steele & Aronson, 1995).

There are few opportunities in the literature to compare our raw score results with those reported by other investigators. Whereas this study found about a 2-point (raw score) difference on HVLT-R Total Recall performances between Caucasians and African-Americans, Morgan et al. (Morgan, Marsiske, & Whitfield, 2008) found a 4-point difference and less variability. The current study demonstrated moderate to large race/ethnicity effect sizes, but the raw score differences between Caucasians and African Americans do not seem to be especially large (e.g., an average of only 1.5 points on BVMT-R Delayed Recall is associated with a medium to large effect size; see Table 5). However, these differences were sufficiently robust to cause unacceptably large “impairment” classification rates in the African American sample (Figure 1).

Although concerns might be raised that the method of raced-based norming could “overcorrect” performances of neurologically impaired African Americans (making them less sensitive to disease), this could be said as well for norms that correct for older age, lower education levels, or any demographic characteristic that is associated with lower test performance in normal people. In our view, the most important function of norms is to maintain an acceptable and consistent level of diagnostic specificity (accuracy in classifying normal people as normal) for people regardless of their demographic characteristics. Our data suggest that the norms presented here result in rates of impairment that are comparable, and are within statistical expectations for a healthy population, for both our Caucasian and African American participants.

But now, for the NFL concussion payouts, this pro-black adjustment is suddenly seen as anti-black.

As I’ve been saying for months, I don’t understand why nobody is mentioning that rather than make assumptions about how high functioning the players were before they entered the NFL based on their race, they should just use each individual player’s performance on the Wonderlic IQ test during the NFL’s draft combine. Rather than assume that white players should have IQs of 100 and blacks 85, why not look up what IQ score each one got on the NFL’s IQ test when they were 22? That seems a lot fairer.

For example, a black tight end named Ben Watson scored a 154 IQ on his Wonderlic and then played 16 seasons in the NFL. If he scores a 100 today, rather than saying, “Pretty good for a black guy,” it would be more reasonable to say that he paid a big price so the NFL could put on its gladiatorial spectacles and deserves a bigger payout.

I suspect that the reasons this doesn’t come up are because journalists are terribly ignorant about IQ for career protection reasons. To be a journalist today, all you need to know is whether something is good for these particular blacks in this particular situation. Nobody cares what’s good for blacks overall.

And the scientific experts likely have connoisseur’s reasons for overemphasizing the differences between the Wonderlic IQ test and the Stroop Color-Word or whatever test.

The reality is that just about any cognitive test is not bad, while no cognitive test is extremely good. So, the Wonderlic score will tend to be in the ballpark but anybody who studies the subject could come up with 13 reasons why it’s not ideal. But still …

 
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  1. George says:

    “white NFL draft picks scored 16 IQ points higher than black draft picks”

    One explanation might be that blacks had more concussions playing high school and college ball than whites. Should the NFL be held responsible for football injuries before an NFL carrier? Why not? The student athlete thing is a scam and the NFL can ditch their monopoly protections and build their own stadiums if they don’t like it.

    • Agree: Joe Magarac
  2. So Africa didn’t sell us her best?

  3. Please pardon the naivete of this question, but if the payout depends on the difference between before and after IQ tests, isn’t it always to the test-taker’s advantage to score low on the “after” test? How are test takers prevented from deliberately scoring low on their “after” test?

  4. If the payout of before-and-after IQ tests depends on the difference between the two tests, it is always to the test taker’s advantage to have a low score on the “after” test. How is this kind of cheating prevented?

  5. Hoekom says:

    Blacks in South Africa were given extra points for being black and not being an english first language speaker. Such priviledges were not however given to afrikaners who were also not english first language speakers.

    So inorder enter university to be a doctor (MD) in south afriker at matric, whites needed greater than 90 and blacks needed greater than 75. But at matric blacks were being given up to 10 extra points so their marks were just above 65.

    Knowing this which doctor are going to try and avoid unless you know their history personally

    • Agree: Gordo
  6. Polistra says:

    The obvious next step–for which the groundwork has already been laid–will be to forbid any discussion or even acknowledgement that so-called ‘race norming’ is taking place. Much as with the way all ‘Good Whites’ already know better than to acknowledge the reality of violent crime, unless they can somehow blame (other) whites for it.

    The working mechanics of the system will be completely off-limits to the masses, who will probably be brainwashed to the contrary anyway. Even as the apparatus becomes ever more byzantine in its structure. ‘Tis the nature of the beast.

  7. @Redneck farmer

    So Africa didn’t sell us her best?

    Obvious that Africa didn’t sell us her fastest – the one we got were the ones who got caught.

  8. lavoisier says: • Website
    @Mark Spahn (West Seneca, NY)

    Excellent question. Few individuals would be proud to have a test that indicate they are cognitively impaired, but a big payout for demonstrating one is demented might be an incentive to dumb oneself down on a test.

  9. @Mark Spahn (West Seneca, NY)

    You’d have a point here if it wasn’t the case that the b/w gap surfaces in the tests taken after the players had been injured as well, I’d say.

  10. This is an important issue, and it is excellent to see it being discussed. Regardless of race, judging whether a person has lost cognitive ability is fairly complex, unless you have prior measures. In this case they exist, in the form of Wonderlic scores, so as Steve says, they could form the basis for calculations of post-brain-injury cognitive deficits. Extensive testing for “lack of effort”, also known as “faking bad” would have to be used to ensure the claimants were providing real examples of their abilities.

  11. Ralph L says:
    @Mark Spahn (West Seneca, NY)

    They have to hope they’ll play for pride.

    “So Africa didn’t sell us her best?”

    From memory, US blacks’ average was similar to North Africa’s, Sub-Saharan was considerably worse.

    • Replies: @John Johnson
  12. Paying people to fail tests will result in a lot of failures. I don’t understand how this could ever be accurate.

  13. Gordo says:

    The reason for that race-norming has become standard is otherwise a huge fraction of blacks would be declared neuropsychologically impaired.

    Which they aren’t because they are in fact wired differently.

    A different species.

  14. Do they do “race-norming” for others races, or just blacks?

  15. Anon[253] • Disclaimer says:

    About 1 in 6 blacks are mentally retarded under the old standards for that, back when you could say “retarded.” An IQ under 70 (down to 55) was “educable mentally retarded, “or EMR. This terminology was used in California school systems, and appeared in civil rights lawsuits back then.

    • Replies: @Peter Johnson
  16. gent says:

    scored a 154 IQ on his Wonderlic

    Bull fucking shit.

  17. @James Thompson

    Agreed,

    Steve is describing repeated measures. This is a within groups rather between groups differences where the grouping is individual rather than the assigned race. Individuals serve as their own control by providing a baseline. Sociologists and psychologists know how to do this.

    Depending on the measurement variability, this still may not work as well as you would think for the individual. That is, if someone takes a wonderlic multiple times (say on consecutive days) how consistent are the results?

    Between groups is commonly used by insurance actuaries where
    1) they don’t have detailed personal information
    2) they are making a lot of individual bets and care about the overall outcome, not how each individual bet pays.

    Groups are necessary when there is substantial heterogeneity between the groups. Naïve statistics assumes a single peak distribution. Failure to account for this heterogeneity will cause all sorts of weird mathematical behavior that is hard for normal people to comprehend https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simpson%27s_paradox and more directly on point with baseline https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord%27s_paradox

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
  18. @James Thompson

    James Thompson writes, “Extensive testing for “lack of effort”, also known as “faking bad” would have to be used to ensure the claimants were providing real examples of their abilities.”

    Yes, but how is this done? How can you test whether someone is deliberately scoring low on a test of mental ability?

    • Replies: @anon
    , @Cimmerian
  19. @Dr. DoomNGloom

    The NCAA probably has most NFL players’ SAT or ACT scores on file from high school. Combine a college admission’s test with the Wonderlic and you probably have a pretty reliable picture of how smart he was before the NFL.

    • Agree: HammerJack, Prester John
    • Replies: @Barnard
    , @Dr. DoomNGloom
  20. Never mind Tyrone, test Fraudsident Biden.

  21. @Mark Spahn (West Seneca, NY)

    So if Player A suffered a drop in IQ from 100 to 90, and Player B from 85 to 84, who suffered more? The woke would say that it is Player B as he has a lower IQ than Player A. I beg to differ…

    • Replies: @Alden
  22. Jake says:
    @Redneck farmer

    We got virtually 100% Bantus, the most violent blacks, for immediate criminal concerns as well as for both spur of the moment rage and planned revenge for slights. Bantus are the most arrogant blacks, probably the most ridiculously certain that their smarts are about as good as it gets.

    If black slaves in the US had all been Ethiopian Coptics, our Negro problem would be a fraction of what it is.

    But white Liberals would have managed to import Bantus so they could feel sorry for them and use them as excuses to hate ‘bad’ whites.

    • Replies: @John Johnson
  23. “these differences were sufficiently robust to cause unacceptably large “impairment” ”

    ‘unacceptably’ large. That’s a value judgement, not a deduction. So are the authors effectively admitting they had already made up their minds what conclusion they wanted before they started?

  24. Everything our elites have done for the last fifty years in connection with blacks is nothing but coddling.

    But there was a lot of demand for a way to test blacks without coming up with a huge fraction of normal blacks being classified as impaired.

    Why was there such a demand? Because blacks need to be coddled.

    To be a journalist today, all you need to know is whether something is good for these particular blacks in this particular situation.

    It’s amusing that something once thought of as a way of coddling blacks is now seen, in a new situation, as bad for them.

    With any policy, one needs to pay attention to feedback, signs that the policy is not going well. If the policy is not going well, then there is no point in doubling down, but one must select a new policy. Two signs have emerged in the last few weeks showing that the coddling policy is not working and must be replaced. First, there is the claim made by some of our elites that math is racist. That is so absurd that it should have been universally repudiated immediately. It wasn’t. Second, the incident in Columbus in which a black girl nearly killed another girl while wielding a big knife should be a sign to everyone that black America took a wrong turn somewhere.

    Of course, our elites will pay no attention to either of these signs, and will insist on doubling down.

  25. The baseline standard of black football player intelligence should be the average intelligence of the black characters appearing in television commercial during NFL games as determined by social scientists through observation. For example lets say these scientists determine this average TV commercial black to have an IQ of 135. Then all black players should be observed and their present IQs estimated. Any black players scoring below the black commercial character IQ have obviously had his brain damaged through football and so the NFL should cut them a check.

    Of course this same system applied to whites will mean that no checks will ever get cut for former white players. In fact this system will be prove that constant concussions make white players much smarter than TV commercial whites.

  26. @Redneck farmer

    So Africa didn’t sell us her best?

    One look at IQ scores from Sub-Saharan Africa seems, sadly. to indicate that perhaps they did.

  27. Everything else is race-normed so why not IQ tests?

    But I remember when the line was IQ tests are evil, period.

    Before that a lot of big firms such as IBM used to administer IQ tests as part of their employment screening. Since those days they managed to get along without.

    But apparently something like IQ tests are really really useful in recruiting football talent for some reason. Not sure why that would be.

    Conclusion: The NFL just stepped on their collective dick. /lol

  28. Does this mean we are nearing the end of football?

    If the NFL to be fair to blacks has to compensate every black player for their neurological deficits (i.e. being black) … could get pricey. Though granted there just aren’t a heck of a lot of players, which is why salaries can be high. So should still be affordable.

    But if blacks are sacrificing their brains as spectacle for mostly white fans … isn’t that, like, racist? evil?

    • Agree: Joe Magarac
  29. anon[193] • Disclaimer says:
    @Mark Spahn (West Seneca, NY)

    It is harder to fake a bad result than it might appear. Let’s say you want the minimum score on an SAT exam. You would have to get every answer wrong. Which means you would have to KNOW every answer and mark an alternative answer.
    Or, consider that it is thought to easy to lose money in the stock market. Hoovever if you could reliably lose money, then you could take advantage of short selling and do the opposite. In realty, picking losers is just as hard as picking winners.

  30. Marquis says:
    @George

    On what basis do you make that assumption? These are all star players in college (and hs too, obviously), so presumably playing time wouldn’t differ much. On top of that, the score gap is pretty close to what we observe in non-football players.

    There’s no doubt college concussions would contribute, but why would one group suffer more at that level?

    • Replies: @Bnmhfhjk
    , @George
  31. This football game sounds really dangerous. If it really results in the brain damage they allege, it should be cancelled.

    I’m not joking. I visited an elderly relative yesterday who is losing cognitive ability and it’s making her depressed and fearful. It was heartbreaking. Imagine going through this process not in your 80’s, but in your 40’s.

  32. @Jake

    If black slaves in the US had all been Ethiopian Coptics, our Negro problem would be a fraction of what it is.

    Liberals pretend to recognize various groups of Africans but they want everyone to believe they are cultural differences. Once you acknowledge that Bantu and San are different in character it becomes difficult to believe that Bantu are actually European underneath (or are they San?).

    But white Liberals would have managed to import Bantus so they could feel sorry for them and use them as excuses to hate ‘bad’ whites.

    Liberalism would never have gotten to that stage. Without American Bantu the lying egalitarian would never have been granted so much cultural and political capital to “fix” the problem. In that scenario Anthropology would not have been corrupted by liberals and all these differences would have been mapped to the DNA level by now.

  33. @Ralph L

    From memory, US blacks’ average was similar to North Africa’s, Sub-Saharan was considerably worse.

    US Blacks are mixed so that really tells us little about the slaves that were sold.

    Haiti would have a closer population but they have probably suffered from UN welfare dysgenics.

  34. @George

    As I’ve been saying for months, I don’t understand why nobody is mentioning that rather than make assumptions about how high functioning the players were before they entered the NFL based on their race, they should just use each individual player’s performance on the Wonderlic IQ test during the NFL’s draft combine. Rather than assume that white players should have IQs of 100 and blacks 85, why not look up what IQ score each one got on the NFL’s IQ test when they were 22? That seems a lot fairer.

    Since every one of them took the SAT (although it’s no longer the clear proxy for IQ that it was into the 1990s) or ACT prior to entering college, maybe these tests would also demonstrate a cognitive baseline, although they would aggregate head trauma experienced during the players’ college career with that experienced during their NFL careers which may not work as well for settlement purposes.

  35. Cimmerian says:
    @Mark Spahn (West Seneca, NY)

    This is the domain of Rasch measurement / Item Response Theory, which can be used to identify low-effort test takers as well as test takers who might be cheating.

    Essentially, how the techniques work is that you have calibrated mathematical parameters for the questions used on the test which you have calculated based on previous administrations, and you compare them to the current test taker performance.

    A low ability test taker will show a different pattern of performance than a low-effort test taker even if they get the same number of questions right. A low-ability test taker will show consistent performance re: question difficulty, getting easy questions right and harder questions wrong, but a higher ability and low-effort test taker will show inconsistent performance, getting some easy questions wrong, unless they are very careful to correctly estimate the difficulty of each question and get them right in a pattern consistent with the ability level they’re trying to mimic.

  36. Mycale says:

    Note the subtle editorializing of the AP, in proclaiming that the adjustments are solely meant to account for “socioeconomic factors.” The difference in overall cognitive ability between blacks and whites can only come from SES and nothing else and that is why the adjustment is being done. This is how a falsehood becomes fact.

    Of course that adjustment has now become racist because of course, even after decades of using it, outcomes aren’t the same.

  37. peterike says:

    The raw score of 15 for naming animals in the language section became a 35 for whites and 41 for Blacks.

    Wut? “Naming animals”? Is that as dumb as it sounds?

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
    , @Anon
  38. res says:

    Thanks for expanding on this topic, Steve.

    Regarding this:

    If San Diego is like Honolulu, another Navy town, blacks in San Diego likely did above the national black average: black students score quite high in Hawaii.

    That seems reasonable intuitively, but looking at data for school children San Diego and Hawaii are VERY different in this regard. As in almost the opposite of each other. This paper looks at White-Black socioeconomic and academic gaps in the 40 US school districts with the highest enrollments.
    https://edopportunity.org/discoveries/racial-inequality-predicts-academic-inequality/

    Their summary graphic is useful, but you really need the interactive features to see the important information (the article focuses on the change from 2009 to 2018). To summarize:

    Hawaii Dept of Ed, HI: SES gap is 0.46 (they state SDs for gaps, but I don’t know the reference distribution), 2009 academic gap 1.49, 2018 academic gap 1.16

    San Diego Unified, CA: SES gap is 2.44, 2009 academic gap 2.41, 2018 academic gap 3.71

    One interesting point they make in the paper (I think this is obvious to us, but I am surprised to see them make it explicit).

    Achievement-Equity Tradeoff?

    Incentives for improving overall educational opportunities may be at odds with incentives for equitably improving educational opportunities or providing more resources to students with greater need.

    If anyone wants to dig into this more, they use the Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) data.

    Their research page looks like a cornucopia of iSteve-relevant papers.
    https://edopportunity.org/research/

  39. @Mark Spahn (West Seneca, NY)

    You have the same problem when you do not use the information from tests before the career. E.g. when you say everybody with an IQ lower than 80 after the careers gets compensation there would be same incentive to achieve low scores. It´s a general problem, in principle the problem every insurance has.

  40. TL;DR: Whites are smarter than blacks.

  41. Anonymous[658] • Disclaimer says:
    @James Thompson

    So a conventional workers comp scam

    • Replies: @Alden
  42. NFL – gladiator entertainment for Billionaires. The business model subsidized by the taxpayers with luxury stadiums that are little used.

    • Agree: Desiderius
  43. Polynices says:

    Interesting to note that Watson has been married for the last 16 years to the mother of his 7 kids. Very much what you’d expect from a smart rich guy.

  44. Alden says:

    This is a workmen’s compensation issue. It’s totally in the hands of the Wcom insurance companies. They do what they do. The employers who pay the Wcom insurance companies have no influence whatsoever. Neither do the employees.

  45. Alden says:
    @Hannah Katz

    The player will get whatever his lawyer can pry out of the Wcom insurance company’s lawyers.

  46. Alden says:
    @Anonymous

    Not really. Employees do get hurt in the job. Employers gotta pay medical expenses and wage losses and or permanent disability. So employers gotta get Wcom insurance. It’s required by law in every state. Some jobs are dangerous. Football is a dangerous job.

    Black Adam Phillips recently murdered 6 White people in S Carolina. 2 of those White people were HVAC mechanics. At least one had a wife and young children. The Wcom company will have to pay projected life long wages to the widow and kids. If Phillips killed the dr during office hours it would be a Wcom death.

    Hand arm and shoulder injuries , injuries from falls , hammer falling on your head, injuries because your job requires smashing into other 250 pound men; a job injury is a job injury.

  47. Breton Asken, a neuropsychology fellow at the UCSF Memory and Aging Center…

    Odd name, odd smile:

    (NB: the edit button is not showing up at the moment. Photo may or may not appear.)

    Breton Asken = Neat, bonkers. (Bankers, note.)

    • Replies: @additionalMike
  48. Bnmhfhjk says:
    @Marquis

    Quarterbacks and kickers/punters suffer fewer concussions, at every level, middle school to pro league, for obvious reasons. Defensive backs, and running backs/wide receivers probably suffer more than linemen. Linemen, including ends, are bigger and stronger, and hit, and get hit, on virtually every play, but the backfield is where the high-speed collisions happen, and helmet first, if done right.

  49. @peterike

    Wut? “Naming animals”? Is that as dumb as it sounds?

    Probably means identifying animals. Something AI is really bad at.

    • Replies: @Joe Stalin
    , @Bnmhfhjk
  50. @Reg Cæsar

    A fellow nerd attempts a charming toothy smile, and comes up with more of a rictus.
    I sympathize with his plight.

  51. peterike says:

    Herewith a supposedly real life Wonderlic question. I find this one especially hilarious, what given the whole black thing.

    Q: Which one has the biggest diameter?

    A. The sun
    B. The moon
    C. Earth
    D. Venus
    E. A basketball

  52. Barnard says:
    @Steve Sailer

    That doesn’t factor in any head trauma the player had while playing college football. Does the NFL owe anything to a guy who had three concussions playing in the SEC for four years and washed out of the NFL in five years or less without ever having a concussion?

    There is also the question of test prep and cheating that could skew those results. For NCAA eligibility a player just needs to clear a low bar to qualify, there is no extra benefit to getting a high SAT score. An agent could do extensive test prep or arrange cheating on the Wonderlick to help improve a player’s draft prospects.

  53. The observed raw NP score differences may be consistent with disparities in quality of formal .. educational experiences

    Nice try. The quality sucks all around.

  54. George says:
    @Marquis

    “On what basis do you make that assumption? ”

    None. I am just creating a counter argument off the top of my head to whatever was in the blog post. But maybe it might help iSteve head that argument off at the pass in future blog posts. It might also be true that black kids get more concussions than white kids playing sports.

  55. In other words, a mind is a terrible thing to lose, if you’ve got one to start with.

  56. Hawaii would be an outlier. Native Hawaiians tend to be darker the more Hawaiian they are. Therefore one might assume there is less stigma to having darker skin in Hawaii.

    Also, their parents’ military careers can be affected by misbehaving dependents. Instead of a single female on welfare raising feral children with no skin in the game, you have engaged two parent households with a stake in raising their children well.

    A suitable civilian comparison would be middle class blacks living in a middle class mixed area with better public schools, raised by two engaged parents, who have middle class professional jobs, a mortgage, etc., their social-economic position to defend.

    If only we could rewind back to a time when marriage was more common than out of wedlock pregnant 15 year olds, and there were decent paying jobs in the USA for more people, instead of government benefits. Before the Civil Rights Act.

    Here’s your civil rights, you’re fired, and your baby momma will only get support if you live elsewhere. Happy now?

    • Replies: @AceDeuce
  57. ‘The reason for that race-norming has become standard is otherwise a huge fraction of blacks would be declared neuropsychologically impaired.

    This matches with a comment an Ed Psych graduate student I knew who had worked with retarded children made.

    When a white kid has an IQ of seventy, you can see something went wrong in the factory; this kid didn’t come out right. When a black kid has an IQ of seventy, he presents as a normal kid — decidedly slow, but normal.

  58. Bnmhfhjk says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    It seems like a test designed to give blacks an equitable outcome compared with others, but it’s probably more about coming up with animal names under the pressure of a test with a time constraint. Those who do better are almost certainly smarter than those who do worse.

  59. “…Instead of a single female on welfare raising feral children with no skin in the game…If only we could rewind back to a time when marriage was more common than out of wedlock pregnant 15 year olds…”

    These are artifacts of the current welfare policy, which incentivizes childbearing without a father in the home. If we want to “rewind”, all that needs to be done is to change the policy. Of course, that won’t happen, because the Ruling Class needs a dependent underclass to maintain control of government.

  60. AceDeuce says:
    @SaneClownPosse

    Here’s your civil rights, you’re fired, and your baby momma will only get support if you live elsewhere. Happy now?

    Ridiculous–if all you have is a “baby momma”, you aren’t married. Why should the govt. let you shack up with a transient sperm donor, have another kid or two, and then split up? Married couples who were below an income threshold were always eligible for welfare.

    And were there really mass firings in conjunction with the Civil Rights period? Answer: no.

    In any event, that rule was overturned in 1968, only a couple of years after the “Civil Rights Act”. The SC struck it down in King v. Smith. Didn’t fix anything. Made it worse.

    • Thanks: Alden
  61. @Colin Wright

    That’s what Arthur Jensen was originally called in to consult on in the mid-1960s: in Berkeley grade schools, white kids who scored 70 or less were Funny Looking Kids, but black kids who scored 70 or less were typically normal looking and acting kids who were just not very good at reading and arithmetic.

    • Thanks: Colin Wright
  62. Anon[223] • Disclaimer says:

    Steve,
    That’s a really high wonderlic score, I wonder how many Standard Deviations is that from the black norm?

    Speaking of black genius, it seems to me that there were more black intellectuals back then than there are now. So, I wonder, are Blacks today smarter or dumber than they were at the start of the twentieth century? Also, does anybody know why there are so many smarter black woman than men?

    I know for Whites, the trend is usually the number of high IQ geniuses tend to be overrepresented among the men than the women, as well for Asians and other groups, but for African Americans it seems to be among the women. I wonder why?

  63. BLESTO-V says:

    I’m listening to the NBC radio broadcast of the first Dodgers-Giants playoff game in ’62. After Tommy Davis pops out to end the top of the 1st, an announcer from New York breaks in to let us know that: “a second negro, a girl, has applied for admission to the University of Mississippi.”
    Wow.

    • Replies: @Desiderius
  64. Anon[295] • Disclaimer says:
    @Colin Wright

    This matches with a comment an Ed Psych graduate student I knew who had worked with retarded children made.

    When a white kid has an IQ of seventy, you can see something went wrong in the factory; this kid didn’t come out right. When a black kid has an IQ of seventy, he presents as a normal kid — decidedly slow, but normal.

    I wonder what black kids with IQs of 55 look like, similar to white kids with 70 IQs?

    Black kids with IQs of 70 are “only” one standard deviation below normal. One you get to two SDs down, the slow cognitive skills kids are mixed with the outright brain damaged kids, and that happens at 70 for whites and 55 for blacks.

  65. Anon[197] • Disclaimer says:
    @peterike

    Wut? “Naming animals”? Is that as dumb as it sounds?

    I read recently that straight vocabulary tests (of which naming animals would be a subset) are very g loaded and one of the best tests of pure intelligence. The GSS Wordsum IQ test, for instance, is just 10 words with multiple choice synonyms. (Wordsum is made for group studies, not individual evaluation.)

    I thought that vocabulary tests would be really related to your environment and interests, and I had always thought that stimulus-reaction tests, reverse digit span, and Raven’s Matrices were more g loaded, but apparently not necessarily.

    I think however it’s more possible to prep or cheat on vocabulary tests.

  66. @Steve Sailer

    The NCAA probably has most NFL players’ SAT or ACT scores on file from high school. Combine a college admission’s test with the Wonderlic and you probably have a pretty reliable picture of how smart he was before the NFL.

    This is a pretty straight forward structural equation model . If you have some some more precise measures for some of the population, you might be able to improve the estimation of accuracy.
    My instinct is that the IQ proxies are not all that noisy. A colleague who started off in psychometrics told me that once he stopped using subjective measures and relied on objective measures, the correlations went from 0.2 to 0.7 .

    The takeaway is that subjective measures are highly unlikely to be useful on an individual basis, but might, perhaps, if we avoid bias, capture an overall tendency.

  67. @BLESTO-V

    The Hundred Years Civil War

  68. @Colin Wright

    When a white kid has an IQ of seventy, you can see something went wrong in the factory; this kid didn’t come out right. When a black kid has an IQ of seventy, he presents as a normal kid — decidedly slow, but normal.

    This is why IQ tests aren’t telling us everything and in many cases they tell us nothing as far as behavior goes.

    I used to spend time at a coffee shop near a group home for mildly retarded adults. This was in a very White and rural area.

    None of those adults caused any problems. They had lives of leisure due to state assistance and would spend most of the day talking to each other. They could be annoying at times but not at all threatening.

    In college I would describe most of the “talented tenth” I interacted with as socially inept, belligerent and arrogant well beyond their abilities. There were of course exceptions but this was the type that stood out.

    A similar phenomenon exists with San bushmen. They score lower on intelligence tests compared to Bantu but are not as violent. In fact the Bantu took advantage of their passive nature and pushed them to the desert during the Bantu expansion. An amusing side note is that the modern Bantu view the San as deserving of their inequality because of genetics but support liberal egalitarian theory that says Whites and Blacks (Bantu) are equal and Whites only conspired to gain wealth in South Africa.

    • Thanks: William Badwhite
  69. @Anon

    There is an interesting postscript for this issue. In California, the courts have placed a permanent ban on IQ tests of African-American students for Special Needs placement, because they do worse than others on average. The ban is permanent and remains in place:

    U.S. District Judge Robert Peckham agreed, calling the tests “racially and culturally biased” and “discriminatory.” He ordered a permanent ban on IQ testing of black students across California for purposes of special education placement. Today, California is the only state that has such a ban.

    https://www.kqed.org/news/11781032/a-landmark-lawsuit-aimed-to-fix-special-ed-for-californias-black-students-it-didnt

    I think Sailer covered this some time ago.

  70. MEH 0910 says:

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