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The words ‘hope’ and ‘Pakistan’ do not often appear together. Pakistan, a sprawling nation of 205 million, is hard to govern, even harder to finance, and seething with tribal or religious violence and discord.

But Pakistan, which for me is one of the most interesting and important nations on earth, is by far the leading nation of the Muslim world and a redoubtable military power. Created in 1947 from former British India as a haven for oppressed Muslims, Pakistan has been ruled ever since by military juntas or by slippery and often corrupt civilian politicians.

After decades of dynastic politics under the Bhutto and Sharif families, there is suddenly hope that newly elected cricket star Imran Khan and his Tehreek-e-Insaf Party (PTI) may – just may – tackle Pakistan’s four biggest problems: endemic corruption, military interference, political tribalism, and a half-dead economy.

Former Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, appears to be headed for jail over a corruption scandal unless he is allowed to go into exile in London. The exiled former military dictator, Gen. Pervez Musharraf, is hiding out in Dubai awaiting charges of treason.

I spent a good deal of time with Pakistan’s former leaders, Gen. Zia-ul-Haq and his bitter foe, Benazir Bhutto, both of whom were later murdered. Neither Musharraf nor Nawaz measured up to these colorful personalities in political skills, vision, or personality.

Imran Khan is sometimes called ‘Pakistan’s Jack Kennedy’ for his movie-star good looks, charisma and zesty love life. He no longer plays professional cricket though he is still idolized in Pakistan and, interestingly, bitter foe India.

Khan (who is of Pashtun tribal blood) is also a philanthropist and respected thinker. He says he is determined to begin rooting corruption out of Pakistan and to revivify its ailing economy. Pakistan’s GDP is only \$1,641 per person compared to India’s \$2,134. The illiteracy rate is about 40%, notably among women who are the primary teachers of the young.

As Imran Khan is about to take office, Pakistan’s coffers are almost empty. Islamabad has had to take 12 loans from the International Monetary Fund in the last 40 years, in part to pay for its oil imports.

Now, Islamabad is negotiating yet another loan of \$57 billion from its most important ally, China, whose vast belt and road project covering transportation, ports and infrastructure seeks to modernize Pakistan and turn it into a primary conduit to the Arabian Sea.

But Donald Trump’s Washington is angry over China’s dollar diplomacy, formerly a preserve of US foreign policy. US State Secretary Mike Pompeo, who plays bad cop to Trump’s bad cop, lambastes Pakistan for the Chinese loan.


The White House is obviously dismayed by China’s growing influence over Pakistan caused, in large part, by the US decision to cut aid to Pakistan and favor its old enemy, India. President George Bush aided India’s military nuclear program, alarming China and Pakistan. Now, Trump is working to mobilize India against China. So far, India has been too smart to act as an American strategic proxy.

Imran Khan will now have a chance to resolve the Indo-Pakistani dispute over contested Kashmir that has flared since 1947. India keeps one million soldiers and police there to repress the rebellious majority Muslim population that seeks to join Pakistan or create an independent state. The UN mandated a referendum to determine Kashmir’s future but India ignores it.

The new Khan government must also try to find a way to get the US out of the giant hole it has dug in Afghanistan. Imran has been a vocal critic of the stalemated US war in Afghanistan. Soon, he will control the major supply lines to US forces there.

India and Pakistan are important nuclear-armed powers. Their nuclear forces are on a hair-trigger alert of less than 5 minutes. There is frequent fighting on the Kashmir cease-fire line between the two sides. India’s vastly larger forces are poised to invade Pakistan. Islamabad says it must have tactical nuclear weapons to deter such an overwhelming Indian attack.

The Kashmir border is the world’s most dangerous flash point.

Imran Khan may be able to calm tensions over Kashmir and open meaningful talks with India where he is very popular. In the 1980’s, Gen. Zia ul Haq headed off an invasion by India by flying to Delhi on the spur of the moment to attend a cricket match. This writer expects Imran Khan to similarly appear in India for his ultimate diplomatic test match.

(Republished from by permission of author or representative)
• Category: Foreign Policy • Tags: China, Pakistan 
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  1. Now, Islamabad is negotiating yet another loan of \$57 billion from its most important ally, China

    This is completely inaccurate. The \$57 billion the author is talking about is a programme called CPEC which is many years in the making. It is not a new loan. It is not even a loan per se, so much as a mixture of investments and loans.

    What the Pakistanis are doing now is to find emergency funds in order to stave off insolvency, whereas CPEC is geared towards investments of industrial capacity.

    The Pakistani state is essentially bankrupt. Reacting to justified comments by Mike Pompeo, the foreign sectretary of the US, that the IMF should not bail out sour loans given by the Chinese, the Pakistani equivalent lashed out. In so doing, he unexpectedly revealed that part of the new loan that the Pakistanis are seeking are to be used to repay old loans.

    That is basically the definition of a debt-fuelled ponzi scheme. They have become a debt colony of other powers, alternating between the Washington-dominated IMF and now the Chinese. The Greek crisis of 2010 should have taught people that when a state is basically insolvent, then it should be allowed to go bankrupt instead of perpetuating the extend and pretend policies.

    Even Pakistan’s very low nominal per capita income is largely gone as the PKR has devalued by 25% in the last year. A large part of Pakistan’s elite have assets abroad and they are often going abroad to shop or to buy property. Therefore they want an overvalued exchange rate. That this has led to massive solvency issues is of no concern to them. Such a country must be allowed to go bankrupt and allowed to default. Pakistanis will often use emotional blackmail given their nuclear arsenal, saying that this could go into the hands of terrorists if their state fails etc. The reality is that a properly managed bankruptcy is not the end of the world. It is sometimes needed to get a fresh start, whether for individuals, companies or states.

    An interesting observation is that many of these Chinese loans, emanating from OBOR, seem to be excessively punitive and many countries are now reconsidering them. Some of them, such as Sri Lanka, became so indebted that they had to sign off on a 99 year lease of a strategic port. Many countries in Indochina are also becoming saddled with these loans. Venezuela was not part of the OBOR, but their loans also made them slaves to the Chinese and were forced to sell their oil much more cheaply, accelerating the collapse. Pakistan is now heading in the same direction. This mismanagement and debt enslavement should not be bailed out. Let them go bankrupt and then do a proper restructuring where they are forced to live within their means.

    • Replies: @Godfree Roberts
  2. Anonymous [AKA "badstate"] says:

    I sure hope, for the sake of the entirety of humanity, that Khan succeeds in all the ways his predecessors have failed, or been stymied. To have a Pakistani that can command respect from the Indians leading the nation almost seems unfathomable.

    I only hope America is wise enough to heed this man’s likely good advice on the never ending war with the Pashtuns to his west. Looks like Pakistan struck gold.

  3. @Polish Perspective

    “Chinese loans, emanating from OBOR, seem to be excessively punitive”

    Would you provide us with a link to some (or one) excessively punitive loan stipulation?

    • Replies: @Polish Perspective
  4. Anon[425] • Disclaimer says:

    The idea of a former cricket star cleaning up Pakistan is too funny.

  5. Jason Liu says:

    He’s also reasonably nationalist and against western style liberal democracy. Worthy of support.

  6. @Godfree Roberts


    Pakistan’s Foreign office warns against unsanctioned comments on CPEC

    The WSJ further wrote in its article that some ministers in the previous PML-N government had said in interviews that they should have negotiated better terms with China.

    Official figures reviewed by the Journal showed that China-backed power plants had been guaranteed annual returns on investment of up to 34 per cent in dollar terms for 30 years.

    In February last year, The Express Tribune had reported that Pakistan had offered up to 34.5 per cent annual profit on equity invested in coal-fired energy projects of CPEC.

    Loans have been obtained at six per cent interest rates, excluding insurance cost. Official documents also showed that if insurance costs were included, also paid to a Chinese insurance company, the cost of borrowings would surge to 13 per cent.

    To be clear, over 30% in annual guaranteed returns on investment, in dollar terms, is completely suicidal for a country running large current account deficits with a habit to bouts of elevated inflation (which will put pressure on the exchange rate).

    This is seperate from the interest + insurance costs which come at 13%. By comparison, loans from the Asian Development Bank or the World Bank typically have interest rates below 5%. For poor countries like Pakistan, it isn’t unusual to get interest rates around 2.5%.

    On top of that, demands of guaranteed returns are also absent from these institutions when they invest. The flipside is that ADB and the WB cannot lend tens of billions of dollars to an insolvent country the way China can. But then again, these investments also have a political dimension, if not more so, in addition to the economic one. It’s partly about encircling India. China is already knee-deep in the finances of Sri Lanka, Pakistan and increasingly even Bangladesh. For them, the projects don’t always have to be purely economic (even if there is a component of that). It’s also part of a greater geopolitical strategy. It’s clever, but the receiving ends of these projects are now finding out that the terms are extremely stringent.

    People should read up on what happened to Sri Lanka and its debt bondage to the Chinese. Pakistan is on a similar course and Venezuela was trapped years ago. I’m not saying that the Washington-dominated IMF is an angel, I’m just pointing out that the Chinese are hardly going to be the saviours of the third world.

  7. I read the WSJ article but there was no source for the (highly dubious) claim that “Official figures reviewed by the Journal show that Chinese-backed power plants were promised annual returns on investment of up to 34%, guaranteed by Pakistan’s government, in dollars, for 30 years.” Nor when nor under what circumstances high interest might be charged. If the Journal really had seen the documents and wanted to present a balanced account, it would tell us.

    But here’s a hint from the article: China is putting up all the money and “Pakistani authorities have fallen behind on payments for electricity from new Chinese power projects—the bulk of the infrastructure program—because of longstanding problems getting Pakistanis to pay their bills, according to a senior Pakistani official”.

    VERY high risk attracts appropriately high interest, and a 22% annual IRR is normal, as is the case at Britain’s Hinkley Point C: “Given its commitment to building Hinkley Point C, the government had no choice but to make EDF an offer that was too good to resist. It offered to guarantee EDF a fixed price for each unit of energy produced at Hinkley for its first 35 years of operation. In 2012, the guaranteed price – known as the “strike price” – was set at £92.50 per megawatt hour (MWh), which would then rise with inflation. (One MWh is roughly equivalent to the electricity used by around 330 homes in one hour.)

    This means that if the wholesale price of electricity across the country falls below £92.50, EDF will receive an extra payment from the consumer as a “top-up” to fill the gap. This will be added to electricity bills around the country – even if you aren’t receiving electricity from Hinkley Point C, you will still be making a payment to EDF. The current wholesale price is around £40 per MWh. If there had been no inflation since 2012, the consumer would be paying an EDF tax of around £52.50 per MWh produced at Hinkley. However, because it is linked to inflation, the strike price has already risen since 2012”.

  8. TheAHA says:

    Since Pakistan’s always had a non-existent media and/or journalistic class that takes time away from the pointless-in-the-bigger-picture domestic gutter-politics scene dominated by gossiping and zero focus on international affairs, people in both the mainstream media and alternate media alike tend to get Pakistan awfully wrong. Whether it’s alt media swallowing Indian propaganda on Pakistan – which funnily enough piggybacks off Western propaganda on Pakistan that’s often fraudulent – because of the former ‘slyly’ citing the Zia era and Pakistan’s role in helping the US and Saudi Arabia create the radical human resource pool that’d be used in the CARs, Yugoslavia, vs Bashar/Gaddafi etc, people plain old get it wrong.

    With a new era FINALLY beginning (that is, a leader who doesn’t need a paper prompter to recite his own name properly) we might see Pakistan’s long dormant state shift. Pakistan’s issues after the 1990s have been caused in large part by politicians completely disinterested in governing the country. Be it an economic perspective, or vital reforms (land reforms, tax reforms etc), the PPP-PML-N axis that governed the country in turns since 1988 has really done nothing. A big part of Imran Khan’s success is his achievements in governing the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province with advancements in basic human development since 2013 but also his relentless, ceaseless anti-corruption campaigning.

    But another vital aspect of why Khan is much better than Nawaz ‘I like inviting India’s intelligence chief to my niece’s wedding despite the latter sponsoring anti Pakistan terrorists’ Sharif is that he’s got no major conflicts with the military.

    The Pakistan military is not what it was during the Zia era. I see respectable writers like Michel Chussodovsky get this wrong, I see writers like Paul Craig Roberts get this wrong. The Pakistani military has, since 2007, fought a real, actual war against terror (the Tehreek e Taliban Pakistan, a group not to be confused with the Afghan Taliban who do not attack Pakistan in any way) and done so alone. All my respects to Syria notwithstanding, it had allies. Pakistan had to wage counter-terror operations on a large-scale (Operations Zarb e Azb, Rah e Nijaat etc) since 2009 on terrain where neighbouring NATO is too cowardly to leave its fortresses and clean house. The entire Federally Administered Tribal Areas, housing these TTP extremists (ISIS types) was cleared by the Pakistani military. Pakistan lost around 80 000 civilians thus far in its war against terrorist groups, killed might be near 100 000 terrorists and lost perhaps 30-40 000 law enforcement personnel. A dirty war was launched against the Pakistani state, supported prominently by India’s Research and Analysis Wing (RAW, India’s intel agency), the Kabul regime (NATO puppets) and the CIA.

    Moreover, Musharraf the US puppet (1999-2008) was perhaps the weakest, most lenient ‘dictator’ you’d find. The man who saw fit to sell our sovereignty and turn us into punching bags has recently been shown in a leaked video speaking to a Zionist lobbying group (American Jewish Congress was the name IIRC) for assistance, *covert* assistance in his words, to try and take power back in Pakistan. Such a man was no ‘military threat to democracy’, given that democracy in Pakistan can best be summed up by the National Reconciliation Ordinance he created a year after the wretched PPP and PML-N leaders in exile Benazir (corrupt woman, pretty face for the Orientalist Western media to gawk at) and Nawaz (corrupt, uneducated, no loyalty to the country) had with the blessing of the US signed some fraud ‘charter of democracy’.

    What sort of dictator doesn’t just purge his political opposition, but allows them to re-enter politics? A sold out one. Regardless, the Musharraf era ended in 2008 and he’s been irrelevant ever since.

    Also, please when next time you consider taking Indian commentary on any aspect of Pakistan, be it how the word Pakistan is spelled or what the reality of the Kashmir issue is (everything the Indians state about this is a lie), please remember that India’s the country which votes its worst, most extremist elements into government, has a huge online army of hyper-nationalist trolls turning into meme material via their bizarre arrogance and attempts to make a neoliberal disaster seem like a prospering nation and is currently shedding whatever facade of ‘non alignment’ it had in the past under pressure from the US vis-a-vis Iran and Russia.

    Do Pakistan the honour of a proper awareness of its recent history. I feel glad to see a good writer talk about the country, and I hope my comment is informative to people.

    • Replies: @Talha
    , @Vidi
  9. Talha says:

    Thanks for the comment, I definitely learned somethings.


  10. Anon[126] • Disclaimer says:

    Oppressed muslims who had been taking slaves from the Balkans to Burma for nigh on a millenia.


    • Replies: @TheAHA
  11. Vidi says:

    I hope my comment is informative to people

    You taught me something. Thanks.

  12. TheAHA says:

    Your comment is of what relevance here? How low does one’s intelligence have to be to still buy into the Sam Harris style of thinking that assumes Muslims from North Africa all the way to Central Asia form some manner of singular, homogenous, coherent bloc?

    • Replies: @Anon
  13. Anonymous [AKA "Agnimitra"] says:

    So Pakistan was formed by “oppressed Muslims” who committed 3 genocides of non-violent Gandhi-following Hindus in the lead up to partition (see Khilafat Movement, Moplah Massacre, etc) – with the added goal of re-establishing Islamic rule over India…

    Pakistan has also ethnically cleansed its Hindu and Sikh populations and continues to persecute Christians, whereas hundreds of millions of Muslims, Sikhs, Christians and others flourish in “oppressive” India.

    So far the only real ethnic repression in Kashmir is the complete ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Hindus by Islamist jihadis – the same kind that Imran Khan supports and is called ‘Taliban Khan’ for.

    Also, the UN-mandated referendum in Kashmir has preconditions that Pakistan has not fulfilled – like retreating from Pakistan-occupied Kashmir which they invaded and occupied decades ago.

    • Replies: @DB Cooper
    , @TheAHA
  14. DB Cooper says:

    No need to double quoted “oppressive” India. India is a backward feudalistic and extremely oppressive country to a large segment of its citizens.

    • Replies: @Anon
  15. anon[146] • Disclaimer says:

    Pakistan is the leading nation of the Muslim world?

    That tells you all you need to know about Islam right there.

    • Replies: @Anon
  16. TheAHA says:

    Indians, the nation who’ve by their own actions turned their online communities into meme templates because of the delusion (Superpower chants) and the generally misplaced sense of grandeur (showing off about having space missions whilst 50% of India defecates openly, a front where India makes very little progress), always incorporate a healthy degree of projection onto Pakistan in their comments. Their absolute, frothing-at-the-moth jingoism is not something they can restrain and as a result their outlook toward us Pakistanis, their enemy of old, is one that is so void of any sense that it simply piggybacks off contemporary and very neocon Western narratives (i.e attacking Pakistan’s Muslim character all the time).

    First off, the UN set preconditions that India violated in Kashmir. I wasn’t aware of this until recently when a UN officer’s (P Graham) report from 1967 was declassified a few years ago from now stated that Pakistan had begun the de-militarization of its side of the ceasefire line in Kashmir in 1948, as per the first and second UN resolutions, but India declined to do so after Pakistan had started and thus Pakistan stopped. The following proposals Graham mentioned in his review of the UNICOP of 1948 similarly were rejected by the Indians in dealing with the situation caused by India not following Pakistan’s lead in de-militarizing.

    See that? The Indians got nothing on us. All that they do is project, project, project. For example, ‘Pakistan has ethnically cleansed its Hindus’. False. There has never, in history, been a single incident of government, or political parties-orchestrated, genocide of Hindus. Indians in their endless crass ignorance cite the drop in percentage of Hindus in Pakistan’s population between 1947 and the 1970s as ‘oh where did they go, must’ve been killed!’… Despite not knowing that when East Pakistan seceded with months worth of Indian military assistance the majority of Pakistani Hindus became Bangladeshi and thus removed from the Pakistani population.

    Duh, right? Just, DUH. But Indians can’t think. Indians can’t think when they come to projecting at Pakistan. Does Pakistan have any state-led ethnic cleansing of minorities? No. Does India?


    Gujarat Riots 2002, current Indian PM and CM of Gujarat at the time Narendra Modi was caught in public encouraging Hindu rioters to kill Gujarati Muslims (killed 2000, slaughtered pregnant women as well).
    Bombay Riots 1992, also targeting Muslims. Heavy involvement of the RSS.
    Nellie Massacre (1980s; can’t remember exact year), targeting Muslims. Heavy involvement of the RSS.

    That’s just three thus far, and even one is more than what happens in Pakistan. Indians might have, had they any tact, made the excuse that India simply has more minorities (10% Muslim, or perhaps 15%, with 57% Brahmin i.e upper caste Hindus and perhaps 5% Sikhs) and thus they shouldn’t be compared to Pakistan but they themselves initiate the comparisons.

    And look a lot worse. Pakistan has been learning, India has been de-learning. India has been hooking itself up to the steroids of hyper-nationalism while Pakistan has been fighting for its survival. Our war against terrorists is a war against terrorists who call other Muslims apostates and slaughter them. India’s war against Kashmiri youth picking up guns to fight their thuggish, rapist army is no war against terror.

    • Replies: @Talha
  17. Talha says:

    Hindutva trolls need to be put in their place – good job.

    I’m hearing more and more stories coming out from India about Muslim cattle farmers getting killed. I guess they are taking #CowLivesMatter to a whole new level.

    I really do hope for peace between India and Pakistan in the long run – the opposite is frightening to imagine, but you are right about these online Hindutva trolls.

    Had a question for you; my cousin told me that one of the planned uses for Pakistani nuclear weapons was inside Pakistan istself. Basically they would deploy on the large swaths of desert in the middle of the country on any large concentrations of India’s mechanized divisions in order to prevent Pakistan being cut into half and isolating the north from the south.

    Any insights?


    • Replies: @TheAHA
  18. TheAHA says:

    If I am to summarize, Talha, the situation in India, it’s that the fringe in India is the mainstream. The extremists are the most powerful parties. The terrorists sit in government. Communalism is a part of their politics and the faultlines have been set on fire by the current government. Cow protection squads go around killing Muslims whose livelihoods have, for decades, relied on selling beef and working with beef in various ways.

    India during the years it marketed itself, along contemporary 21st century image-shining lines, as a ‘progressive’, democratic (democratic government structure makes lots of people democratic lol, Pakistan too, whoop de doo what an achievement), ‘secular’ etc. Their Hindutva networks have always been a kind of proper and developed deep-state with an abiding love for the racist, apartheid Israel merely because it kills Muslims.

    Pakistan’s sins in the 1980s during our unholy alliance with the US and KSA etc, are something we paid for and the demons of which we fought. Only we. Syria had allies in its war against terror, while we fought ours alone (not the same intensity since we didn’t have Israel/NATO providing the TTP air cover but it was deadly still). Pakistan’s flaws and wrongdoings in the past are not India’s achievements or India’s credentials. India has always been what it shows itself as today.

    It’s institutionalized, normalized, and seen as part of India’s modern day nationalist rhetoric. It’s a recipe for disaster.

    I don’t know about the nuclear thing, Talha. Sorry.

    • Replies: @Talha
  19. Talha says:

    Thanks for the nuanced answers. You don’t seem like a rabid nationalist Pakistani (you can’t have a legitimate discussion with those people) since you point out Pakistan has made some major mistakes for which she is paying a heavy price.

    I was born in Karachi (and many of the ulema I have learned under are from there also) so I wish the people of Pakistan well. I do hope cooler heads prevail in all of this.

    India has a lot of potential, but I agree with you that the more extreme people are making policies. It’s a shame and I hope they can turn that around.

    No problem about the nuclear thing, I was just looking for confirmation. It does sound like a viable strategy given Pakistan’s geography.

    One thing I have noticed in Pakistan is that their is unfortunately a lot of religious extremism and vigilante mob violence and that is not cool. I hope that gets under control. Like you said, this may stem from the Saudi factor.

    I’m really impressed by the moves Pakistan, Turkey and Azerbaijan are making in military and economic ties. I mentioned in another thread that if they can somehow get Iran in on this and one or two Central Asian republics, that would be a massive cooperative of countries linked by both Islam and Persian-influenced culture.


    • Replies: @TheAHA
  20. Anon[425] • Disclaimer says:

    Well, they are colonizing UK, not the other way around. So, maybe Muslims are doing something right.

  21. TheAHA says:

    Pakistan and Iran have already agreed on joint defence production – noteworthy because Iran has so few military partners in the world. There’s lots of trade enhancement going on as well. Iran and Pakistan weathered the years where there was risk of sectarian tensions making things sour, kept each other at arm’s length and are now growing closer.

    I have not seen rabid Pakistani nationalists anywhere. Pakistani nationalism, or what it was, was always an impossible attempt to portray a country trying to put itself together as a stronghold of Islam, as a Muslim superpower (i.e Zaid Hamid style nationalism). Never worked, wasn’t ever an intellectual movement, has no serious scope. In fact I’d say that now Pakistan needs a re-awakening under the new government given how dead things have been over the last few decades vis-a-vis nationalist rhetoric.

    Yeah there are a lot of very bad Pakistani diaspora groups in the UK. Often extremists.

    • Replies: @Talha
  22. Talha says:

    Pakistan and Iran have already agreed on joint defence production

    This is good. This means that bringing Turkey and Azerbaijan into the mix is just a little bit away.

    I think this idea of Pakistan being a superpower is kind of stupid actually; they have much bigger fish to fry like illiteracy, poverty, etc. But they are no doubt an important nation among the Islamic community and they will likely stay in that position for a long while.


  23. “Imran Khan will now have a chance to resolve the Indo-Pakistani dispute over contested Kashmir that has flared since 1947. India keeps one million soldiers and police there to repress the rebellious majority Muslim population that seeks to join Pakistan or create an independent state. The UN mandated a referendum to determine Kashmir’s future but India ignores it.

    Margolis, you sound like a deep-dyed colonialist. Anyone who speaks fondly of his association with Zia ul Haq of all people is either a villain or a varlet.

    Anyway, as far as Kashmir and the relevant UN resolutions go, please acquaint yourself with Christine Fair’s takedown of a Pakistani “Foolbright” scholar’s shocking ignorance. As Step 1 of the UN mandated process, Pakistan was required to withdraw its troops and tribals from Kashmir. It refused to do so, thus rendering Step 2 (India’s subsequent withdrawal of its troops from Kashmir) and Step 3 (the referendum) otiose.

    Watch and weep –

  24. Anon[126] • Disclaimer says:
    @DB Cooper

    The pagan hating anglo shows up to defend his saracen brother.

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