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0879696753 Several people have contacted me about the Aylmer twins, who exhibit very distinct phenotypes. In short, one twin is very fair skinned, to the point of being a redhead, while the other twin has visibly African features and a darker complexion. What caught my attention is that their surname is the same as the middle name of R. A. Fisher. Perhaps they are related in some fashion to the father of evolutionary genetics?

The “science” behind the story is not particularly novel. Rather, for whatever reason the British tabloid press in particular seems to love publicizing variation in phenotypes which are racially coded in mixed-race families. I’ve been talking about “black and white twins” for so long that it’s not something I really wanted to revisit, as there isn’t much novel to say.

But, it is important to note that the media representations of this phenomenon often play a semantic shell game. Though some in the press are not reporting it, is not hard to find out that the black parent in this instance, the twins’ mother, is actually mixed-race. That is, she is about half African in her ancestry. Therefore, though the expected proportion of African ancestry in her daughters is 25 percent, random variation could result in individuals with sharply increased, or decreased fraction. People of mixed African and European heritage who exhibit visible African ancestry are often coded socially as black. But these twins are not “biracial” in a symmetric sense when it comes to genetics, even if they are as it concerns the social construction of racial identity.

One way the science here could be demystified is taking into consideration this important genealogical detail of the mother and making an analogy to populations. The twins can be thought of as backcrosses, as their mother is an F1, and the father is a “parental” type (100 percent European). In a genetic trait which is governed by one gene crosses back to the parent population of an F1 can result in a wide range of phenotypic outcomes, depending on the nature of the expression of the alleles. Since human pigmentation is governed by a relatively small number of genes (most of the inter-population variation is probably due to half a dozen loci), some of the same dynamics applicable to monogenic traits in the case of a backcross apply here, though to a diminishing extent. As it turns out in this case the “black” twin invariably has the traits of both African and European populations, just like one of their parents, the F1, while the white twin resembles one of the “parental” populations.

 
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  1. But, it is important to note that the media representations of this phenomenon often play a semantic shell game. Though some in the press are not reporting it, is not hard to find out that the black parent in this instance, the twins’ mother, is actually mixed-race.

    Yeah, there’s a definite tendency to elide mixed-ancestry when it involves Blacks.I once had an online conversation about race and America, and Vanessa Williams came up.Someone referred to her as the first Black Miss America, and I noted that she was mixed race.One of my interlocutors said that that wasn’t true, that neither of her parents was White.I than had to point out that, yes, neither her mother nor her father was of unmixed European descent, but both were quite clearly not of pure Black African descent either:

    Williams was born in Millwood, New York, the daughter of music teachers Helen L. (née Tinch) and Milton Augustine Williams, Jr.[7][8][9][10] A DNA test revealed that her ancestry is 23% from Ghana, 17% from the British Isles, 15% from Cameroon, 12% Finnish, 11% Southern European, 7% Togo, 6% Benin, 5% Senegal and 4% Portuguese.

    • Replies: @Lloyd E
    Your experience is VERY common. I think it is the traditional reluctance of the social inferior to claim a relationship with the social superior. There is also the black American need to "improve" the black image by making it as non-black as possible. See below:

    The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy Gunnar Myrdal, pp 1210-1211 ... E. Franklin Frazier writes: “Many mulattoes in the United States with very little Negro blood consider themselves pure Negroes. I have had mulatto students at Fisk University and Howard University insist that they were pure Negroes. One summer I visited a number of summer schools in the South in which I had the student teachers fill out blanks indicating their racial identity or racial mixture of their parents, grandparents, and even more remote ancestors. I was forced to give up the attempt to discover the amount of admixture of white blood because the majority of these elementary school teachers regarded themselves, their parents, and even more remote ancestors, as of pure Negro descent, despite the fact that they were obviously of mixed blood. Some could almost pass for white.
  2. If you look at the comments made about this “white and black twins” story on American web sites, there is great reluctance on the part of blacks to call the white twin “white.” American blacks often insist that they “see” black features in the white twin that are not there.

    • Replies: @syonredux

    If you look at the comments made about this “white and black twins” story on American web sites, there is great reluctance on the part of blacks to call the white twin “white.” American blacks often insist that they “see” black features in the white twin that are not there.
     
    An interesting feature of American racial politics involves the fact that Black Americans are now oftentimes the staunchest defenders of the "one drop rule":

    Halle Berry said she is in a war of words with her ex-partner, Gabriel Aubry, about their daughter's racial identity.

    Berry, 44, is the daughter of a white mother, who was a psychiatric nurse, and a black father, who was a hospital attendant in the same ward. Aubry is French-Canadian and white.

    The couple is in the middle of a bitter custody battle over their 2-year-old girl, Nahla.

    "I feel she's black. I'm black and I'm her mother, and I believe in the one-drop theory," Berry said in an interview with Ebony magazine.
     
    http://abcnews.go.com/Health/halle-berry-cites-drop-rule-daughter-black-white/story?id=12869789
    , @Karl Zimmerman
    Statistically speaking, it's more likely that she has a nominal amount (say 5%-10%) of Sub-Saharan African DNA than none at all. The pictures of her in earlier childhood show she has somewhat curly hair. Since generally speaking hair gets more curly as you go from childhood to adulthood, not less, I'm presuming she straightens her hair now.

    More salient to Razib's original point, I find these articles interesting due to the view into British culture. I have often heard it claimed, for example, that only in America (due to the history of one-droppism) are F1 black/white crosses classified as being black, and that elsewhere someone like Obama would be rightly recognized by everyone as mulatto. But if Maria Aylmer is considered to be black, not mixed-race, in Britain, it shows that the British dividing line between being black and "biracial" is way past 50% European, and possibly even past 75% European.

  3. RK: Would you sort out the following sentence? I do not have enough knowledge of genetics to figure out what you intended to convey.

    In a genetic trait which is governed by one gene crosses back to the parent population of an F1 can result in a wide range of phenotypic outcomes, depending on the nature of the expression of the alleles.

    Thank you

    • Replies: @marcel proust
    Nevermind. I just realized that inserting a comma makes it clear (for me). I had thought that a word was missing.

    In a genetic trait which is governed by one gene [INSERT COMMA HERE], crosses back to the parent population of an F1 can result in a wide range of phenotypic outcomes, depending on the nature of the expression of the alleles.
     
    I probably just need stronger coffee.
  4. @syonredux

    But, it is important to note that the media representations of this phenomenon often play a semantic shell game. Though some in the press are not reporting it, is not hard to find out that the black parent in this instance, the twins’ mother, is actually mixed-race.
     
    Yeah, there's a definite tendency to elide mixed-ancestry when it involves Blacks.I once had an online conversation about race and America, and Vanessa Williams came up.Someone referred to her as the first Black Miss America, and I noted that she was mixed race.One of my interlocutors said that that wasn't true, that neither of her parents was White.I than had to point out that, yes, neither her mother nor her father was of unmixed European descent, but both were quite clearly not of pure Black African descent either:

    Williams was born in Millwood, New York, the daughter of music teachers Helen L. (née Tinch) and Milton Augustine Williams, Jr.[7][8][9][10] A DNA test revealed that her ancestry is 23% from Ghana, 17% from the British Isles, 15% from Cameroon, 12% Finnish, 11% Southern European, 7% Togo, 6% Benin, 5% Senegal and 4% Portuguese.
     

    Your experience is VERY common. I think it is the traditional reluctance of the social inferior to claim a relationship with the social superior. There is also the black American need to “improve” the black image by making it as non-black as possible. See below:

    The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy Gunnar Myrdal, pp 1210-1211 … E. Franklin Frazier writes: “Many mulattoes in the United States with very little Negro blood consider themselves pure Negroes. I have had mulatto students at Fisk University and Howard University insist that they were pure Negroes. One summer I visited a number of summer schools in the South in which I had the student teachers fill out blanks indicating their racial identity or racial mixture of their parents, grandparents, and even more remote ancestors. I was forced to give up the attempt to discover the amount of admixture of white blood because the majority of these elementary school teachers regarded themselves, their parents, and even more remote ancestors, as of pure Negro descent, despite the fact that they were obviously of mixed blood. Some could almost pass for white.

  5. @Lloyd E
    If you look at the comments made about this "white and black twins" story on American web sites, there is great reluctance on the part of blacks to call the white twin "white." American blacks often insist that they "see" black features in the white twin that are not there.

    If you look at the comments made about this “white and black twins” story on American web sites, there is great reluctance on the part of blacks to call the white twin “white.” American blacks often insist that they “see” black features in the white twin that are not there.

    An interesting feature of American racial politics involves the fact that Black Americans are now oftentimes the staunchest defenders of the “one drop rule”:

    Halle Berry said she is in a war of words with her ex-partner, Gabriel Aubry, about their daughter’s racial identity.

    Berry, 44, is the daughter of a white mother, who was a psychiatric nurse, and a black father, who was a hospital attendant in the same ward. Aubry is French-Canadian and white.

    The couple is in the middle of a bitter custody battle over their 2-year-old girl, Nahla.

    “I feel she’s black. I’m black and I’m her mother, and I believe in the one-drop theory,” Berry said in an interview with Ebony magazine.

    http://abcnews.go.com/Health/halle-berry-cites-drop-rule-daughter-black-white/story?id=12869789

    • Replies: @Lloyd E
    "An interesting feature of American racial politics involves the fact that Black Americans are now oftentimes the staunchest defenders of the 'one drop rule.'"

    Too true, too true. Here are some more examples. Note the lack of respect for the fact that many of the people they claim as "black" identify as white or otherwise non-black.

    http://madamenoire.com/506800/stars-african-heritage-ambiguous/

    http://madamenoire.com/506594/mean-know-im-ethnic-time-reporter-didnt-know-rashida-jones-black/

    http://styleblazer.com/191954/25-celebrities-you-didnt-know-were-black/

    http://www.suggest.com/celebs/1401/10-celebs-you-didnt-know-are-black#slide/0

    http://blackamericaweb.com/playlist/say-what-stars-you-probably-didnt-know-were-black/item/307773/

    http://afkinsider.com/31420/10-famous-black-people-might-known/




    If only American blacks spent nearly as much time on real problems like the extremely high crime rate of the black underclass.
  6. @Lloyd E
    If you look at the comments made about this "white and black twins" story on American web sites, there is great reluctance on the part of blacks to call the white twin "white." American blacks often insist that they "see" black features in the white twin that are not there.

    Statistically speaking, it’s more likely that she has a nominal amount (say 5%-10%) of Sub-Saharan African DNA than none at all. The pictures of her in earlier childhood show she has somewhat curly hair. Since generally speaking hair gets more curly as you go from childhood to adulthood, not less, I’m presuming she straightens her hair now.

    More salient to Razib’s original point, I find these articles interesting due to the view into British culture. I have often heard it claimed, for example, that only in America (due to the history of one-droppism) are F1 black/white crosses classified as being black, and that elsewhere someone like Obama would be rightly recognized by everyone as mulatto. But if Maria Aylmer is considered to be black, not mixed-race, in Britain, it shows that the British dividing line between being black and “biracial” is way past 50% European, and possibly even past 75% European.

    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    it's probably way more than 10%, though since it is likely only one grandparent with african ancestry, this article applies

    http://gcbias.org/2013/10/20/how-much-of-your-genome-do-you-inherit-from-a-particular-grandparent/

    (since it's via mother the variance should be less, so closer to 25%)

    the genetic issue is that a much smaller number of genes effect salient traits which we code as 'racial' (facial features, pigmentation). these are subject to more noise than the numbers above (pigmentation for sure).
    , @Razib Khan
    i think re: british categories, they are more phenotype based. this is in keeping with the tendency in latin america. in the USA there is an emphasize on a "drop of blood," though that's been picked up most stridently now by black americans for social/political reasons.
  7. Someone said, re: these twins, that there is no genetic test that could tell them apart. Is this true? Based on your clear and concise discussions of this issue in past articles, it seems like it would be possible to do so, and I’ve read that it’s possible in general now to locate differing alleles in all twins.

    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    frat twins, as these are, are siblings basically. so obviously. with whole genome sequencing of high quality you can tell identical twins apart now, yes.
    , @omarali50
    Some people have been tweeting or commenting about these two sisters being identical twins, from which they conclude that they are "genetically identical" . This is simply false. These are fraternal twins, so there is no question of being "genetically indistinguishable" as is being claimed on the intertubes. (of course even identical twins are NOT 100% identical and modern techniques can identify those tiny differences, if you wish to do the work involved)
  8. @Karl Zimmerman
    Statistically speaking, it's more likely that she has a nominal amount (say 5%-10%) of Sub-Saharan African DNA than none at all. The pictures of her in earlier childhood show she has somewhat curly hair. Since generally speaking hair gets more curly as you go from childhood to adulthood, not less, I'm presuming she straightens her hair now.

    More salient to Razib's original point, I find these articles interesting due to the view into British culture. I have often heard it claimed, for example, that only in America (due to the history of one-droppism) are F1 black/white crosses classified as being black, and that elsewhere someone like Obama would be rightly recognized by everyone as mulatto. But if Maria Aylmer is considered to be black, not mixed-race, in Britain, it shows that the British dividing line between being black and "biracial" is way past 50% European, and possibly even past 75% European.

    it’s probably way more than 10%, though since it is likely only one grandparent with african ancestry, this article applies

    http://gcbias.org/2013/10/20/how-much-of-your-genome-do-you-inherit-from-a-particular-grandparent/

    (since it’s via mother the variance should be less, so closer to 25%)

    the genetic issue is that a much smaller number of genes effect salient traits which we code as ‘racial’ (facial features, pigmentation). these are subject to more noise than the numbers above (pigmentation for sure).

    • Replies: @Karl Zimmerman
    You're right of course that even getting the SSA down to the 5%-10% range is pretty unlikely, statistically speaking. However, the tail end of the bell curve still exists, and obviously the press looks for the extreme stories. If I'm reading the calculation properly, although the vast majority will fall in the 40%-60% range some will fall in the 30%-40% range (which would translate to 15%-20%). Also, their grandfather was Jamaican, not African, so he probably had at least 10% European admixture himself. Still, I did underestimate significantly.

    Interestingly, after reading your link, I looked back at my own genome on 23andme. My mother and maternal grandmother are sequenced. I share no genetic material with my grandmother on Chromosome 11 at all. This appears to be, statistically speaking, pretty unlikely (7% chance if I'm reading the paper correctly).
  9. @Seth Largo
    Someone said, re: these twins, that there is no genetic test that could tell them apart. Is this true? Based on your clear and concise discussions of this issue in past articles, it seems like it would be possible to do so, and I've read that it's possible in general now to locate differing alleles in all twins.

    frat twins, as these are, are siblings basically. so obviously. with whole genome sequencing of high quality you can tell identical twins apart now, yes.

  10. @Karl Zimmerman
    Statistically speaking, it's more likely that she has a nominal amount (say 5%-10%) of Sub-Saharan African DNA than none at all. The pictures of her in earlier childhood show she has somewhat curly hair. Since generally speaking hair gets more curly as you go from childhood to adulthood, not less, I'm presuming she straightens her hair now.

    More salient to Razib's original point, I find these articles interesting due to the view into British culture. I have often heard it claimed, for example, that only in America (due to the history of one-droppism) are F1 black/white crosses classified as being black, and that elsewhere someone like Obama would be rightly recognized by everyone as mulatto. But if Maria Aylmer is considered to be black, not mixed-race, in Britain, it shows that the British dividing line between being black and "biracial" is way past 50% European, and possibly even past 75% European.

    i think re: british categories, they are more phenotype based. this is in keeping with the tendency in latin america. in the USA there is an emphasize on a “drop of blood,” though that’s been picked up most stridently now by black americans for social/political reasons.

    • Replies: @Karl Zimmerman
    Interestingly, most of the American stories I see about this are reporting both twins as biracial, and even reporting the mother as half Jamaican. I am wondering how much of this has to do with sensational headlining by the (lowbrow, tabloid) Daily Mail, although I know such stories have been common elsewhere in the British press as well.

    FWIW, I think the U.S. has partially shifted away from one-droppism these days. An F1 cross isn't seen as being anything but black still, but someone with the complexion of the darker twin would, I think, be seen as biracial, particularly by younger people. There's too many people, both in Hollywood and in the general public, who have some black ancestry but don't identify as black now.
  11. @Seth Largo
    Someone said, re: these twins, that there is no genetic test that could tell them apart. Is this true? Based on your clear and concise discussions of this issue in past articles, it seems like it would be possible to do so, and I've read that it's possible in general now to locate differing alleles in all twins.

    Some people have been tweeting or commenting about these two sisters being identical twins, from which they conclude that they are “genetically identical” . This is simply false. These are fraternal twins, so there is no question of being “genetically indistinguishable” as is being claimed on the intertubes. (of course even identical twins are NOT 100% identical and modern techniques can identify those tiny differences, if you wish to do the work involved)

  12. A friend of mine is one half of a pair of siblings like this – her father was American black (probably at least 80% African, maybe more, based on the pictures she’s put up on facebook), and her mother was NW European ancestry. She looks white, though vaguely “ethnic”. However, once you know she has African ancestry, some of her features are obviously from that ancestry. Her sister is much more obviously part African, both from skin tone and facial features.

  13. I’d have thought twins like this would be useful for testing the effect of the various pigmentation genes as the daughters will likely have a different set.

  14. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    @Kark Zimmerman ( I’m presuming she straightens her hair now)

    Across Latin America, where the the continuum black-white race admixture of various degrees is a part of the social fabric and where racism is often pervasive but the racial classifications are never simply binary, pelo malo (curliness of the hair) is a widespread proxy for the [undesired / discriminated against] higher proportion of the African ancestry. It is based on the popular belief that the skin color is highly variable in the children of the mixed-ancestry families, but the hair type more closely tracks with the fraction of the African ancestry. The link above is about Venezuela but one of the more striking examples of the “hair folk rule” is Cuba where nominally Black population is only about 15% of the island’s population, but discrimination on bad hair is widespread against the nominally white Cubans, to the point that keeping un-straightened hair has turned into a bold statement of ethnicity.

  15. As a matter of fairness, a person of mixed race has every right to decide how they describe themselves. Other people have no standing to dispute their choice.

  16. @marcel proust
    RK: Would you sort out the following sentence? I do not have enough knowledge of genetics to figure out what you intended to convey.

    In a genetic trait which is governed by one gene crosses back to the parent population of an F1 can result in a wide range of phenotypic outcomes, depending on the nature of the expression of the alleles.
     
    Thank you

    Nevermind. I just realized that inserting a comma makes it clear (for me). I had thought that a word was missing.

    In a genetic trait which is governed by one gene [INSERT COMMA HERE], crosses back to the parent population of an F1 can result in a wide range of phenotypic outcomes, depending on the nature of the expression of the alleles.

    I probably just need stronger coffee.

  17. She looks like Blake Griffin.

  18. @Razib Khan
    it's probably way more than 10%, though since it is likely only one grandparent with african ancestry, this article applies

    http://gcbias.org/2013/10/20/how-much-of-your-genome-do-you-inherit-from-a-particular-grandparent/

    (since it's via mother the variance should be less, so closer to 25%)

    the genetic issue is that a much smaller number of genes effect salient traits which we code as 'racial' (facial features, pigmentation). these are subject to more noise than the numbers above (pigmentation for sure).

    You’re right of course that even getting the SSA down to the 5%-10% range is pretty unlikely, statistically speaking. However, the tail end of the bell curve still exists, and obviously the press looks for the extreme stories. If I’m reading the calculation properly, although the vast majority will fall in the 40%-60% range some will fall in the 30%-40% range (which would translate to 15%-20%). Also, their grandfather was Jamaican, not African, so he probably had at least 10% European admixture himself. Still, I did underestimate significantly.

    Interestingly, after reading your link, I looked back at my own genome on 23andme. My mother and maternal grandmother are sequenced. I share no genetic material with my grandmother on Chromosome 11 at all. This appears to be, statistically speaking, pretty unlikely (7% chance if I’m reading the paper correctly).

  19. @Razib Khan
    i think re: british categories, they are more phenotype based. this is in keeping with the tendency in latin america. in the USA there is an emphasize on a "drop of blood," though that's been picked up most stridently now by black americans for social/political reasons.

    Interestingly, most of the American stories I see about this are reporting both twins as biracial, and even reporting the mother as half Jamaican. I am wondering how much of this has to do with sensational headlining by the (lowbrow, tabloid) Daily Mail, although I know such stories have been common elsewhere in the British press as well.

    FWIW, I think the U.S. has partially shifted away from one-droppism these days. An F1 cross isn’t seen as being anything but black still, but someone with the complexion of the darker twin would, I think, be seen as biracial, particularly by younger people. There’s too many people, both in Hollywood and in the general public, who have some black ancestry but don’t identify as black now.

  20. Most African Americans have an extremely weird view of race. I am sure most of them would classify the ginger haired twin as “Black”, yet at the same time would classify George Zimmerman as “White” even though George looks more Nonwhite than her.

  21. In 1965, in 10th grade biology, I learned how two brown eyed people could have a blue eyed child.

    These twins seem to be along the same lines.

    In the last few years I have read differing opinions as to whether we are becoming dumber.

    I have also read that IQ is pretty much stable over one’s lifetime.

    So, if I am not any smarter now, how is it that the people running things are dumber?

  22. “American blacks often insist that they “see” black features in the white twin that are not there.”

    There are very definite indications of subSaharan ancestry in the ‘white’ one. The broad face, the bridge of the nose, etc.

    • Replies: @granesperanzablanco
    Without knowing ahead of time Id say hardly anyone would say this
  23. I think a lot of the comments are strange regarding African Americans. Someone like Stephan Curry is clearly part white but has two African American parents and is therefore 100% African American. This is a ethnic group not a racial group. I would have to assume most African Americans with green eyes realize they are not pure Africans.

    Or maybe some people are just ignorant. I have a dark phenotype but am estimated to be only 12-13% Amerindian. My father has blue eyes and is Northern European. My wife has blue eyes and is Northern European. People who know this incessantly comment that one of my daughters is very fair skinned and has blue eyes.

  24. @M_Young
    "American blacks often insist that they “see” black features in the white twin that are not there."

    There are very definite indications of subSaharan ancestry in the 'white' one. The broad face, the bridge of the nose, etc.

    Without knowing ahead of time Id say hardly anyone would say this

  25. @syonredux

    If you look at the comments made about this “white and black twins” story on American web sites, there is great reluctance on the part of blacks to call the white twin “white.” American blacks often insist that they “see” black features in the white twin that are not there.
     
    An interesting feature of American racial politics involves the fact that Black Americans are now oftentimes the staunchest defenders of the "one drop rule":

    Halle Berry said she is in a war of words with her ex-partner, Gabriel Aubry, about their daughter's racial identity.

    Berry, 44, is the daughter of a white mother, who was a psychiatric nurse, and a black father, who was a hospital attendant in the same ward. Aubry is French-Canadian and white.

    The couple is in the middle of a bitter custody battle over their 2-year-old girl, Nahla.

    "I feel she's black. I'm black and I'm her mother, and I believe in the one-drop theory," Berry said in an interview with Ebony magazine.
     
    http://abcnews.go.com/Health/halle-berry-cites-drop-rule-daughter-black-white/story?id=12869789

    “An interesting feature of American racial politics involves the fact that Black Americans are now oftentimes the staunchest defenders of the ‘one drop rule.’”

    Too true, too true. Here are some more examples. Note the lack of respect for the fact that many of the people they claim as “black” identify as white or otherwise non-black.

    http://madamenoire.com/506800/stars-african-heritage-ambiguous/

    http://madamenoire.com/506594/mean-know-im-ethnic-time-reporter-didnt-know-rashida-jones-black/

    http://styleblazer.com/191954/25-celebrities-you-didnt-know-were-black/

    http://www.suggest.com/celebs/1401/10-celebs-you-didnt-know-are-black#slide/0

    http://blackamericaweb.com/playlist/say-what-stars-you-probably-didnt-know-were-black/item/307773/

    http://afkinsider.com/31420/10-famous-black-people-might-known/

    If only American blacks spent nearly as much time on real problems like the extremely high crime rate of the black underclass.

    • Replies: @Karl Zimmerman
    I don't think the black press concentrating on these "hidden blacks" means much, other than trying to grab the interest of readers. The Jewish press does the same sort of "people you wouldn't know were Jewish" lists.
  26. The word “mulatto” has an interesting chart on the ngram viewer. Relatively little used overall, with spikes of usage around 1859-1865, 1915-1921, and 1967-1972. These all appear to be periods where race is at the center of conflict.

  27. @Lloyd E
    "An interesting feature of American racial politics involves the fact that Black Americans are now oftentimes the staunchest defenders of the 'one drop rule.'"

    Too true, too true. Here are some more examples. Note the lack of respect for the fact that many of the people they claim as "black" identify as white or otherwise non-black.

    http://madamenoire.com/506800/stars-african-heritage-ambiguous/

    http://madamenoire.com/506594/mean-know-im-ethnic-time-reporter-didnt-know-rashida-jones-black/

    http://styleblazer.com/191954/25-celebrities-you-didnt-know-were-black/

    http://www.suggest.com/celebs/1401/10-celebs-you-didnt-know-are-black#slide/0

    http://blackamericaweb.com/playlist/say-what-stars-you-probably-didnt-know-were-black/item/307773/

    http://afkinsider.com/31420/10-famous-black-people-might-known/




    If only American blacks spent nearly as much time on real problems like the extremely high crime rate of the black underclass.

    I don’t think the black press concentrating on these “hidden blacks” means much, other than trying to grab the interest of readers. The Jewish press does the same sort of “people you wouldn’t know were Jewish” lists.

  28. SF says:

    Is having mixed race parents necessary for these white/black twins? If six genes are involved, and if these genes have an equal probability of coming from either parent, wouldn’t a white parent with no recent African ancestry and an African parent with no recent white ancestry produce a white child 1/64 of the time, and a pair of opposite twins 1/1024 of all dizygotic twin births?

    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    only recall one case where the 'black' parent was not mixed race. in any case, several of the skin color genes are near disjoint freq. between euros and african peoples. though black people from the new world almost ALWAYS have european ancestry at some levels, so so long as the 'black' parent is not from SS africa this seems possible.
  29. @SF
    Is having mixed race parents necessary for these white/black twins? If six genes are involved, and if these genes have an equal probability of coming from either parent, wouldn't a white parent with no recent African ancestry and an African parent with no recent white ancestry produce a white child 1/64 of the time, and a pair of opposite twins 1/1024 of all dizygotic twin births?

    only recall one case where the ‘black’ parent was not mixed race. in any case, several of the skin color genes are near disjoint freq. between euros and african peoples. though black people from the new world almost ALWAYS have european ancestry at some levels, so so long as the ‘black’ parent is not from SS africa this seems possible.

  30. In case of Britain in general there appears to be considerably higher level of interracial marriage then in the States, what’s evident often with some of commentary online is they are looking at it from an american perspective/experience that isn’t relevant to Britain (where substantial immigration of Afro-Caribbeans only started after Windrush arrived in 1948)

    I recall reading a couple of years ago that about 50% of British Afro-Caribbean men were in relationship with partner of another race, whereas the figure for Afro-Caribbean women was about 33%, so the community has a significant amount of out-marriage to general British population.

    • Replies: @Karl Zimmerman
    Indeed, I'm pretty certain that the most recent British census showed more people in Britain are now mixed Afro-Caribbean/White than "pure" Afro-Caribbean. If it wasn't for the second, later pulse of black migrants directly from Africa, British blacks would be well on their way to assimilating within the general British genepool.
  31. @Paul Ó Duḃṫaiġ
    In case of Britain in general there appears to be considerably higher level of interracial marriage then in the States, what's evident often with some of commentary online is they are looking at it from an american perspective/experience that isn't relevant to Britain (where substantial immigration of Afro-Caribbeans only started after Windrush arrived in 1948)

    I recall reading a couple of years ago that about 50% of British Afro-Caribbean men were in relationship with partner of another race, whereas the figure for Afro-Caribbean women was about 33%, so the community has a significant amount of out-marriage to general British population.

    Indeed, I’m pretty certain that the most recent British census showed more people in Britain are now mixed Afro-Caribbean/White than “pure” Afro-Caribbean. If it wasn’t for the second, later pulse of black migrants directly from Africa, British blacks would be well on their way to assimilating within the general British genepool.

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