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From PLOS Genetics in 2016:

The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

Soheil Baharian,Maxime Barakatt,Christopher R. Gignoux,Suyash Shringarpure,Jacob Errington,William J. Blot,Carlos D. Bustamante,Eimear E. Kenny,Scott M. Williams,Melinda C. Aldrich,Simon Gravel
Published: May 27, 2016

We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West.

That’s slightly less white admixture than the usual guesstimate of around 20%. The 3 databases they combined are of older people, with practically nobody born after 1970.

By the way, note how the scientists don’t even bother putting in any kind of Race Does Not Exist weasel words: they just write, “An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas …”

Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. …

In the HRS, average African ancestry proportion is 83% in the South and lower in the North (80%, bootstrap p = 6 × 10−6) and West (79%, p = 10−4) (Fig 1). Within the SCCS, African ancestry proportion is highest in Florida (89%) and South Carolina (88%) and lowest in Louisiana (75%) with all three significantly different from the mean (Florida p = 0.006, South Carolina p = 4 × 10−4, and Louisiana p < 10−5; bootstrap). The elevated African ancestry proportion in Florida and South Carolina is also observed in the HRS and in the 23andMe study[12], but Louisiana is more variable across cohorts …

… but the data strongly supports ongoing admixture, predominantly before or around the end of the Civil War. This is consistent with historical accounts of “a marked decline in both interracial sexual coercion and interracial intimacy” at the end of the Civil War. …

See the work of noted historian of antebellum social relations Sir M. Jagger.

The limited role of early 20th century admixture is further supported by the similarity in the inferred single-pulse time to admixture in all HRS census regions (between 5.4 and 6.2 generations ago, S11 Fig) and all cohorts, which is easily explained if most admixture occurred in the South prior to the Great Migration. The similar levels of African ancestry for all age groups within the HRS also support limited European admixture between 1930 and 1960 (Fig 2D). Importantly, more recent admixture is not represented in the SCCS and HRS cohorts; only two participants were born after 1970. …

European ancestry proportions in African-Americans who left the South (16.5%) is elevated compared to individuals who remained in the South (15.3%, bootstrap p = 0.04), confirming that ancestry-biased migrations continued at least to the mid-20th century. These migrants had substantially less European ancestry than African-Americans already established in the North (20.9%) and West (25.0%) (Fig 2E).

This change over time in ancestry-biased migration is consistent with historical accounts that southern African-American migrants to northern cities during the later stages of the Great Migration had darker complexion than North-born African-Americans

So blacks who left the South earlier tended to be whiter: e.g., maybe their dad was white and he funded them to head north.

In general, African-Americans are fairly similar all across the country, with Louisiana being something of an exception due to its Latin social mores. Interestingly, Louisiana blacks have more Native American ancestry as well: e.g., the stereotype of the metis French-speaking fur trapper.

A model with a single pulse of admixture (as considered in[12]) applied to the present data suggests 28.6% Europeans among male contributors, but only 5.2% among female contributors. By contrast, it suggests almost no contribution from Native American males, and 3% from Native American females.

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  1. Is there any non-Bantu African ancestry in AAs? Khoisan and Pygmy? I’m suppose there’s more chance of that in South America – more Congolese and Angolans etc (and consequently less athletic success?)

    I’ve thought of a useful heuristic for working out the percentage of Bantu origin in someone. Given that the spread of the Bantus was fuelled by the tasty bushmeat of pygmies (still a delicacy in Congo), with the fact that the chicken is not native to Africa but became very popular because it reminded them of something, then I’m sure you can guess the amount of Bantu by a person’s love of chicken. With the worlds-most-important-graph in mind, my advice is invest in chicken, before they ingest you.

  2. As to Louisiana, some of the return trips to Africa carried AmInds to Africa. Wishing to avoid this, any number of them decided that being Black in America was better than being in Africa (see also Ali, Muhammad “Thank God my Grandaddy got on that boat”), and there you are.

    • Agree: jim jones, Bubba
  3. Hail says: • Website

    African-American migrants to northern cities during the later stages of the Great Migration had darker complexion than North-born African-Americans

    When did the term “Great Migration” begin to be used in this way?

    It’s capitalized. It’s not “the Great Black Migration” (or the like). It’s “The Great Migration.” So bow down before the Greatness, all you little people out there who were too racist to qualify for even being part of it.

    All those other migrations? The settlers of the new continent? Pioneers? The settling of the West and all that? Those were Not Great Migrations, at best. (Maybe Ellis Island was kind-of-great; we’ll get back to you on that.)

    Most people reading this comment, I imagine, will know that in the US context, the term ‘Great Migration’ was historically used to refer to the Puritans who came to New England in the 1620s and 1630s and jump-started things after some lost time and false-starts (I’m looking at you, Roanoke; and I’m looking at some more obscure figures like Martin Pring; Come on, Martin, why not stick around a while).

    Anyway, the unqualified designation ‘Great,’ and the capitalization of the term, carries an implicitly positive moral judgment. The fact that it the “[Black] Great Migration” replaced the Puritan Great Migration in American English I cannot help but think is symbolic.

    To the extent you hear about the early settlement of New England today, it’s more likely in almost purely negative terms. To stick with my point more narrowly, if any MSMer or academic is, for whatever reason, compelled by circumstance to publish the term Great Migration in reference to the Puritans who founded America, I imagine they would cram it between scare-quotes/irony-quotes and maybe even make a sidebar explanation of how bad old-time people used to use that white-supremacist term but (this part not quite out loud) of course Blacks deserve the term more.

    • Replies: @bomag
    , @Buzz Mohawk
    , @Alden
  4. bomag says:

    of course Blacks deserve the term more

    Not sure “Great Migration” is an honorific.

    Kind of like “the world’s greatest graph”: “great” refers to the horror.

    • Replies: @Hail
    , @JMcG
  5. Hail says: • Website

    This is consistent with historical accounts of “a marked decline in both interracial sexual coercion and interracial intimacy” at the end of the Civil War.

    It turns out that one of Meghan Markle’s great-great-grandparents was born to a white Georgia woman in 1881 who’d been impregnated by a Black man. The child was classified a Mulatto, and he married another Georgia Mulatto (of less-clear origin).

    There may be a second case of 1880s-era, full-on miscegenation in Markle’s family tree, but the records are spotty. This 1881 case, though, is documented.

    See comment-165 in a recent thread, a review of (former British royal-by-marriage) Meghan Markle’s racial ancestry as reported in the media.

    Based on available genealogical data:

    Alvin Ragland: 60–65% Subsaharan [Meghan’s grandfather]

    Jeanette Arnold: 80% Subsaharan [Meghan’s grandmother]

    = 70–72.5% for Meghan Markle’s mom’s Subsaharan ancestry estimate based on paper-genealogy in consultation with pictures.

    Hence the 35%+ Subsaharan for Meghan Markle herself.

    We can probably put Alvin Ragland’s paternal component at 40–50% Subsaharan (both lines paternal lines there were Mulatto, and at least one of his great-grandparents was full-white. A white Georgia woman named Texie Hendrick, it turns out, bore a Black man’s child in 1881 Georgia — I don’t know the rest of that story, but given the time and place, it must have been a scandal; the child was Alvin’s grandfather).

    Meghan Markle 1980s-era maternal-side family pic, for reference:


  6. Bill P says:

    People always stress the Africanness of black Americans, but they also stress the diversity of Africans.

    This would seem to imply that black Americans are very diverse, but this is not the case. Why not?

    Well, it seems that almost all of the slaves imported to the English colonies came from Dahomey, which was a Yoruba kingdom that thrived off of slave procurement. Dahomey was not that big, and it captured most slaves from adjacent, tributary Yorubas.

    These Yorubas are not Bantus, although they are related. They are a specific people like Koreans and Vietnamese. African Americans therefore comprise a nation of a particular kind of African here in the US. Yet for some reason they don’t seem nearly as interested in their true heritage as, say, Chinese or Irish Americans.

    African Americans, even considering the white admixture, are probably the most genetically cohesive large nationality in the United States despite their apparent lack of interest in their specific ethnic origin.

    Some people might ascribe this to ignorance and oppression, but isn’t it possible that there is some kind of collective genius therein? Perhaps this goes some way to explaining the Bantu expansion. Maybe these sorts of blacks have a kind of metaphysical racial awareness possessed by few others.

    Or, alternatively, maybe we created it for them with the Southern caste system.

    Whatever the case, I don’t think it can be denied that American blacks are a distinct nationality within the United States.

    • Replies: @Arclight
  7. “So blacks who left the South earlier tended to be whiter: e.g., maybe their dad was white and he funded them to head north.”
    It is interesting to speculate about why whiter, presumably lighter-skinned, blacks were more likely to leave. Was it something inside, genetic, pushing them? Something about the north drawing them? Were they being pushed? Were they more confident they could pass or succeed?

    With all this in mind, do American blacks get more or less African over the next fifty years? I know there seems to be more mixing because everyone on TV seems to be interracial, but white/black interracial children are still a very small minority of births and black TFR is slightly higher than white.

    • Replies: @Hypnotoad666
    , @BB753
    , @Elli
    , @JMcG
  8. In general, African-Americans are fairly similar all across the country, with Louisiana being something of an exception due to its Latin social mores. Interestingly, Louisiana blacks have more Native American ancestry as well: e.g., the stereotype of the metis French-speaking fur trapper.

    Wow, a Diversity Trifecta without even bringing gender into the equation.

    • Replies: @Clive Beaconsfield
  9. OT: Anyone know who this Jorge Montojo guy is that Taki’s has been publishing? His bio lists him as “the author of numerous books” but there’s nothing on Amazon or Goodreads. Outside of Taki’s the only thing I can find that he’s ever done is co-writer on a movie that nobody ever saw called “Bluu, Last Days of Ibiza.”

  10. @william munny

    I know there seems to be more mixing because everyone on TV seems to be interracial,

    If you are a young skinny mulatto actress with latte skin and good, loosely curly brown hair (with highlights) your phone must never stop ringing.

    I haven’t watched TV commercials in a long time. But when I watched the NFL playoff games this past weekend some version of this woman was in almost every single commercial. (And all the couples were interracial, natch.)

    In the commercials, the older Black ladies (who for some reason usually seemed to be making or serving food at interracial, multigenerational dinner parties) looked actually black. But any black woman who was supposed to be sexually attractive was a mulatto-type. (mulatta?)

    I guess the focus groups say this is the diversity they prefer.

  11. Anonymous[387] • Disclaimer says:

    “So blacks who left the South earlier tended to be whiter: e.g., maybe their dad was white and he funded them to head north.”

    My ex-wife once expressed a theory as to why the blacks in New Orleans seemed to be a lot lazier and stupider than blacks who lived up North. In slave times, the worst thing that could happen to a black person was to be “sold down the river.” So for over a hundred years, any black with a bit of intelligence and ambition got as far away from New Orleans as possible.

    • Replies: @jimla
  12. @TelfoedJohn

    “The friendly folks from The Fried Chicken Insurance Company of America remind YOU; if you’re gonna gamble with the chicken, don’t forget about dah lickin’ “– Phil Austin, Roller Maidens From Outer Space

  13. @Hypnotoad666

    Hard to say if Prince Harry was in those focus groups. And with all the chemicals Megan uses on her nappy head . . . Go figure.

    • Replies: @Bill Jones
  14. @Hail

    Well one can only guess that Tom Jr. had quite an influence on Megan’s mate selection preferences.

    • Replies: @Hail
  15. @Hypnotoad666

    As the old received wisdom says , “Bueno pah gustar…mulaaaaaaaatta

    • Replies: @Jim bob Lassiter
  16. @Hail

    … the term ‘Great Migration’ was historically used to refer to the Puritans who came to New England in the 1620s and 1630s…

    We are supposed to think of that as the beginning of a ‘holocaust,’ but that term has been co-opted too.

    • Replies: @Hail
  17. mmack says:

    Well Steve I do know one place where genomic diversity ain’t allowed: Miami F-L-A:

    I know it’s the plebeian Post and not the patrician Times that you read for post subjects, but it raises an unasked question: Why is Officer Ortiz claiming to be Black via the ‘One Drop’ Rule? I’m old enough to remember Richard Prior in The Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars & Motor Kings playing a character that first tried to pass himself off as Cuban, and later, Native-American (shades of Liz Warren) to get past the color barrier in the segregated MLB of the 1930’s. This is the first time I’ve seen a Latino (his picture at the Post makes him look as white as I am) try to pass for African-American. Perhaps he felt he wasn’t Latin enough to get promoted and claimed discrimination since he was really Black? The odd thing is he seems to have had a good career. Perhaps he was passed over for Chief?

    As an aside, reading the story we have found the ONE thing the Police Union won’t defend an officer for doing: Claiming they’re of a different race.

    • Replies: @Anon
    , @Rob
  18. Arclight says:
    @Bill P

    I wouldn’t say there is a total lack of interest but often there is misplaced association with places and people in Africa to which they are not at all related but latch onto because they were relatively developed or powerful in the past. You often see the use of Swahili words in AA naming of kids or organizations despite they have no historical link to the populations that used this language. Kenya is a not uncommon name for girls, but again the actual country is located far from where any American black descendant of slaves would have any ancestors.

    The reality is that they had the links to their history and associated traditions severed generations ago, which I think would be tough for a lot of people looking for identity. I realize not everyone maintains traditions or an affinity for their ancestral homelands, but coming from a family and ethnic background that does, I’m grateful to have it.

    What I have noticed is the Southern cultural influence still shows up in Northern blacks. Also that Southern blacks tend to be pretty proud of being from the South and its traditions, and frankly it seems culturally Southern whites and blacks are much closer together than Northern whites and blacks are.

  19. Anon[120] • Disclaimer says:


    This is still going on, the Cofnas paper:

    Colleen Floherty of Inside Higher Ed is relatively good, reporting out the story and calling around for quotes from various professors who dare speak. One guy said there is no race-IQ link for reasons that are so complex that most PhDs in the field don’t understand them. He also bitched about all the computer science and math people in genetics, and blamed them for much of the confusion.

    In other news, CalTech makes the SAT optional:

    This is alarming, since they say they will use high school grades and classes, where before they used SAT subject tests in math 2, chem, physics, etc.

    • Replies: @fnn
    , @Lot
  20. BB753 says:
    @william munny

    There’s a solid correlation between white admixture and higher IQ in Blacks. In migrations, the smarter/wealthier tend to leave first.

  21. 16.7% of the genes in black bodies think that they are white.

  22. @Hypnotoad666

    “I guess the focus groups say this is the diversity they prefer.”

    What’s what they prefer got to do with it?

    • LOL: Hail
    • Replies: @Hail
  23. fnn says:

    An interview with the geneticist author of yet another new anti-racist book:

    • Replies: @Cloudbuster
  24. anon[338] • Disclaimer says:

    More clickbait for Steve: today the LA Times Calendar section highlights a Sundance movie “Bad Hair.” It’s “about a woman battling he own killer weave and other insidious forces.” With a “young black professional protagonist seldom seen in Hollywood.”

    “What would you do if your hair had a mind of its own… and a thirst for human blood?”

    Look for it on the Oscar circuit this time next year!

    Bill in Glendale

  25. @Oo-ee-oo-ah-ah-ting-tang-walla-walla-bing-bang

    That’s “Buena pa’ gozar, mulaaaaaatta”

    Brazilians have a similar outlook– “Black girls for work, brown girls for sex, white girls for marriage.”

  26. @Hail

    That appears to be fake news. This is the best analysis of RMM’s geneaology on the net:

    • Replies: @Hail
  27. “To the extent you hear about the early settlement of New England today, it’s more likely in almost purely negative terms.”

    And yet it was their descendants who were the movers and shakers of the abolitionist movement (i.e. William Lloyd Garrison of Newburyport, MA).

    Ironic, no?

  28. @The Alarmist

    There are some other interesting cases of tri-racial communities in the Old Weird America: the Southern Appalachians had the Melungeons, from whom my wife is (very slightly) descended. They often described themselves as being “Portuguese,” among other reasons because there was a market for kidnapping and selling free blacks in the antebellum period.

  29. snorlax says:

    OT: Would be a national story if the races were reversed…


    NEAR CORONA (CBSLA) – Three teen boys were killed and another three were injured when the driver of a car slammed into theirs, sending their vehicle hurling into a tree late Sunday night in the Temescal Valley, just south of Corona. A man who authorities say fled the scene was later arrested on murder charges.

    Just before 10:30 p.m., an Infiniti crashed into a Toyota carrying six teenage boys, which then slammed into a tree at Temescal Canyon Road and Trilogy Parkway, according to California Highway Patrol.

    Riverside County Fire crews responded to find three of the six teens still trapped inside the car.

    One of the boys died at the scene and the other five were rushed to a hospital, where two more died, a CHP spokesperson said. The other three injured boys were expected to survive their injuries.

    42-year-old Anurag Chandra has been charged with murder with malice and assault with a deadly weapon in connection with the crash.

    The victims of the crash included two sets of brothers. The boys who died — Daniel Hawkins, Jacob Ivascu and Drake Ruiz — were all 16-years-old. The surviving victims were 13-year-olds Joshua Hawkins and Joshua Ivascu, and 18-year-old Sergio Campusano. They were all part of their church youth ministry.

    (Left to right) Drake Ruiz, Daniel Hawkins and Jacob Ivascu. (Family Photos)

    Anurag Chandra, 42, was arrested on suspicion of intentionally ramming a car of teenage boys, killing three. (CHP)

    Family members said the teens were celebrating Jacob’s birthday and were playing “ding-dong-ditch” when a man answered the door and went after the teens.

    “When he came out and got in his car to chase after them, they fled for their lives basically,” Debbie Ruiz, Drake’s mom, said.

    Chandra allegedly chased the teens until he caught up to them and rammed his vehicle into the their vehicle before driving off.

    CHP officers arrested Chandra about a half-mile from the scene. A witness had followed the suspect to his home.

  30. Anon[120] • Disclaimer says:

    Weird story. Something’s being left out. Your speculation may be right, but why doesn’t the Post explicitly discuss his motive?

  31. syonredux says:


    Law and Order: Special Victims Unit ‘s take on Harvey Weinstein went as expected, with the Weinstein analogue being a distinctly non-Jewish fellow named Sir Tobias Moore (played by Ian McShane).

    • Replies: @TelfoedJohn
  32. Lot says:

    Alfano, a blond American professor with an Italian surname, wants “consequences” against Cofnas, an English Jew, for defending race realism and race IQ differences.

    This will of course be memory-holed by nutso “every single time” antisemites.

    Also the news today, NYC bans cashless businesses, which are a clever way of excluding the 20% of the population without credit or debit cards. Uber and Lyft were the pioneers in the USA of this model.

    I’ve heard China and the Nordic countries are way ahead of us in using card and cell phone payments for everything.

    It’s been a while, but in the late 00s I remember Germany and Netherlands using cards less than the USA, and in the early 00s them being mainly for large purchases and kiosks.

  33. Hail says: • Website
    @Jim bob Lassiter

    Megan’s mate selection preferences.

    The evolution of the racial preference along Meghan’s maternal ancestral line:

    1920s, Chattanooga, Tenn.: Meghan’s Black Grandmother (classified ‘Negro’) marries a Mulatto (so-classified) man;

    1970s, Los Angeles: Meghnan’s lighter-than-average Black mother marries full-White man named Markle. Meghan, based on birthrate, was likely conceived in the first week of Nov. 1980, the same week Reagan was elected) is 34–37% Subsaharan, generally looks like a Quadroon;

    2010s, global scope: Meghan, of LA upbringing, marries a Jewish Hollywood producer; divorces; then marries a full-White UK man who will henceforth be known as Harry Windsor.

    That is three generations of successive preference for lighter men. Her son Archie, at ca.18% Subsaharan, will likely fit within the Octoroon by phenotype when he gets older.

    Anyway, three generations in succession of the Blacker woman choosing the Whiter man. These decisions that produced offspring occurred in different circumstances but always the same general choice.

    • Replies: @jimla
  34. Hail says: • Website
    @Buzz Mohawk

    Observing the shift in the dialogue “around” the holidays of Columbus Day and Thanksgiving, one possible prediction is that we end up with a federally mandated Native American Genocide Day, or something similar, before 2030.

    Once Texas flips.

    I would expect it won’t be ‘ enforced,’ and will be resisted, by 90% of the USA geographically; Virginia in macrocosm.

    (The thin D majority in Richmond has now voted to eliminate the century of tradition of Lee–Jackson Day in Virginia; they’re rolling out the steamroller.)

  35. Hail says: • Website

    I take your point; Steve Sailer’s term, though, is “World’s Most Important Graph.”

    (If you DuckDuckGo or do that ‘G’ one for “world’s greatest graph,” you get some people pointing to the graph-map of the dissolution of Napoleon’s army on the Russia campaign, out and back.)

  36. Anonymous[211] • Disclaimer says:

    OT, but genuinely unnerving: Goldman Sachs CEO says it won’t take a company public without diversity on its board

    The business justification — a claim that “IPOs with a woman on the board had performed ‘significantly better’ than those without” — is transparent bad faith nonsense. Even if that were true, it would only be true in the aggregate. There could still be extremely promising companies with “non-diverse” boards, but Goldman is saying they will refuse to take their money unless one of the board members comes out as gay or undergoes a sex change operation or something. And of course there is no question that Goldman would not refuse to do business with a company whose board consisted entirely of gay black women.

    I work at Goldman Sachs, and yes, this is the level of wokeness I see there. First their Pronoun Initiative, and now this. (On the plus side though, I have yet to see anyone actually publish their pronouns in the corporate directory, and nobody has demanded yet that I announce mine at introductions, so I guess that’s something).

    • Replies: @Jane Plain
  37. @syonredux

    This is like the series about hackers, Mr Robot. The sexually depraved and corrupt power-couple are played by a Swede and a Dane – both blondes. Psychological projection is keeping many gentile actors in work.

    • Replies: @Lurker
  38. res says:

    OT: There have been occasional discussions on the Unz Review about private individuals possibly losing their jobs for posting comments on “unacceptable” websites. Some commenters have expressed skepticism that this happens.

    This seems like a good example:

  39. @fnn

    Rutherford debunks this brilliantly. What he shows, carefully and in detail, is that genetics, properly understood, doesn’t support any of this disgusting nonsense. There is no such thing as racial purity — because, among other things, if you go back far enough, your ancestors are also my ancestors, whoever you are.

    Really? That’s pretty low quality arguing. It’s like saying that there’s no such things as German Shepherds and Cocker Spaniels because at some point they were both descended from a proto-dog.

    • Agree: Ash Williams, Forbes
  40. Hail says: • Website
    @Jane Plain

    Thanks for the link to the comprehensive investigation (“The Ragland Family of Meghan Markle,” by John B. Wells III, Jan. 28, 2018).

    fake news

    I presume you are referring to this part of the characterization of Markle’s ancestry above (taken from the Daily Mail, which first published the claim in Nov. 2016):

    A white Georgia woman named Texie Hendrick, it turns out, bore a Black man’s child in 1881 Georgia […] the child was [Meghan’s grandfather] Alvin’s grandfather.

    The John B. Wells document has a teenage girl named “Texas Ann” of Henrico County, Georgia, giving birth to a baby in 1881, to an unknown father, but he claims Texas Ann was not the White woman the Daily Mail thought she was. (Which does make more sense; if there had been a white teenager impregnated by a Black man in 1881 Georgia, there’d more likely be a cover-up of some kind; the likelihood that the records survived openly advertising a case of BlackMale-WhiteFemale miscegenation seems unlikely, and points to some racial-historical naivete on the part of the Daily Mail investigators. It is a very bold claim for 1881, requiring firm proof.)

    Wells leaves a question-mark next to the father; there is no way to guess, with any reliability, via paper genealogy, who impregnated the teenage girl known as Texas Ann (or Texie) ca.1880. The power of 23andMe might be able to do it.

    Several entries from Jeremiah Ragland’s death certfcate have led to some fantastc and erroneous genealogical assertons. According to the certfcate, Jerry M. Ragland’s parents were Steve Ragland and Texas (last name “unknown”). These names coupled with the racial classifcaton of the family in the 1910 and 1920 census returns as “mulato” have led to some fantastc claims. The most outrageous was that Jeremiah’s mother “Texas” was a white woman named Texas Hendricks from Heard County, Georgia. There was a white woman named Texas Hendricks who was born in Heard County in 1853, the daughter of John and Eliiabeth Hendricks. However, Texas Hendricks married Charles James and is listed in the 1880 census for Heard County along with her husband. The couple moved to Calhoun County, Alabama, where they were included in the 1900 census. Texas Hendricks James died in Georgia 1937.

    • Replies: @Hail
    , @Jane Plain
  41. Hail says: • Website

    Regardless of who fathered (Meghan’s father’s side ancestor) Texie’s baby in 1881, it does not change the more-firmly-documented fact that Meghan Markle is descended from a line of women who have married ‘white’ (dark female preference for a whiter man), over three generations and counting.

    Statistical probability suggests these are not random but constitute a mating strategy.

    The result is Archie the Octoroon. And a classless affair all around for the British royals.

    Say, did anyone ever come up with the following play on Steve’s 2008 book title (which is a play on a Harry Potter book, so the first word comes full circle):

    Harry Windsor and the Octoroon Prince

    • Replies: @AnotherDad
  42. Rob says:

    The article says he claimed to be black in a hearing about racism in the police. He probably did it to insulate himself against accusations of racism. That and to take advantage of AA are the primary reasons to pass as non-white. Rachel Dolezal weirdness aside.

  43. jimla says:

    Or like Brazil fullfil A Redenção de Cam and pass for White in the North till your descendants become actually White.

  44. Barnard says:

    OT: 23andMe is laying off 100 employees as the most brilliant CEO in America appears baffled by the idea that there is a saturation point in the market for their services.

    23andMe CEO Anne Wojcicki told CNBC that customers might be reluctant to pay for pricey genetic tests if they fear economic downturn. Wojcicki also suggested that rising consumer privacy concerns could be a reason for the downturn in sales.

    That’s right, people don’t want to pay for a $99 genetic test, because they fear an economic downturn. The privacy concerns are probably having an impact, but could it be possible that nearly everyone interested in these services has already done the test?

    • Replies: @Almost Missouri
  45. @Jim bob Lassiter

    Are you referring to The Autist Previously known as Prince?

  46. This misses entirely where the admixture came from. Mulatto slave children were far more likely to become house slaves–male or female–a great advantage over field slaves. Some likely took care to keep things that way with their own children. Women especially are survivors first. Sally Hemmings was at the very least three quarters Caucasian and at minimum one of her children passed, in Ohio.
    The light skinned minority became constantly lighter, the dark stayed dark. When the war ended the light skinned women were well positioned reproductively. That seed spread with the speed of dye in water. Civil War photos of black troops show entierly African men.

    • Replies: @Corvinus
  47. @Hail

    Yes, the fake news is that “Texas Hendricks” is a white woman who married Steve Ragland.

    Wells conclusively demonstrated several things:

    1. There was a white woman, Texas Hendricks, around then and there but she married someone else and should not be confused with:
    2. Texas Ann, a black woman who gave birth to an ancestor of RMM by an unknown father, and
    3. Texas seems to have been a not-unpopular female name in rural Georgia post Civil War (LOL)

    Yes, the DM is a bit naive about this but all sorts of “stuff” can happen in a rural area, and geneaology can yield surprises.

  48. @Anonymous

    “(On the plus side though, I have yet to see anyone actually publish their pronouns in the corporate directory, and nobody has demanded yet that I announce mine at introductions, so I guess that’s something).”

    Is this what we’ve come to?

  49. Svevlad says:

    I guess that south American blacks have more capoid genes – they’re even more big-assed (and capoid women are famous for maximum steatopygia), but don’t have the west african tendency for obesity (widely known that west african petty kings and tribal chiefs would fatten up their women to ludicrous sizes, to show off wealth)

  50. Anonymous[160] • Disclaimer says:

    Kind of related.

    23 and me laying off staff

    Why could this be????

    Customers white…
    But according to the Atlantic wants their DNA data to be less white (not increase the number of non-white data samples).

    And providing spurious data to racists (i.e. white people)

    And of course using your private data for their profit…

    Contempt for customers also likely a reason why Google’s market share is declining…

    James D’Amore anyone?

  51. J.Ross says:

    And now a random Chinese guy. 15 cities quarantined comprosing 45 million people, supplies running low. Claimed translation by an Argie.
    tldr Skip spring festival family gatherings this year.

    Family and friends, I am Jin Wei. I am currently inside the Wuhan outbreak region, Han Hou area. I would like to describe the condition inside the Hubei province, as well as the outbreak situation in the entire China. Currently there are already 90,000 cases of pneumonia contraction. What is the rate of contraction? If one person contracted this disease and is not properly quarantined and treated, this individual will infect 14 people that came in contact with him. That is a significant multiplier. During the spring festival, in our culture, families like to get together, dine together. But this is unlike any other years. I hope that people can stay home, do not gather, and do not visit families. There is a spring festival every year. If everyone can stay safe, you can always get together later.
    Now let me report the situation and the amount of medical supplies condition at our front line hospitals. At this moment, our condition is beyond the control of our supervisors, health department, other organizations, city officials, and state officials. Through the media we are asking for donation of supplies from the outside world. These are medical supplies, such as, protective eye goggles, disposable surgical face masks, disposable gloves, bio-hazard suits, and bio-hazard pants. These supplies are in great shortages. Our medical team who just got off their shift are deployed to the front line again. The reason that I am practically making this video at the front line is to alert you all and to raise your awareness. Let me emphasize once again, during the spring festival, do not go out! Stay home! Otherwise, why are we risking our lives? ! It is for my family, my love ones, and their health. I hope you can understand. I also understand that my family members do not access social media. So if you receive this information, please pick up the phones and call around, notify each other. This is something you must do! You must do your best to educate yourselves regarding this disease. This is a political assignment.
    Now I would like to inform you with a very bad news. The corona-virus has mutated. It is now a second generation virus. When it was still in its first generation, we were still able to treat this… However, after the last mutation, it became deadly. That is because the pneumonia is no longer one patient infected one other person. In this generation, one patient will infect 14 others. The rate of infection are now increasing exponentially. So please remember, do not go out, do not visit people, do not gather in a group, do not have dinner party. Thank you everyone.

    • Replies: @Bill P
  52. J.Ross says:

    I want you to put on these sunglasses, and start filtering your water. And we’re not even talking about what I want you to do with your Amazon Alexa bug.
    World Health Organization Executive Director Peter Salama just died, like just now: source is UNICEF.
    Not to be confused with all the WHO, CDC, and sundry bioweapon experts who have been dying.

  53. @Hail

    The result is Archie the Octoroon. And a classless affair all around for the British royals.

    Harry’s choice was pathetic, but the Brit royals haven’t exactly exuded good judgment.

    Stuff obvious even to an American:
    Edward VIII (great-great-uncle) — weak, pathetic man
    Margaret (great-aunt) — BPD, flake; poor choice of husband; numerous affairs, divorce
    Anne (aunt) — divorce
    Andrew (uncle) — poor choice of wife; divorce; poor relationship judgment
    Charles (dad) — pathetic weak man; divorce
    Diana (mom) — major BPD flake; divorce


    However, genetics aside … the fundamental problem here is that no one could tell Harry straight up–and from the time he was a boy–you are the representative of a particular people, a particular race and nation. Ergo you are to marry an actual British (i.e. white British) girl, not slutty, not a BPD drama queen, but intelligent, capable, conscientious, who wants to be a devoted wife and mother. But saying this would be … racist! And there’s nothing worse than that! So he probably never heard it.

    I’d say something about these Brit royals being a great argument for republic government. But then–as Chris Caldwell’s new book apparently points out–our republican constitution was overthrown in a Jewish led minoritarian coup. So despite our great republican origins, we don’t have republican government anymore either.

    • Replies: @Jane Plain
    , @Alden
  54. Bill P says:

    Sounds far-fetched. If I heard her correctly she says that 90,000 people are already dead from the virus — not that there are 90,000 cases of pneumonia.

    • Replies: @J.Ross
  55. Muggles says:

    If you ever travel to sub Saharan Africa you will quickly discover that American blacks do not look like actual black Africans. Sure, some are quite dark and some Africans are mixed. But mostly American blacks are much lighter.

    Not surprising. Caucasians interbred (to put it delicately, as not rape) with Neanderthals who evidently also interbred with Denosivans. Based on aDNA. Plus the slave population (females anyway) had no choice in the matter, often. Or when they did it was for their personal benefit.

    Louisiana blacks are even lighter than most (also some from Mississippi nearby) due to the lengthy Spanish and French occupation and cultural heritage. The French tended not to be as racist. As a result most blacks from Louisiana I encounter are very nice, work hard, get educated, etc. At least as much as Whites from there. Just a generalization.

    And contrary to one commentator, I doubt blacks had any effective means to avoid “going down the river” hence to slave auctions. It wasn’t voluntary. But due to the French influence, many blacks in New Orleans experienced less racism. Personally I find blacks from the North to be far more hostile than southern ones. Same for Whites, more racism up north.

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
    , @Federalist
  56. Hail says: • Website

    The same consultant hired to do Gun Rights strategizing:


    (Possibly created by Mike Enoch.)

  57. African-American Racial Genetics

    May I suggest African-American Racial Genetic Haplogroups? AARGH for short.

    Great Migrations can end in Great Migraines. Gause’s Law deals with this.

  58. ‘…So blacks who left the South earlier tended to be whiter: e.g., maybe their dad was white and he funded them to head north…’

    More likely, being whiter means you’re more likely to be relatively intelligent, so you’ll do something intelligent — like leave Mississippi.

    It’s observable that blacks who are to some extent successful in white society are whiter themselves — those pure blacks tend to be rotting in the ghetto, sometimes literally wandering around in the middle of the intersection. Drive around (I wouldn’t recommend walking) sometime and take a look.

    Fairly obviously, on a larger scale the pure 70-IQ blacks stayed in the South — while those with that low-hundreds IQ actually got out and got themselves those slots as Pullman Porters and status symbol maids in Hillsborough and such.

  59. Corvinus says:
    @james wilson

    “This misses entirely where the admixture came from. Mulatto slave children were far more likely to become house slaves–male or female–a great advantage over field slaves. Some likely took care to keep things that way with their own children.”

    Exactly. I’m surprised that Mr. Sailer did not NOTICE this important fact. First, let me offer some context.

    The interactions between slaveholder and slaves varied across decades–and from plantation to plantation. Nevertheless, there are clues regarding the status of mulattoes. In a variety of public statements and laws, the offspring of white-black sexual relations were referred to as “mongrels” or “spurious” (Nash, 1974, p. 287). Also, these interracial children were always legally defined as pure blacks, which was different from how they were handled in other New World countries. A slaveholder claimed that there was “not an old plantation in which the grandchildren of the owner [therefore mulattos] are not whipped in the field by his overseer” (Furnas, 1956, p. 142). Further, it seems that mulatto women were sometimes targeted for sexual abuse.

    According to the historian J. C. Furnas (1956), in some slave markets, mulattoes and quadroons brought higher prices, because of their use as sexual objects (p. 149). Some slavers found dark skin vulgar and repulsive. The mulatto approximated the white ideal of female attractiveness. All slave women (and men and children) were vulnerable to being raped, but the mulatto afforded the slave owner the opportunity to rape, with impunity, a woman who was physically white (or near-white) but legally black. A greater likelihood of being raped is certainly not an indication of favored status.

    Though skin color came to assume importance through generations of association with slavery, white colonists developed few qualms about intimate contact with black women. But raising the social status of those who labored at the bottom of society and who were defined as abysmally inferior was a matter of serious concern. It was resolved by insuring that the mulatto would not occupy a position midway between white and black. Any black blood classified a person as black; and to be black was to be a slave…. By prohibiting racial intermarriage, winking at interracial sex, and defining all mixed offspring as black, white society found the ideal answer to its labor needs, its extracurricular and inadmissible sexual desires, its compulsion to maintain its culture purebred, and the problem of maintaining, at least in theory, absolute social control. (pp. 289-290)

    Second, here is an interesting study that offers additional insight.

    Studies show lighter skinned Black people are advantaged on a number of social indicators—a phenomenon called “colorism.” These studies generally contend preferences for light-skinned and/or Mulatto slaves endured the postbellum period to shape social outcomes into today. Following this idea, other studies examine differences in social outcomes between Mulattos and Blacks in the 19th century, but few empirically connect antebellum life to postbellum Mulatto–Black stratification. With that in mind, I examine whether the socio-economic differences between
    Mulattos and Blacks varied across geographic space in proportion to places’ reliance on slave labor and the characteristics of its free African American population.

    This allows me to examine whether differences in economic status between Mulattos and Blacks are a result of Mulatto advantage in the form of privileged positions during slavery. My results reveal that Mulattos have higher occupational statuses relative to Blacks in places where slavery was more prominent and where free Mulattos were literate. This suggests the intraracial hierarchy established during slavery was more likely to be replicated in places where slavery was more important, and Mulattos were able to capitalize on freedom by leveraging their literacy into better economic statuses after emancipation. These results support the idea that skin color stratification was initiated at least in part by practices during chattel slavery and offers some plausible mechanisms for its transmission.

    Of course, racial definitions have changed over time. Recall in People v. Hall (1854), the California Supreme Court ruled that Chinese witness testimony was inadmissible because “no Black or mulatto person, or Indian, shall be allowed to give evidence in favor of, or against a white man…[given how this] race of people whom nature has marked as inferior…[A[dmitting them to testify, would admit them to all the equal rights of citizenship, and we might soon see them at the polls, in the jury box, upon the bench, and in our legislative halls. This is not a speculation…but an actual and present danger.”

    Mexicans were classified as White until the early 1930’s. Nativists simply would not stand for this designation.

    But the zenith has to be anthropologist William V. Ripley, who published “The Races of Europe”, which divided whites into a distinct hierarchy of subraces and sub-sub-races.

    • Replies: @syonredux
    , @Rob
  60. @Muggles

    Being sold down the river to the sugar plantations of Louisiana is a threat that terrifies Jim the slave in “Huckleberry Finn.”

    Sugar plantations were bad places to work. Cotton was less brutal and tobacco was the least.

    • Replies: @Bert
  61. J.Ross says:
    @Bill P

    Wait, it wasn’t similar enough to 12 Monkeys. Here: On January 3rd, China arrested eight people in Wuhan for claiming that “SARS is back.” I’m sure it’s just a coincidence. Sources are Agence France Press and Poynter Institute (a journalism school).

    • Replies: @JerseyJeffersonian
  62. syonredux says:

    The People of the State of California v. George W. Hall or People v. Hall, 4 Cal. 399, was an appealed murder case in the 1850s in which the California Supreme Court established that Chinese Americans and Chinese immigrants had no rights to testify against white citizens. The opinion was delivered in 1854 by Chief Justice Hugh Murray with the concurrence of Justice Solomon Heydenfeldt.[1]

    Solomon Heydenfeldt is an interesting fellow….

    Solomon Heydenfeldt (c. 1816 – September 15, 1890) was an American attorney who was an Associate Justice of the California Supreme Court from 1852 to 1857.[1][2] He was the second Jewish justice of the court, after Henry A. Lyons, but was the first elected by direct vote of the people.

  63. @Hail

    Such a beautiful looking family and Meghan looks so cute and full of promise.

    How did she turn out to be such a virago?

    • Replies: @Hail
  64. RobRich says: • Website

    And…it’s garbage study, since most US Blacks intermarried with Whites, who married Whites and so on, so their descendants don’t identify as Black. And are thus not included when they should be.

  65. @Barnard

    There does indeed have to be a saturation point somewhere, but a more recent development may be that potential customers are noticing the old crimes being solved with DNA (which is good for the victims and the perps), but it does raise the question of “who will know about my DNA and what will they do with that information?”

    Or, “do I really need to be in a database, overseen by the ethically-compromised Google crowd, which overworked cops will use to put people in prison even 20 years from now?”

    • Replies: @Forbes
  66. Elli says:
    @william munny

    Most blacks moving north before the Civil War were likely free rather than escapees. And they did it because they could, or because they had to – some states banned free blacks.

    Free blacks were more likely to be of mixed race.

    The call to the North was not some mystical genetic pull.

  67. @J.Ross

    This link includes more interesting information surrounding the presence of a Level 4 biological research facility in Wuhan, epicenter of the outbreak.

    Here are a couple of paragraphs quoted from the article:

    “A year earlier, in July 2018, China inaugurated Wuhan biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) lab in the city.  It is the only level-four biological research facility in the country.  The Wuhan lab was built precisely to look intodangerous pathogens like the novel Coronavirus; which again is reported to have originated from Wuhan City.  This just doesn’t seem like a coincidence.

    In July 2019, there was a considerable protest in Wuhan City because the Chinese government was building a massive incinerator in the event a biologic element escaped the facility.  Again, this doesn’t seem like a coincidence.”

    There may be a linkage to the expulsion of some Chinese scientists & students from a Candian Level 4 facility on suspicion of espionage, & potentially also theft of biological materials. If the article is to be believed, they subsequently went to… the Level 4 facility in Wuhan. Hoo boy.

  68. Forbes says:
    @Almost Missouri

    do I really need to be in a database, overseen by the ethically-compromised Google crowd


    I think most reasonably savvy people have caught on to the idea that being the product that 23andMe monetizes for their corporate net worth is silly–much less paying $99 for the privilege of 23andMe exploiting your unique DNA.

    And then there is the privacy issue with Google (and others) who essentially believe there is no such thing as privacy–their game plan is to exploit your privacy.

  69. I got into lawyering in Michigan when the last of the 50s lawyers were finishing backing out of practice into their last years alive in Az and Fla.

    They told me, and I believed them, that the first successful professional, merchant, and union skilled Blacks were ‘paper bag’. The same shade as the brown paper bag we used to get in grocery stores.

    Then in the early 60s GM and Ford sent recruiters south to get real Blacks to do the harder jobs like loading part racks or sand for casting, they thought it would break the unions because Blacks and Whites are different. Except it turns out for the goal of more money the races can join hands.

    Anyways, the less smart dark Blacks wouldn’t self move up north so the corporations had to bus them and have freight trucks to haul their sofas and beds up north.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  70. Hail says: • Website
    @Inquiring Mind

    I can think of one bad influence on her, which starts with an “H” and ends with “wood.”

  71. JMcG says:

    Umm, who cares about her? Indeed, who gaf about any of the royals?

  72. JMcG says:
    @william munny

    They didn’t want to be around blacks?

  73. Rob says:

    Mulattoes may have done better post-slavery because they were more intelligent than more African blacks. I believe recent studies have demonstrated that IQ correlated with European admixture better than it did with skin color.

    As to Mexicans, I wonder if in the teens or twenties there was a wave of mestizo and mulatto Mexican immigration as opposed to more European Latinos that Americans encountered earlier. Any history buffs want to weigh in?

    PS. IPad Safari browser won’t auto complete mulatto, and it suggests ‘mull atom’ for ‘mullato’ and was no suggestions for ‘mullatto.’ Though it does suggest ‘mulatto’ for ‘mulato.’

    • Replies: @anon
    , @Corvinus
    , @Alden
  74. Anonymous[427] • Disclaimer says:
    @Lawyer Guy

    Sand casting is a fascinating art but it is also hot and hard physical labor. Foundry work is one area in which new cars are not superior to old ones, the old castings were better in almost every way. Piston rings have improved, oils have improved, bearings have improved, but foundry work has gone backwards. Modern processes like lost foam produce inferior castings that need epoxy coatings to fight porosity and often have internal flaws, but they are fully automatable.

    It is not unusual to show 1930s through 1960s castings to modern foundries and be told, “We can’t pour that”. Skilled sand crabs are about gone, replaced by blacks, mestizos, and dopehead prole whites.

    It’s ironic because CAD and CNC machine and additive process 3D printing have made it possible to make really good patterns without all the bullshit of dealing with the old line patternmakers. Now, if you can use a 3D CAD program well and are willing to learn some basics about things like shrink ruling and draft you can do some magnificent patterns….you just can’t get them poured.

    Which is why hogging everything out of billet, though wasteful, is so common now.

    • Replies: @JMcG
  75. Saturday Night Live 1977 …Garrett Morris and Julian Bond!!

  76. Lurker says:

    If you are a young skinny mulatto actress with latte skin and good, loosely curly brown hair (with highlights) your phone must never stop ringing.

    The technical term is “ad black”.

  77. Lurker says:

    Indeed. If current trends continue, then eventually those will be the only roles left for white actors.

    I (hate)watched the recent TV version of The Punisher and that was the casting of all 26 episodes. Bad Whitey being dispatched by our (((hero))) over and over.

    There was only one sympathetic white character.

  78. jamie b. says:

    Question: The Sahara has only served as a demographic boundary for the past 5,000 years. How is it then that northern Africans are caucasoid? Was there a major displacement of the original N. A. population?

    • Replies: @Hail
  79. anon[240] • Disclaimer says:

    As to Mexicans, I wonder if in the teens or twenties there was a wave of mestizo and mulatto Mexican immigration as opposed to more European Latinos that Americans encountered earlier. Any history buffs want to weigh in?

    The civil war in Mexico raged from 1910 to the 1920’s, depending on the region. Refugee camps existed all along the southern US border, sometimes on the Mexican side, sometimes on the US side, perhaps depending on which Mexican revolutionary army was in the area.

    This first image appears to be from Texas. But there are images from Arizona that look a lot like it.

    This next image is from San Diego, CA. Mexican refugees and a US soldier.

    This image is identified as a refugee camp at Fort Bliss near El Paso, Texas.

    A lot of Mexican Americans are descended from refugees who fled their country during the 1910 civil war.

  80. Corvinus says:

    “Mulattoes may have done better post-slavery because they were more intelligent than more African blacks.”

    The sources I provide explain why–environment. But, I would be interested in the studies and data at your disposal that provides this IQ comparison from the late 1800’s/early 1900’s.

  81. Hail says: • Website
    @jamie b.

    It gets more wild than you think.

    From Dr. Carleton Coon of Harvard, The Origin of Races, chapter 13:

    Th[e first map] shows the distribution of the five subspecies of Homo during most of the Pleistocene, from 500,000 to 10,000 years ago. This distribution matches that on the diagram in Chapter 1. Of the five subspecies, the Congoid was the most isolated; it was in contact with only one other, the Capoid, then resident in North Africa.

    The second map shows what happened at the end of the Pleistocene, when the Mongoloids and Caucasoids expanded and burst out of their territories. The Mongoloids entered and inhabited America, and extended their domain southward into Southeast Asia and Indonesia, while the Australoids crossed Wallace’s Line and occupied Australia and New Guinea. The Caucasoids thrust northward. More significantly, they drove the Capoids out of North Africa and occupied the White Highlands of Kenya and Tanganyika. The Congoids were reduced to a small part of their earlier domain, including the Congo forests and the lands to the north, where they later evolved rapidly and spread, as Negroes, over much of Africa.

    If you follow that, Coon and the other anthropologists of the day (who were not “full-replacement Out of Africa Theory” believers) were in concurrence that North Africa once belonged, in the very distant period before the Last Glacial Maximum in Europe, to a racial stock that would be approximately recognizable to us as Capoid.

    In the recent era, the Capoids (so-named after the Cape of Good Hope) are marginal, surviving in pure form among the Bushmen hunter-gatherers and Hottentots, and in mixed form with various southern African groups. Nelson Mandela was had a phenotype suggesting a mixed Capoid-Congoid ancestry, and his tribe (Xhosa) was indeed known for having absorbed lots of Capoids on the march south.

    (Some anthropologists divide Capoids into subtypes of Khoid and Sanid.)

    So according to Coon, the proto-Congoids (what we think of as Blacks) were never in northern Africa at all, at least never as a base population.

    • Replies: @Hail
  82. Hail says: • Website

    I think the image doesn’t work, so here is a freshly hosted one:

    If that one goes down, too, find it by searching for something like

    Coon, “Origin of Races,” Map 13

    Available here.

    It’s interesting reading, if you never have. Coon was a man of the mid-20th century, active in the 1930s before the political ban on racial anthropology went into effect (after 1945, basically). Origin of Races was published in 1962, and has this intriguing passage in it:


    When two races come in to contact and mixture occurs, one race tends to dominate the other. The local advantage that the genetically superior group (superior for its time and place) possesses may be primarily cultural or primarily physiological, or a combination of both. For example, the dominance of the Europeans over the native peoples of North America, Australia, and New Zealand is primarily cultural; that of the Negroes in the tropical lowlands of the New World and of the Indians in the Andes is primarily physiological.

    There is, however, a third kind of dominance, expressed by the resistance of a population to the intrusion of large numbers of outsiders into its social and genetic structures. Call it xenophobia, prejudice, or whatever, people do not ordinarily welcome masses of strangers in their midst, particularly if the strangers come with women and children and settle down to stay. Social mechanisms arise automatically to isolate the newcomers as much as possible and to keep them genetically separate. This has happened historically to Jews (who wanted to preserve their culture) nearly everywhere, and to Negroes in the New World. It has happened recently to Europeans in India and Indonesia, and in Africa it is happening very dramatically to Europeans, even as I write.

    The above is the behavioral aspect of race relations. The genetic aspect operates in a comparable way. Genes that form part of a cell nucleus possess an internal equilibrium as a group, just as do the members of social institutions. Genes in a population are in equilibrium if the population is living a healthy life as a corporate entity. Racial intermixture can upset the genetic as well as the social equilibrium of a group, and so, newly introduced genes tend to disappear or be reduced to a minimum percentage unless they possess a selective advantage over their local counterparts.

    I am making these statements not for any political or social prupose but merely to show that, were it not for the mechanisms cited above, men would not be black, white, yellow, or brown. We would all be light khaki, for there has been enough gene flow over the clinal regions of the world during the last half million years to have homogenized us all had that been the evolutionary scheme of things, and had it not been advantageous to each of the geographical races for it to retain, for the most part, the adaptive elements in its genetic status quo.

    • Replies: @JerseyJeffersonian
  83. CM says:

    I wonder what kind of segment of society the African-Americans that settled Liberia came from? Presumably mostly free blacks from the north, therefore whiter than most black Americans? They tended to be wealthier than average AFAIK.

    • Replies: @Jane Plain
  84. @AnotherDad

    Diana’s mother, Frances Shand Kidd, actually deserted the family in a notorious divorce case. The instability on the Spencer side is marked.

    “But then–as Chris Caldwell’s new book apparently points out–our republican constitution was overthrown in a Jewish led minoritarian coup.”

    That’s not what “Chris” Caldwell’s book says. That’s what you say.

  85. @CM

    Why don’t you look it up on Google?

    “Presumably mostly free blacks from the north”

    Your presumption is wrong.

  86. “So blacks who left the South earlier tended to be whiter: e.g., maybe their dad was white and he funded them to head north.”

    Yep. That’s what happened here:

    Get a load of the “colored” great-great-great grandson. White paper bag.

  87. Bert says:
    @Steve Sailer

    As to plantations, this was the scale of difficulty. But the least difficult slave life was to be owned by a farmer or artisan of middling means. In such cases, the slave and his family were more like unfree-employees in that a great deal was done to keep them healthy and motivated by positive incentives. I had a great-great-grandfather who was a saddler and farmer and had a family of 8 slaves working with him in 1860. Such slaves were also more likely, through personal affection, to be manumitted in antebellum times.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  88. “A model with a single pulse of admixture (as considered in[12]) applied to the present data suggests 28.6% Europeans among male contributors, but only 5.2% among female contributors. By contrast, it suggests almost no contribution from Native American males, and 3% from Native American females.”

    Ah, at last. I’ve been banging on here for a while about genomicists leaving $100 data bills lying on the sidewalk by not doing (or at least not reporting) any of the easy genomics-by-sex analysis. But here it is after all. It turns out they can do it when it is congruent with the Narrative (evil white slaveowners exploiting dusky women, in this case). Conveniently, they don’t consider the population born since 1970. I wonder what that would show? (Not really. I already know.)

    • Replies: @Alden
  89. @Muggles

    most blacks from Louisiana I encounter are very nice, work hard, get educated, etc. At least as much as Whites from there.

    No, not at least as much as whites from there. Blacks in Louisiana are not as well educated as whites. Nice is hard to define but the violent crime rate among blacks in Louisiana is several times the white rate. Working hard is also hard to define but unemployment and welfare dependency is higher among blacks.

  90. @Hail

    One of the primary intellectual stimuli working upon me in childhood was the weekly TV show What In The World, produced & broadcast in Philadelphia. It was hosted by Dr. Froelich Rainey, with the participation of Dr. Carleton Coon, Dr. Cammann, and another guest scholar. A series of mystery objects – archeological items, fossils, & ethnological items – were introduced, and the panel members, disposed around a table on which the items were presented, were tasked with identifying and otherwise characterizing them within the limited the time frame given for each item. I remember Dr. Coon’s visage, presence, & intellectual accumen, although I was still a pretty young boy. An impressive fellow, as were the other panelists, as well as Dr. Rainey.

    Every once in a while they would toss them a humorous item. I remember the time that they were presented with a flat, stone pentagonal object. They figured it out…it was an old home plate from the 19th century. This program was only one example of others of similarly high quality, quality that is so very seldom encountered in contemporary programming, even programming ostensibly intellectual in content. Flashy trash, carved up into time segments suitable for the maximum number of commercials, is the standard fare of late.

    • Replies: @Alden
    , @Hail
  91. Alden says:

    I never heard the Great Migration used for anything other than the 20 th century invasion of city destroying Orcs.

    The descendants of Pilgrims puritans and the Mayflower voyage certainly don’t use it, never did.

    It was really John Rolfe and his wife who laid the basis of the British American colonies by cultivating and exporting tobacco to Europe the Mid East Central Asia and the world. He should be as famous in the USA as Cortez is s in Mexico.

    The Virginia company didn’t send the Jamestown settlers to subsistence farm. They were sent to find gold and treasure as Cortez did. When no gold was found they discovered and addicted the entire world to tobacco.

    Exporting tobacco made the English colonies of America economically viable.

  92. Alden says:
    @Almost Missouri

    The misogynist woman hating ignorant men of UNZ believe all the mulattos quadroons octoroons and lighter blacks of America are all descended from a few thousand Irish, ( never Scots) slave girls who leapt off the slave ships into the arms of black men.

    Naturally you misogynist women haters deny the fact that the White DNA of American blacks is from their male, not female ancestors.

    Let the denunciations of obesity, tattoos nail polish hair dye and short skirts begin!!!!!!!!!

    I’ve seen exactly 2 White women with blackish kids in my entire life. Of course I don’t live in darkest blacklist Mississippi.

    • Replies: @anon
    , @Almost Missouri
  93. Anonymous[101] • Disclaimer says:

    Personal affection translates to paternity. Southern confederate heritage is fine Until all you fine southern gentlemen deny your ancestor’s responsibility for fathering the Black Plague

  94. Alden says:

    There’s that picker show plus restoring old cars making swords etc are pretty good if you’re interested in that sort of thing.

    • Replies: @JerseyJeffersonian
  95. Alden says:

    Are you referring to Prince the honorable Andrew Herbert, second son of Elizabeth 2 and Henry Herbert?

    Whoooo cares ? Are we teen age girls?

  96. JMcG says:

    There’s a film on YouTube of the Wright Aero Engine plant in Paterson, NJ during the Second World War. The scenes of the foundry are incredible. Radial engine heads and cylinders in their multitudes. Really a great film.

  97. Alden says:

    1910 to 1940 we got a lot of northern Mexicans of whatever ethnicity from pure Indians to pure Irish or German or Spanish because of the civil warlord bandit era and banning of the Catholic Church until the 1990s.

    Their descendants in S California range from very European to part Indian to a bit of African. I don’t think that migration had much to do with race. It was about getting of a war zone and away from the bandits. The government and police really broke down in Mexico 1910-1930.

  98. @Alden

    Ja, I do watch some of those shows, and they are generally quite worthy. But shows where the truly intellectually inclined don’t find it necessary to hide their light under a basket are scarce as hens’ teeth. What In The World was of that type; nothing was dialed back, not even to a middlebrow level, rather you were expected to meet the host and panelists at the level at which they cognized the world, and the chance to encounter top-flight intellectuals on their natural ground, even merely as a spectator, was truly bracing to my young self.

  99. anon[236] • Disclaimer says:

    The misogynist woman hating ignorant men of UNZ

  100. Hail says: • Website

    Thank you for this comment. I see the show premiered in Oct. 1951 and ran to ca.1966.

    Here is an episode on Youtube:

    As for Dr. Coon (New England WASP origin; Harvard BA 1925, PhD 1928; teacher at Harvard and field research throughout the 1930s and beyond, later also elsewhere), given that his period of activity in the field of Anthropology spanned from the mid-1920s all the way into the early 1980s, he lived through an enormous change in his field, to say the least.

    (The middle to latter parts of his career are distinguished by a major swing in what academia, in almost all fields, meant, in what the academe’s relation to broader society was or should be. The shift is one that few seem to have fully recognized while it was ongoing, that few seem to have foreseen would end up the way it has. I expect Dr. Coon may have realized it more than most.)

    Ironically, or poetically, the year Coon published his last book (1981) is the same year that Steven Jay Gould published his Mismeasure of Man, a book in which Gould maliciously falsified all his central claims, an extreme case of chutzpah given that the book’s argument was that all the old-guard anthropologists, including the eminent Dr. Coon, by implication, were falsifiers, frauds, cranks motivated by a crude and arbitrary ethnic or racial animosity. (But that if the people follow the new guard, the Goulds on the ascent, they may yet be saved.)

    Anyway, Dr. Coon was a giant of his time, a credit to scholarship and to his field. He is also exactly the kind of figure who would, today, be harassed out of public life and “deplatformed,” thanks to Gould and those like him who inherited (or whatever it is they did to acquire it) American academia.

  101. @Alden

    “The misogynist woman hating ignorant men of UNZ believe all the mulattos quadroons octoroons and lighter blacks of America are all descended from a few thousand Irish, ( never Scots) slave girls who leapt off the slave ships into the arms of black men.”

    I’ve never heard anyone say this here, but FWIW, according to the above quoted study, for about every five children sired by white men on black women, there was one child sired by a black man on a white woman, so draw your own conclusions, but it sounds like those supposed “ignorant men of UNZ” may be onto something, if only at a 1-to-5 ratio to the conventional story.

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