The Unz Review • An Alternative Media Selection$
A Collection of Interesting, Important, and Controversial Perspectives Largely Excluded from the American Mainstream Media
 BlogviewEric Striker Archive
Video: Unarmed White Woman Executed In Front of Children By Black Police Officer Was Covered Up By State Officials
Email This Page to Someone

 Remember My Information


Bookmark Toggle AllToCAdd to LibraryRemove from Library • B
Show CommentNext New CommentNext New ReplyRead More
ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
These buttons register your public Agreement, Disagreement, Thanks, LOL, or Troll with the selected comment. They are ONLY available to recent, frequent commenters who have saved their Name+Email using the 'Remember My Information' checkbox, and may also ONLY be used three times during any eight hour period.
Ignore Commenter Follow Commenter
Search Text Case Sensitive  Exact Words  Include Comments
List of Bookmarks

A shocking 2015 body camera video of a Burlington Police Department officer shooting a white woman in her yard in front of her young children has emerged online six years later.

Local officials fought a lengthy legal battle in Iowa courts looking to cover the incident up. In 2018, a federal judge forced them to release the video to the public, but it was largely ignored by the mainstream media and activist groups for political and racial reasons. The officer, Jesse Hill, is black, while his victim, Autumn Steele, is white.

Hill, who yells “I’m going to prison” after killing Steele, was never disciplined for the shooting. He testified that the family dog was attacking him, but this was later found out to be a lie. Steele’s family eventually won a \$2 million dollar wrongful death settlement in their civil case. Separate litigation over the incident is ongoing due to Burlington’s stubborn refusal to release additional pieces of evidence proving wrongdoing by officer Hill.

While Iowa has open records laws that in theory guarantee public access, police departments in the state force families and advocates to fight expensive legal battles in hopes of deterring requests for video in cases of obvious wrongdoing. The lack of interest from outlets like the New York Times and CNN in police brutality cases when the victim is white also allows them to avoid scrutiny and criticism for this practice.

Jesse Hill continues to work for the BPD as a school resource officer (SRO) at Burlington High School. Seeing Hill’s history of, at best, flagrant incompetence in wielding his firearm, the fact that the local police find it appropriate to allow him to carry a gun around children is an act of mind boggling disregard for public safety.

The decision to keep Hill may be motivated by fear of being accused of racism. The Burlington Police Department is only 2% black, making Hill a prized token that must be kept on the force by all means.

Over half of all police shootings are committed against white people — roughly proportional to the overall white population — despite being significantly less likely to commit crimes (especially violent crimes) than blacks. Because white people are not allowed to have political advocates, discussion on the subject tends to focus exclusively on black figures like George Floyd, while genuine injustices against innocent people like Autumn Steele are ignored.

(Republished from National Justice by permission of author or representative)
Hide 49 CommentsLeave a Comment
Commenters to FollowEndorsed Only
Trim Comments?
  1. WOW…I sure have been saying that a lot lately.
    3 years for the video to surface, forced by a judge,
    then blocking anyone inquiring is NOT fair or equal justice.

    The enemy of the great is the good.How is this happening? Just today,L.A. county
    is removing \$120 mil. from the police budget to help support
    the dark community. Maybe, this will help?
    Does anybody know what’s going on?

    • Replies: @Cato
  2. Druid says:

    N cop is so racist, huh?

  3. This is an outrage! Let’s go destroy all of the businesses is my neighborhood!

    • Replies: @Supply and Demand
  4. Darkwing says:

    Black murders white, there is nothing to see here, go about your business. White kills black, burn the frelling city down and have it on the news fora few weeks.

  5. Truth says:

    Unarmed White Woman Executed In Front of Children By Black Police Officer Was Covered Up By State Officials


    Yes, Old Sport; most police murders are. That’s why we are where we are in this country.

    1997 called, it wants it’s columnists back.

  6. Realist says:

    Iowans didn’t use to be afraid of being White.

    • Replies: @Ragno
  7. What happened to the little boy?

    The Black cop DID realize he’d fubared, but only because it was going to get him in trouble, and then he lied about what happened — I didn’t see video of the dog attacking him.

    “O my fucking god . . .” a zillion times.

    slippery slope in action

    When Christians said, Don’t take the name of the lord in vain, what they meant was don’t make things like “O my fucking god” normal conversation.

    Prissy? Maybe. But it used to set boundaries of awareness to have such a mindset.
    Habits of mind —> habits of speech —> habits of action.

    • Agree: Polistra
  8. Is there any way to view the “age restricted” video without signing up with Google? Funny that I can view women having sex with their pit pulls without any “age restricted” BS or Google sign ups.

    • Agree: El Dato
  9. Speaking of national “justice,” howzabout these apples:

    And you fuckers support capital punishment. I hope they arrest you using invisible bite marks the forensics expert needs special glasses to see.

  10. And, since all you idiot fuckers are married into that “wind power caused it,” talking point memo, I thought I’d teach you the truth in comic form.

    And I don’t care if you don’t like the Nation. I don’t either. Doesn’t matter. If it’s true, it’s true.

    • Replies: @Chris Mallory
    , @El Dato
  11. His first concern is that he is going to prison. Not a word of care about the woman whose life he just stole. How did he not get involuntary manslaughter, at the least? Negligent homicide?

    I really think that the best advice these days is to never call the cops if it can possibly be avoided.

    • Replies: @Polistra
  12. Rosie says:

    For White people today, there is one and only one issue that matters: Jewish control of the media. It’s not very interesting, and it seems kind of low-brow and conspiratorial, I know, but the fact remains nonetheless that everything else is a distraction and nothing can be solved so long as this state of affairs continues.

    Listening to Fash the Nation re Rush Limbaugh’s death, I realized that perhaps right-wing misogyny is more deeply-rooted than I thought. He said something to the effect that feminism was a ploy to get “access to the mainstream” for “ugly women.” Maybe AM radio was a ploy to get “access to the mainstream” for men with ugly souls. After all, he as much as admitted feminism was necessary for “ugly women” who would otherwise have no standing in society.

    Of course, Rush was FOS and so is everyone else who makes these sorts of claims. Feminism started with the Married Women’s Property Acts, enacted by decent men who didn’t want to pass on their hard-earned wealth to abusive, domineering sons-in-law.

    • Replies: @true.enough
  13. unit472 says:

    I heard a dog bark and growl but not attacking him even after he shot its owner. If the dog was loyal enough to attack the officer for simply coming near the woman I imagine the officer would be really fighting off the dog after he shot her but the dog only barks in the background and never comes near the officer as he stands over its dying master. IOW the dog attack story is BS and that is why the video footage was concealed.

  14. Notice how on the clips you can see without login and age restriction, at least, the action is so late in the video that few will inclined to watch. And then it’s so choppy that you can’t make out what happened. They let you hear the entirety of the prior complaints against Autumn to let you like her as little as possible. They don’t do this with the nonwhites who have been killed. The system and media coverage are so biased against whites, it’s just sickening.

  15. @Simon Dresden

    Whites are too cowardly to do this, therefore their demands will be unmet.

  16. @Rosie

    What, pray tell, do your 2nd and 3rd paragraphs have to do with Striker’s ‘article’ ?

    • Replies: @Rosie
  17. There are two answers:

    1. The immediate arrest of this cop for murder and sentenced to death row.

    2. Immediate disbanding of the police.

    “What?” You say?
    Yup, you read that correctly. The police do not protect you, as this article clearly shows. They are not there to stop home/street robberies and assaults. So you arm yourselves and do it yourselves.

    The police, today, are nothing more than enforcers of banker policy. Worse, they’ve been filling their forces up with more members of the minority along with more and more left wing.

    2% of the police in Burlington are black? Imagine what Burlington will be like when it’s 20%?

    This should be a serious wake up call to whites. Not only because it shows the incompetence of blacks in positions of power and authority and their lack of remorse for killing whites, but how effectively, the state kept this hidden for 6 years!

    I need not say what would have happened if it had been a white officer and black victim. We all know what the outcome would have been, but we need to understand two things and two things only about this. Firstly, the jew is clearly behind the cover up, showing just how corrupt the police department is, owned by the jew asking with the msm that’s remained silent. Secondly it shows that we need to disband the police for reasons already explained above. You can be sure that under Biden (Harris) , they’ll bring more blacks into positions of authority.

    It’s ironic, but while the Democrats were gaslighting Trump for racism, they were bringing in a real racist in Harris, the real US president, a rabid zionist, married to a jew. Guaranteed that unless whites unite and end this sham government, not only will they genocide 90% of the US whites, but WILL turn them into third class citizens. Yes whites already are second class.

    So America you have four things to do:

    1. Remove the jew from all positions of power and authority.
    2. Remove the government.
    3. Disband the police.
    4. Repatriation of all blacks back to Africa.

    Once you do this, you can then start reprogramming whites to love their nation again. Those whites who resist and there will be many, remove their passports, citizenship and transport them to Africa with the blacks they’ll be protecting. The LGBTQ who also support them, send them to Islamic lands, after removal of passports and citizenship. You don’t need any of these people in your land. Their children will be far worse than them, with an even bigger hatred of whites.
    Draconian, yes, but completely necessary if whites are going to see the 22nd century.

    Whites have to start putting their foot down if they are to survive. Nationalist organizations need to start uniting worldwide. Corporatists, sympathetic to nationalism need to start heavily investing in them, for what will be the funding of militias.

    Whites have to realise, they are at war and the jew is using the non whites as their weapon against whites.

    • Agree: Chris Mallory
    • Troll: Corvinus
    • Replies: @Colin Wright
    , @Dani
  18. Let us see how Paul “I never met a cop I didn’t worship” Kersey manages to simultaneously forgive and ingratiate to the State consecrated shooter in this story while ignoring the race Kersey so neurotically pursues to incessantly denigrate.


    • Replies: @Chris Mallory
  19. It would be a simple thing to visit a sort of justice on this LEO. Quietly. Covertly. permanently. and get away with it easily. That the people of Burlington are not willing to clean up this mess eliminates any outrage I can conjure up. Burlingtonians (and all the cops, and all the politicians) are all OK with murderers being protected, rewarded, issued badges, weapons, and paychecks. They all deserve the knout, and will likely get it.

    • Replies: @anarchyst
  20. Rosie says:

    What, pray tell, do your 2nd and 3rd paragraphs have to do with Striker’s ‘article’ ?

    Have you not noticed the circular White firing squad that certain people, some of whom are most certainly saboteurs, are instigating to distract the sheeple from the central issue of Jewish media power?

    White people hate each other do much we can’t even defend ourselves. People who call themselves pro-White actually often seethe with hatred for the vast majority of White people for one reason or another. Because they’re female, or fat, or gay, or Christian, or socialist, or libertarian…

  21. Striker your interview with AI ignored the elephant in the room of feminist family courts and the Duluth model always presuming that men are the aggressors. I think you get it though – you understand women’s education is inverse to their fertility, the problem is either A) this applies to AI in which case why wasn’t it mentioned, and B) if it doesn’t it implies AI might have done some of the things he was accused of. Which is it?

  22. @obwandiyag

    Yet, he wasn’t executed, now was he?

    I follow executions quite in depth. The only one where the executed might have been innocent was Cameron Willingham. In most cases the guilt is as plain as day.

    • Replies: @obwandiyag
  23. @USA Invades Israel

    Yeah, I am waiting for the badge fluffers to come in with the “Just follow the cop’s orders” BS they so love to spout.

    • Replies: @Curmudgeon
  24. @obwandiyag

    That cartoon is just as full of crap as you are.

  25. @obwandiyag

    There is a lot of forensic “science” that is bullshit. My favourite is “fingerprints”. There is a categorical statement that they are unique to each person. That is impossible to prove, or disprove. For all anyone knows, a Tibetan may have the same fingerprints as you, or for that matter your neighbour. The same is true for their DNA testing. Unless everyone, everywhere, is tested the statement is not provable. Even with DNA,the now “discredited” Dr. Watson noted that it is the combinations of DNA that make us different.
    Now you know why Billy Gates wants everyone to have his chipped vaccine.

    • Replies: @obwandiyag
  26. @Chris Mallory

    Apparently, you have no concept of law, which includes the constitution, criminal, civil, or employment.
    Here is the situation for anyone employed in any capacity: follow directives unless they are a danger to yourself or others. Failing to do so is insubordination. Insubordination is just cause for discipline, up to and including dismissal.
    Any employer with half a brain does not fire an employee without conducting a full and fair investigation. Failing to do so almost certainly leads to arbitration in unionized workplaces, and lawsuits in non-union workplaces.
    The clip in this article is only one piece of the entire puzzle. It would certainly lead one to conclude the cop had acted illegally, and he may well have, whether he is Black, White, Red, or Yellow is irrelevant. Due process in criminal law is guaranteed. Part of due process is an investigation, which is supposed to be full and unbiased. If the investigation is not full and unbiased, blame the people in charge of the investigation, which at some point, is the prosecution. For every botched investigation of a cop, there are two for people who have been railroaded into wrongful convictions by prosecutors.
    If you have a problem with the police in general, look to who is in charge. I have been acquainted with scores of cops over the years. I couldn`t understand how some of them got on the force. Some became disgusted after a few years and quit. The overwhelming majority, whether they stayed or left, were regular people thinking they were helping the community. I could say the same about firefighters, who have enormous egos, or for that matter people with whom I have worked in any place I have worked.
    I`m not stupid enough to believe that the people in charge of police departments – the politicians – give a flying fuck about me, they have their own agenda.

  27. @Curmudgeon

    What does this wall of text have to do with the badge fluffers wanting us all to bow down to badged thugs?

    Now, it might have been the reply on executions. But even then it is still a wall of text with little to do with anything.

  28. @Curmudgeon

    You need to stop ghost-dancing about “the law” and “muh constitution”. Let’s put it simply for you: The only ‘law’ in the Rotten Banana Empire is whatever happens to come out of a blackrobe’s ass on any given day. “Muh constitution” is a dead letter – literally a scrap of paper which the regime (all branches) regularly use as toilet paper while they laugh in your face. You are not going to be voting your way out of this.

    As for the badge-gang groid, the Taliban would know exactly how to deal with it. One fatwa and the problem would disappear altogether – or its head would be on a stake for all the town to see. Unlike groveling, cowardly whites who continue to place faith in an utterly rigged system run by genocidal criminals, the wild men of Pashtoonistan, whatever their weakness for goats might be, are even now – after two decades of endless attacks – able to deal with the Invincible Rainbow Banana legion effectively. Time to learn some lessons from them.

    • Replies: @Truth
  29. @Curmudgeon

    Maybe so. But bite marks only visible with special glasses is foolproof.

    • LOL: Curmudgeon
    • Replies: @Curmudgeon
  30. Truth says:
    @Exalted Cyclops

    As for the badge-gang groid, the Taliban would know exactly how to deal with it. One fatwa and the problem would disappear altogether – or its head would be on a stake for all the town to see. Unlike groveling, cowardly whites who continue to place faith in an utterly rigged system run by genocidal criminals, the wild men of Pashtoonistan, whatever their weakness for goats might be, are even now – after two decades of endless attacks – able to deal with the Invincible Rainbow Banana legion effectively. Time to learn some lessons from them.

    I hear ya; Ol’ Sport: So when are you moving?

  31. Was there a formal investigation of this incident? If certain claims that this black cop was not attacked by the family’s dog, then what was the reason(s) for discharging his pistol? Why did this cop feel like he was in mortal danger? As far as I can determine from this video, I heard a dog barking and it seemed shrill. However, I could not determine at any point that the dog attacked anyone. Why was the Burlington P.D. so reluctant to release this video upon request by state prosecution and other parties of interest? There is bound to be a reason why this police department has been slow in releasing info that could possibly provide evidence of foul-play by officer Hill. In my opinion this smacks of a major cover-up by the Burlington P.D. It’s a shame that politics influences anything, especially one of this tragic nature. How’s that working out for you, Burlington P.D.?

  32. El Dato says:

    And you fuckers support capital punishment.

    Problem, obwandiyag?

  33. El Dato says:

    That cartoon has been made by someone with aggravated shizophrenia.

    Anyway maybe someone will start to lay down hard money.

    Not the printed money. The real blood-and-guts money, i.e. time and skill diverted from other activities, like build M1A1s and farting around in social justice think tanks and stupidly talking about “reparations” which ain’t gonna come and “rehabilitations” which ain’t gonna happen. And neither will “Green New Deals” which nobody knows what they are (they have that in common with FDR’s 3 or 4 ever-changing “New Deals” at least)

    And people will have to actually pay for utilities.

    The \$7 TRILLION cost of upgrading the US power grid

    Electricity suppliers might need 20 years to complete the job, meaning \$350-400 billion per year to get into shape. Currently, they spend about \$150 billion per year which means a lot of catching up to do.

    For comparions, US national debt is currently at 27 trillion, unfunded liabilities at 160 trillion. Nobody is going to get paid.

    Get to work.

    But this is all very off-topic.

  34. Anonymous[269] • Disclaimer says:

    Mollie Tibbetts was raped and murdered by an illegal in Iowa back in 2018. Her family seemed to celebrate her murder and also celebrate the unlawful presence and employment of illegals. Is there systemic evil in Iowa?

  35. Cato says:

    Does anybody know what’s going on?

    From my chair it looks like ophiocordyceps unilateralis.

  36. Cato says:

    Not everyone here supports capital punishment. Some of us don’t even support lengthy prison sentences. Personally, I favor “castrate and release” rather than prison.

  37. Ragno says:

    None of us did. Then they discovered that siccing one half of the working class against the other half still works like a charm.

  38. @White Elephant

    ‘…2. Immediate disbanding of the police…’

    First explain how you intend to control blacks.

  39. Calm down. The victim was white. White lives don’t matter.

  40. @obwandiyag

    I presume the special glasses only for special people.

  41. Dani says:
    @White Elephant

    White Elephant – I really found a lot of hope in reading your assessment of our current plight. If you don’t mind, I’d like to copy & paste this to save for use in sharing with normies I’ve recently been starting to rouse to awakened hood?

  42. anarchyst says:
    @Brian Reilly

    This is just a thought…
    A simple death at the hand of a rope would be too easy for this cretin cop. If I were the family of the slain woman, I would keep a close eye on this cretin cop, following his every movement and at an opportune time…execute the “plan”.
    Permanent irreversible paralysis inflicted by either firearm or knife severing the proper spinal vertebrae might just be a proper solution. When this cretin cop has to spend the rest of his miserable life in a wheelchair or hospital bed, true “justice” would indeed be served…
    This would also go for the other cretinous individuals who attempted to cover this up.

  43. anarchyst says:

    Let’s not forget the “immunity” that police have that was granted by the U S Supreme Court in 1986.
    Police officers can murder anyone with impunity because their immunity protects them from prosecution.
    Any aggrieved ordinary citizen who wishes to sue a police department can only sue individual police officers only after proving that the officer’s “state of mind” and “intent” to “violate civil-rights was evident…an impossible situation.
    If anything, police should be held to a higher standard.
    An ordinary citizen who is involved in an identical situation will certainly be prosecuted and imprisoned.
    The police officers involved in a questionable situation gets a taxpayer-paid vacation while the prosecutor and police union officials do whatever they can to “cover up” the situation.
    Police are their own worst enemy…

  44. anarchyst says:

    Municipal police departments should be abolished. For those who think that I am against police, please hear me out first…

    The majority of abuses against the citizenry are committed by police officers in municipal police departments.

    In the United States of America, the sheriff is the chief law enforcement official in his respective county and has the power to control law enforcement activities in his county. This also includes control over federal officials who must gain permission from the sheriff to conduct operations of their own.

    Municipalities are “carved out” of sheriff’s “areas of responsibility” by state law and conduct their own “law enforcement” operations.

    Since abolition of municipal police departments would be extremely difficult to achieve and in today’s climate is unworkable, may I suggest the next best option.

    Every municipal police department should be reorganized along the lines of sheriff’s departments and the police chief in every municipality should be elected, not appointed.

    Election of police chiefs would remove a political layer, which quite often itself, leads to abusive police behavior, and a more convenient means in which to cover up questionable police activities.

    In many municipalities, police chiefs are political “hacks” and serve at the pleasure of the mayor. The citizenry would have the ultimate say in who runs the police department.

    Every police officer should be required to re-apply for his job; those with questionable “use of force” incidents on their records would receive extra scrutiny before being rehired.

    Police labor unions should be restricted to labor issues. Providing union-paid lawyers to defend police officers should be prohibited. Lawyers in such cases can be provided by the municipality. It is no secret that many questionable “use of force” cases get quashed due to aggressive union behavior.

    In addition, municipalities have “deep pockets” and quite often “pay out” to aggrieved individuals to make their cases “go away”.

    Official immunity must be abolished. The total immunity that police officers enjoy contributes to many abuse cases as the few “bad apples” KNOW that they can get away with their questionable behavior.

    Any laws that apply to the citizenry must apply equally to police officers. As it stands now, police officers are given additional time to formulate their stories when questionable “use of force” situations are scrutinized. In addition, they are kept on the payroll as well.

    Lying to elicit confessions is not only unethical but is another example of the inequality of the “system”. Suspects can be prosecuted for lying to police while police can lie with impunity. Lying to suspects quite often elicits false confessions.

    Asset forfeiture must be totally abolished as it is unconstitutional on its face. Asset forfeiture is actually legalized “robbery under color of authority” and is criminal in itself.

    The use of SWAT teams to serve ordinary warrants must be prohibited. In addition “no-knock” raids must also be abolished as they serve no purpose other than to give police officers the chance to destroy property for no good reason. Innocent citizens have been murdered by police during these “raids”. Police officers have also been fired upon by citizens who thought they were being invaded by criminals. One disgusting part of this is that innocent citizens have been prosecuted for defending themselves against police officers injured or killed during these questionable “raids”. In many cases, the “wrong residence” is hit.

    Militarization of police departments fosters an “us vs. them” attitude in which police officers regard “us” as the “enemy”, never a good thing. Military rank for police officers should be prohibited.

    Body and dash cams must be operational at all times with no option to disable them. Disabling a body or dash cam should be a prosecutable offense in addition to permanent loss of employment. Today’s body and dash cams are rugged enough to withstand harsh treatment.

    All police interactions with the citizenry must be conducted in clearly distinctive non-militarized uniforms and clearly visibly-marked vehicles. “Subdued graphics”, which many police departments use must be banned.

  45. Polistra says:
    @Jefferson Temple

    Same thing happened with the John Geer case in Fairfax County VA. County stonewalled, refusing even to give up the identity of the (latino) cop who shot Mr Geer in cold blood. National MSM: *yawn*

    Sen. Charles E. Grassley (R-Iowa) finally stepped in and demanded answers from the FCPD. Grassley owns a home in the area. It took a full year before the FCPD even agreed to release the cop’s identity. Slowly their entire story began to fall apart, as happens too often.

  46. 4/20/2021

    When a bullet is discharged, wasn’t the officer supposed to get on his radio and put out “SHOTS FIRED”?

    The husband seemed to know that his wife was shot, yet this officer couldn’t find the wound (or the blood).

    Shouldn’t he have called a “Code 3” (whatever) to get an ambulance there as quick as possible with sirens blazing?

    The officer seemed like he didn’t know any CPR or medical techniques (or was too stressed out to act). The police wouldn’t let a neighbor with medical knowledge come over and give CPR.

    It looks like a “cover up” or the police have a monopoly on life or death and the court outcome. Sounds like the “Deep State” DEMONrats.

    It seems in today’s world that you are flipping a coin when you call the police for anything. You may be even risking your life.

    (I saw a TV news story of a man who came home and discovered that his stepson had hung himself in the garage. This stepfather was hysterical. He called the police & the ambulance. The next thing you see is the stepfather all beat up with a black eye, in handcuffs and under arrest. )

    The DEMONrats are “dumbing down” the education in the school systems and teaching them propaganda instead.

    You’ll get some White politician’s nephew who was kicked in the head by a mule when he was a kid. A patronage hire on the police force that is mentally challenged walking around with a gun.

    Then comes the “quota hires”. A woman firefighter who can’t carry an elderly 90 lb. Grandma out of a burning house. A Black or minority hire who is dyslexic, has a chip on his shoulder or is unqualified.

    It supposed to be “Equality of Opportunity” not “Equality of Outcome”. I may be a minority that wants to play basketball for the NY Knicks, but my 5 ft. 9 inch height will disqualify me for the job.

Current Commenter

Leave a Reply - Comments on articles more than two weeks old will be judged much more strictly on quality and tone

 Remember My InformationWhy?
 Email Replies to my Comment
Submitted comments have been licensed to The Unz Review and may be republished elsewhere at the sole discretion of the latter
Commenting Disabled While in Translation Mode
Subscribe to This Comment Thread via RSS Subscribe to All Eric Striker Comments via RSS
Becker update V1.3.2
The Surprising Elements of Talmudic Judaism
Analyzing the History of a Controversial Movement