The Unz Review • An Alternative Media Selection
A Collection of Interesting, Important, and Controversial Perspectives Largely Excluded from the American Mainstream Media
 BlogviewEric Margolis Archive
India's Public Health Disaster
Email This Page to Someone

 Remember My Information


Bookmark Toggle AllToCAdd to LibraryRemove from Library • BShow CommentNext New CommentNext New ReplyRead More
ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
These buttons register your public Agreement, Disagreement, Thanks, LOL, or Troll with the selected comment. They are ONLY available to recent, frequent commenters who have saved their Name+Email using the 'Remember My Information' checkbox, and may also ONLY be used three times during any eight hour period.
Ignore Commenter Follow Commenter
Search Text Case Sensitive  Exact Words  Include Comments
List of Bookmarks

I’ve covered 14 wars and seen a lot of combat. But being shelled or shot at never scared me half as much as the fear of serious illness in the field.

While reporting on the 1980’s war in Afghanistan with the mujahidin warriors (“freedom fighters” back then/today “terrorists”), we were involved in a fierce battle with Communist Afghan troops. We fired volleys of rockets at them; they fired back at us with mortars and tank shells.

As shells exploded around me, the mujahidin chief announced, “now we stop fighting, Mr. Eric. It’s time for lunch!”

“But I’m not hungry. I came here to cover the fighting,” I pleaded, far more frightened by the local food – and particularly endemic hepatitis – than enemy shells. There was no denying Afghan hospitality. We piled into jeeps and returned to a nearby village for lunch.

I tried to beg off eating, claiming a toothache. But my Afghan hosts would have none of it. “Eat, eat Mr. Eric.” I suspected they had used up their week’s food ration to give me a small banquet.

Mr. Eric ate gingerly. My Afghan host sitting next to me suddenly threw his shawl over his head, lay down, and explained, “now I must sleep. I have the hepatitis.”

I survived this adventure, but have often fallen victim to food-borne illness in the Mideast, Africa and parts of Asia. For me, the most dangerous places have been Egypt and India, with Pakistan and Nepal as runners up.

In Egypt, the new, brutal military regime is too busy locking up members of the Muslim Brotherhood to care about its foul hygiene. When I first lived in Cairo, it was a week before I dared leave my residence, so virulent was dreaded “Gyppy Tummy.”

India, by contrast, is finally making a major effort to curb its awful sanitation problem which has gravely damaged national health.

In 1964, the acclaimed Trinidadian-Indian writer V.S. Naipaul went to discover his roots in India. Instead of enlightenment and pride, he discovered primitive hygiene and almost total lack of civic consciousness, as recounted in his “Area of Darkness.”

Most horrifying to Naipaul was watching Indians squat down and defecate in public. Indians shrugged off this problem by saying it was a custom of backwards rural people.

But the problem is not just in rural areas. In fact, an estimated 620 million Indians – 50% of the total population – defecate in the open. Some figures say the real number is 70%. India leads the world in lack of indoor plumbing. Runners up are Ethiopia (70%); Pakistan (27%): Indonesia (26%); and China (4%).

India’s flood of outdoor excrement has polluted ground water and generated a host of illnesses. Children in India, where 800,000 die annually, are particularly vulnerable. Polio, after having been nearly wiped out, has made an ominous comeback.


The ambassador to India of a western nation told me that at any given time, half his embassy staff was seriously ill. On my last trip to India I stayed at only the best hotels and lived mainly on cooked vegetables, rice and bread. Yet I – an old Indian hand – came down with a very serious illness whose after-affects lingered for five years.

India’s teeming cities lack adequate waste treatment systems; its rivers, upon which tens of millions depend for drinking water, are open sewers. Indian politicians have simply avoided this embarrassing issue or are too prudish to address it.

I recall taking a rowboat on the Ganges River at the holy city of Varanasi (or Benares), watching people drinking the water, washing clothes, gargling, and dumping remains of bodies burned on its banks. The brown waters were filled with human fecal waste and dead animals. How the 500 million Indians that rely on the Ganges can survive its toxins is one of Mother India’s deepest mysteries.

India’s new prime minister, Nareenda Modi, is finally attacking his nation’s primary health problem. Soon after taking office, Modi declared war on outdoor defecation and proclaimed his government’s priority would be building indoor toilets for tens of millions of Indians.

Good show. I recall China in the Maoist mid-1970’s. Mao, born a peasant, never used toilettes, preferring chamber pots or his garden. But when Deng Xiaoping took over, he declared war against filth, China’s disgusting toilets, and outdoor defecation.

Today, China’s sanitation is light years away from the old days. China has cleaned up its act, planted tens of millions of trees, and built sewage plants though China’s urban air remains highly polluted. I have never fallen ill in China from food though I’ve been to some very remote places.

India has the world’s third largest military budget, some $36 billion (the US spend close to $1 trillion annually). It is buying advanced missiles, nuclear submarines, aircraft carriers, warplanes, nuclear weapons and modern tanks.

If Delhi can afford ICBM missiles, it ought to able to dig latrines, scrub streets, and install modern toilets for many of its people.

Let’s hope Modi does not get distracted from this vital mission. India can’t aspire to be a superpower giant as long as its feet remain mired in human waste.

(Republished from by permission of author or representative)
• Category: Foreign Policy • Tags: India 
Hide 11 CommentsLeave a Comment
Commenters to FollowEndorsed Only
Trim Comments?
  1. Civil engineering (including sewage and water treatment plants) puts the word civil in civilization. Like good governance for Lao Tzu, effective public policy with respect to sanitation is transparent and noticed only in its absence.

  2. Vendetta says:

    Good on Modi. He’s not some out-of-touch, elitist prude who’s too high and mighty to acknowledge embarrassing problems as is the tendency in New Delhi. He has the chance to make a difference and I hope he does.

  3. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    Did Mr. Margolis just write an article about India and not blame the British for whatever the problem is? Astonishing…

  4. IBC says:

    Hear, hear. Public sanitation is probably one of the best investments India could make right now. Let’s hope the Indian Government follows through on this issue and real results are achieved. Modern sanitation should not just be a practical issue, but a point of pride for all Indians.

  5. India is the cradle of philosophical civilization. That’s why I moved there decades ago and return again and again. Without that vision there’s a lot to criticize India for. I just keep my eye on the ball and remind Indians to return to their great ancient past and its high level of culture, cleanliness and civilization. Personal hygiene in India, even amongst slum dwellers, is impeccable. That its civic hygiene is in the current state its in is puzzling, considering how fanatical Indians are about personal hygiene and ritual cleanliness. After decades of living in Indian I’m still trying to get to the bottom of that conundrum.

    All that being said, its really only the large cities and towns, and particularly those of the North, that are really bad. Much of India is clean and beautiful.

    OK back to my ritual bath and puja….

  6. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    And the requisite flood of Indians rushing in to say how clean India is lol. I knew that would happen when I read this article.

  7. Yol, who’s doing that? I reread every comment and don’t see any such thing.

  8. I’m surprised there are so few comments…. I’m guessing that most Indians don’t mind the idea that their country is a big open sewer (or those that do mind get out as soon as they can).

    • Replies: @Numinous
  9. Numinous says:
    @Cliff Arroyo

    Where’s the mystery in this? A lack of comments is as likely to indicate assent as apathy.

    Also, I’m guessing the overwhelming majority of readers are Americans, so the paucity of comments likely indicates how little Americans are interested in India. Or maybe they are just grossed out by the topic.

  10. Ankit says:

    Steve does have this reader from India. There is not much to say about this – but the majority of Indians are schizoid about a lot of things. India will never as a materialistic civilization because we do not have the civilizational chops to create glittering, clean western metropolis. The apathy towards public health is just a realization of the fact. Most wealthy Indians just want to create a comfortable niche to live in, riding off the endless cheap slave labor and do not care about the cities or countryside.

  11. Anon • Disclaimer says:

    India’s flood of outdoor excrement has polluted ground water and generated a host of illnesses.

    Don’t people boil their water before drinking it?

Current Commenter

Leave a Reply - Comments on articles more than two weeks old will be judged much more strictly on quality and tone

 Remember My InformationWhy?
 Email Replies to my Comment
Submitted comments have been licensed to The Unz Review and may be republished elsewhere at the sole discretion of the latter
Commenting Disabled While in Translation Mode
Subscribe to This Comment Thread via RSS Subscribe to All Eric Margolis Comments via RSS
Personal Classics
Bin Laden is dead, but his strategy still bleeds the United States.
Egyptians revolted against American rule as well as Mubarak’s.
“America’s strategic and economic interests in the Mideast and Muslim world are being threatened by the agony in...
A menace grows from Bush’s Korean blind spot.
Far from being a model for a “liberated” Iraq, Afghanistan shows how the U.S. can get bogged down Soviet-style.