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Ancient Europeans Evolved Smarter Genetics After the Neolithic
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From Frontiers in Genetics:

Front. Genet., 28 March 2022 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.833190

Evolutionary Trajectories of Complex Traits in European Populations of Modern Humans

Yunus Kuijpers, Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Olivier B. Bakker, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Martin Grasshoff, Cheng-Jian Xu, Leo A.B. Joosten, Jaume Bertranpetit, Mihai G. Netea, Yang Li

Humans have a great diversity in phenotypes, influenced by genetic, environmental, nutritional, cultural, and social factors. Understanding the historical trends of physiological traits can shed light on human physiology, as well as elucidate the factors that influence human diseases. Here we built genome-wide polygenic scores for heritable traits, including height, body mass index, lipoprotein concentrations, cardiovascular disease, and intelligence, using summary statistics of genome-wide association studies in Europeans. Subsequently, we applied these scores to the genomes of ancient European populations. Our results revealed that after the Neolithic, European populations experienced an increase in height and intelligence scores, decreased their skin pigmentation, while the risk for coronary artery disease increased through a genetic trajectory favoring low HDL concentrations. These results are a reflection of the continuous evolutionary processes in humans and highlight the impact that the Neolithic revolution had on our lifestyle and health. …

Both carbon-dated age of origin, as well as latitudinal and longitudinal data, was available for these 827 ancient European samples. Broad time periods were assigned to these samples with the Early Upper Paleolithic era for all samples originating from before 25,000 years before the common era (BCE) standardized to 1950. The Late Upper Paleolithic era follows until 11,000 BCE. The Mesolithic era ranges from 11,000 to 5500 BCE. The Neolithic era ranges from 8,500 to 3900 BCE, and the Post-Neolithic era ranges from 5000 BCE and more recent ages.

 
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  1. Anonymous[954] • Disclaimer says:

    So it’s now a qualified, scientific fact that intelligence is heritable, and correlates with race enough for our leaders to make important, scientifically informed decisions for the good of this country.

    I’m relieved that this has finally been settled! Now we can reasonably shut down our borders for a few years, while we craft new comprehensive immigration and especially deportation policy.

    Never thought I’d see this happen in my lifetime, quite frankly!

    God bless us, everyone!! 😌

    • Replies: @Corvinus
  2. So it takes more brains to make it as a farmer than hunter-gatherer? Surprise! Surprise! Surprise!
    Also, awaiting the sub-Saharan African results.

  3. Our results revealed that after the Neolithic, European populations experienced an increase in height and intelligence scores, decreased their skin pigmentation, while the risk for coronary artery disease increased through a genetic trajectory favoring low HDL concentrations.

    Congratulations to all the psychologists, physical anthropologists and medics who were there at the time to record all of these changes. This pushes back the birth of writing by at least 5 or 6 thousand years. I’m looking forward for future articles by Mr Steve on this very subject !

  4. I do hope they took account of the replacement of the Early European Farmers by our Aryan Ubermensch Indo-European speaking ancestors ca 3,000 BC…

    • Replies: @Batman
    , @S. Anonyia
  5. Yunus Kuijpers, Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Olivier B. Bakker, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Martin Grasshoff, Cheng-Jian Xu, Leo A.B. Joosten, Jaume Bertranpetit, Mihai G. Netea, Yang Li

    Humans have a great diversity in phenotypes…

    …not to mention first and last names.

    Our dog just woke up and started barking because the solstice is a day away. Well, not directly… It’s just the start of the annual Dogmeat Festival in Yulin. She heard the plaintive cries from the previous one on this video:

    Pictures From Yulin Dog Meat Festival Show Heartbreaking Cruelty of Event

    “There have been many appeals over the years for the authorities to introduce a ban, and this is certainly supported and boosted by support from the West,” [Peter] Li said.

    In other words, white supremacism!

    As an aside, who’da thunk Chinese butts could get this large?

    [MORE]

  6. Batman says:
    @Simon in London

    The Yamnaya didn’t really “replace” anyone genetically or even culturally. Their language and the pagan religion of course spread like wildfire. And there is slight introduction of their Y-chromosome DNA into the cultures, meaning a little Conan the Barbarian spread by killing the men and taking their women. But the Corded Ware and Bell Beaker cultures survived their interactions with the first nomadic steppe horsemen just as subsequent Europeans have survived interactions with dozens of flavors of successor horsemen.

    • Disagree: YetAnotherAnon
    • Replies: @Coemgen
    , @Anon
  7. Inverness says:

    Yunus Kuijpers, Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Olivier B. Bakker, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Martin Grasshoff, Cheng-Jian Xu, Leo A.B. Joosten, Jaume Bertranpetit, Mihai G. Netea, Yang Li

    TFW Steve may be trolling you

    Steve Trolling. Like Rick Rolling but with even more of that awesome rhythm.

  8. Careful Steve, You are treading on dangerous ground. You risk expulsion from the Civ-Nat movement.
    Next up : Segregation.

    But the US might be about done anyway.
    https://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2022/06/updated-list-us-based-food-manufacturing-plants-destroyed-biden-administration/

  9. dearieme says:

    using summary statistics of genome-wide association studies in [modern!] Europeans … we applied these scores to the genomes of ancient European populations.

    But it all hinges on an untested (and perhaps untestable) assumption.

    The neolithic Europeans came originally from modern Turkey. Their successors came from the steppes of modern Ukraine/Russia. Different people – and we don’t know whether GWAS results from the descendants of the latter apply to the former. It’s quite an assumption: their results depend on it entirely.

    So a definite maybe. Mind you, if somebody had shown that modern European GWAS results apply to every race in the modern world that would be suggestive.

    • Thanks: Almost Missouri
  10. “Our results revealed that after the Neolithic, European populations experienced an increase in height and intelligence scores, …”

    Intelligence *scores*? Putting aside the huge controversy about whether IQ tests measure intelligence or just high-grade autism, did these researhers also develop time-machines that allowed them to go back in time and test the intelligence of pre-Neolithic populations and compare to that of modern Europeans?

    This article smells of BS to me.

    • Replies: @bomag
    , @Almost Missouri
  11. Charon says:

    Less clear is why the partisans are holding aloft a framed photo of Congressman Madison Cawthorn.

  12. Charon says:

    In other news, Amazon is projected to run out of migrant workers for its warehouses by late next year. Its employee churn is over 150% annually. What could possibly be a solution? Improve working conditions? Or increase immigration? It’s a dilemma.

    https://mol.im/a/10933021

    • Replies: @Muggles
  13. SFG says:

    We’ll see how long before it gets found by wokies and a retraction forced.

  14. Coemgen says:
    @Batman

    Maybe not “Yamnaya” but Bronze Age continentals nearly totally replaced Stone Age Britons:

    “… the spread of the Bell Beaker culture to Britain from the lower Rhine area in the early Bronze Age introduced high levels of steppe-related ancestry, resulting in a near-complete transformation of the local gene pool within a few centuries, replacing about 90% of the local Neolithic-derived lineages …” [source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_the_British_Isles#Bronze_Age_European_Bell_Beaker_People%5D

  15. bomag says:
    @Bill Jones

    From your link, the number of chickens killed is astonishing.

    In the neighborhood of 42 million.

    • Replies: @BB753
  16. bomag says:
    @Zero Philosopher

    I wondered about this; their metric for measuring intelligence.

    I’m supposing they had a list of genetic markers that correlate with intelligence.

  17. Anon[984] • Disclaimer says:
    @Redneck farmer

    That’s not what it says. It says intelligence increased AFTER the neolithic, meaning after the Steppe populations (pastoralists) rolled over the farmers. It definitely requires more intelligence to be a hunter gatherer than a farmer. The steppe pastoralists were closer to hunter gatherers than farmers.

  18. Anon[984] • Disclaimer says:
    @Batman

    You have it completely wrong. There was no induction of Yamnaya Y-DNA haplogroups. Corded Ware and Bell Beakers completely lack Yamnaya Y-DNA haplogroups (namely the Z2103 clade of R1b typical of Yamnaya males). The real “Conan the Barbarian” types were Corded Ware and Bell Beakers, who share only mtDNA and autosomal DNA with Yamnaya.

  19. Batman says:
    @Coemgen

    My understanding is that’s less due to the steppe invaders killing them off and more due to breeding levels. Dairy farming was an incredible technological leap. It was technology that allowed man to convert useless calories (grass) into highly nutritious calories (milk, and occasionally meat). You can support a lot more kids as a dairy farmer than as a stone age subsistence farmer.

    • Replies: @Coemgen
  20. @Charon

    Less clear is why the partisans are holding aloft a framed photo of Congressman Madison Cawthorn.

    It’s their way of propositioning us.

  21. Modern Americans evolved dumber genetics after exposure to Wokism.
    This headline caught my attention.

    5 men steal dozens of ATMs in Brooklyn and Queens, NYPD says

    https://www.fox5ny.com/news/5-men-steal-dozens-atms-in-brooklyn-queens-police

    Apparently the NYPD have good enough images to determine age and sex but not race.

    It’s not even color-blindness because black/White differentiation would be good enough.

    Getting \$60k from 37 ATM’s seems like peanuts, less than \$2k per machine? My standard withdrawal if \$500.

  22. @Verymuchalive

    Congratulations to all the psychologists, physical anthropologists and medics who were there at the time to record all of these changes.

    Heh.

    Obviously, they’re measuring ancient genetic patterns that are associated in modern populations with these things, rather than going back in time and measuring intelligence scores, HDL concentrations, etc. directly.

    Does that mean that ancient people with certain similar genetic signatures to modern people had certain similar traits? Maybe. To the extent that the those traits can be measured for past populations, the correlation is usually pretty good. OTOH, just because you have genetic propensity for something doesn’t mean that you automatically have that thing. For instance, the authors note that though the Neolithic populations retained genetics for height, actual skeletal measurements of height nevertheless decreased during that period, probably due to nutritional and disease adversity:

    genetic modeling shows that [the genetic pattern for] standing height remained relatively constant between the Paleolithic and Neolithic period. This suggests that the decrease in [actually measured] height based on skeletal measurements was strongly driven by environmental factors such as infections and diet.

    In other words, you can maintain or even improve your genetic situation without getting much to show for in real world results because environmental conditions preclude reaching your genetic potential for many generations.

    And yes, it is misleading that they write things like, “standing height” and “fluid intelligence” when they really mean “genetic patterns associated with standing height” and “genetic patterns associated with fluid intelligence”, but even scientists can try to write for readability rather than verbose precision.

    • Replies: @Verymuchalive
  23. @Zero Philosopher

    Intelligence *scores*? … did these researchers also develop time-machines that allowed them to go back in time and test the intelligence of pre-Neolithic populations and compare to that of modern Europeans?

    As bomag says, they are referring to genetic markers that correlate with intelligence. And as I said, while it would be clearer if they would spell that out explicitly at every mention, it would also make the text much more verbose and unwieldy.

  24. Corvinus says:
    @Anonymous

    Thanks for the parody.

    • Replies: @SunBakedSuburb
  25. Corvinus says:

    Conveniently, the ledes from the study are buried by Mr. Sailer Noo Yawk Times style.

    In order to increase the matching of our populations, we employed summary statistics exclusively derived from European cohorts and European aDNA samples, which in turn increased the predictive power of our results. However, it is important to note that the absolute values of the PRS will not be accurate enough to make any direct conclusions due to the limited heritability of many complex traits, for instance, the heritability of height is 79% and BMI:40% (Geddes, 2019) (Supplementary Table S2). Therefore, we focused on the direction of the changes observed in the PRS within the entire dataset to model the changes in the genetic regulation of these traits within these specific populations.

    Further, genetic modeling shows that standing height remained relatively constant between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods (Supplementary Figure S4). This suggests that the decrease in height based on skeletal measurements was strongly driven by environmental factors such as infections and diet. Indeed, it is well known that the increase in population density during the Neolithic revolution led both to a relative worsening of the dietary intake per individual compared to hunter-gatherers, as well as with a significant increase in the infectious diseases burden (Page et al., 2016). In addition, the domestication of animals led to a much larger number of zoonotic diseases, with up to 80% of modern infections being hypothesized to be traced to domesticated animals (Diamond, 2010).

    Subsequent analyses were focused on skin color and skin tanning ease. Earlier studies reported a surprising maintenance of dark skin through Paleolithic and Mesolithic (Olalde et al., 2014), which is also confirmed by our study (Supplementary Figure S4). During the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, there were few changes in skin pigmentation in European hunter-gatherer populations, with Mesolithic Europeans might be retaining dark skin up to 7,000 years ago (Olalde et al., 2014), 30,000 years after the modern Homo sapiens migration to Europe (Hoffecker, 2009). Populations with lighter skin might have arrived in Europe with the Neolithic migration from the Middle East, around 8,000 years ago (Mathieson et al., 2018), after which we document a strong decrease in the pigmentation of the skin. Recently, Ju and Mathieson also observed that the dark pigmentation alleles in the European population decreased significantly over the past 40,000 years (Ju and Mathieson, 2021). However, the dark skin pigmentation within the Early Upper Paleolithic European populations might be due to the relatively slow adaptation to the high-latitude conditions arising from the recent migration from lower latitudes.

    • Replies: @John Milton’s Ghost
  26. @Coemgen

    Same in Iberia

    https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/ancient-iberians-dna-from-steppe-men-spain

    Beginning in the Bronze Age, the genetic makeup of the area changed dramatically. Starting in about 2,500 B.C., genes associated with people from the steppes near the Black and Caspian seas, in what is now Russia, can be detected in the Iberin gene pool. And from about 2,500 B.C. much of the population’s DNA was replaced with that of steppe people.

    Though 60 percent of the region’s total DNA remained the same, the Y chromosomes of the inhabitants were almost entirely replaced by 2,000 B.C. That suggests a massive influx of men from the steppes, since Y chromosomes are carried only by men.

    “It looks like the influence was very male dominated,” says Miguel Vilar, a genetic anthropologist who serves as senior program officer for the National Geographic Society.

    Who were these men—and did they come in peace?

    LOL

    https://www.science.org/content/article/men-who-lived-spain-4500-years-ago-left-almost-no-descendants-alive-today

    The genetic legacy of men who lived on the Iberian Peninsula 4500 years ago has largely diminished—all of their Y chromosomes, which are passed from men to men, were replaced as new farming cultures swept into the region and drove them out of the gene pool. That’s one of the striking conclusions of the largest analysis of ancient DNA from the Iberian Peninsula.

  27. Mike Tre says:

    “Yunus Kuijpers, Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Olivier B. Bakker, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Martin Grasshoff, Cheng-Jian Xu, Leo A.B. Joosten, Jaume Bertranpetit, Mihai G. Netea, Yang Li”

    That’s quite a line up. It would only take 2 Europeans to come to the same conclusion. 🙂

  28. @Verymuchalive

    Don’t have the time to read the whole article.

    What was their IQ score five thousand years ago?

  29. Mike Tre says:
    @Anon

    “It definitely requires more intelligence to be a hunter gatherer than a farmer. ”

    Really? I have a hard time believing that. Did pre-colonial SS Africa have farming? We could refer to their history books and… oh wait nevermind.

    • Troll: Corvinus
    • Replies: @Malla
  30. @dearieme

    The neolithic Europeans came originally from modern Turkey. Their successors came from the steppes of modern Ukraine/Russia.

    True, but the resulting population was mixed, even if primarily steppe males + neolithic females, so it is not a case of a clean genetic slate.

    if somebody had shown that modern European GWAS results apply to every race in the modern world that would be suggestive.

    At least for this study, they are only purporting to analyze European populations, so they only have to assume that European GWAS apply to Europeans, which is not such a leap.

    • Replies: @dearieme
  31. @Anon

    They probably require different cognitive profiles. James Scott in Against the Grain claims that the transition to agriculture is associated with changes in humans that correspond to domestication in animals. In other words, agriculture domesticated people.

    Compared to agriculture, hunting-gathering must require more spatial reasoning, ability to predict behavior, rapid decisionmaking and flexibility.

    Agriculture must demand cause-effect reasoning, ability to remember and integrate knowledge over time.

    • Thanks: bomag
  32. – The reference to “1950” makes no sense as given; it means the raw data are
    in ybp or years before present, as is convention for young geochronological
    ages – with “present” being defined as 1950 – but they chose to use
    Common Era as a concession to the laity.

  33. @Corvinus

    Corvinus, you ignorant slut, thanks for coming back. We need assholes like you around to keep us on our toes.

    Most of your allies (and maybe you?) argue Race Does Not Exist. Therefore they generally avoid the idea that rapid changes in human populations since the divergence of human populations ca. 50,000 y.a. happened because that posits genetic differences between all those people who are fundamentally the same.

    In arguing that Neolithic human genetics changed, even if they didn’t manifest in phenotypes at that time, kind of blows up the current day idiocy. Playing gotcha with Steve on questions of human diversity is not going to end well for you, my friend.

    • Replies: @Corvinus
  34. Muggles says:

    Larger families and longer survival time due to better diets and more stable food supply are part of the explanation for this.

    One counter factual observation is that there are no hunter gather populations or foundational cultures who have demonstrated any superior technology or modern genetic IQ superiority over those which stemmed from the neolithic farmer groups.

    Either in Asia (China, later Korea and Japan) or in the Middle East, Egypt or southern Europe.

    Constant movement is required for hunting/gathering. Who has time to ponder improvements? Breastfeeding children until age 5-7 as HGs generally do (even now) inhibits more population growth.

    There are good arguments in some cases for “better health” by HGs since their diets sometimes had better protein sources and they had more non work leisure time. But none developed more than rudimentary tools.

    The most “successful” of semi modern Hunter Gatherers were the Mongols of central Asia. But they always adopted the best technology they could steal or borrow from settled populations. They barely had literacy (borrowed from China) and other than livestock relied on conquered populations for sustenance.

    It is amazing what the Egyptians did 5,000+ years ago. The sub Saharan Africans stagnated until exposed to outside explorers during nearly all of that 5,000. The difference, the Nile Valley and farming.

  35. @Verymuchalive

    This study basically pinpoints the birth of Whitey. Delivered to us by Steve on Junteef.

  36. @Bill Jones

    Steve’s a civic nationalist out of pragmatism and nostalgia. He doesn’t ignore the science of human diversity.

    Indeed neither did conservatives in general, even the neo- kind, until around 2000.

  37. @Corvinus

    “Thanks for the parody.”

    I thought that was your job.

    • Replies: @Corvinus
  38. @Muggles

    Well there are also a few genetic differences between Egyptians and sub-Saharan Africans, too.

    Of course the genetic differences also were made possible by the geographic isolation on the one hand versus geographic connection on the other.

  39. BB753 says:
    @bomag

    It’s almost as if they were planning a mass starvation.. Soviet-style…

  40. Dutch Boy says:
    @Coemgen

    Apparently, large replacement of males was the rule on the continent but not on the Scandinavian peninsula, where about one third of the males possess I1 Y DNA, a pre-Indo-European haplogroup.

  41. @Anon

    “It definitely requires more intelligence to be a hunter gatherer than a farmer.”

    I believe Whitey can do both effectively. That is, the Whitey of the past. Not current Whitey who has grown obedient and listless. The hyperpigmentated has never been effective at hunting-gathering and farming. Too much “let the bitch do it” and shoe shopping.

  42. Corvinus says:
    @John Milton’s Ghost

    It’s not playing gotcha, it’s quoting the study that offers the proper context. You didn’t even address the points; rather, you went into a tirade like a spoiled girl.

    Perhaps you will indulge.

    In biological taxonomy, race is an informal rank in the taxonomic hierarchy for which various definitions exist. We have seen that races may be genetically distinct populations of individuals within the same species, or they may be defined in geographical or physiological categories. Forensic anthropologists (and geneticists) are employing the term “genetic ancestry”. Genomes from reference populations around the globe have been collected, with the most diversity found in African populations.

    “There is much more diversity between them than the combined African genome would have between the European genome,” says Nicolas Robine, director of computational biology at the New York Genome Center (NYGC), a nonprofit academic research institution that serves as a collaborative hub for genomic research. “The proportion that is variable is very small, compared to that which is common to everybody.”

    https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/forensic.2021.0004

    http://eknygos.lsmuni.lt/springer/657/281-316.pdf

    Indeed, race is partially based on physical similarities within groups that are patently obvious to the naked eye, but it was assigned by us–human beings–to have an inherent physical or biological meaning. Social conceptions and groupings of races have varied over time.

    –In the 1700’s, Carl Linnaeus four “varieties” of humans (Europaeus albus, Americanus rubescens, Asiaticus fuscus, and Africanus niger), even going so far as to specify behavioral characteristics–Americanus as “unyielding, cheerful, free”; Europaeus as “light, wise, inventor”; Asiaticus as “stern, haughty, greedy”; and Africanus as “sly, sluggish, neglectful”. Clearly, Linnaeus was basing these characteristics on social conventions.

    –In the early 1800’s, Samuel Morton used his collection of human skulls to link the size and shape of them to correlate each with intelligence, and his imagined hierarchy was employed by white Northerners and Southerns to justify slavey.

    –Then there is Louis Agassiz who touted that different races of humanity were of different origins.

    –My personal favorite, however, is Madison Grant.
    Source –> https://www.dartmouth.edu/~hist32/History/White.htm

    —“Between 1880 and WWI, the United States experienced large waves of European immigration. These “new immigrants” however did not come from northern Europe and represented a frightening diversity to many. The difference perceived in these immigrants was frequently described as a racial difference in which Europeans were represented as, not one, but many races identified by region (Alpine, Mediterranean, Slavic and Nordic) or by alleged head shape (roundheads, slopeheads). Madison Grant, a biologist and curator for the American Museum of Natural History in New York explained in his book “The Passing of the Great Race that White Americans”, the great race, were losing out to hordes of inferior European immigrants. Grant’s book was so popular it experienced 7 reprints before WWII. According to Grant, “These new immigrants were no longer exclusively members of the Nordic race as were the earlier ones…The transportation lines advertised America as a land flowing with milk and honey and the European governments took the opportunity to unload upon careless, wealthy and hospitable America the sweepings of their jails and asylums…Our jails, insane asylums and almshouses are filled with this human flotsam and the whole tone of american life, social, moral and political has been lowered and vulgarized by them.”—

    So, my friend, which taxonomy ought to be the “standard”? Are all somehow on equal intellectual and biological footing, or is one more precise compared to the rest?

    Stated another way, from a psychological standpoint, we have an easier time identifying and sympathizing with people who look like us or who belong to the same in-group as us, even though that grouping ultimately was constructed arbitrarily. Again, in the 1800’sand 1900’s, race group divisions were based on skin color and physical appearance according to scientists, and then divided into white, black, yellow, and red. Then scientists stated there were more gradient subtypes based on other characteristics.

    Again, where is this line drawn between “the races”?

  43. anon[276] • Disclaimer says:
    @Anon

    >It says intelligence increased AFTER the neolithic, meaning after the Steppe populations (pastoralists) rolled over the farmers.

    No, it says the Neolithic revolution, i.e. the advent of farming.

    One general observation is the existence of a clear difference in the trajectories of the various traits before and after the Neolithic revolution

    The Steppe people’s invasion took place around 5000 BCE (it spanned a couple centuries)– i.e. it was relatively late in the game.

    • Replies: @Anon
    , @Anon
  44. dearieme says:
    @Almost Missouri

    they only have to assume that European GWAS apply to Europeans, which is not such a leap

    It is a leap: “Europeans” is deceptive. The first mob were genetically distinct from the second. They are both “European” only in the sense that both immigrated to Britain, France, and so on.

    Do you call the modern African, Arab, and Pakistani populations of Britain and France “European” just because they happen to live there?

  45. @Charon

    In any diverse polity, “upending the economy” with “state control” pretty much means people of color mulcting middle-class whites. Or other productive minority, which is why Oriental countries aren’t permitted to go diverse.

  46. like Michael Woodley has said, and a few other cutting edge researchers, the cold by itself is probably not enough to make the smart humans as smart as they are today. it probably only takes a wechsler of 90 to survive really cold winters. so what accounts for the really smart people today? how’d they get smarter than that, when the eskimos and inuits didn’t?

    probably population growth due to agriculture, excess calorie and carrying capacity making it so that a big, expanding population could trade dozens of minor intelligence increasing genes and accumulate them over thousands of years.

    something the ice people in north america didn’t have. their population could never grow much since it was limited strictly by the calories of hunting in the ice, and they couldn’t have a big, expansive population trading different minor mutations.

    introduction of modern nutrition would not be sufficient to boost them up to 100, which is exactly what we observe. they need to accumulate alleles.

    • Replies: @Malla
  47. @Corvinus

    Social conceptions and groupings of races have varied over time.

    But have never gone away completely. Wonder why that is.

    Again, where is this line drawn between “the races”?

    There is no line, not even a wide stripe, in Latin America. But the locals are as, if not more, racially conscious than we are.

    …his imagined hierarchy was employed by white Northerners and Southerns to justify slavey.

    As was sociology, imported from France shortly after Morton’s untimely death at age 50.

    Our jails, insane asylums and almshouses are filled with this human flotsam…

    This needs to be updated. “Our legislative, executive, and judicial branches are filled with this human flotsam…”

    “…and the whole tone of american life, social, moral and political has been lowered and vulgarized by them.”

    Pretty good prediction, I’d say. Much better than most of his day.

    american life

    It’s not like Grant to make such orthographical errors. Where did you paste this from?

    The other Samuel Morton (1893-1923) sounds more like your kind of guy:

    [MORE]

    Born in New York City, Morton grew up in Chicago in the Jewish neighborhood centering on Maxwell Street. As a young man, Morton won the admiration of the Jewish community for making a part of Chicago’s West Side safe for them by creating a defense society to drive their enemies away. The Chicago police also suspected him of at least two murders…

    Morton died when he was thrown from his horse and trampled as he was riding in Lincoln Park. He was 29 years old. Grief-stricken members of the North Side gang, including George “Bugs” Moran, Vincent “The Schemer” Drucci, Earl “Hymie” Weiss, and Louis “Two Gun” Alterie took the offending horse from its stables, led it to the spot where Morton died, and then shot the horse “with four slugs to the head”.

    Morton received a funeral with full military honors by the American Legion. He was seen off by prominent politicians, city officials, and gangsters. According to the Chicago Daily News, 5,000 Jews paid their respects to Morton that day.

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Morton

    • Replies: @Corvinus
  48. @dearieme

    Mind you, if somebody had shown that modern European GWAS results apply to every race in the modern world that would be suggestive.

    I vaguely remember that applying European GWAS results to African DNA would predict lower educational achievement. And that journalist and pseudo-expert Amy Harmon said that those results are obviously meaningless because we are talking about two totally different genetic population groups. But in the very same piece she was also arguing that “race is not a thing.”

    • Replies: @dearieme
  49. Anon[984] • Disclaimer says:
    @Muggles

    One counter factual observation is that there are no hunter gather populations or foundational cultures who have demonstrated any superior technology or modern genetic IQ superiority over those which stemmed from the neolithic farmer groups.

    Are you kidding me?

    The Eastern European Steppe pastoralists were extraordinarily superior compared the Neolithic farmers. They fucking exterminated them with bronze arrowheads and crushed their skulls with wheeled vehicles like in Terminator 2.

    The Steppe pastoralists were 50% Eastern Hunter Gatherer, 50% Caucasus Hunter Gatherer. And most of their diet was supplied by hunted animals.

    The only people left on Earth who descend almost entirely from Neolithic farmers are Saudi Arabians. Let me know about their IQ.

    • Replies: @dearieme
  50. Anon[321] • Disclaimer says:
    @anon

    No dummy it clearly says that the genes for height and intelligence took off in the late neolithic/early bronze age. That’s not just a matter of genetic speculation it’s measureable by their skeletons. The Neolithic farmers had nothing going for them.

  51. @Almost Missouri

    Obviously, they’re measuring ancient genetic patterns that are associated in modern populations with these things, rather than going back in time and measuring intelligence scores, HDL concentrations, etc. directly.

    You can only measure “ancient genetic patterns” if you actually measure “ancient genetic patterns” These researchers are measuring “genetic patterns” of modern populations and using computer modelling to extrapolate backwards to some ancient population. Direct and indirect measurement of phenomena involves science. This is just an exercise in computer modelling.

  52. Anon[100] • Disclaimer says:
    @anon

    See supplementary material image 5/6. Intelligence genes and genes for stature appeared in the neolithic but exploded in the post neolithic. Also neolithic =/= farming. A lot of Europeans in the east were neolithic hunter gatherers. Neolithic refers to stone tools not subsistence strategies.

    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2022.833190/full#supplementary-material

  53. @Corvinus

    Again, where is this line drawn between “the races”?

    Lumpers vs. splitters is always a thing. But the “races” that people know when they see also coincidentally have a basis in continental evolution patterns and objectively identifiable phenotypical and genetic differences.

    It was far from obvious that it would work out this way – but Linnaeus’s taxonomy of species has proven to almost perfectly track biological lineages identified by DNA. Likewise, his decisions about lumping and splitting are still the best, and most useful, definitions of human “race.”

    • Replies: @New Dealer
    , @Corvinus
  54. Malla says:
    @Mike Tre

    Did pre-colonial SS Africa have farming?

    I think, they did, Africans did farm before colonization. Indeed West Africans domesticated a type of rice distinct from Asians. Indeed we see the same pattern in some parts of Africa like we see in many other parts of the World, say in India.
    In India, the Caucasoid Indus Valley People farmers expand and mix with the native black Australoid hunter gatherers and then the Nordic Aryan steppe pastoralists come and become the elites of the mix. With time, they mix too.

    In Rwanda/Burundi, the agriculturalist Bantu Hutus absorb the hunter gatherer pygmies and the pastoralist Tutsi come and become the elite overlords of the population.

    • Thanks: Mike Tre
    • Replies: @kicktheroos
  55. Malla says:
    @prime noticer

    how’d they get smarter than that, when the eskimos and inuits didn’t?

    Maybe a cycle of extremely cold winters and summers. Which needs a lot of future planning. BTW Inuits and similar people use the most complicated tools of all hunter gatherer societies.
    In ice cold regions of the North, you have to constantly fight against nature, you have to be more inventive. Which explains why the Industrial revolution started in an European country and a Northern European country as that. Of why Soong Dynasty China or Medieval Europe were so inventive. Or why the early Europeans considered the Japanese one of the most superior in workmanship back in the 1500s.

    This could also explain why blue eyed people are good at long term planning.
    https://www.trendhunter.com/trends/blue-eyed-people-are-smarter-study
    Blue Eyed People Are Smarter, Study
    “Baby blues aren’t just a striking physical attribute anymore — sapphire peepers may actually indicate a higher level intelligence, according to more than one study.
    “Scientist find that people with blue eyes just do some things better than those with brown eyes,” Frost Fire Fizz reports.
    Now before my fellow blue-eyed chums get cocky, I’ll have to mention that the opposite is also true.
    “Light-eyed individuals and even light-eyed animals perform better at behaviors requiring delay, self-pacing, or non-reactors, while dark-eyed individuals and animals perform better at behaviors requiring speed, sensitivity or reactivity, according to a paper authored by University of Louisville.””
    —————————————
    The colonial British officers/ British explorers observered these differences in population and contrary to the myth that they were “hardcore racists”, believed that different climatic conditions led to difference in tendency to hard work.
    Sir John Francis Davis was a British diplomat who wrote in 1836
    “On this point the author will repeat some observations which he long since made in another place ; that ” an attentive survey of the tropical regions of the earth, where food is produced in the greatest abundance, will seem to justify the conclusion, that extreme fertility, or power of production, has been rather unfavourable to the progress of the human race ; or, at least, that the industry and advancement of nations have appeared in some measure to depend on a certain ‘proportion between their necessities and their natural resources. Man is by nature an indolent animal, and without the stimulant of necessity will, in the first instance, get on as well as he can with the provision that nature has made for him. In the warm and fertile regions of the tropics, or rather of the equinoctial, where lodging and clothing, the two necessary things after food, are rendered almost superfluous by the climate, and where food itself is produced with very little exertion,* we find how small a progress has in most instances been made ; while, on the other hand, the whole of Europe, and by far the greater part of China, are situated beyond the northern tropic. If, again, we go farther north, to those arctic regions where man exists in a very miserable state, we shall find that there he has no materials to work upon. Nature is such a niggard in the returns which she makes to labour, that industry is discouraged and frozen, as it were, in the outset. In other words, the proportion is destroyed : the equinoctial regions are too spontaneously genial and fertile ; the arctic too unkindly barren ; and on this account it would seem that industry, wealth, and civilisation have been principally confined to the temperate zone, where there is at once necessity to excite labour, and production to recompense it,” There are, no doubt, other important circumstances, besides geographical situation, which influence the advancement of nations ; but this at least is too considerable an ingredient to be left out of the calculation. ”

    You could replace hard work with IQ.

    • Replies: @TelfoedJohn
    , @dearieme
  56. Malla says:
    @Corvinus

    Again, where is this line drawn between “the races”?

    Just because there are some fuzzy border areas in between races, does not mean race does not exist. Just because Green exists, does not mean Blue and Yellow do not exist.

    • Replies: @Corvinus
  57. @Redneck farmer

    Possibly same size, larger corpus callosum. May be derived from the expansion of the penis.

  58. @Hypnotoad666

    But, but… continents are a social construct. Each supposed continent is next to another one, by land or by sea.

    Everyone knows that it’s oppressive that some folks are continentalized.

    This article is just more lying excuses for this sick continentalist society!

  59. Malla says:
    @Muggles

    In the pre industrial agriculture age, the most important driver of your economy was how much grain you could grow. Northern Europe and Japan/ Korea/ Mongolia had limitations in growing enormous quantity of grains due to climatic conditions unlike places like Egypt, Iraq, the Indian subcontinent etc… Thus in the medieval era they were poorer. Even with Europe Germany/ Scandinavia though ample in water could not compete with say Italy in food production due to climatic restrictions. A similar case can be made for Japan vs China/ Indonesia etc… There was no way England could compete with the Ganges of India in food production even though England had good soil quality. Similarly Scotland could not compete with England because of the topography of the land (more mountains). That explains why England has about 10 times the population as Scotland and was more wealthier. Take this difference and multiply it many times to get the difference between Northern Europe/ Japan Korea on one hand and the Middle zone (India, Middle East etc..) Besides Northern Europeans and North East Asian were located at the edge of Eurasia unlike people in the middle zone and thus could not gain wealth from trade passing through their territories. So even if these populations of the North had higher IQs and other favourable traits they were poorer and more backward than the middle IQ populations in the middle zone.
    The Industrial revolution changed all that. Now wealth creation was moving from Agriculture to industry and wealth creation was no longer tied to the amount of grain they could grow in their lands. And it was now the high IQ cold climate populations of Europe and North East Asia finally got their advantage over the Middle Zoners. Also thanks to innovations made in transportation technology in Britain (steam ships), moving resources from the tropics to the temperate zone for manufacturing was easy and cheap. This is what explains why India or the Middle East were so advanced in the agricultural age but now are failures compared to Europe, Japan, Korea, Taiwan etc… and the Northern European settled places like North America, Australia, New Zealand in this technological age.

    In short in the pre-industrial revolution agriculture era, land and location mattered more for a nation. Post Industrial revolution era what matters more is IQ and productivity of your working and middle classes. So comparing today’s India to India 500 years ago is ridiculous. Just because your civilization rocked in the pre industrial era is not guarantee you will rock now or even in the future ever. After the Industrial revolution, we are in a different game.

    • Thanks: Coemgen
    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
  60. Malla says:
    @Charon

    If these idiots (along with the Chileans) want to go the way of Venezuela, who can stop them. Latin America is permanently screwed if you ask me because of its demographics but that will happen to the USA and Canada too in the future because they are becoming like Latin America. Jealousy and hatred of the thuggish masses towards high civilization.
    But this in one way is beneficial to Americans. More the non White World torpedoes itself, less those populations will be competition for cheap manufacturing.

  61. Coemgen says:
    @Batman

    My understanding is that’s less due to the steppe invaders killing them off and more due to breeding levels.

    Who said anything about “killing them off.”

    The Stone Age inhabitants of Britain were “ethnically cleansed” by Bronze Age migrants .

    It really doesn’t matter how.

  62. Another study found genotypic intelligence (polygenic score) decreased in Europe since Upper Paleolithic period (Figure S12):

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-021-01231-4

  63. @Redneck farmer

    Not necessarily. Less intelligent Levantines developed agricultural thousands of years before the more intelligent Northern Europeans. Climate plays a factor.

    • Replies: @Malla
  64. Muggles says:
    @Charon

    In other news, Amazon is projected to run out of migrant workers for its warehouses by late next year

    You should keep up. The weekend Wall St. Journal reports that Amazon is furiously trying to unload excess warehouse space it owns and leases since the post pandemic Amazon retail and online businesses have experienced a big slowdown. No need for existing warehouses or more workers.

    They fired (or he “retired”) the guy who was in charge of that.

    It is doubtful that your concern over “migrant” workers there is based on illegal immigrants. Amazon is a huge business and politically sensitive (Bezos). They aren’t going to hire wayward Guatemalans unless they have SS or Green cards. Of course some may have fakes.

    Amazon pays well enough for those workers so they don’t need cheap illegals.

    • Replies: @Mike Tre
  65. Corvinus says:
    @Hypnotoad666

    Let us dig deeper into Linnaeus hierarchy, which is a combination of objective and subjective thinking. Note that in () are questions for you to consider.

    https://www.sapiens.org/biology/race-scientific-taxonomy/

    —Linnaeus based these varieties on physical characteristics such as skin color and hair color; geographic location; and perceived behaviors. For example, Homo americanus was defined as those with “straight, black, and thick hair; gaping nostrils … beardless chin” and “unyielding, cheerful, and free” behavior. Homo europaeus were those with “plenty of yellow hair; blue eyes” and were “light, wise, inventor[s].” Homo asiaticus had “blackish hair, dark eyes” and were “stern, haughty, greedy.” Homo africanus were those with “dark hair, with many twisting braids; silky skin; flat nose; swollen lips” and were “sly, sluggish, neglectful.”

    (To what extent are these observations accurate?)

    In the first edition of Systema Naturae, “Europaeus” were classified at the top of the Homo hierarchy. Linnaeus later revised this, placing “Asiaticus” at the top. By the 10th edition, “Americanus” moved to the top, perhaps because he was guided by the idea of the “noble savage,” which, in the 18th century, was used to describe Indigenous people who were “free from sin, appetite, or the concept of right and wrong.”

    (How are these groups considered “races”? What compelled him to re-rank these groups?)

    Notably, “Africanus” continually remained at the bottom of the hierarchy, and Linnaeus’ description of “Africanus” was the most detailed, and the most negative. Around the same time that Linnaeus was writing, Sweden was involved in the enslavement of Africans, and therefore it would have been in the country’s interest to portray Africans as inferior.

    (How did cultural misunderstandings play a role in this process?)

    The fact that Linnaeus aligned physical traits like skin color with variable characteristics such as behavior, clothing, and politics meant that he was not interested in identifying “discrete and stable types.” By this logic, Linnaeus did not directly suggest the existence of distinct human “races.” Importantly, the concept of “race” as meaning the division of humans on the basis of physical traits was not apparently used in the 18th century. However, the 1792 English translation of Systema Naturae presented Linnaeus’ human varieties as “subspecies,” which likely led to the later assumption that Linnaeus himself believed in human races.—

    So, if you are of the mindset that Linnaeus work ought to be the standard, what say you us about the categorization as developed by Grant? Do you agree or disagree with his European hierarchy? Why? Is Linnaeus’ work more preferable? Why?

  66. Corvinus says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    “But have never gone away completely. Wonder why that is“

    Because of the Steve Sailer’s of the world. 🙂

    “But the locals are as, if not more, racially conscious than we are“

    It was embedded in their culture.

    — The ethno-racial composition of modern-day Latin American nations combines diverse Amerindian populations, with influence from Iberian and other Western European colonizers, and equally diverse African groups brought to the Americas as slave labor, and also recent immigrant groups from all over the world.

    Racial categories in Latin America are often linked to both continental ancestry or mixture as inferred from phenotypical traits, but also to socio-economic status. Ethnicity is often constructed either as an amalgam national identity or as something reserved for the indigenous groups so that ethnic identity is something that members of indigenous groups have in addition to their national identity.—

    “This needs to be updated. “Our legislative, executive, and judicial branches are filled with this human flotsam…”

    Does that include Southern and Eastern Europeans as espoused by Madison Grant in the early 1900’s?

    “Pretty good prediction, I’d say. Much better than most of his day”

    So you do believe that the Poles, Italians, and Slavs are the dregs of society. How anti-white of you to indicate!

    “It’s not like Grant to make such orthographical errors”

    He didn’t.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  67. Corvinus says:
    @SunBakedSuburb

    “I thought that was your job.“

    No, the jester here on this fine opinion webzine is Whiskey.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  68. @Simon in London

    More like genetic integration with cultural/linguistic dominance, not replacement.

  69. mc23 says:
    @Corvinus

    Just recently came across Grant on Gutenberg. He’s certainly entertaining.

  70. Peter Frost says: • Website

    Our results revealed that after the Neolithic, European populations experienced an increase in height and intelligence scores

    Terribly written. The authors meant to say “after the Neolithic began” (which is not the same thing as saying “after the Neolithic”). The Neolithic is a period, not a point in time.

    You have to look through the paper to find out what the authors really meant:

    Interestingly, while the period between the Early Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic is characterized by stagnation or slight decrease in PRS related to intelligence, the genetic data show a clear increase in the scores for educational attainment, intelligence, and fluid intelligence from the Neolithic onwards, while the traits related with unipolar depression tend to decrease from that era on. The most significant differences can be observed comparing the pre-Neolithic and Neolithic groups, as well as the post-Neolithic and modern groups, whereas the period between the Neolithic and post-Neolithic shows a very constant distribution of PRS scores

    In other words, mean intelligence increased during the Neolithic and then plateaued during Antiquity. It then increased again during the period extending between the post-Neolithic and modern times. No end date is given for the post-Neolithic, so it’s not clear what the authors meant in that case.

    • Replies: @Almost Missouri
  71. Mike Tre says:
    @Muggles

    “You should keep up. The weekend Wall St. Journal reports that Amazon is furiously trying to unload excess warehouse space it owns and leases since the post pandemic Amazon retail and online businesses have experienced a big slowdown. No need for existing warehouses or more workers. ”

    Here’s a report from the ground floor: Amazon Distribution Centers are still going up all over the Chicago metro area. I know because I have driven to them every week, continuously, for over two years.

  72. @Malla

    “That explains why England has about 10 times the population as Scotland and was more wealthier.”

    Similarly, I noticed driving around the west of England with its prosperous looking wheat fields and then the west of Ireland with its rock everywhere that there were soil-based reasons England dominated Ireland.

    • Agree: Malla
  73. Malla says:
    @Hapalong Cassidy

    Also that fact that most of the domesticable crops and livestock were found in that latitude.
    We see the four regions of some of the oldest civilizations, the four river systems located in similar latitudes.

    Rivers + Climate+ domesticable foodstuff—-> Agriculture—> more grain—> more population—->more wealth—->Civilization—>More tax wealth to elites to fund high stuff, stuff not needed for immediate survival like philosophers, sculptors, classical court musicians etc and for grand projects. Also merchants would be attracted to these places like bee to honey with a variety of new goods and even ideas.
    The nomads up north may have had high average IQ, but could never raise the grain wealth and create the population in those days to do what the river people were doing. They had to stick to lower levels of Maslow’s pyramid. Even if say, the river people were average IQ even then, they would still have high IQ minorities among them. The majority just had to be farmers. While the Northerners, would have to spend a greater part of their day for food and resources to spare populations for “higher things”. Many a times the stronger, more protein eating nomads would invade the southern (or northern in the case of Arabs) civilized lands and become its elites. Many of China’s dynasties were foreign and were from the North, Egyptians did not rule themselves from the time of the Persians, Alexander till Nasser. Indian subcontinent was constantly invaded by Central Asians like Scythians, Khambojas, Kushanans, White Huns, Turks, Mughals etc…
    But as human agricultural techniques improved with time, the regions where civilization could be sustained spread in more latitudes. Eventually it was possible to grow large amounts of grain in places like Japan/ Korea (very mountainous) or Northern Europe. And the moment this happens (heavy plow, crop rotation), these populations take off and build sophisticated societies. And eventually overtake the original medium IQ, middle zoners in the Middle East+ North Africa, South Asia and South East Asia. I doubt that the ancient Egyptians whoever they were (Nords? Blacks? Meds? Levant/ Coptics? mix of all? ), would have been able to raise such a civilization, if they were suddenly placed in Northern Europe or Siberia with the technology of those days.

  74. @Malla

    Cold weather theory is just nonsense. West Africans are smarter than San Southern Africans. Tasmanians were more primitive than other Aborigines. Native Americans of the jungle produced civilisations while their northern cousins just clubbed rabbits. Singapore is on the equator and has the highest IQ in the world (and most of its population comes from Southern China, not Northern). Dravidians are smarter than Northern Indians. It’s just a completely hopeless theory.

    • Replies: @Malla
  75. Malla says:

    And the moment this happens (heavy plow, crop rotation), these populations take off and build sophisticated societies. And eventually overtake the original medium IQ, middle zoners in the Middle East+ North Africa, South Asia and South East Asia.

    I forgot to mention that because of dealing with the cold and thus having to be more inventive and build superior tools. European and East Asian societies were having these innovations and practical inventions at a faster rate in the medieval period. For example, while the Middle East and India with their great philosophy and Islamic golden age were using pack animals while medieval Europeans were suing carts. Same with using a sickle for harvesting crops vs a scythe. A scythe can double productivity in one go. Carrying sand and debris on their head in brown black societies instead of using a wheel-barrow, invented by Vikings, way back when. Or using a earthen pot on the head to carry water in places like Africa or India, while Chinese, Vietnamese or Russian peasants used Carrying pole/ bamboo yokes/ milkmaid’s yoke, which in one shot doubles productivity.
    Such innovations were leading to rise in productivity in some societies even before the Industrial Revolution. European societies were already seeing a rise in productivity in the Middle Ages. What this does is make economic activity more efficient and productive which aids in wealth accumulation with whatever resources you have got. Which further allows societies to support thinkers, scholars and higher things and also fund more innovations. The Industrial Revolution (Steam) in England just increased productivity and thus wealth creation enormously. Today, even Third World societies are far wealthier than their ancestors. The problem is gap in between relative per capita wealth in between nations, and this Great Divergence increased further with decolonization. And most of the source of the successes of Europe or East Asia was built up during their medieval period.

    • Replies: @Malla
  76. Malla says:
    @Malla

    European societies were already seeing a rise in productivity in the Middle Ages.

    That is why the success of Europe in the post Industrial Revolution period had their roots in developments in it’s medieval period. This is also true of Japan. Colonial empires and the third world had very little to do with it. Britain or North Western Europe having the Industrial revolution or Japan becoming the first non White industrial power was not based on fluke or chance or colonialism but on deeper developments in its medieval past.

    https://voxeu.org/article/japan-and-great-divergence-725-1874
    Japan and great divergence.
    >Table 1 shows annual growth rates of Japanese GDP per capita over the period 725-1874 and a number of sub-periods. Over the whole period, GDP per capita grew at an annual rate of 0.04% and, as in Britain, this growth was persistent from the medieval period onwards, with periods of strong positive growth that were not followed by sustained growth reversals. The major periods of positive per capita GDP growth occurred during 1150-1280, 1450-1600 and again after 1730. This latter period of growth during the late Tokugawa period led on to a further acceleration in the rate of growth as Japan made the transition to modern economic growth during the Meiji period.

    >>It is interesting to note that the first economies to make the transition to modern economic growth at the two ends of Eurasia, Britain and Japan, both built on earlier gains reaching back to the medieval period.

    • Thanks: Sam Malone
  77. dearieme says:
    @Hypnotoad666

    I conclude that race is not a thing but genetic population groups are.

    Dear God, are these people are both stupid and dishonest?

    • Thanks: Bill Jones
    • Replies: @Hypnotoad666
  78. dearieme says:
    @Anon

    Sardinians?

    • Replies: @Anon
  79. dearieme says:
    @Malla

    Scientist find that people with blue eyes just do some things better than those with brown eyes

    One of my schoolteachers was so indelicate as to remark in class “I like people with clever little piggy blue eyes not large stupid cows’ brown eyes.”

    Maybe he’d lunched well.

    • Replies: @Anon
    , @Bill Jones
    , @kicktheroos
  80. Anon[319] • Disclaimer says:
    @dearieme

    Syrians have way more Levant Neolithic ancestry than them. They’re merely the Europeans with the most.

  81. Anon[319] • Disclaimer says:
    @dearieme

    J sincerely doubt this ever happened.

  82. @dearieme

    What about us green eyed folk?

  83. Corvinus says:
    @Malla

    Not fuzzy border areas, but clear discrepancies. Your kind of people (Indian, dot not feather), including yourself, fall lower on the racial totem pole according to the European experts. Are you on board with their assessment?

    • Replies: @Malla
  84. Malla says:
    @Corvinus

    Not fuzzy border areas, but clear discrepancies.

    Not true, many question race on the basis of fuzzy borders. And definitions of race may change but that does not mean race does not exist. Any village chief from India, who is taken on a world tour, if told that race does not exist, will burst out laughing and roll on the ground. I do not know what is wrong with Westerners, that they can believe in ridiculous ideas that race does not exist. At times, gender does not exist. The West may be the most successful civilization on Earth but it can do some weird shit. In the rest if the World, the reality of race and racial differences and even ethnic differences is very understood and accepted. The concept of blood, ancestry and genes is accepted fact at one level. or that Europeans are different from Africans is accepted among traditional Third World masses. It is just simple common sense.

    Your kind of people (Indian, dot not feather), including yourself, fall lower on the racial totem pole according to the European experts. Are you on board with their assessment?

    In what way? If it is true, and I will know what they write is true, in a micro second after reading their writings. And even if I do not accept it or you do not accept it, truth is truth.

    • Replies: @Corvinus
    , @Reg Cæsar
  85. @Malla

    IVC people are dravidian not caucasoid , archaeologists have found many finds in Keeladi in south india that are also similar to the IVC civilasation, the IVC language is related to dravidian and not indo european nor is it Iran neolithic.So indians need to come to the realisation that they are mostly dravidian and not aryan or Iran neolithic

    • Replies: @Malla
  86. @dearieme

    I dont have to say anything that will show what i feel about color eyes he he .

  87. Malla says:
    @kicktheroos

    LOL What rubbish, Keezhadi is from the Sangam age which was from the 6th – 3rd century BC while IVC was over by 1500 B.C. and they moved south. And the script in Keezhadi was Tamil-Brahmi which has nothing to do with he IVC script which is still not deciphered.

  88. Malla says:
    @TelfoedJohn

    Cherry picking some exceptions does not make it a hopeless theory. There are many factors at work to take such a simplistic stand.

    Singapore is on the equator and has the highest IQ in the world (and most of its population comes from Southern China, not Northern).

    So what, they still came from China. Interestingly, since you talk about Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew himself was firm believer in the Cold climate theory, I have written about his beliefs before, beliefs which came after experience in running Singapore.

    Dravidians are smarter than Northern Indians.

    Really, I have never gotten that impression. I think it is more like Tamil Brahmans are extremely intelligent. I personally think South Indians are many superior qualities than us North Indians in many ways. Their villages are cleaner than our shithole villages for starts. But I never got the impression that the average South Indian is more intelligent.

  89. @dearieme

    I conclude that race is not a thing but genetic population groups are.

    Dear God, are these people are both stupid and dishonest?

    Yes.

  90. so how do explain the dravidian language in ivc , south indians are a better people than n indians you guys should not be so self hating

  91. Corvinus says:
    @Malla

    “Not true, many question race on the basis of fuzzy borders.”

    Nope. European racial hierarchists were quite clear. How does it feel for your race to be inferior according to their metrics? Remember, white classifications rule the day. Besides, in India, recall that the caste system has been outlawed. The British, your superiors, ironically sought to dismantle it.

    “And definitions of race may change but that does not mean race does not exist”

    Right, they change. It’s subjective in nature.

    “In the rest if the World, the reality of race and racial differences and even ethnic differences is very understood and accepted.”

    Nope. It’s contested around the globe.

    • Replies: @Malla
  92. @Corvinus

    “It’s not like Grant to make such orthographical errors”

    He didn’t.

    Well, some fool did.

    • Replies: @Corvinus
  93. @Corvinus

    No, the jester here on this fine opinion webzine is Whiskey.

    No, our court jester is Truth.

    • Replies: @Corvinus
  94. @Malla

    I do not know what is wrong with Westerners, that they can believe in ridiculous ideas that race does not exist. At times, gender does not exist.

    Gender does not exist, in the Anglosphere. It’s ubiquitous in the rest of the Indo-European world, with rare exceptions such as Afrikaans, Armenian (or is it Georgian, I forget), and Esperanto. And among the Semites. However, the rest of the world gets along without it.

    Sex is a different story.

  95. Corvinus says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    No, he is our token black man. Just don’t make him angry.

    Whiskey is the court jester. You would think by now you would have a solid grasp of our sordid cast of characters on this fine opinion webzine.

  96. Malla says:
    @Corvinus

    How does it feel for your race to be inferior according to their metrics?

    Feelings matter shit, what matters if the description is true.

    Right, they change. It’s subjective in nature.

    But Race is not subjective.

    Nope. It’s contested around the globe.

    You are obviously a buffoon who has no clue how the World works. It is contested when it affects their tribal self interest. But in their privacy they or lets say we, believ in racial differences, in ethnic differences and even genetic differences. We believe this with a breeze. For example, in a Navratri garbha festival where Gujrati Indians have their dances, there was this Gujrati man in traditional clothing doing an amazing traditional Gujrathi dance. When I praised it to an old Punjabi man, he replied, of course, it is in his Gujrati blood, in his racial soul. This ancient wisdom of traits from blood (genes), racial differences, ethnic/tribal differences in traits like character or abilities, concept of racial soul etc… are accepted by the vast majority of the Third World with a breeze, , it is taken. Ancient wisdom. It is only the West which is uncomfortable with this common sense. In the rest if the World, the reality of race and racial differences and even ethnic differences is very understood and accepted.
    Stop being wierdos and become normal and start denying which is common sense fact.

    • Replies: @Malla
    , @Corvinus
  97. Malla says:
    @Malla

    Stop being wierdos and become normal and start denying which is common sense fact.

    Stop being wierdos and become normal and stop denying which is common sense fact.

  98. @Peter Frost

    The authors meant to say “after the Neolithic began” (which is not the same thing as saying “after the Neolithic”). The Neolithic is a period, not a point in time.

    You have to look through the paper to find out what the authors really meant

    Sometimes a picture is worth a thousand words.

    FIGURE 3. Trajectories of human cognition-related traits. Max missing genotype per sample: 0.96. QTL p-value cutoff: 10–6. (A) Significant decreases in PRS can be seen prior to the Neolithic revolution for all cognition-related traits except fluid intelligence, followed by significant increases in PRS over time. This pattern for cognition-related traits is reversed for unipolar depression. (B) LOESS regression models show that between the Mesolithic and Neolithic, and the post-Neolithic and modern era large changes in PRS can be seen, whereas the difference between Neolithic and post-Neolithic is much smaller. (C) t-tests also show that the changes observed are significantly different to a much larger extent between the pre-Neolithic and Neolithic and between the post-Neolithic and Modern era.

  99. angmoh says:

    This kind of paper offers a refutation of Greg Clarke’s Farewell to Alms argument?

    • Replies: @Peter Frost
  100. Corvinus says:
    @Malla

    “Feelings matter shit, what matters if the description is true.“

    Right. The Indian (dot, not feather) has been deemed inferior repeatedly by European thinkers and scientists. Why you would agree with their line of thinking I’d beyond me.

    “But Race is not subjective.“

    The malleable nature of race over hundreds of years shows it is a biological reality that depends squarely on the cultural history of the society in which a person is located.

    For example, studies suggest that African American women—meaning females whose ancestry is directly linked to Africa—may indeed reach greater bone density than other women, which could be protective against osteoporosis, yet also report that this same group is more likely to die after a hip fracture. The link between osteoporosis risk and certain racial populations may be due to lived differences such as nutrition and activity levels, both of which affect bone density. We know that black women, like other “races”, who take calcium supplements and exercise more regularly are at a less risk. Thus, the condition is not “race bound”, but “human bound”. True, more black women seem to be prone to osteoporosis, but that is not due to inherent racial traits, but reflective of behavior (or lack there of). So geographic ancestry is not the same thing as race.

    In fact, studies have found a wide variation in osteoporosis risk among “black” women living in different regions within Africa, demonstrating that environmental conditions play a critical role in the levels of osteoporosis. And, of course, different human populations living in distinct places may statistically have different genetic traits—such as sickle cell trait—but such variation is about local populations (people in a specific region), not race.

    There have been studies that have NOTICED the biological angle regarding the differences in black and white athletes.

    https://www.livescience.com/10716-scientists-theorize-black-athletes-run-fastest.html

    We also know that environment plays an integral role as well. Kenya has won an astonishing 63 medals at the Olympic Games in races of 800m and above (21 gold!), since 1968. It turns out it is not Kenya as a whole that usually emerged victorious, but individuals from a region in the Great Rift Valley in Nandi, which ranges in elevation from 1,300 ft (395 m) below sea level (the Dead Sea) to 6,000 ft (1,830 m) above sea level in south Kenya. Thus, the subset of the Kenyan population who strive to be runners train in an area that offers a comparative advantage. So context matters here, since an argument could be made that distance running is a Nandi phenomenon. The success of “black” distance running is concentrated in a decidedly small area, with the vast majority of the continent under-represented.

    
When it comes to the sprints, why has Africa not dominated? The combined forces of several nations (e.g. Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Togo, Niger, Benin, Mali, the Gambia, Ghana, Gabon, Senegal) have not won a single sprinting medal (to my knowledge) at the Olympics or World Championships; rather, it has been the Jamaicans and the Americans.
    Just because some black people are good (or bad) at something does not imply that black people in general will be good (or bad) at something. Training, funding, and past success ALL play a role here.

    “When I praised it to an old Punjabi man, he replied, of course, it is in his Gujrati blood, in his racial soul. This ancient wisdom of traits from blood (genes), racial differences, ethnic/tribal differences in traits like character or abilities, concept of racial soul etc… are accepted by the vast majority of the Third World with a breeze”

    I wouldn’t expect him NOT to behave that way given his upbringing. Yet, Third Worlders are increasingly rejecting this line of thinking.

    • Replies: @Malla
  101. Corvinus says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    So, hotshot, was Grant right in declaring that Poles, Italians, and Slavs were inferior compared to the English and Germans?

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  102. @Corvinus

    “Inferior” and “superior” are matters of opinion, not science. The recent court decision in Japan that marriage law is meant for reproduction would cause riots in almost every white country except Poland. On that metric, Poles and Japanese are superior to whites.

    • Agree: BB753
    • Replies: @Corvinus
    , @Malla
  103. Corvinus says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    ““Inferior” and “superior” are matters of opinion, not science.”

    Oh, that’s rich, coming from you. Mr. Sailer uses science to write his tin cup narratives, with white being superior and n0n-white being inferior, in a number of categories, and you lap it up.

    So you really didn’t answer the question. Again, was Grant right in declaring that Poles, Italians, and Slavs were inferior compared to the English and Germans?

    “The recent court decision in Japan that marriage law is meant for reproduction would cause riots in almost every white country except Poland. On that metric, Poles and Japanese are superior to whites.”

    Indeed. Are YOU of that mindset? Yes or no? Why?

  104. Malla says:
    @Corvinus

    Right. The Indian (dot, not feather) has been deemed inferior repeatedly by European thinkers and scientists.

    You keep on screeching the same bullshit. What matter is their observations are on average true or not.

    For example, studies suggest that African American women

    Environment and genes both matter outcomes in complicated ways. this does not prove race does not exist. there is too much research showing the reality of race, I cannot go over them all. they are all here on Unz.

    Yet, Third Worlders are increasingly rejecting this line of thinking.

    A few Westernised elites, sure but the majority are not dumb to go the way of Westerners. Indeed after observing what is happening in the West, people are becoming more tribal because they do not want to share the same fate as White Westerners. The majority of us will remain tribal and racist till the end of time. There is nothing you can do anything about that.

    • Replies: @Corvinus
  105. Malla says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    “Inferior” and “superior” are matters of opinion, not science.

    Inferior and Superior are matters of science, but depends upon the trait you are studying. It is also a matter of wisdom. Every population on Earth have stereotypes about other populations and if not all, many of them stereotypes are correct on average. And they are a combination of genetics and culture/ environment.
    This latest Western craze that all human populations are identical or potentially identical is stupidity. The rest of the World finds this stupid but feign acceptance of this stupidity, for the gain of their “tribe”. Now the West has moved towards the next stage of stupidity that genders are identical or potentially identical. One more idiotic fad from the West, sighs the majority (a few of them are stupid too and genuinely lap up this stupidity) of the rest of the World.

  106. Peter Frost says: • Website
    @angmoh

    It refutes any unified theory of cognitive evolution. Such evolution seems to have followed different trajectories in different human populations.

    With regard to Gregory Clark, it neither refutes nor proves his model of cognitive evolution within the English population (and presumably other European populations). Cognitive evolution seems to have stagnated among Europeans during Antiquity and then speeded up some time after. But it’s difficult to say when or where because the data are lumped together. We would need a finer-grained analysis.

  107. Corvinus says:
    @Malla

    “there is too much research showing the reality of race, I cannot go over them all. they are all here on Unz.”

    And that’s all you got. No succinct rebuttal to what I provided. No counter evidence.

    “The majority of us will remain tribal and racist till the end of time.“

    You are certainly entitled to your opinion.

  108. Malla says:

    And that’s all you got.

    Can’t you read and comprehend?

    You are certainly entitled to your opinion.

    Opinions are opinions, facts are facts. it is a fact that just because a bunch of pampered Western buffoons could believe ridiculous things like race or gender does not exist, does not mean that the street smart masses of the rest of the world, with more common sense, will follow.

    • Replies: @Corvinus
  109. Corvinus says:
    @Malla

    “It is a fact that just because a bunch of pampered Western buffoons could believe ridiculous things like race or gender does not exist, does not mean that the street smart masses of the rest of the world, with more common sense, will follow.”

    How do you measure this supposed common sense of the street art masses? What metrics are involved?

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