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The War in Afghanistan
The real 'Crime of the Century' behind the Opioid Crisis
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In May, the HBO television network aired a new two-part documentary exploring America’s ongoing opioid epidemic entitled The Crime of the Century. The first episode summarized the role of the pharmaceutical industry in the crisis, specifically that of Sackler family drugmaker Purdue Pharma and its deadly prescription painkiller, OxyContin. Part one also thoroughly investigates the complicity of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the deceptive marketing by the drug company to obtain U.S. government approval for oxycodone despite its high risk of abuse and dependency, just as the pharmaceutical lobby bribes lawmakers in Washington. Later, the second half of the series charts the current rising use of even more powerful synthetic opioids like fentanyl. During COVID-19, the number of fatal overdoses have reportedly spiked in an epidemic already estimated to be taking nearly 50,000 lives per year. The HBO production is one of a slew of recent films such as Netflix’s The Pharmacist and The Young Turks’ The Oxy Kingpins which highlight the responsibility of the pharmaceutical industry but omit discussion of a related issue that has become taboo for media to even mention. While the film’s scathing indictment of Big Pharma is certainly relevant, it unfortunately neglects to address another enormous but lesser-known factor in America’s escalating drug problem.

Corporate media would have us believe it is simply fortuitous that during the exact time opioid overdose deaths in the U.S. began to increase in the early 2000s, the so-called War on Terror began with the conquest and plundering of a country abroad that has since become the world’s epicenter for opium production. By the end of August, American combat forces are scheduled to fully withdraw from Afghanistan shortly before the twentieth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks that preceded the October 2001 invasion and subsequent two decade occupation. Contrary to the spin put on the announcement by the Biden administration, the pledge to finally remove troops from the longest war in U.S. history was actually yet another postponement, as the Trump administration had previously agreed with the Taliban to a complete drawdown by May. Time will tell whether the new deadline is Washington kicking the can down the road again in the endless war, but the withdrawal has already drawn criticism from the bipartisan foreign policy establishment with former Secretaries of State Hillary Clinton and Condoleezza Rice voicing their objections to the House Foreign Affairs Committee. Unfortunately for the Beltway chickenhawks, polls show an increasingly war-weary American public are unanimously in support of the move, which is little wonder given they have endured a silent epidemic that can be partly traced back to the conflict-ridden nation.

Even though the FDA approved OxyContin six years before the U.S. took control of the South Central Asian country, an increase in domestic heroin overdoses has been intertwined with the uptick in abuse of commonly prescribed and man-made opioids which have become gateway drugs to the morphium-derived opiate in the new millennium. Meanwhile, Afghanistan has become the globe’s leading narco-state under NATO occupation which accounts for more than 90% of global opium production that is used to make heroin and other narcotics. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), poppy cultivation in the Islamic Republic increased by 37% last year alone. At the same time, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that heroin use in the U.S. more than doubled among young adults in the last ten years, while 45% of heroin users were said to be hooked on prescription opioid painkillers as well. Yet the impression one gets from mainstream media is that the vast majority of smack on America’s streets is coming solely from Mexican cartels, a statistical impossibility based on the scale of the U.S. user demand in proportion to the amount of hectares produced in Latin America, when the majority is inevitably being sourced from a country its own military has colonized for two decades.

The predominant narrative is that the illegal trade is the Taliban’s primary source of income financing its insurgency which has put the Pashtun-based group in nearly as strong a position today as it was prior to its overthrow when it presided over three quarters of the country. While the newly rebranded movement’s bloody and intolerant history cannot be whitewashed, one would have no idea that the lowest period in the previous thirty years for Afghan opium growth was actually under the five year reign of the Islamists who strictly forbid poppy farming a year before the U.S. takeover, though it is claimed they were merely deceiving the international community. Nevertheless, where opium harvesting really flourished preceding the NATO invasion was under the border lands controlled by the Northern Alliance, the same coalition of warlords and tribes later armed by the C.I.A. to oust the Taliban, while United Nations observers even acknowledged the success of the Sharia-based ban until its ouster.

Beginning in 2001, Afghanistan was instantly transformed into the chief global heroin supplier entering Turkey through the Balkans into the European Union and via Tajikistan eastward into Russia, China and beyond. In the midst of the U.S. exit, there is a general agreement that the days are numbered for the Kabul government as the Taliban continue to make gains. Still, the question remains — if the self-described Islamic Emirate and its asymmetric warfare is to blame for the opium boom, then where on earth did the billions NATO allocated for its counternarcotics strategy go? Even in the rare instances when major news outlets have reported on the U.S. military’s non-intervention policy toward opium farming with American marines suspiciously under orders to turn a blind eye to the poppy fields, the yellow press simply refuses to connect the dots. Under the smokescreen of supposedly protecting the only means of subsistence for the impoverished locals, NATO forces are in reality safeguarding the lethal product lining the pockets of the Afghan government. Why else would the Western coalition continue to overlook the Taliban’s main source of revenue if it is only the Pashtun nationalists who profit?

In reality, it was under the initial post-Taliban regime of President Hamid Karzai where drug exports began to surge as the very regime installed by the Bush administration shielded the unlawful trade from its cosmetic prohibition effort. Even though voter fraud was rampant during both the 2004 and 2009 Afghan elections, Karzai was championed as the country’s first “democratically-elected” leader while receiving tens of millions in behind the scenes payments from the Central Intelligence Agency. A longtime Western asset, Karzai had previously raised funds in neighboring Pakistan for the anti-communist mujahideen during the Afghan-Soviet War in the 1980s. Not only did the ranks of the Islamic ‘holy warriors’ armed and funded in the C.I.A.’s Operation Cyclone program include Karzai and the eventual core of both the Taliban and Al-Qaeda — including Osama bin Laden himself — but it is also well established the jihadists were deeply immersed in drug smuggling as the U.S. looked the other way. The late, great historian William Blum wrote:

“CIA-supported mujahideen rebels engaged heavily in drug trafficking while fighting the Soviet-supported government, which had plans to reform Afghan society. The Agency’s principal client was Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, one of the leading drug lords and the biggest heroin refiner, who was also the largest recipient of CIA military support. CIA-supplied trucks and mules that had carried arms into Afghanistan were used to transport opium to laboratories along the Afghan-Pakistan border. The output provided up to one-half of the heroin used annually in the United States and three-quarters of that used in Western Europe. U.S. officials admitted in 1990 that they had failed to investigate or take action against the drug operation because of a desire not to offend their Pakistani and Afghan allies. In 1993, an official of the DEA dubbed Afghanistan the new Colombia of the drug world.”

As maintained by the UNODC, the heroin flooding out of Afghanistan and Central Asia into Western Europe passes through the Balkan route consisting of the independent ex-Yugoslav states, together with Albania and the partially-recognized protectorate of Kosovo. Not coincidentally, this transit corridor largely began to swell with narcotraffic proceeding the NATO war on Yugoslavia in the 1990s, especially in the wake of the Kosovo conflict which saw the Clinton administration shore up the Al Qaeda-linked Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) to secede the disputed province from Serbia. Even with their previous State Department designation as a terrorist organization until 1998, the Islamist militants were given an instant facelift as freedom fighters. Apart from the fact that the ethnic Albanian separatists had considerable ties to Salafist extremist networks, the C.I.A.-backed Kosovar insurgents also subsidized their military campaign, which involved serious war crimes and ethnic cleansing, through narcoterrorism and drug running with Albanian crime syndicates — in above all, heroin. As journalist Diana Johnstone writes in Fools’ Crusade: Yugoslavia, NATO and Western Delusions:

“The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and other Western agencies were well aware of the close links between the UCK/KLA and the Kosovo Albanian drug traffickers controlling the main flow of heroin into Western Europe from Afghanistan via Turkey. The CIA has a long record of considering such groups as assets against governments targeted by the United States, whether in Southeast Asia, Africa or Central America.”

Shortly after the Red Army retreated in 1989, Afghanistan became one of the world’s top opium producers for the first time throughout the next decade until Taliban Supreme Leader Mullah Omar issued a fatwa against the lucrative crop in 2000. When the comprador Karzai assumed office the very next year, another family figure emerged as a key coalition ally in the country’s south — younger half-brother Ahmed Wali Karzai — who was appointed to govern poppy-rich Kandahar Province until his assassination in 2011. Just a year earlier, it was revealed by WikiLeaks embassy cables that Washington was well aware the younger Karzai was a corrupt drug lord, not long after The New York Times divulged his key role in the opium trade while simultaneously on the C.I.A. payroll. Even though this partial hangout was publicized by the Old Gray Lady, the newspaper of record never bothered to further investigate the links between Langley and the Karzai family’s deep pockets from the drug market. Instead, they continued to craft the misleading perception that taxes on poppy farming within Taliban-held areas was chiefly responsible for the illegal industry dominating the Afghan economy and fueling the never-ending war that Washington has a vested interest in prolonging.

Many commentators have drawn parallels between the recent disorganized abandonment of Bagram Airfield, the largest U.S. base in Afghanistan, and the final evacuation of American combat troops from South Vietnam in 1973. The mountainous country situated at the intersection of Central and South Asia along with Pakistan and (to a lesser extent) Iran comprises what is known as the ‘Golden Crescent’, one of two main hubs of opium turnout on the continent. In the Vietnam era, most of the globe’s heroin came from the other major axis of poppy-plant growth in the ‘Golden Triangle’ of Southeast Asia located at the border junction between Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. This crossroads continued to be the largest region for harvesting of the flower until the early 21st century when Afghanistan surpassed it in outturn. While there has yet to be revealed a smoking gun per se implicating the C.I.A. in drug trafficking from the Golden Crescent, it is at the very least food for thought given the precedent set by the agency throughout its 73-year history.

From the beginning of the Cold War, Langley intimately conspired with organized crime to achieve U.S. foreign policy objectives. Following the Cuban Revolution in 1959, the rogue spy agency frequently enlisted the Mafia in its many failed attempts to overthrow Fidel Castro and decades later many still believe that the same elements likely had a hand in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Still, it was not until 1972 during the Vietnam War when historian Alfred W. McCoy famously uncovered the extent to which the C.I.A. was involved in the international drug trade in The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia. The explosive study meticulously documented how the narcotics coming out of the Golden Triangle were being transported on a front airline known as Air America run by U.S. intelligence as part of its covert operations in bordering Laos.

In the Laotian civil war, the C.I.A. had secretly organized a guerrilla army of 30,000 strong from the indigenous Hmong population to fight the communist Pathet Lao forces aligned with North Vietnam and the highland natives were economically dependent on poppy cultivation. When the heroin exported out of Laos didn’t find its way to cities in America, it ended up next-door in Vietnam where opiate habits among G.I.s reached epidemic proportions, one of many instances of ‘blowback’ from U.S. collusion with worldwide drug smuggling. Believe it or not, however, this was not the first correlation between an American war and an opiate epidemic at home, as previously during the Civil War in the 1870s there was widespread morphine addiction among Union and Confederate soldiers.

It appears that almost everywhere U.S. interventionism goes, the drug market seems to follow. In the early 1980s, the C.I.A. mobilized another counter-revolutionary fighting force in Central America as part of the Reagan administration’s dirty war against the left-wing Sandinista government in Nicaragua. During the Nicaraguan civil war, Congress had forbidden any funding or supplying of weapons to the right-wing Contras as stipulated in the Boland Amendment. Instead, Washington used go-betweens like Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega, a long-standing C.I.A. operative closely linked to narco-trafficking through Pablo Escobar’s Medellín Cartel, until the U.S. later turned against the strongman. In what became known as the Iran-Contra affair, the Reagan White House was embroiled in scandal after it was divulged that the C.I.A. had devised a rat line funneling arms to a most unlikely source in the Islamic Republic of Iran — a sworn enemy of the U.S. under embargo — by which the takings were diverted to the Nicaraguan terrorists. Although the official excuse for the secret deal was an arms-for-hostages exchange for U.S. citizens being held in Lebanon, the real purpose for the arrangement was to finance the Contras whose other proceeds happened to come from a different illicit enterprise — cocaine.

Despite the fact that a 1986 inquiry by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee found that the agency knew the anti-Sandinista rebels were engaged in cocaine trafficking just as use of its highly-addictive freebase variation was surging in cities across America, it was not until a decade later when investigative journalist Gary Webb in his controversial Dark Alliance series fully exposed the link between Contra drug operations under C.I.A. protection and the crack epidemic domestically. Public outcry over the three-part investigation resonated most strongly within the African-American community whose inner city neighborhoods were devastated by the crack explosion and the indignation culminated in a Los Angeles town hall where a large audience confronted C.I.A. Director John Deutch.

Amid the fallout, Webb found himself the target of a media-led smear campaign disputing the credibility of the exposé which destroyed his life and derailed his career, even though his findings were based on extensive court documents and corroborated by former crack kingpins like “Freeway” Rick Ross and ex-LAPD narcotics officer Michael C. Ruppert. Sadly, the journalist would later die of a highly suspicious suicide in 2004 but eventually Webb’s muckraking was the subject of a favorable Hollywood depiction in 2014’s Kill The Messenger. In the end, the fearless reporter was punished for revealing that many of the individuals most involved in cocaine trafficking in the eighties were the same exact individuals the C.I.A. employed to channel guns to the Contras, thereby permitting drugs to flow into the U.S..

Although there has yet to be the equivalent of a Vietnam or Nicaragua-level disclosure of incontrovertible evidence incriminating Uncle Sam in the Afghan drug business as the troop removal approaches, the answer may lie with who is set to replace them. A Defense Department report from earlier this year indicates that at least 18,000 security contractors remain in the war-torn country, where outsourcing to private military companies like Academi (formerly Blackwater) has increasingly been relied upon in the 20-year war, including for futile drug enforcement measures. As the services of guns-for-hire with a penchant for human rights abuses grew in the lengthy conflict, oversight and accountability diminished to the point where the Pentagon is unable to accurately keep track of defense firms or what mercenaries are even doing in the country. Meanwhile, private security services have made a fortune being contracted out for the abortive anti-drug effort just as Afghanistan set records in opiate production.

Alfred W. McCoy, the acclaimed historian who unearthed C.I.A. collaboration with opiate trafficking in Indochina, not long ago chronicled the imminent downfall of the U.S. as a superpower in In the Shadows of American History: The Rise and Decline of U.S. Global Power. In his work, McCoy notes how the U.S. has set out to fulfill the “Heartland Theory” geostrategy envisioned by the architect of modern geopolitics, Sir Halford Mackinder, in his influential 1904 paper “The Geographical Pivot of History.” The English analyst reconceived the continents as poles of interconnected global power and cited the way in which the British Empire joined with the other Western European nations in the 19th century to prevent Russian imperial expansionism in “The Great Game” with Afghanistan serving as a battleground. Fearing that the Russian Empire would enlarge toward the south, the British sent forces to Afghanistan as a containment strategy, a decision which ultimately proved to be a humiliating defeat for the East India Company but according to Mackinder blocked the Russian sphere of influence in British India. He then theorized that the country which conquered the Eurasian ‘Heartland’ of the Russian core would come to dominate the world. For the strategist, the geographical notion of Eurasia also consisted of China which the British had used drug addiction to destabilize and overcome in the Opium Wars.

In 1979, the National Security Adviser in the Jimmy Carter administration, Zbigniew Brzezinski, put Mackinder’s blueprint into practice after the U.S. was forced to pull back in Vietnam by luring the Soviet Union into its own impregnable quagmire in a new “Great Game.” The scheme worked like a charm and just months after the Polish-born Russophobe persuaded the 39th president to lend clandestine support to the mujahideen in Afghanistan, aid from Moscow was requested by the socialist government in Kabul and the rest was history. Like the British Empire and Alexander the Great before it, the U.S. is itself now bogged down in the ‘graveyard of empires’ after the forgetting the lessons of history. Unintended or not, one of the adverse results of America’s empire-building has been the pouring of fuel on the fire of an initially homegrown opioid crisis begun by Big Pharma by turning Afghanistan into a multi-billion dollar narco-economy whereby heroin is circulated for consumption all over the map.

Like the Pentagon Papers released during the Vietnam War, the internal memos of the Afghanistan Papers made public in 2019 proved officials were deceiving the American people about the reality of the no-win situation on the ground. It remains to be seen what impact the U.S. handover to the corrupt Kabul regime will have for dope distribution as a Taliban seizure of power appears near, but the latest report by the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) determined that officials have long known the war was ill-fated from the outset and warns Washington is bound to repeat the same errors in the future. Unless critical steps are taken to rein in the military-industrial complex, we have to assume that with another forever war there will unavoidably come the opening of another C.I.A.-controlled international drug route with Americans either suffering the consequences with their pocketbooks or their lives.

Max Parry is an independent journalist and geopolitical analyst. His writing has appeared widely in alternative media. Max may be reached at [email protected]

 
• Category: Foreign Policy, History • Tags: Afghanistan, Drug Laws, Opioids 
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  1. Want to take the profit out of the drug trade? Eliminate all drug laws. Don’t make them legal or illegal, just ignore them under law.

    Cut the CIA’s cash cow that gives them the ability to run rampant all over the world.

    Put heroin in every pharmacy along with cocaine and every other ridiculous drug that the human trash want to consume and make the price reasonable to hopefully get as many of them to drop dead as possible due to their own folly.

    The only thing wrong with the ‘illicit drugs’ is that they are illegal. Allow people to kill themselves if that’s their wish.

  2. “the number of fatal overdoses have reportedly spiked in an epidemic already estimated to be taking nearly 50,000 lives per year.”

    Nearly the total of American lives killed in action in Vietnam from 1960-73. The Sackler’s gift that keeps giving.

    • Replies: @Mulga Mumblebrain
  3. Notsofast says:

    it’s amazing that the u.s. could step into the same bear trap they set for the soviets, the hubris of neocons is astounding…. unless they went in just to reestablish the heroin ratlines the taliban had erradicated and now the taliban know better than to mess with the c.i.a.’s chief export.

    • Replies: @Donald A Thomson
  4. @RoatanBill

    i agree, “my body my choice”..
    Let people buy/use what they want but crack down hard on public use, crime and indecent behaviour, let them destroy their minds at home or in other hidden places.
    But ffs let us stop the hypocritical “war on drugs”.

  5. Malla says:

    a decision which ultimately proved to be a humiliating defeat for the East India Company

    Humiliating defeat? The British took their revenge. Afghanistan was handled quite well by the Brits. They were far less ideological and far more realistic in their thinking than the Soviet and American Whiteys of the 20-21st century.

  6. Malla says:

    For the strategist, the geographical notion of Eurasia also consisted of China which the British had used drug addiction to destabilize and overcome in the Opium Wars.

    God. Really? The same bullshit version of history!!!
    Anyways the Qing could not go further into Central Asia at that time as they were on their way to have full military confrontation with the Duranni Empire of Afghanistan, the second largest military power in the Islamic world. The Durannis were on their way to liberate the Uyghurs from “the kaffirs” but it stopped short. Partly because the Chinese stopped in their tracks and the Durranis were weakened after defeating the mighty Indian Maratha Empire, the Durranis won but lost a lot of men in their fierce wars with the Marathas.

    • Replies: @hillaire
  7. Official history makes frequent references to the British tea trade as a vital part of the British empire in the 1800s. It’s hard to understand how trading tea could be so profitable, until one learns that opium was a major component of the tea trade. Opium is a powerful and addictive pain killer that is often refined into heroin. It was banned by governments a century ago, but the opium trade continues to this day with secret approval by government officials. The American government has used the US military to protect the opium trade for two centuries and evidence shows this continues. The extent of this protection is open for debate, but if one connects the dots the image is ugly.

    In the late 1970s, the cocaine trade attracted the attention of the private arm of the American CIA and powerful figures in American organized crime utilized American military assets to enter this profitable business.

    • Thanks: GMC
    • Replies: @Rev. Spooner
  8. Malla says:

    Of course they would be involved in that trade, after all Yale University made a lot of its money on the Opium trade. Yale has Skull and bones and Mao was a Yali, he was connected to Yale. So did FDR’s mother’s side, the Delano family made money transporting opium from India to China. FDR’s actions helped Communism by destroying the two greatest enemies of Marxist Communism, Germany and Japan. His actions would do everything to allow Mao to come to power but Mao did ban opium smoking and production which was a good thing he did. The KMT from Taiwan were involved in all this Vietnam War Operation Phoenix fiasco. The big drug kingpin Sassoon family of the opium trade married into the Rothschilds. As one American military Intelligence guy from Vietnam told his son after his retirement “Communism is one big scam, the Vietnam war was all about drugs”. The the CIA used their manufactured “hippie movement” and “anti-war movement”/ counter culture movement and rock n Roll-Cultural Marxism to poison the people of the West with LSD.

    • Replies: @Mulga Mumblebrain
  9. Read this 2020, shocking BBC report on the booming opium trade in Afghanistan, and how it’s causing more addicts in England. Yet the writer is impressed that opium growers are using solar power to pump water, and makes no mention of the thousands of NATO troops in the region who take no action to destroy this evil trade.

    https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-53450688

    • Thanks: Jim Christian
  10. Anon[539] • Disclaimer says:
    @RoatanBill

    You have failed to demonstrate how this would take the profit out of the drug trade. Street heroin is still going to be more affordable than pharmacy heroin.

    Sounds more like a meme that 13 year olds would pass on. Bonus points for the “let people kill themselves” edge. I bet you still wear goth studded wristbands and drink Sobe behind the convenience store with your popcorn chicken and your Wasabi funyuns.

    • Replies: @Badger Down
    , @anon
  11. Spanky says:

    Think the Chinese might see fentanyl as payback for the (((British-American))) opium wars? Hmmm…

  12. Ktulu says:

    So…. does this mean the drugs are going to stop flowing or is Appalachia going to become the new center of opium as the US military moves in to kill evil white hillbillies?

  13. Anon[113] • Disclaimer says:

    The percentage of population that is addicted to drugs today is roughly the same as in the 1920s.

    Its time to accept that the War on Drugs failed to reduce drug addiction.

    • Replies: @some_loon
  14. @RoatanBill

    It does not appear you realize the situation.You can’t ignore the jewdicial system.
    Everybody would be dead.Then who would do all the work?They’ve been
    teaching an eye for an eye forever,now it’s turn the other cheek,or we’ll \$ue.
    Don’t we have to get off this rock,someday?What about the final frontier?
    The cia/mic is just one tentacle.1000’\$ of cash cows,simultaneously,busy
    breeding 110 million plus suckers per year.Suicide has to be bad,murder,war,
    sickness,poverty,and especially ignorance…not so much…Prai\$e

    • Replies: @RoatanBill
  15. Another issue certainly not addressed by the HBO documentary is the fact that Jews like the Sackler family consider it perfectly ethical—as a matter of fact, virtuous—to destroy the lives of goy cattle with opioids.

    Our “Founding Fathers”, whom I prefer to call the Powdered Wig Gang, were fans of the so-called Enlightenment, which can be summed up as abandoning Christianity in favor of “reason”, and they “reasoned” they should give citizenship to Jews even though no other country did so at the time and the more principled ones banned Jews from even setting foot within their borders. But what’s the wisdom of the ages compared to “Enlightened” “reason”? Really, save for a thin veneer of intellectualism, those rabble-rousing slave-humpers were just like today’s “woke” crowd.

  16. Alfred says:

    20+ years ago, synthetic opioids started being made in the USA. At that time, I assumed that these products would take over from heroin in no time at all. I thought that if a good chemist could make these products anywhere in the USA, there would be no need to control Afghanistan or the “Golden Triangle”.

    Clearly, I was mistaken. Does anyone here have a good explanation?

    Synthetic opioids are narcotic analgesic drugs that are “manufactured in chemical laboratories with a similar chemical structure” to natural opiate drugs. These substances can be illicit drugs or medications that are legally prescribed by doctors to treat patients with mild to severe pain issues. They have many of the same qualities that opiates do, despite being man-made.

    What Are Synthetic Opioids

  17. Larry says:

    A truly needed, timely article.

    I mean, why invest in Google, Facebook, or alike company with yearly profits into the billions.

    It’s much, much easier to start several wars, bribe thousands of government of officials, etc, etc, so as to kill millions of Americans.

    Much, much easier and also eviiiiiiil.

    After all, killing your client is textbox Marxism and we all know how sagacious Marx was, particularly for matters like this.

    And for raping the maid.

  18. anonymous[139] • Disclaimer says:

    The illicit drug trade produces many billions of dollars in profits. All of it has to wash through various financial institutions which benefits them even as most are considered legitimate and reputable. The money has to go somewhere. There’s not that many degrees of separation between this grimy business and supposed reputable institutions along with supposed respectable well-to-do members of society. There’s a lot of people living well from the proceeds of merchandising death.

    • Agree: HdC, showmethereal
  19. @RoatanBill

    You just explained clearly why drugs will remain illegal forever.

  20. @Malla

    Mao was a Yali???!! You break me up!

    • Replies: @Hyper Bole
    , @Malla
  21. @beavertales

    Careful! That looks awfully like ‘antisemitism’ to me.

  22. Renoman says:

    I believe the reason they are leaving [believe it when I see it] is because Fentanyl has pretty much replaced Heroine and the H trade will likely dry up?

    • Agree: Gidoutahere
  23. onebornfree says: • Website

    “Unless critical steps are taken to rein in the military-industrial complex, we have to assume that with another forever war there will unavoidably come the opening of another C.I.A.-controlled international drug route with Americans either suffering the consequences with their pocketbooks or their lives.”

    Well, what “we” need is obvious, ain’t it?

    Mo’ gubmint!

    That is: More laws, a bigger CIA, more wars, a bigger military, a bigger bureaucracy, and so on and so forth.

    Works every time. Right?😎

    And so I join with the happy throng and scream:

    Mo’ gubmint, mo’ gubmint, mo’ gubmint! ( to “fix” all the previous wrongdoings of government, you understand 😂 ).

    “Government is a disease masquerading as its own cure” Robert LeFevere

    “Everything government touches turns to crap” Ringo Starr

    “The kind of man who wants the government to adopt and enforce his ideas is always the kind of man whose ideas are idiotic” H.L.Mencken

    “Regards” onebornfree

  24. Blankaerd says:
    @RoatanBill

    Legalize drug consumption, but the production and distribution of drugs should be managed solely by the state. That way the product is kept clean as there is greater quality control. The drugs should be distributed in state-owned shops. If you want to buy drugs, you first need to request an electronic pass from the state, which has some requirements (no history of violent crimes or severe mental illnesses)

    The pass allows you to buy any drug of your choice, but only in limited quantities. (quantities for personal use but not more) I certainly imagine no wholesale schemes here. This has many advantages: you are better able to see how much drug is consumed, you can step in sooner if people are risking addiction, substances used to cut drugs with are removed, you take away the Cartels/CIA primary source of income, and if needed you can tax the drugs for extra revenue. Perhaps provide it cheaply at first, but once all competition is destroyed as small-time drug dealers and big-time drug producers can no longer compete with the state, you increase the taxes. If this experiment of mine fails, you can always go back to just banning the stuff completely. But I think my solution is probably the best one at actually fighting drug use.

  25. bj0311 says:

    previously during the Civil War in the 1870s there was widespread morphine addiction among Union and Confederate soldiers.

    Really? Why don’t people who publish have proofreaders?

    The thing about dope is you do it to get high–period. I have lived with pain for years at a time, but when the doctor gave me dope I took it to get high. All this whining and complaining about the poor addicts means that those people had no agency, no responsibility for the choices they made. No one held you down and forced you to do it. No mention here of laudanum “originally, the name given by Paracelsus to a famous medical preparation of his own” (from Britannica). A drug used for centuries. People do drugs and have always done drugs but it is and always has been their choice. The evil CIA knows this and acts accordingly–that is called capitalism.

  26. @goldgettin

    Unintelligible word salad.

    • Replies: @Realist
  27. BorisMay says:

    Ermmm…ever wondered why the British Empire funded by Rothschild marched in to Afghanistan in the 1800s?

    Ever wondered why the private East India Company raised its own mercenary army in the 1700s to occupy India.

    It was for the poppy.

    The City of London has been the centre of the drug money laundering business for 300 years.

    This is why 3 bedroom flats sell for £125million in and around London. It is laundered money, profits of the drug and slavery trade being washed and pushed back in to the economy.

    Rothschild is the drug tzar. All the rest of this article is hot air.

    And the reason why the US has an opiate crisis is that China, that used to have one, will no longer tolerate having its people addicted to it. The US however, a society based upon a mental illness called capitalism, has a spineless, immoral and debased population so gullible and brainwashed that they will take any easy exit to avoid responsibility.

    Sad.

  28. @Blankaerd

    The gov’ts that wrote all the stupid drug laws are already in the production and distribution business via the CIA. You just want them to alter their strategy a bit.

    When has any gov’t program been less expensive and more accountable than the private sector version? Your quality control assertion has no basis in fact. Now you want to add the expense of state owned shops with state employees and their unions with early retirement and pensions. How is that going to keep the price reasonable to compete with the current market? Add in your electronic drug passport and a clean criminal record and now you’ve just cut out the bulk of the dopers that are the serious threat to the public. It’s the small time thieves and convenience store robbers that use real crime to feed their drug habit that need to be eliminated. Wall St types that have the funds to buy their weekend snorts aren’t the problem.

    No new anything is needed once all drugs are removed from criminal sanction. Allow the free market to control the product just like the free market controls the distribution of cabbage. It’s when you add an arbitrary distinction to the product that you cause all the trouble. Treat drugs like you treat cabbage under law and let the free market sort it out.

  29. The fly in the ointment of the CIA is producing heroin and sending it to the U.S. theory is that it’s cheaper and easier to produce heroin in Mexico and get it into the U.S. These days the opiate of choice for the addict in the U.S. is fentanyl, not heroin, and fentanyl (as well as black tar heroin) is mass produced by the cartels in Mexico.

    And this is the effect of that on the street

    • Thanks: Sarah
    • Replies: @Quizzler
    , @Hossein
  30. Ross23 says:

    This debate wouldn’t be complete without a link to former LAPD det Michael ruppert claiming the gov is smuggling the drugs into the US

  31. hillaire says:
    @RoatanBill

    The only problem with your synopsis, and to be fair I agree that a lot of scum in the world should, ahem, ‘fall on their sword’…

    Is that unfortunately you suffer from ‘limited’ cognisance.. most of the victims (and I speak only of white working class ‘victims’ ) have been the result of decades of ‘regime’ attrition… they have been stripped incrementally of work, freedom of association, what little self determination they possessed and most importantly… Hope..

    they are the abdicating ‘whites’ that genocidal german jew lord churwell gloated over… thus I think it unreasonable to attribute blame to such malleable imbeciles.. the weight of which should no doubt be apportioned to the ‘guilty’ with commensurate punishment…

    and of course you are correct, legalized drugs should be available freely , thus negating the need for articulated lorry loads of ‘black-economy’ cash being washed and laundered under the cover of darkness by wall street criminals and their international hench-men……

    • Replies: @RoatanBill
  32. @Alfred

    Despite the misleading name “synthetic”, they are not made out of nothing. A “synthesis reaction” uses “oxidation” to enable several simple molecules to link up into a longer chain. “Heroin”, dioxyhydromorphine, is simply morphine made 5X more potent by linking up morphine molecules by a synthesis reaction. I have heard that the Sackler’s “Oxycontin” is made by synthesizing the waste products from Codeine production. Oxycontin is total garbage. All the “Euphorics” are derived from the Opium Poppy. “Number One” is the raw black goo from the Poppy, potent in itself. “Number Two” is morphine base. “Number Three” is “brown heroin”, suitable for “chasing the dragon”, smoking, but won’t dissolve in water without ascorbic acid, so not so good for hypodermic use. “Number Four” AKA Thai Number Four/ China White is the true Heroin, easily dissolvable in water. The Afgani stuff is all Number Three, they don’t have the good chemists, what chemist would want to live and work in Afghanistan? The Afgani brown is mostly smuggled out by Iranians, they have the connections from the Afgani border right to your door in the US and Europe through family links. Thailand is the best source because they have lots of raw material from Laos and Burma and have had the good chemists for generations, great place to live: great food, scenery, girls, easy to get in and out. You can get any potency in Thailand, from 20% where a bit the size of a salt grain will almost OD a totally wired street junkie to 80%-90% that can’t be handled without a respirator and eye googles, if a particle of that dust in the air gets in your eyes it will kill you. One kilo of that stuff can be cut into 15 kilos of killer dope most junkies never see. Jewish/Italian Mafia by way of Taiwan used to control that, since the 90’s the Chinese Triads got into it using the Vietnamese, price has been going down and down, usage up and up. Opium Poppys grow anywhere: high altitude, low altitude, hot, cold, wet or dry. Cheap to grow, cheap to process, incredibly compact to smuggle, and your customers “will crawl through a sewer and beg to buy”. No way to stop the Heroin Trade. It just gets cheaper and that makes it even more profitable, there is no limit to how much an addict will consume due to “tolerance”. In NYC, they sell these little glassine envelopes, about the size of your pinky, even have brand names stamped on them: “SuperTown”, “Toilet”. These “bags”, each about a tenth of a gram, a good hit, were \$10 each in the 1980’s, they are still \$10 today when rents have quintupled and food is 3x to 4x what it was in the ’80’s. Today it is cheaper to live on the street and stay high than to rent and apartment and live on beans and hamburger. No way to stop the Heroin Trade, and legalizing it isn’t the answer either, is a government run outlet going to keep selling a wired junkie more and more and more? That’s insane. There is no answer.

    • Thanks: Alfred Muscaria
    • Replies: @hillaire
    , @Anonymous
    , @Alfred
  33. anon[275] • Disclaimer says:
    @Alfred

    Well its a matter of personal taste. I know people who will wipe out a bottle of Smirnoff Vodka and refuse to even look at a bottle of 20 Year old West Indian rum.

    People who fall into the habit of prescribed or illegal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol are dumb.

    As the Mexican drug Lord La Tuta stated and in my opinion quite rightly so:

    “This is a business and I provide what my customers want”
    “Everyone knows what goes into the manufacture of these drugs. You can only conclude that people who use products made with kerosene and battery acid must be completely stupid”

    With the legalisation of weed in the US, the cartels have lost interest in that product. With every Tom, Dick and Harry growing their own bud, the supply has driven the price down to where it is no longer feasible. The profits, direct and indirect, in other illegal drugs is too great. Just think if the “War on Drugs” was declared lost and ALL dope was legalised. The dealers would be out of business but a lot of people in drug enforcement would also be out of work. Its a racket for everyone involved.

    The US has played this game during the prohibition period. No matter the consequences people wanted their drinks and everyone who saw a way of turning a dollar did so. They hypocrisy of course is that many prominent families of today established their fortune in the trade all the while also being involved in the current drug trade or berating the current players for “breaking the law”.

    People want their alcohol, their cigarettes and dope whether prescribed or not and making it illegal or expensive means shit. The “War on Drugs” like all of the USA’s wars is a dog.

    Hence, I agree with Roatan Bill. If people want to ingest all these dangerous products and shorten their lives I say let them. Like cigarettes and alcohol I would make all dope legal. No matter what one says or does people are going to get their fix. You might as well let them have it and be done with the trade……….and them !

    • Agree: CelestiaQuesta
    • Replies: @Alfred
  34. hillaire says:
    @Malla

    Unfortunately the white remnant, is incapable of viewing history objectively, even the so called dissident right can only aggregate cable tv pabulum and ivory tower propaganda spewed into their tiny minds by ugly, bloated pink haired women dressed in suits and effeminate goat faced mendicants with psychological disorders…

    European history is now jewish central banker history…. somewhat like king Edwards edict of expulsion… and the ‘orders’ created under cover… particularly the order of the garter (hehe)…

    An interesting concept to muse upon would be…. probably following a few decades of absolute horror and collapse, the coming Hitlerian ‘religion’, because of course the pendulum will swing back like Thors fucking Hammer Mjolnir..

    and strangely enough it will have been birthed by ‘jews’… and they will have some trouble with that one, I’ll say mr Malla..

    • Agree: Malla, Alfred Muscaria
  35. some_loon says:
    @Anon

    The percentage of population that is addicted to drugs today is roughly the same as in the 1920s.

    Interesting, if true.

    Do you have a source for this claim?

  36. Che Guava says:

    Max,

    On very rare occasions, your articles make some sense.

    Sure, U.S. interests and their Zionist masters appear to have been loving the flow of opium and by-products from Afghanistan.

    If you apply logic, it was clearly having Russia, places in western Europe, perhaps some other places, as the targets.

    The synthetic opioids that are so popular in the U.S.A., afaik have no connection to the sap of the poppy.

    So, your whole association in the article is just bullshit.

    • Replies: @Max Parry
    , @some_loon
  37. @hillaire

    Let me state a position: There’s nothing wrong with eugenics except for the use of force to obtain the result.

    The world has no shortage of human trash. Those that you describe are the natural road kill because they can’t properly compete. Either through lack of intellect or lack of motivation, these people end up on welfare, become petty criminals and in general add nothing to the society but become leaches on the remaining producers.

    I don’t care what happens to them because I can’t fix what’s wrong with them. If there were a way for me to inject them with intelligence or motivate them to learn in school or seek a trade, I would do so, but I can’t, so I won’t worry about them. In large part, the losers in the society brought it upon themselves preferring to be the football star instead of the math nerd. They made a choice and there are consequences.

    • Agree: Realist
    • Replies: @hillaire
    , @Lee
    , @some_loon
  38. hillaire says:
    @Bombercommand

    More likely they will use the drug of st george the floored… fentanyl … mixed liberally with their usual ‘smack’….

    thus removing the ‘problem’ when the system has gone live with it’s graphene based radio controlled golems..

  39. Realist says:
    @RoatanBill

    Stream of unconsciousness.

    • Replies: @goldgettin
    , @goldgettin
  40. @RoatanBill

    Plant-derived drugs don’t kill. Or at least less than what will replace them. Cocaine is a molecule actually very similar to that of caffeine, to the point that you must very well trained and be possessed of keen senses to notice the difference between both in your blood. Same thing for opiates. So let the US grow them and sell them under various pleasant forms, like original Coca-Cola.

    • Replies: @RoatanBill
  41. GMC says:

    One of the Biggest Backstab in History on the populace of the USA, are the Judicial systems and their laws put in place to incarcerate the so called Drug offenders. While the top tier of the USG think tanks, devise all these plans, operations and infiltrations of certain countries, agencies etc. so the drugs can roll into the world arena. Look at all the USG buildings that house the think tanks for the use of illegal, immoral , un democratic, and murderous agenda’s – Pentagon, CIA Headquarters, FBI, DEA, FAA, DOJ, DOD, FCC, DNR, UN, BLM, and the list goes on. And don’t you love the straight fake face they have on, when they are on the media channels telling everyone a load of BS ?

    The assassinated list of people associated with these ” Office Buildings Agendas” must be in the millions by now. Not to mention the Globalist Corporations like Monsanto, DuPont, Carghill, big Pharma, and their assassination teams/ scientists/ etc. It just wasn’t the Jews , it was everyone in the USA’s Deep State Corporation like the Military, Law Enforcement, etc. etc. etc.

    Watched the dope situation in Nam too – a sargeant in the next company { not a doper} got caught sendin a couple Buddha statues home full of China White. No he didn’t go to jail , he put his M-16 under his chin and threw it on rock and roll. On my way home at Tan Son Nhat, a guy from NY wanted me to take a package { a kilo of dope} to Frisco in my duffle bag. I declined even after he assured me that all the drug checks have been taken off our plane. But I watched if anyone or any dogs showed up when we all through our duffel bags down on the tarmac and — Nobody checked our bags. That really opened my eyes to the Military scam of running drugs. I wonder how many phoney years I would have gotten – had I got caught with a kilo of New York’s China White ?

    • Thanks: Alfred
  42. @Ray Caruso

    American Christianity is actually Judaism for Jesus, most often worse than Judaism proper. Selling drugs to destroy heathen people, such as Amerindians or Irish, while making a good profit, was the quintessential honest employment for any member of a Calvinist sect. The only reason today’s Jews want to destroy Whites as they are now is because they have fallen themselves for the various brands of idealism and pleasures they used to manufacture to destroy others. Jews also kill their own kind when they over-indulge in idealism.

  43. Max Parry says:
    @Che Guava

    Most synthetic opioid users when their prescription is cut off graduate to heroin, I even provided the stats for this…

    • Replies: @Che Guava
  44. some_loon says:
    @Alfred

    I thought that if a good chemist could make these products anywhere in the USA, there would be no need to control Afghanistan or the “Golden Triangle”

    Probably because of a questionable, though understandable, premise, similar to the one the author of the article relies on, namely that the stuff is coming from Asia.

    Maybe that’s true in Europe. Maybe it is even true in parts of the US. It is probably true of the stuff in the official pharmaceutical supply chain.

    But, as friends in low places tell someone who isn’t me (SWIM), the H here in the Seattle area is from Mexico, looks like a Tootsie Roll, and smells of vinegar. It used to be called brown, but ‘black’ or ‘tar’ has become the common term.

    Max Parry claims that it is a statistical impossibility that all of this is coming from Mexico. But SWIM hasn’t heard of any locally that ever came from anywhere else, despite proximity to Canada (where ‘China White’ is allegedly more common) or the very large asian population here (Asians aren’t a big part of the visible drug scene here).

    And the fentanyl SWIM has heard about has been used to spike weak tar that’s been cut too much, and that this is a big part of overdoses.

    Just to be clear, SWIM does not use illegal drugs at the present time, but possibly knows someone who might know somebody else.

  45. @Francis Miville

    Heroin, ludanum, cocaine and many other drugs were sold over the counter in the past. Then the ‘do gooders’ decided that too many people were misusing them according to their superior judgement and the law stepped in to make them illegal. The rest has been a slow slide to what we have now where jails are full of people for simply possessing pot and other plant extracts.

    The working people pay to keep a pot head in jail, ruin his life with a police record so he can’t support himself and then wonder why we have a crime problem. You can’t fix stupid.

  46. Opium is a weapon.

    Let me explain.

    In the early decades of the 1800s, the Brutish East India Company, which had recently annexed most of India bar the Sikh Empire (an omission it rectified in 1852), started forcing Indian farmers to grow indigo for dye and poppy for opium instead of food. This was one of the reasons for the cyclic, around once every three to four decades, mass famines that hit India under Brutish rule. The indigo was for Brutish dye manufacturers. The opium was to be sold to China.

    One of the reasons why the Brutish invasion of Afghanistan was cut short in 1842 – the Brutish recaptured Kabul after the famous retreat, destroyed most of the city, and massacred the Hindu and Sikh segment of the population, which had not fled, and again withdrew – was that the East India Company was fast running out of money and needed to raise finances. The Afghanistan invasion, which had turned out to be a money drain, was paid for by loans taken from the moneylenders of Calcutta (modern Indian “history” typically ignores how much some Indians profited from the colonisers) and the repayments were due. As such, opium sales promised to be a lucrative solution.

    So China was invaded, twice, and compelled at gunpoint to buy the opium that Indian farmers were compelled to grow, at gunpoint, so that the East India Company shareholders could get rich. This opium mass addiction was one of the primary reasons for the decline of the Qing Empire in the first half of the 19th century, absolutely not an unplanned effect of the trade.

    Meanwhile the opium that was grown in India was shipped to China via Calcutta, then the centre of Brutish colonised Bengal. Not surprisingly there was considerable leakage of the opium in Bengal itself and it became almost compulsory for the emergent Bengali middle class to be opium addicts. Opium was openly sold in grocery shops, and this addiction didn’t fully end until the last of the old addicts died off in the 1960s. The opium itself served to tamp down hostile anti Brutish activity in Bengal, which, along with Punjab, was one of the two major centres of resistance to Brutish colonial rule.

    Today, yes, the CIA protects the opium trade to make money, but it is also a weapon. Where does this opium, and its products – morphine and heroin – end up? Drug abuse in Russian youth is endemic; most of these drugs come from Afghanistan, of course. And Russia is and has always been a target for subversion and destruction.

    How about drug abuse among the poor in America too? Why should the CIA and its masters not want to keep the poor addicted and unable to organise for their rights? Why should the private prison industry be starved of prisoners arrested on drug offences?

    If these people really wanted to stop drug cultivation, the answer is simple. Legalise it. The drug gangs instantly lose their raison d’etre exactly as the original Mafia in America did when Prohibition was lifted, and it would be a lot harder for them to change gears to other criminal endeavours since there are other gangs already in control of those things.

    But they won’t, because opium is a weapon, just like it has always been.

    • Agree: CelestiaQuesta, Alfred
    • Replies: @Malla
    , @Malla
    , @Malla
  47. JAPE or the JewAmerican Planetary Empire = a MULL outfit [“MUrder, Looting & Lying”] which since 1946 has slain tens of millions of innocents around the globe from Vietnam to Afghanistan and back again. Hence we can refer to gullibles or greedibles (“paytriots”) who swallow any of MSM’s various pro-war propaganda as “MULLets”.

    Anyone interested in the opium angle should read the classic work by the late David Musto MD of Yale, _The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control_ [1st ed, 1973]. As the U.S. surgeon general said around 1923 [sourcing this from memory] “There’s more violence in a gallon of whiskey than in a ton of opium”. The Jew masters concocted the neo-Prohibition of opium, heroin, cocaine, marihuana etc as a pretext for having their secret police ravage the Chinese, blacks, Mexicans and (later) hippy friends of Ho Chi Minh’s free and independent Vietnam. The J’s hired the obedient whites as their gunsels alias “Law Enforcement Officers” and prison guards. Our present best hope for humanity involves, among other things, the emergence among the U.S. military and police of brave and honest spirits in the heroic revolutionary tradition blazed by Hugo Chavez, Zhu De [fine read =_The Great Road: The Life and Times of Chu Teh_ [1956] by Agnes Smedley] and Võ Nguyên Giáp.

    Shall our HuRa aim at establishing a revolutionary world government under a Wise King or Strong Queen based on the four pillars of justice, peace, freedom and –let’s call it– SKIP for the Social Kontract for Industrial Polyfrika meaning that we will use our modern technique to create environmental beauty for our many billions on the manifest destiny of our path out into the Milky Way?

    One important aspect of such a success will be recognizing and accomplishing freedom of diet, meaning that all us grown-ups get to decide for ourselves what vegetables to plant, to harvest, to bring to market and to serve on the dining room table. Bearing in mind that the opium poppy and the coca plant and so forth are indeed among Mother Nature’s vegetable gifts to us, do we finally agree in affirming: “Away with all narcs!” (?) For clarity we note here that we English speakers use the word “narc” to refer to the despicable secret police murder squads epitomized by the curiously entitled “Drug Enforcement Administration” whereas unfortunately our Mexican brothers use the same word in Spanish to refer to freedom-minded farmers & traders aka “cartels”. All violence results fundamentally from the aggression of the secret police or “narcs” in our Yank sense of the term.

    Every Afghan (or Yemeni or Palestinian or Colombian or other Earthling whomsoever) killed by JAPE, whether it be USGov in uniform, secret police, mercenaries or puppet forces, constitutes a count of murder in the first degree. Besides the capital criminal charges against KinkHenKi, Kneeling Joe Biden, गृध्र Harris, Sulzberger the Heirhead, the unanimous U(tterly) S(hameless) Senate, Donald רמת טראמפ Trump, Obomber, Bushez, Clintonz et al there also exists in each such case the civil liability of the Wergild.

    We note that the highest value ever placed by a U.S. court on an individual human life was about \$30 billion [Bullock vs Philip Morris, 2002, Los Angeles]. Adjusted for inflation to 2021 that comes to ~\$45 billion. Given the circumstances in Ms. Bullock’s case, the very least multiple of her award for any single foreign victim of JAPE would X 3 or, for ease of calculation, about \$150 billion. A low estimate of the number of people worldwide slaughtered by JAPE since 1946 comes to about 25 million. So a very low estimate of present JAPE civil liability for murders = roughly \$150 billion X 25 million. I have a hunch that this total is considerably greater than the estimated total value of our Planet Earth. And how would the count of pennies therein compare with the number of atoms in the Universe? Anyway, the officially stated present USGov debt of \$23 trillion be in comparison like a fingernail clipping in the path of an elephant herd.

    And whose finger is that tapping on the Button?

    https://tinyurl.com/9fcfyaaj
    【Guqin】《unsullied》——The theme song of Ashes of love
    9,799,716 views Oct 23, 2018

  48. America is an oil company with an army is one way to frame capitalism.
    With this article, it’s clear that America is a drug trafficking overlord with the same army.
    Thanks for your honorable service CIA and the military industrial complex.

  49. HT says:
    @RoatanBill

    How does massively increasing demand for these types of drugs eliminate the profit? Legalizing weed has created a massive billion dollar industry for companies selling it legally and there is STILL a massive black market operating. If you want to get back to a low amount of drug use as we once had, then start putting drug users back in prison. Decriminalizing drug use has only caused a massive increase in use and addiction.

    • Replies: @RoatanBill
  50. Joe Wong says:

    One of the investigators of the documentary exploring America’s ongoing opioid epidemic entitled The Crime of the Century, Sari Horwitz, said Fentanyl was made in China, in fact Fentanyl was invented by an American called Paul Janssen. It is an FDA approved drug and it is first produced in the USA just like OxyContin. Some of Fentanyl’s raw materials are produced in China as chemical product for industrial usage. Fentanyl used as illicit drug was largely distributed via SE nations.

    Like framing China as the culprit of COVID-19 pandemic to cover up American’s own crime, The Washington Post has maintained its tradition.

    • Replies: @CelestiaQuesta
  51. Alfred McCoy’s book The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia, documents the role of the CIA and others in Afghanistan drug business and much , much more, this can be had on amazon.

    By the way Britain was at war in Afghanistan from 1834 till 1919, ie 85 years, and then was back in with the ZUS in 2001, see Rudyard Kipplings poem on the plains of Afghanistan.

  52. Malla says:
    @Fiendly Neighbourhood Terrorist

    Bullshit crapfart like this isses me off.
    India Its Administration And Progress” by Sir John Strachey
    https://archive.org/download/in.ernet.dli.2015.278886/2015.278886.India-Its.pdf
    CHAPTER X: REVENUES OTHER THAN THOSE DERIVED FROM TAXATION

    “India is essentially an agricultural country, and nearly the whole of its exports consist of products of the soil. One of the most important and valuable of these products is the opium-yielding poppy. It is impossible to state with accuracy when this plant was first introduced into India. There is little record of its early history, but it is known that the Mohammedans had succeeded, in the fifteenth century, in introducing the cultivation of the poppy into Cambay and Malwa, and that when the Emperor Akbar, in the latter half of the next century, established the Moghal Empire over Central India, he found Malwa opium a characteristic product of that country. He and his successors regarded opium as of necessity a State monopoly. There is ample evidence to prove that a large trade had been going on in opium between India and surrounding countries long before the East India Company, in 1773, undertook the supervision of the manufacture of opium in Bengal, Behar, and Orissa.

    The Company, in fact, inherited from the Moghal Government this important and legitimate source of revenue on an article of luxury which India had shown itself capable of producing in high perfection, and for which there was a large demand both in and out of that country. At first they continued the system of farming the exclusive right of opium manufacture, but this was found to entail many abuses. Amongst them was the pressure brought by the contractors, in spite of the most stringent regulations to the contrary, on the cultivators, whom they forced to carry on the cultivation, and whom they cheated in various ways. It also led to the adulteration of the drug and its illicit sale. The consequences were so injurious to the revenue that, in 1797, the contract system was abandoned, and the Government assumed the monopoly of manufacture through its own agencies, a system which has remained in force until the present day. There was, indeed, at that time, no practicable alternative. The strongest opponent to the system of Government manufacture would hardly contend that the growth of the poppy and the manufacture of opium should have been left free and unrestricted, as that would infallibly have led to a great increase in the produce of the drug, and probably to its deterioration. On the other hand, if it ever entered into the conception of the Court of Directors to suppress, in the interests of morality, the cultivation of the poppy in the territories then in their possession, it is doubtful whether they would have had the power in those times to have done so, and it is certain that they could not have controlled the production of the vast poppy-growing tracts outside those territories in Malwa, Cambay, and elsewhere. The only result would have been that the opium consumers in India would have been supplied from sources outside British territory, and that the export trade would have been transferred to ports other than British, It would certainly have been impossible in those days to establish a Customs line to prevent the entry of opium into the Company’s possessions.
    The Company would have sacrificed its revenue, and no one would have been benefited except the people of the territories outside the Company’s possessions, at the expense of those within them. ”

  53. @HT

    The illicit trade in pot has several causes. Number one may be that it’s a weed and will grow just about anywhere, so folks are trying to supply it outside the expensive legal channels. The gov’t has added so much cost to the legal trade that they are not price competitive with the stuff that grows in any crack in the sidewalk.

    Pot, in particular, has no real serious side effects that alcohol doesn’t have and alcohol is legal AFTER it was prohibited and we all know how that worked out. Pot is such a low level item that it should never have been considered for sanctions under law. That was the original mistake.

    The jails are full of dopers right now. How has making it illegal hurt the drug trade? How has making it illegal changed the dynamic at all? All it has done is put an enormous profit incentive for the CIA and drug cartels to funnel the forbidden to those that want it. If it’s made so cheap and supplied in every pharmacy, the CIA and the cartels will have to find another source of revenue and all the drug violence will disappear along with the useless salaries for prison guards, wardens, the cost for extra prisons, on and on and on.

    As for addiction, there are certain personalities that want this stuff, so let them have it. Look at all the Hollywood types that have all the money they could possibly want and still OD on this crap. You can’t fix stupid and trying to fix it is even more stupid. Allow people to gamble with their lives and pay the consequences of their actions. What is so wrong with that?

    • Replies: @HT
    , @Sin City Milla
  54. Malla says:
    @Fiendly Neighbourhood Terrorist

    From the same source
    “The State monopoly continues to be administered by the Bengal Government, although its operations now extend into the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Under it, no person may cultivate the poppy except with a license from the Government, and every cultivator is bound to sell the opium produced from crop to the Government, in whose two factories, at Patna and Ghazipiir, it is manufactured into the opium of commerce. A portion of the manufactured opium is retained for consumption in India through vendors licensed by the Excise Department, and the remainder is sold monthly, by auction, in Calcutta to merchants, who export it. The Government prescribes rules for the cultivation of the poppy, the manufacture, possession, transport, import or export, and sale of opium, and any contravention of such rules is subject to stringent penalties, which may extend to imprisonment for one year or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Poppy illegally cultivated, and opium the subject of any offence against the law, is liable to confiscation, together with the vessels, packages, and coverings in which it is found, and their other contents, and the animals and conveyances used in carrying it.

    “Like most crops, the poppy is subject to wide seasonal fluctuations, which formerly greatly affected the market prices of opium, led to speculation and gambling amongst the buyers for export, and caused corresponding uncertainty in the Government revenue. When, owing to the shortness of the supply, the price in Calcutta rose high, the direct effect was to stimulate the production of other opium competing in the foreign market with the Bengal drug, and amongst these the native production of China. Thus — and I would call particular attention to this fact, as having an important bearing on the question before us — the diminution of the supply of Indian opium to China was an incentive to the extension of poppy cultivation in China.
    ..snip..
    “ Recognizing the fact that the Chinese demand a large supply of opium, and that to whatever extent India was unable to satisfy that demand, it would be met, either by increase of the produce in China itself or by increased imports from other countries, the Government of India has thought it right, in the interests of the people of India, to shape its measures so as not to lose the natural advantages India possesses in the superior quality of its produce. Any one familiar with the records of the Government of India relating to this subject, must admit this is a fair representation of its policy and motives, and that nowhere in those records can he found any indication of a desire to stimulate the consumption of opium by the Chinese.

    “ In pursuance of this policy, the Government yearly regulates the extent of the poppy cultivation, guided chiefly by the market prices and the stock of opium in hand. No one is forced to grow a crop of poppy against his will. The sole inducement is the price offered by the Government for the produce. Since 1895 this price has been 5 rupees a seer, which is exactly equivalent to 2| lbs. troy. The Government makes advances, not bearing interest, before the crop is sown, and from time to time during its progress, thus saving the ryots (small farmers) from the exorbitant demands of the village money-lender. The crop, which is sown in the autumn and gathered in the spring, succeeds an autumn crop usually of Indian corn. The yield of opium per acre varies. For the five years ending 1900-01, the average produce per acre was 12 ‘7 lbs. Which, at 6 rupees a seer, gave the cultivator a gross return of nearly 37 rupees per acre. In addition to this, he receives payment for the poppy flower petals and the stalks and leaves, which are used in the factory for packing the opium cakes. The total average annual payments by the Bengal Government to the poppy cultivators exceed £1,500,000.

  55. some_loon says:
    @Che Guava

    If you apply logic, it was clearly having Russia, places in western Europe, perhaps some other places, as the targets.

    Yes.

    Or maybe just to get money, whoever the customer.

    But so far as specific targets go, consider Iran.

    If you’re a neo-con, or just a fellow traveler, what’s not to like about not letting Iran sell oil, making them let you peer into all their hidden places for nukes that aren’t there, but they still buy heroin from you for their own consumption?

    • Replies: @Malla
    , @Che Guava
  56. Rich says:

    The last American combat troops left S Vietnam in 1973, 2 years before the fall of Saigon. It’s hard to take seriously any author who doesn’t even know such a basic historical fact. Does he think Pearl Harbor was bombed in 1943? World Trade Center destroyed on 9-13?

    • LOL: Malla
    • Replies: @Max Parry
  57. @RoatanBill

    Yes. Purging the degenerates improves society. It follows that you should help the degenerates kill themselves. But that requires a level of political will that currently only exists in the Philippines.

    May president Duterte cleanse the Philippines of filth. May death come quickly to his enemies.

    • Replies: @Malla
  58. The (((War On Drugs))) was/is one the greatest defeats on US soil since the civil war. While our permanent political leech class play mini tyrant saviors, millions of illegal coyote drug runners and their handlers (((CIA, Mossad, Mi6, CPP))) reap billions in cash from drug cartels.
    Everywhere you look you see the downfall of western civilization. (((Every Institution))) in America and the west have been pimped by long nosed two bit crooks selling dope, LGBTIQPWXYZ,, gangsta rap, and anti white hysteria, and who’s only interest in humanity is counting their shekels.

  59. HT says:
    @RoatanBill

    The weed being marketed and used today definitely has more serious side effects than any moderate use of alcohol. It damages the body in several ways and tends to be addictive for many. It is not the stuff people smoked 50 years ago. There is no one in prison today for mere possession and use of weed or even more serious drugs. The only people in prison are distributors. It is urban legend that the prisons are full of drug users. Just not true.

    Further drug users are mini-crime waves because eventually they must steal to buy. There is nothing worse than living in a community with lots of drug users. Nothing is safe. I understand the idea of legalization seems attractive to many but it is based on dishonest information and assumptions. If you want to solve the drug problem then there is no easy way. We lost the war on drugs because we were fighting it wrongly. Going after sellers does nothing. As long as demand is high, the money is attractive and someone will always fill the void and become a seller. Let’s do what works. Crush usage and solve the problem. It works in Singapore and it worked here.

    • Agree: Sin City Milla
    • Replies: @Agent76
    , @RoatanBill
  60. anon[148] • Disclaimer says:

    Nothing will change until people realize that the great majority of politicians are PROSTITUTES, and will do anything to stay stay in power, and money is required to stay in power, and could care less about the consequences. The movie “Serpico” depicted how the drug and money permeated the whole police department in our biggest city. Do you think for one moment that it’s not even bigger in Washington?

  61. Agent76 says:

    September 4, 2010 The Imperial Anatomy of Al-Qaeda. The CIA’s Drug-Running Terrorists and the “Arc of Crisis”

    Part 1 examines the origins of the intelligence network known as the Safari Club, which financed and organized an international conglomerate of terrorists, the CIA’s role in the global drug trade, the emergence of the Taliban and the origins of al-Qaeda.

    https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-imperial-anatomy-of-al-qaeda-the-cia-s-drug-running-terrorists-and-the-arc-of-crisis/20907

    December 3, 1993 The CIA Drug ConnectionIs as Old as the Agency

    LONDON— Recent news item: The Justice Department is investigating allegations that officers of a special Venezuelan anti-drug unit funded by the CIA smuggled more than 2,000 pounds of cocaine into the United States with the knowledge of CIA officials – despite protests by the Drug Enforcement Administration, the organization responsible for enforcing U.S. drug laws

    http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/03/opinion/03iht-edlarry.html

  62. Let’s assume that the CIA is involved in the illicit drug trade out of Afghanistan and further assume that they use the profits to fund their extracurricular activities around the world, either propping up or tearing down regimes of their likes or dislikes but what happens to the excess cash beyond its operational needs and bonuses for the rank and file operatives… is there an identifiable core group that has been enriched beyond imagination, just as it happened during the Opium Wars in China? Cui bono?

  63. Agent76 says:
    @HT

    FYI- Mar 11, 2015 How Portugal Won Its War On Drugs

    In 2001, Portugal decriminalized drugs, making the punishment mandatory rehabilitation or a small fine. So what did Portugal’s drug decriminalization do?

    • Replies: @HT
    , @Joe Wong
    , @Sin City Milla
  64. @HT

    I have yet to see any report that states that pot has serious health risks, and even if it did, let that be on the user as I don’t care.

    Please read: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/01/22/four-in-ten-u-s-drug-arrests-in-2018-were-for-marijuana-offenses-mostly-possession/

    Illicit drug distributors are in jail just as liquor distributors were in jail during prohibition. Neither makes any sense since its a transaction between buyer and seller and none of anyone else’s business. The crime is due to gov’t prohibition, just as it was when it was demon rum that was the target. Wake up. Why repeat the same mistake over and over?

    If anyone commits a crime purposely against person or property, I classify them as predators and would kill them if I had my way. I would shoot a purse snatcher in the head and call the dept of sanitation to pick up the trash. It is the law that allows for the ridiculous excuse of diminished capacity that allows all sorts of miscreants off the hook by claiming some phony mental condition. Again, if it were my call, anyone claiming they have a mental condition and committed a crime would be prima facia evidence that they need killing.

    I don’t care why someone broke into a house or robbed a gas station. All I need to know is he did it and should pay for it. It’s being soft on crime that offers the trash in the society to rightly surmise that crime may actually pay. Put the onus on the individual that did the deed, not on some excuse used to attempt to justify it or offer extenuating circumstances. The drugs aren’t the ultimate problem. They treatment under law and the lax law enforcement is the source of the problem.

  65. The Russians might have a second chance to restore order. Think of all the tinkering on nature undertaken by the Yanks. Stripping tree foliage with Agent Orange, to better see where Vietcong ground troops were moving. Poisoning crops or drinking water reservoirs with chemical or biological agents. Manipulate rainfall or cause drought. Excite ionosphere layers with radio waves. All this was done from a distance, from up in the air or places away from the target area. Compared to the Americans, the Russians have not yet applied such measures in an intensily weaponized way. But they could and they might.

    Papaver somniferum, the kind grown in Afghanistan for the relatively high opium and morfine content in the milk sap of its capsules, requires specific things to yield a content that is worthwhile. A sandy soil rich in minerals (potassium, calcium, phosphorus) and specific amounts of nitrogen. Upset this balance and the quality of the key components will decrease drastically. Poppy roots rot easily, water logged soil will quickly destroy them. Soil acidity, too few sunshine hours and sowing too late (after early October) will also reduce opium and morfine content considerably. The growing season of poppies is only short, so they need to make the most of this period. Obstructing and delaying the sowing will also reduce yield.

    Contaminating crops with large amounts of seeds producing weeds which compete for soil nutrients and water, could also be an idea. There is plenty of stuff to seed rain clouds with (agents to lower soil pH with, measures to target rainfall, make cloud haze to reduce sunshine) or spray chemicals directly. You could also upset the nitrogen and mineral balance or hamper ammonium and nitrogen intake of the plants. There is no need to poison the soil, you only need to degrade the poppies such that harvesting is not worth the effort. Amazing that no clever Russian clever biochemist has come up with something.

    When the Yanks go home, the mercenaries take over. These hired ground forces lack the intense air support that big armed forces of nations can muster and afford. The Russian army has such intense air support, protected by advanced ground-to-air and air-to-air countermeasures. They could undertake some biological warfare and have a bit of revenge, by upsetting Afghan, US neocon and CIA money flows.

  66. @Joe Wong

    Lots of things were invented by Americans but were soon copied, stolen, re-engineered and sold back to us thousand fold. Your CPP disinformation operative badge is glowing and stinking up the www.

  67. Malla says:
    @The_MasterWang

    Purging the degenerates improves society.

    That is extremely harsh. God knows what hardships people go through when they turn to drugs. Your life and my life may be fine and dandy but humans (and living beings) go through their own paths in life, and many such paths bring extreme pain. These people need to be helped not treated even more harshly!!!

  68. Max Parry says:
    @Rich

    Thank you for pointing out this rather embarrassing and amateurish blunder on my part, I will see about having it amended. I know there were still military personnel present in 1975 but you are absolutely right and I stand corrected.

    • Replies: @Johnny Rico
  69. @Notsofast

    The USA subsidised the Taliban opium eradication. Money was paid only when the USA was satisfied the eradication program was successful in a given area.

    The USA doesn’t only encourage heroin production; it also works to destroy it. The left hand giveth and the right hand taketh away (I’m just recasting US values as religious as a joke). [email protected]

  70. Malla says:
    @some_loon

    I was watching this documentary a long time ago about drug addiction in Russia in Siberia, just above Central Asia. Some of the Russians who worked in rehabilitation were dead sure that some Islamic groups in Afghanistan/ Central Asia maybe in bed with the CIA have a long term project to weaken the Russians living there with drugs. I have even heard that the Mujaheddin had a history of their agents putting drugs in the food of the Soviet troops in Afghanistan and getting them addicted. I do not know if this is true or even possible.

    However there is a huge drug addiction problem in Afghanistan and Pakistan and even in the Islamic Republic of IRAN!!! of all the places. That drug addiction has moved to the Punjab state of India (close to Pakistan) where Pakistani agents push drugs across the border and many corrupt Indian border Security Forces (BSF) soldiers are involved and now this spreads to the neighboring Indian state of Rajasthan. But many Punjabis of India believe that the Indian Government turns a blind eye to this Pakistani supply to their state because the Indian Government wants to weaken the Punjabi people and thus weaken any future Independence Movement of Sikhs from India, for their demands of an Independent Khalistan. So the Pakistanis supply drugs to make money from hated Indians and to weaken India as much a possible while the Indian Govt does nothing as it wants to weaken this particular state of Punjab. Or who knows if the Indian Govt works with the Pakistani Govt behind the scenes in this, who knows? Anything is possible in this weird world of ours.


    Drug Addiction Iran
    Unofficial reports say more than 2.2 million of Iran’s 80 million population are addicted to drugs. One does not expect that from an Islamic Republic!!!


    Afghanistan’s Child Drug Addicts


    Drugged up Pakistan: A billion dollar narcotics trade | 101 East

    Freakin disgusting what is happening around the world.

    • Replies: @some_loon
    , @GMC
  71. @Carlton Meyer

    Tea become the largest export from China to Britain. The Chinese used silver for trade and the British found it too expensive. They used opium as payment, and when the Chinese resisted, all the colonial powers used gunboats to enforce this.
    Every European colonial country was involved in this, including the united states of america.

    • Replies: @Malla
    , @Malla
    , @Malla
    , @Rev. Spooner
  72. hillaire says:
    @RoatanBill

    Yes Yes.. I did qualify my comment, but you seem to miss the point I was making which is that ‘the use of force’ has already been exerted on them..

    Though of course I agree that they are on the whole past the point of no-return…(but so many more ‘undrugged ‘ are in far worse fettle)..

    and it is likely that such a fate awaits the rest of mankind if the hollow men get their ‘utopia’…because these rootless cosmopolitans masquerading as your betters have now got you and yours in their beadies…

    of course the ‘genetic quality’ of the the so called elites is questionable (jerry nadler etc) and will of course require advanced robotics and gene therapies simply so that they will be capable of wiping their own arses, dusting the coke from their conks and mopping the drool from their saggy jowls (something teenage whores will be incapable of)..

    but not before nietzschean supermen in their honduran boltholes such as yourself ‘roatan bill’ have been hunted down, reduced to penury and injected to fuck seven ways ’till sunday…

    after all there will be no rich peasants in the not-so-brave-new-world…

  73. If you don’t realize that Jewish worldviews are THE PROBLEM in Western countries then you are making the same error the Boomers made and you are completely wandering in a dark room, guided only by the voices that call out to you and tell you the way. The obvious problem is foreigners are telling you what is best for you.

    If I am wrong then why did Adolf succeed in turning the Weimar nightmare around? Why are you arrogant and resisting truth?

  74. Quizzler says:
    @Johnny Smoggins

    Truly a terrifying video…LOTS of these can be seen. Humans are extremely weak and fragile but people such as these have already “checked out”. Life is not easy. Actually I would say it is hard and can even be ugly but something needs to be done with our fellow humans that are incapable of handling it. Survival of the fittest is more than just a cliche…….would all other species on the planet allow this….?

  75. Malla says:
    @Rev. Spooner

    Actually it is a bit more complicated than that.
    According to Rodney Gilbert
    ” Meanwhile two foreign envoys had set out for Peking and had failed to secure audiences. Russia had wearied of flattering Chinese vanity, and while willing to make large concessions to keep alive the overland trade between Peking and Moscow, the Tsar was not inclined to be put in the position of a tributary. A Russian ambassador who arrived at Kalgan in 1805, bringing with him enormously valuable presents, was told that if received at court he would have to kow-tow. This he refused to do, and so, after some debate, he packed up his presents and returned with them to Moscow.
    In 1816 the second British mission arrived, headed by Lord Amherst. He was allowed to reach
    Peking and was told upon his arrival, after a hard journey, that the Emperor Chia Chi’ng was even then awaiting him at the Summer Palace six miles north of the city. As the baggage had not come and the ambassador had no means of changing his travel-stained clothes, he refused to go on ; so the Emperor was kept waiting and was so indignant that he refused to see Lord Amherst at all. The mission therefore returned with nothing accomplished, but with a good deal of ill-will on both
    sides.
    Great Britain had, by this time, begun to take official cognizance of the value of trade with China. The East India Company had a monopoly of this traffic which expired in 1834, and the agreement between the Government and the Company was not renewed. Independent American trade with China had commenced in 1784, and many other nations were participating in 1834, so that England decided, when her Far Eastern trade was thrown open to free competition and private enterprise, to appoint a trade superintendent, a consul-general with full diplomatic powers—in other words, to promote British interests at Canton. The first incumbent was Lord Napier, who had
    no patience with Chinese methods if he had understood them. Without asking for permission to visit Canton through the intermediation of the 13 Hongs, as was customary, he proceeded to his post and attempted to open direct communications on a basis of equality with the Viceroy Lu K’un.
    His letter greatly incensed this potentate, who refused to see him at all, and promptly put a ban upon Chinese trade with the British. At this crucial juncture Lord Napier became very ill and had to go back to Macao, where he died shortly after. ”

  76. Malla says:
    @Rev. Spooner

    Further from Rodney Gilbert
    …continued
    “The Viceroy believed that he had registered a diplomatic victory, and was so pleased that he graciously permitted the resumption of trade. Napier’s successor got nowhere in his negotiations,
    but in 1836 a certain Captain Elliot was appointed trade superintendent, who, by a liberal use of soft-soap, won many concessions and laid the foundations of much future trouble. He addressed the Viceroy as a superior, accepted privileges as acts of grace, and in other ways encouraged the Chinese to believe that the British had knuckled under.

    About this time the Chinese began to discover that the national supply of silver bullion was being depleted. The British traders, representing a Company long established in India, had catered to the Chinese liking for opium, and had built up an enormous trade in the drug, in which all nationalities participated, though the British naturally had the advantage because they controlled what was then the principal source of supply. Chinese officials everywhere encouraged the traffic, though it was under Imperial ban, because their commissions were enormous.
    Exports amounted to little as compared with the opium import, and China soon learned that the foreigners were taking her silver out of the country by the shipload, thus depleting the nation’s stock and greatly enhancing the value of the metal.
    The Canton Viceroy was instructed to put an end to this business in a summary way, and did so. In 1839 the foreign companies at Canton were ordered to deliver up their opium stocks, and, being unable to resist, 20,000,000 chests were turned over to the authorities. The Viceroy was keen on sending this north as loot, but Peking ordered him to destroy the whole seizure, and, as there was then some discipline in official circles, the opium was mixed with lime and thrown into the sea.

    This act brought on China’s first real foreign war. The opium traffic was undoubtedly a heinous trade, but the officials at Canton had smiled upon it and profited by it; and their arbitrary seizure without warning of stocks valued at something like \$6,000,000 was naturally resented bitterly. This sum represented much more in those days than it does now. If foreigners were to continue to trade with China, such an action had to be challenged, and the burden of the responsibility fell upon the British. In 1840 China was faced for the first time with a real foreign war, though Peking was far from realizing the significance of it. It meant no more at Court than the impertinence of a clique of pirates operating on the coast, and was taken no more seriously. The eventual shock was therefore all the more humiliating. “

    • Replies: @Joe Wong
  77. @Ray Caruso

    Agreed. Those people who say Just let teenagers walk into drug stores n buy opiates as they please are only serving the agenda of white genocide, in fact the genocide of all young people everywhere. in no time at all the global drug monopolies would be targeting teenagers with ads for heroin in video games n handing out freebies to six year olds in public parks. These libertarian fetishists who constantly cackle selfishly about their “freedom” should all be dropped in South Africa. Let’s see how long they hoot about freedom when the black mobs come for them.

    • Replies: @Johnny Rico
    , @Ace
    , @RoatanBill
  78. @Sin City Milla

    There are no people that say that.

  79. @Max Parry

    Your retraction is admirable but not really necessary. 174 Americans were killed in Vietnam in 1974 and 161 in ostensibly the first 4 months of 1975. The peak year of combat casualties was 1968.

    That fact that most personnel were withdrawn by 1973 and Saigon did not fall until 1975 is a minor point in regards to the overall gist of your article.

  80. Anonymous[391] • Disclaimer says:

    So many problems with this article. First, none of it is news to anyone who reads an occasional newspaper.

    45% of heroin users were said to be hooked on prescription opioid painkillers as well.

    This displays a sad lack of knowledge. They’re addicted to opioids and heroin is one. If they can’t get Coca-Cola they’ll drink Pepsi and vice versa. They may prefer to have both, but they’re not addicted to both. They’re addicted to any.

    during the Civil War in the 1870s

    So I guess high school was not an option in the author’s town.

    the internal memos of the Afghanistan Papers made public in 2019 proved officials were deceiving the American people about the reality of the no-win situation on the ground.

    Proved they were lying, yes, but “deceiving” implies that the lies were believed. Most people just didn’t pay attention. No one was deceived.

    People whose lives are “devastated” (in the article, in the context of crack) or ended (opiates) are experiencing a side-effect called “Natural Selection”.

    Some of the comments are no better.

    @RoatanBill (post 66): I consider your “killing people is always the solution” a mental condition. Let’s review: What is your solution for people with mental conditions? Remind us, won’t you?

    • Replies: @Badger Down
  81. @Realist

    You (people,I presume) sure are smart.I hope you’re saved in the next lives?

  82. @Realist

    Absolutely.Maybe,if the stream was consciousness,one could consider
    alternatives to your brilliance.But,probably not.Tell us more…

    • Replies: @Realist
    , @goldgettin
  83. Malla says:
    @Fiendly Neighbourhood Terrorist

    Opium had been grown in China since the eleventh century, smoking had been around since the seventeenth, and opium was being imported from India since at least the early eighteenth century. Yet the massive growth of opium imports and spread of use among working-class Chinese people took place over the course of the nineteenth century, and the height of opium use in the 1930s long postdated the decline of British opium dealing.

    [MORE]

    Firstly, the opium trade in China could only exist in the presence of an established opium market. This market emerged into an already established set of elite cultures of consumption, especially for tobacco (into which opium was usually mixed, rather than being smoked pure, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries). Opium had established itself as an elite consumer good, and a means to flaunt one’s wealth through the ornateness of the paraphernalia (lamps and pipes) used to smoke it. Competition between the East India Company and independent Indian Kingdoms led to a glut of opium entering the market from around 1818 onwards, and that glut presumably did much to accelerate the spread of opium among working-class consumers, who previously might have found opium unaffordable. In turn, this helped create the conditions for domestic cultivation of opium to feed the growing market.

    Opium reached places far beyond the Pearl River delta where it left the hands of British traders. The actual distribution of opium once it entered China was handled by major Chinese merchant houses and networks of distributors. Moreover, domestic cultivation, especially in the provinces of Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou, began to increase in scale from the beginning of the nineteenth century onwards. And opium reached far afield: the Jiaqing Emperor’s restatement of the opium ban in 1813 occurred in response to the discovery of its being used in the inland province of Hubei, and its spread would be bolstered by the Qing policy of Han colonisation in Xinjiang, which brought opium consumers – and by extension, an opium market – to the empire’s western frontier, which extended the routes of distribution to cover provinces even further inland. This in turn created potential markets for opium from independent states in Central Asia and northern India in the region, and opium was being smuggled across the Qing empire’s Central Asian border from at least 1832.

    Britain did not have a monopoly on supply. The glut of opium that entered China after 1818 was the result of open competition between the East India Company and independent Indian states who saw opportunity in the opening opium market. Similarly, the Khanate of Kokand and even to an extent Russia saw fit to take a blind eye to the transport of opium from northern India and Central Asia into Xinjiang until the Qing put pressure on them to back down. Moreover, Britain was not the only maritime exporter of opium. American merchants plying the ‘chain trade’ across the oceans purchased Levant-grown opium from the Ottoman port of Smyrna (now İzmir) for sale in China.

    At the peak of opium imports in 1880, it is estimated that twice as much was being produced domestically; by 1906, when imports had halved, domestic production had gone up by 2.5 times, or in other words China produced ten times as much opium as it imported.

    The emergence of domestic opium cultivation in China, and the cooperation of the great trading houses with the opium smugglers, is one way in which that adaptation occurred. So too was opium cultivation in Bukhara and the Punjab, and the complicity of Kokand and Russia in its export. Britain could not have sold opium to a society that had no interest in it. Instead, opium had been adapted by and into Chinese culture for over six centuries as a medicine and at least several decades as a recreational drug before the British started shipping it in bulk, and domestic forces kept its cultivation going long after the British agreed to stop selling it.

    • Thanks: some_loon
  84. Hossein says:
    @Johnny Smoggins

    My god. That is a real wasteland of lives and hope. Very disturbing.

    • Agree: GMC
  85. @Blankaerd

    “you take away the Cartels/CIA primary source of income,”

    You assume the “government” is separate from the cartels, aka corporations, and the CIA. They are all one and the same.

    The Drug War is the same as the War on Terror, as was the Cold War, and the current War on Covid, never ending projects to create massive private profits for the Few by creating Public Debt, while screwing the People.

    They run both the War on Drugs and they run the drugs. We end up with militarized law enforcement, increased surveillance, and no knock warrants served by a full battle rattle strike team. They end up profiting at both ends.

    Since 2001, anything that happens, always involves trillion(s) dollar bailouts to private corporations.

    • Agree: Agent76
  86. @Anon

    One would have thought it would be obvious. Aspirin is legal, no trademark, generic: 100 doses for a dollar, or five dollars. Pharma companies could get heroin to you for a similar price. Ten bucks a day for a not-very-nasty habit. The street could not compete. The law could focus on correct labelling. The junkies would have to be stupid to overdose.

  87. Lee says:
    @RoatanBill

    RB said:

    “In large part, the losers in the society brought it upon themselves preferring to be the football star instead of the math nerd. They made a choice and there are consequences.”

    There but for the grace of God go I………

  88. Joe Wong says:
    @Malla

    India was British and all other opium traffickers’ Golden Triangle and Afghanistan during that time. Indians also were the opium cultivators, producers and armed guards and transporters helping the British and other opium traffickers to poison innocent people around the world.

    • Replies: @Malla
  89. Realist says:
    @goldgettin

    Maybe,if the stream was consciousness,one could consider
    alternatives to your brilliance.

    My play on a phrase was witty…not brilliant.

  90. HT says:
    @Agent76

    Portugal is a tightly homogeneous population of 10 million people, nearly all white. They are not criminally inclined and their culture has nothing in common with ours. Less than 1% of Portugal is black. Trying to apply what they are doing there to America would be a disaster.

  91. @Malla

    Did I say the Brutish introduced opium cultivation?

    • Replies: @Malla
  92. some_loon says:
    @RoatanBill

    In large part, the losers in the society brought it upon themselves preferring to be the football star instead of the math nerd.

    I think you’ll find, if you examine those you call ‘losers’, that neither option was open to them, yet many had fantasies of being both, and still do.

    • Replies: @RoatanBill
  93. @Anonymous

    A useful distinction is that opiates are derived from opium and opioids are drugs that have similar effects to opium. Thus morphine, codeine, and heroin are opiates; and oxycontin and fentanyl are opioids.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
    , @Johnny Rico
  94. @some_loon

    You’re correct.

    Those that didn’t achieve either of the options I listed became voters; the sorriest bunch of all.

  95. some_loon says:
    @Malla

    Drug Addiction Iran
    Unofficial reports say more than 2.2 million of Iran’s 80 million population are addicted to drugs. One does not expect that from an Islamic Republic!!!

    Which suggests to me that, if anyone is the target of an op involving Afghan opium, it is Iran.

    • Agree: Malla
  96. Joe Wong says:
    @Agent76

    It is very confusing, is Portugal decriminalizing drugs to fight drug abuses and related crimes, or to fight sexually transmitted disease, overdoses or HIV/AIDS?

    If Portugal won its war on drugs, did Portugal decriminalizing drugs actually eliminate drug abuses and related crimes? Can you show us some proofs?

  97. Ace says:
    @Sin City Milla

    Alcohol ads don’t target kids. There’s no reason to believe we would tolerate drug ads that target kids.

    • Replies: @Sin City Milla
  98. Ace says:

    This is a helpful article in trying to understand drug trafficking that seems to go together with Agency or our military adventures.

    One quibble. The Contras weren’t choir boys I presume but I always understood them to guerilla opponents of the Sandinistas. What conflict in the last century involved righteous forces and the forces of evil? I remember little about the Sandinistas but I do recall they were very unpleasant to the indigenous tribes(s) on the east coast.

    Similarly, Pinochet was tough on the Chilean left but then the Cubans had smuggled in arms and they or other leftist scum ambushed his motorcade one time causing deaths. The apotheosis of Allende and the demonization of Pinochet are nauseating. The use of leftist methods against leftists was held up as almost the crime of the century. How dare he.

    Any kind of warfare is just savagery and nothing is added to our understanding by describing one side as terrorists.

  99. Anonymous[391] • Disclaimer says:
    @Badger Down

    A useful distinction is that opiates are derived from opium and opioids are drugs that have similar effects to opium. Thus morphine, codeine, and heroin are opiates; and oxycontin and fentanyl are opioids.

    Sorry, wow, I should have checked Wikipedia! I’ll stipulate that you’re right though I don’t know or care if you are; life is too short for quibbling don’t you think?
    It’s a distinction without a difference as Prince could tell you. They all get the job done. Coke-Pepsi.

  100. @Badger Down

    Ummmmm, no. A useful distinction would be that you don’t understand drugs.

    All this shit is the same. Dilaudid and fentanyl being the strongest but for all intents and purposes having no distinctly different effects than the others taken in larger doses.

    Dilaudid has always been the gold standard but it is tough to find outside of hospitals. I’ve had a shot in the emergency room after two shots of morphine were not doing the job and I raised this concern with my nurse. It is outstanding.

    Fentanyl’s medical use is as an epidural for labor and delivery pain.

    Percocets that you get from the dentist or for kidney stones are 5- or 10-mg oxycodone pills.

    Oxycontin or OC-80s as they are know on the street are simply 80-mg oxycodone pills.

    I think they are pretty expensive like as much as a couple bags of heroin or something.

    A junkie who is dealing to support their habit and has access to a large amount of heroin will shoot as many as 40 bags of heroin a day. That is type of person who would be looking for fentanyl.

    https://paxmemphis.com/opioids-from-strongest-to-weakest/

    https://www.therecoveryvillage.com/heroin-addiction/how-much-is-heroin/

  101. Malla says:
    @Joe Wong

    Golden traingle came about much late. LOL Help the British? That is an understatement. It was primarily an Indian operation, the British were helping the Indians. Indians were the bosses, the British the servants.

    http://www.ibtimes.co.in/chinas-opium-war-was-completely-indian-enterprise-not-british-indian-author-amitav-ghosh-628177
    China’s Opium War Was ‘Completely Indian Enterprise’, not British: Indian Author Amitav Ghosh

    At this juncture he found that the first opium war in China was an Indian undertaking. “The first opium war (was) planned in India, it was financed by Indian money, it was fought with Indian soldiers. But it has all completely vanished from our historical memory,” Ghosh, whose third book of Ibis series ‘Flood of Fire’ is all about migration in the 1830s, told IANS.

    “The putting together of the expeditionary force took place in India. The British naval ships for the expedition were accompanied by 50 supply ships, all provided for by Parsi merchants in Bombay (now Mumbai). From top to bottom, it was a completely Indian enterprise; all the wherewithal for it came from India,” he added.

    http://epaperbeta.timesofindia.com/Article.aspx?eid=31808&articlexml=SPOILS-OF-WAR-History-of-capitalism-is-written-27112016018050

    What role did India Inc play in the opium trade war?

    They [Indian companies] played a pioneering part.In large parts, the opium war was financed by Indian money -by old Bombay money. Many of the big Indian families made their money in opium. This is equally true about America.

    Many American compa nies and families have made their money in opium -P resident Franklin Roosevelt‘s family, the Calvin Coolidge family, Forbes family from where you get the current secretary of state, John Kerry, even institutions like Yale and Brown. Singapore and Hong Kong wouldn’t exist today without opium.Essentially opium was the most important commodity of the 19th century.

  102. nsa says:

    As the Talib freedom fighters retake their country, the lads will be thirsting for revenge and anxious to settle old scores with the quislings. Chances are the annual Kabul gay pride parade will be cancelled and a couple million Afghans who sided with the infidel crusaders will be looking for a new home. Hard to imagine anyone stupid enough to absorb the traitorous weasels…..oh wait, coming to a town near you. Maybe the SBA will set them up with falafel trucks to compete with the indigenous roach coaches and taco wagons. Remember, the right hand is for eating and the left hand for wiping…..

  103. It appears that almost everywhere U.S. interventionism goes, the drug market seems to follow.

    That is clear. Wherever the merchants of death go, well… You’ll never get low IQ right wingers or their libtard cousins to understand these kinds of things though. The war on drugs is just that, the police are there stop crime and drugs, never in a million years would these entities be doing the exact opposite. Nah! Haha take a look around, the results speak for themselves.

    This is how you can tell most of the DR, alt-right, WN’s are just posers. They contradict themselves so much, lie so much that it makes it damn near impossible to pull it off. They tell you the US is ZOG and the most evil thing that ever existed, but then cheer on the “Jews” doing the same thing they say is happening to them to the dindus.

    Tell you the USSR gulags were essentially Jewish run death camps for the goyim, and now they’re doing the same thing here, but then cheer on the police state as long as it only goes after da dindus or mooslimes.

    MFers are yall that goddamn stupid? They’ll never see the connections. This same thing was already done to the dindus with heroin and crack. Now you act surprised that its being done to your people. Most just don’t care because their concern isn’t for ordinary white people. They can only hide their hatred of poor whites from the most gullible of people.

    100’s of thousands deaths of despair, entire communities wiped out and gone, but apparently the black guy that pushed a chinese lady to the ground or a random murder are the topic literally every day. I wouldn’t even think of saying theres a problem with white people because they’re committing suicide, or killing themselves off with drugs and alcohol by the boatload. I think anyone that sums up black violence as just a black people problem is making the same argument.

    These are all deaths of despair. These are all signs of a very sick society, rotten culture, and a money worshiping system that puts profits above all else. Doesn’t help that the system rewards the most criminal, backstabbing, greedy, selfish, degenerate and subversive scumbags that the world has to offer to the top spot. The gangsters that rule over us all did this, none of it was an accident. Sorry, but you an’t blame poor people with zero power for any of it.

    Good to know i can always come to Unz to read what these demons really think. The popular position seems to be just legalize them all, let our capitalist overlords make lots of profit, killing off the “inferior and weak”. Haha They’ve pretty much already done that. Hows that going? Big brained solutions from the right!

    • Replies: @Sin City Milla
  104. Sanityclaus says: • Website

    NATO IS A HEROIN MAFIA.

  105. Malla says:

    They tell you the US is ZOG and the most evil thing that ever existed, but then cheer on the “Jews” doing the same thing they say is happening to them to the dindus.

    Not completely true, George Lincoln Rockwell, head of the American National Socialist Party (Nazi party) believed that American blacks should be given some American states as compensation and seperation brought about. According to him, American blacks were at the end of the day, fellow victims of the Zio bankers as White Americans were.

  106. Malla says:
    @Fiendly Neighbourhood Terrorist

    You made a lot of false bullshit claims, some of which I debunked. Now, I do not have time to go through everything.

  107. @goldgettin

    Maybe,you could be an actual realist,instead of a wit expert?

  108. @RoatanBill

    Pot, in particular, has no real serious side effects that alcohol doesn’t have

    Not so, mon frere. Go online n look up Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Chronic pot users can experience daily vomiting with gastrointestinal disturbances that mimic Crohn’s disease n ulcers. This can lead to anorexia, malnutrition, n permanent damage to esophagus n internal organs, n can lead to death from the syndrome or suicide. Pot can lower IQ n has a devil’s brew of other serious side effects.

    • Replies: @RoatanBill
  109. @Agent76

    People who point to Portugal or Sweden or Denmark as examples for the US are deluding themselves. What works in a tiny homogeneous population is totally irrelevant to a global multiethnic empire of 300 million with porous borders n multiple no go zones where there is no effective policing. The US is owned by predatory monopolies that flood the country with opiates leading to widespread addiction n crime. The US effectively decriminalized minor drug possession years ago but the result was a massive increase in addiction, drug related crime, gang warfare, n overdose deaths. They call this freedom, but it is really a failed state.

  110. @Ace

    Most video gamers are adults. But who’s checking? Just as most pot smokers are adults. But who’s checking?

  111. @redmudhooch

    Interesting observations… but if you think class trumps race you are deluding yourself. The WN’s have you there.

  112. GMC says:
    @Malla

    This drug addiction in Afghanistan , Pakistan, and the other countries in the World is another reason that the USA might be leaving the Area – they have been called out as the World’s Drug Dealers and it’s time for them to leave . They have made their trillions and destroyed many societies – but this is their sick Thrill – they get off on doing this thing and always have . Thanks for all your spot on knowledge.

    • Thanks: Malla
  113. Che Guava says:
    @Max Parry

    Thank you for the reply, although I would already have guessed it to be the case.

    Tired, I replied without reading all closely. Intend to do so later this evening. Still, I think my point is valid, particularly on the intended targets.

  114. Che Guava says:
    @some_loon

    Do you really think conditions in Iran allow a big heroin or opium trade? It may be so, but I saw some examples of heroin use, both regional and in Tokyo, at the end of the nineties. start of 2000s. It seemed to be introduced by Israelis running illegal street stalls, they were also pushing E, cannabis, but the police and immigration were cracking down on them by the very early 2000s. Since the
    shops the Israelis were running as fronts to deal drugs were illegal, it was simple to shut them down, and mainly their main trade (in illegal drugs).

    • Replies: @some_loon
  115. @Sin City Milla

    I read where a woman died of drinking too much water. Everything has side effects if over done.

    I have a friend that has smoked pot for over 50 years and he’s just fine. The differences between individuals may influence who can and who can’t consume whatever. My brother-in-law would die if he ate one sesame seed and didn’t get immediate treatment. Does that mean sesame seeds are dangerous?

    TPTsB just love to exaggerate whatever is on their radar. Just recently they came out with all sorts of misinformation and outright bullshit about a virus. You may have heard about it.

  116. Malla says:
    @Rev. Spooner

    Sir John Strachey corroborates Rodney Gilbert in his book
    India: Its Administration And Progress
    https://archive.org/download/in.ernet.dli.2015.278886/2015.278886.India-Its.pdf
    CHAPTER X: REVENUES OTHER THAN THOSE DERIVED FROM TAXATION
    “If there is one fact more certain than any other connected with this question, it is that the people of China had used opium for centuries before the people of England had any voice in the affairs of India. A valuable Historical Note on Opium m China has recently been drawn up by Dr. Edkins, of the Chinese Customs Service, and published by order of Sir Eobert Hart, the Inspector- General of the Imperial Maritime Customs of China. From this Note it appears that opium was first brought to China by the Arabs early in the eighth century, and it is frequently mentioned by Chinese writers of that time. But, it is said, the English have forced Indian opium on the Chinese. The war with China, which terminated in 1842, has been called the Opium War, and its immediate cause was no doubt the seizure and destruction by the Chinese of a large number of chests of Indian opium belonging to English merchants. But contemporary history shows that the real objections of the Chinese were not to the import of opium, but to the necessity of paying for it in silver. Commander J. Eliot Bingham, who served in that war, and wrote its history, shows that the imports into China of opium, metals, cotton, etc., exceeded the exports of tea, silk, etc., by £2,500,000. The Chinese held the economic fallacy that this state of things was injurious to their country, as it drained away their silver. The Imperial edicts enlarged more on the abstraction of their silver than on the injury from opium to the morals of the people.”

    It was China that was losing silver, some kind of fake reversed history is being floating around.
    Also export of goods from England to Asia had being rising extemely fast way before the conquest of Bengal or the Opium trade.

    Lot of fake “history” floating around.

    • Replies: @Rev. Spooner
  117. some_loon says:
    @Che Guava

    Do you really think conditions in Iran allow a big heroin or opium trade?

    Yes.

    Quoted from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539585/

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world.

    Another source shows equivalent consumption in Iran is more than double that of the US, with less than 1/4 the population.

    @Malla in comment #72 above writes that Iran may have more than 2 million addicts in a nation of 80 million.

    But then, there’s little alcohol or alcoholism there, unlike in many other countries.

    • Thanks: Che Guava
  118. anon[400] • Disclaimer says:
    @Anon

    Drug war or cuktuvation ,sale ,profiteering and laundering the money into the main economy is as organic as are the Anglo – Britush innovations and successes in other deceptive ,lying,destructive enterprises .
    Britain funded all the wars from 1825 to 1913 with drug money . Ameruca built its city of Boston, railway,hospiatls ,bridges,ports and number of educational institutions with drug money. It killed and it blamed other .

    Like America going second or third time to Afghanistan , UK also went few times from mid 1800 to 1914 . It lost its protege ,( King that it imposed ) it lost thousands of its soldiers and it eventually made peace in 1913 accecpting the decades old demands of Afghan .

    Some referenes:
    1-
    “Working for a year in the Kabul children’s hospital in the 1970s gave me a perspective on Afghanistan that conflicts with the Foreign Office’s view that “the Taliban is promoting opium production to finance terrorism.”1
    The simple facts are that opium production was high under the US influenced government of Afghanistan of the 1970s, decreased 10-fold by 2001 under the Taliban, and then increased 30-fold and more under the US to the same level as in the 1970s.2
    History shows us how empires function; be they British or US. The East India Company organised the opium trade through “free traders”—men with fast ships and guns to fend off the pirates. One of the most famous free traders was Francis Light, founder of the British province of Penang. These are facts, whereas the idea that the CIA runs opium from Afghanistan would be a conspiracy theory—unless, you thought about the United Nations statistics or happened to have been to Afghanistan.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2386629/
    BMJ 2008
    BMJ. 2008 May 17; 336(7653): 1088.
    doi: 10.1136/bmj.39577.543333.3A
    PMCID: PMC2386629
    PMID: 18483032

    ————-

    1-https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5220431/How-decision-ban-opium-trade-gave-birth-drug-gangs.html

    Blowback from drug buisness

    2-The British empire was bankrolled by the milky fluid of the poppy flower; opium.

    Why opium trafficking?
    The imbalance in trade was somewhat similar to today. European demand for Chinese tea, silk and porcelain was soaring. However, the Chinese were relatively self-sufficient and demand for European goods was almost non-existent. The Chinese demanded payment in silver which began to put pressure on the British coffers.
    The idea of using a narcotic to redress the imbalance in trade was conceived by the first Governor General of British India, Warren Hastings, in 1780. Within 10 years, demand for the highly addictive drug had begun to spread and multiply.
    The British East India Company circumvented a Chinese ban on opium by sub-contracting opium transportation to ‘country traders’- a delightful euphemism for smugglers. These private traders were licensed by the company to take goods from India to China. They sold the opium to smugglers along the Chinese coast for silver and gold which was then paid to the British East India in China. The company then used the sliver and gold to purchase goods that could be sold profitably in England.
    By the 1830s the balance of payments had swung back it favour of the British,

    https://www.bilan.ch/opinions/garry-littman/_a_splendid_income_the_world_s_greatest_drug_cartel

    3- the fifty-year period from 1842-1880 opium revenue on average was 15% of India‟s total revenue, which is significant for a single commodity. Comparing other sources of revenue in India with opium revenue illustrates the scale of opium returns. In 1843 opium became the second largest source of revenue for India.8 Opium revenues generated more revenue than customs and stamp taxes combined, which were the fourth and fifth largest sources of revenue.—https://www.whitman.edu/economics/Workingpapers/content/WP_25.pdf

    4- Some historians have argued that the opium business bolstered India’s rural economy and kept the farmers happy. That was not the case, as new research by Rolf Bauer, a professor of economic and social history at the University of Vienna, has found.

    For years Dr Bauer trawled through archival documents looking at the costs of producing opium and paying money to farmers.
    He also examined an exhaustive history of the trade – the 1895 Report of the Royal Commission of Opium, which ran into seven volumes and 2,500 pages.

    Dr Bauer’s new study of the trade, The Peasant Production of Opium in Nineteenth-Century India. His conclusion: the opium business was hugely exploitative and ended up impoverishing Indian peasants.
    https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-49404024

    4–https://scroll.in/article/894050/dark-history-how-indian-opium-traders-from-bombay-helped-the-british-raj-destroy-chinas-economy

    5-http://www.bhindibazaar.asia/british-raj-turned-mumbai-into-drug-trade-center/

    6 Chiang Kai Sek killed communists destryoed demicratic idea of Sun Yat Sen and brought the old drug run imperialism back with veneer of Chinese natioanilsm
    Mao destryoed his dream . Part of his army and associate terrorisst moved to Golden Trinagle area and blossomed for years .

    7-https://www.globalresearch.ca/how-13-men-were-determine-fate-world-100-years-communist-party-china/5752018

    • Replies: @KA
    , @Malla
  119. KA says:
    @anon

    A new history of the disastrous, 19th century British invasion of Afghanistan reveals more about the current war than we might like to think.—-https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/03/what-america-should-have-learned-from-imperial-britains-afghan-defeat/254369/

    https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/sole-british-soldier-escapes-kabul

    https://www.thoughtco.com/britains-disastrous-retreat-from-kabul-1773762

    “Numerous accounts have been written, describing in the minutest detail how the Afghans mercilessly “massacred” the retreating British army, while making little to no mention of the harsh realities of British occupation and the crimes British soldiers committed against Afghan civilians .

    Britush would come to take revenge second time and would lay waste to the cities and the markets .

    In Istalif, the British massacred every Afghan man past the age of puberty. The British raped hundreds of Afghan women in Istalif (and thousands during the entire course of war),

    Sensing that spending another winter in Afghanistan could be as costly as the previous one, the two British armies decided to retreat to India via the Khyber Pass in October 1842.

    https://thediplomat.com/2020/10/why-the-first-anglo-afghan-war-still-matters/

    second war was also waged for revenge ,by poor planning ,hubris and through the legality of an illegal ultimatum ( to be repated by Bush 2 ) and iver geostrategic importance .

    https://www.britishbattles.com/second-afghan-war/battle-of-ali-masjid/

  120. Anonymous[249] • Disclaimer says:
    @Bombercommand

    You can get any potency in Thailand, from 20% where a bit the size of a salt grain will almost OD a totally wired street junkie to 80%-90% that can’t be handled without a respirator and eye googles, if a particle of that dust in the air gets in your eyes it will kill you.

    That sounds like something a stupid idiot would say. At best you’re confusing heroin and fentanyl. Your lack of command of facts suggests you should abstain from typing.

    p.s. “Wired” is speed, junkies don’t get “wired”.

  121. Malla says:
    @anon

    The British empire was bankrolled by the milky fluid of the poppy flower; opium.

    Why do people keep on bullshitting rubbish out of their diseased butts when they are all lies. I have debunked all this bullshit above in my posts.

    1] Opium as a State monopoly in India precedes the comming of the British in Asia. it was a State monopoly and its cultivation encouraged from Mughal times.
    2] Arabs have been selling opium in China from the 8th century and it had been grown in China from the 11 the century. Howeever it was earlier used for medicinal reasons.
    3] Even before the British came to Asia, India was consuming as well as exporting opium to its neighbbouring countries.
    4] Most of the money gained by the East India company was used in India, it was spent on the Indian people and on Indian resources. Very little of it went to Britain. The only money which went to Britain was money made by merchants as the opium was auctioned by the EIC Government in Calcutta. The merchants included British (mostly Scots), Jewish (many from the Middle East like the Sassons), Indians (mostly Parsis but included others too) and even Americans. Many Chinese themsleves made a lot of money on this trade.
    5]

    Some historians have argued that the opium business bolstered India’s rural economy and kept the farmers happy. That was not the case,

    This is stupidity and false history par excelelnce. Indian farmers fought for permits from the Government to grow Opium as the money made was good. If the Government denied permits, Indian farmers would be bery unhappy about it.
    6] A lot of the opium in India was grown by independent Indian States in places like Malwa in places outside British control or later outside direct British control. these Indian Kingdoms competed with the British East India Company to sell opium to China. This trade would go through Central Asia via Islamic kingdoms to China to Kashgar, these Islamic KIngdoms made profits out of it too. There are Russian sources on this.
    7] American traders even bought opium from Ottoman Empire (Izmir) to sell in China.
    8]Destroyed China’s economy? China was growing 10 times the opium than the Indians or Turkish opium it was importing. Earlier Chinese opium could not compete with Indian opium on quality but later Chinese became experts growers and soon cheap but good quality opium was gflooding the Myanmar/Burma market.
    9] Opium was consumed by both Indians, Chinese, Middle Easterners etc… way before the British came to Asia. The problem in China was that it was earlier a timepass of the rich but as opium became cheaper, poor people also became addicted to it and people were spending their meagre income on opium rather than on their families. Which is kind of similar to alcohol and poor people in Europe at that time including England. And the British or any European had no hand in this phenomenon in China.

    • Replies: @anon
  122. Malla says:
    @KA

    harsh realities of British occupation and the crimes British soldiers committed against Afghan civilians .In Istalif, the British massacred every Afghan man past the age of puberty. The British raped hundreds of Afghan women in Istalif (and thousands during the entire course of war),

    What rubbish. Anways the British wanted only a buffer State in between the British and growing Russian Empire, that is all. And the Afghans brought it upon themselevs partly. The Afghans have an old history of invading, raiding, looting, plundering, raping, destroying and enslaving India and Inains for a logn time. And they had invaded India while the British were already there. Take Durranis for instance.
    The Afghan King Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded India eight times between 1748 and 1767. After the assassination of Nadir Shah, Ahmad Shah Durrani succeeded the throne of Afghanistan and started plundering wealth from nearby regions. Ahmad Shah Durrani’s objectives were met through the raids (taking the wealth and destroying sacred places belonging to the Indians) and caused political issues in India.
    According to the works of historian J. L. Mehta (2005) in his works “Advanced study in the history of modern India 1707–1813”, being poor , Afghanistan could not provide subsistence to its population or provide a financial support for running the government. So it was necessary” for Abdali to invade a rich but poorly defended neighbouring country India to plunder and exploit her resources. He also wanted to establish political hegemony in India. During his time, the Mughal empire was disintegrating and he was eager to step into the shoes of the decadent Mughal authority” to fill up the “political vacuum without any loss of time”. Leadership of the various Afghan tribes rested mainly on the ability to provide booty for the clans, and Ahmed Shah proved remarkably successful in providing both booty and occupation for his followers.
    His First Invasion was the Battle of Manupur (1748) where the Afghans attacked India in 1748. The Afghans entered the Indian city of Peshawar on 12 January 1748, the Afghan King Durrani ordered a general massacre of all Indians in the city. Towards evening, the prominent leaders of the city collected a sum of three million rupees and offered it as expenses to Abdali, requesting him to halt the wholesale looting and slaughter of the Indians. Later the Afghans swept aside the Mughal army’s left flank and raided their baggage train but a fire beginning in a captured rocket cart went on to ignite the Durrani artillery store, roasting thousands of soldiers alive and forcing the Afghans to retreat. During the retreat Indian Sikh bands under Charat Singh continued to harass them as they retreated back to Kabul.

  123. Malla says:
    @KA

    The Afghans marched on India the next year (Second Invasion) to avenge their defeat. This invasion resulted in the Afghans achieving victory and taking control of the territory to the west of Indus paving the way for the Afghan invasion of the Indian state of the Punjab which led (Third Invasion of India) the Battle of Lahore (1752) where in the winter of 1751, Durrani invaded India for the third time on the pretext that Mir Mannu, the Mughal governor of the province of Punjab, had refused to pay him tax which he had promised to give on a monthly basis. Abdali started the battle by successfully besieging Mannu in the Lahore Fort. Though Mannu wrote to the Mughal emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur for help, he received no reinforcements from Delhi. Failing to put up a fight, he surrendered to Abdali on 6 March 1752. After signing the instrument of surrender, Afghan forces looted and plundered the city and massacred the people. On Durrani’s orders, nine hundred Sikhs who were trapped in the fort of Ram Rauni were butchered. This was followed by the Fourth Invasion which included the major Battle of Bharatpur (1757) and Battle of Amritsar (1757). Here the Afghans invaded again in 1756 where they conquered the Indian cities of Lahore, Sirhind, Delhi and the Hindy holy cities of Mathura, Vrindavan. The Afghans sacked the Indian Capital Delhi looting every corner of that city and enriching themselves with what remained of that city’s wealth after the Iranian Emperor Nadir Shah’s monumental loot of India earlier in 1739. The Afghans after plundering and massacre took many women slaves including daughters of late emperor Muhammad Shah and Alamgir II along with scores of Hindu women from the Indian cities of Mathura, Vrindavan and Agra. The brutality on Indians was so extreme that a Muslim Indian ruler Adina Beg made an alliance with the Sikhs and they fought together against the Afghan foreign invaders at Hoshiarpur. Later troops of 20,000 horsemen of Timur Shah Durrani was defeated and captured by Indian Sikhs. In March 1758, a combined Indian army of Sikhs and Marathas routed the foreign Afghan invaders from the city of Lahore.

  124. Malla says:
    @KA

    Later the Chief Islamic Qazi (Judge) of Lahore fearing idol worshipping Hindu rejuvination under the Marathas invited Ahmed Shah Abdali to Punjab to “crush the lowly infidels”, causing another foreign Afghan invasion of India in 1757 where in the Battle of Bharatpur, the Afghan invaders fought the Indian Hindu Jats under King Maharaja Surajmal where the Afghans were forced to retreat. But not before the Afghans utterly destroyed and plundered the Indian Hindu holy places of Mathura and Vrindavan. This was followed by their Battle of Amritsar with the Indian Nihang Sikhs of the Shaheedan where the invading Afghans were decisively defeated. This was followed by the fifth invasion of Afghan King Duranni which again led to the massacre, plunder and enslavement of many Indians. As early as by the end of 1761, the Sikhs had begun to occupy much of Punjab. In 1762, the Afghans crossed the passes from Afghanistan for the sixth time to crush the Sikhs. The Afghan invaders assaulted Lahore and Amritsar (the holy city of the Sikhs), massacred thousands of Sikh inhabitants, destroyed their temples and again desecrated their holy places. Later, in all their next invasions the Afghans fought against the Indian Sikhs on every occasion they were less successful and Sikhs became stronger. In the end the Sikhs drove away the Afghan foreign invaders from India all the way back to the Indus.
    In November 1766 the Afghans came to the Punjab for with the avowed object of “crushing the Sikhs”. The Sikhs inflicting a humiliating defeat, and forcing the Afghans to retreat, with five thousand Afghan soldiers killed. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia with an army of about twenty thousand Sikhs roamed in the neighbourhood of the Afghan camp, plundering the invaders. Later the Afghans had their revenge and they killed off two thirds of the Sikh Population but the Sikhs later went to the Shivalik Hills again and became missionaries. Many people from the Shivaliks converted and came back to fight the Afghans.

    [MORE]

    Within two years, the Sikhs rebelled again, and he launched another campaign against them in December 1764. However, he soon had to depart from India and hastened westward to quell an insurrection in Afghanistan. Later the Sikhs under Hari Singh Nalwa Campaigned against the Afghans in the third phase of the Afghan Sikh wars and they took even the Winter capital of the Afghans Peshawar, Decisively defeating Afghans in Battle of Nowshera which led to their occupation of the Peshawar Valley. Following their victory, the Sikhs destroyed the Afghan royal court and the fort of Bala Hissar, Peshawar.

  125. Malla says:
    @KA

    The Indian Hindu Maratha Confederacy and the Indian Sikh Misls (brigades) were growing in power in India. To crown it all, the once-great Mughal Empire had been reduced to a ridiculous city-state under Hindu Maratha control. Certain Nawabs (Lords), the Mughal royalty and Muslim mullahs, especially the eminent Muslim cleric Shah Waliullah were alarmed and shocked by the spectacular rise of the lowly Hindu-Sik Kaffir infidels and the decay of Muslim-ruled kingdoms. For the Muslim rulers and clerics, the horrors of seeing lowly Hindu kaffirs slowly taking control of the country of their own ancestors, Hindustan (India) was too much to bear and it pained their hearts enormously. They had many sleepless nights. Shah Waliullah wrote an impassioned letter to the foreign Afghan King Abdali/ Durrani(who was anyway eyeing India for loot and plunder) to “save Muslims from the infidels”. Abdali obliged them by invading India and slaughtering the stranded Indian Marathas in Panipat. On his way back, some Sikh units harassed his army. Durrani’s campaign of retaliation would be known as “Wadda Ghalughara” (Great Massacre), in which over 20,000 Sikhs were brutally massacred.

    However, the Marathas and Sikhs endured. In the next three decades the Maratha Empire gained control of large parts of India. The Sikhs Misls had also grown much stronger and slowly were becoming an Empire in their own right. The British were also a new ascendant power in India. Tipu Sultan of Mysore in South India had been checked by the British East India Company about this time. Tipu, the Nawabs (Lords) and fundamentalist clerics therefore again sought help from the Afghan Durranis, using the “infidel threat” bogey. The Afghan king, Zaman Shah Durrani, was Abdali’s grandson and he being ambitious for some old time loot and plunder of India, started preparing for the invasion and his probing attacks commenced in 1796. Tipu Sultan had also reached out to his father Hyder Ali’s old time ally, France, now under Napoleon Bonaparte against the British. Napoleon saw the benefits of the alliance and planned to join Tipu but he was defeated in the mediterranean by the British who had support from the Ottomans. The Afghans launced their invasion of India in earnest and marched to Lahore. Only 18 years of age, the future Sikh King Ranjit Singh, the then leader of a single Sikh brigade, was able to harry the invading Afghans. But unlike his grandfather (who faced the friendless and rash Marathas), the real Indian power Zaman Shah would now face was the newly rising British Empire. Since Zaman Shah was massacring Shiite Muslims, the British and Persians made an alliance against him and the Persians attacked the Afghans in their rear. Meanwhile, Zaman Shah’s enemies in Afghanistan took advantage of the Persian threat to ally with his brother, Mahmud Shah. This palace coup led to mass desertions from the Afghan army.

  126. Malla says:
    @KA

    Zaman Shah aborted his Indian invasion in 1800 and returned to Kabul. However, he was deposed and blinded by his own brother Mahmud Shah the next year. The British Imperial forces under Major General David Baird defeated Tipu Sultan in the fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the last battle causing the death of Tipu Sultan in 1799. After the death of Tipu, the British then restored the throne of Mysore to the original and rightful Wodeyar Royal family who had rule Mysore from 1399, Tipu’s father, Hyder Ali who was just a commanders-in-chief, had used cunning to annex power in Mysore anyways. The Maratha Empire were defeated and contained by 1818 by the British Empire — John Malcolm who had earlier made an alliance with the Persians played a major role here too. The loss of state support quickly dampened the zeal of most crackpot fundamentalist Muslim clerics who had a long-time tradition and nasty habit in Indian history of inviting foreign Islamic rulers to invade India to crush the rising Hindus in their own country of ancestors!!!!.

    Afghan King Zaman Shah, who once dreamt of looting and plundering India and massacring the lowly Hindu/Sikh kaffir unbelievers, suffered perhaps the most ignoble fate of all. He was caught in the civil war where his brother blinded him and thus Zaman Shah was forced to take asylum with his old foe Sikh King Ranjit Singh in 1810. Later Afghan King Zaman Shah was forced to beg for asylum with the British, the very power he was once dreamt to destroy. The British granted him asylum and Zaman Shah lived out his remaining days in Ludhiana, India where he died in 1844 a lowly refugee in the very land of India he once sought to invade, plunder, died among Indians, the very people once he had dreamt of massacring, raping and enslaving.
    The British also gave to Wafa Begum, sister in law of Zaman Shah of Afghanistan, asylum with a pension of Rs 18,000 per annum. The ‘great game’ was on and the British were very keen to place a ruler of their choice in Kabul as Dost Mohammad, the Amir of Afghanistan, was getting closer to the Tsarist Russian court (Russian envoy Count Jan Prosper Witkiewicz/Yan Vitkevich). In September 1815, Afghan princess Wafa Begum in conjunction with the British organised the escape of King Shujah Shah from Lahore. He was also given asylum by the British. Afghan princess Wafa Begum then managed to convince the British to invade Afghanistan. Prolonged negotiations ensued with the British Lord Auckland and Sikh King Maharaja Ranjit Singh to launch a two-pronged invasion of Afghanistan. The Army of Indus was to attack via Sindh and the Khalsa Army from Peshawar. Unfortunately, Wafa Begum died in 1838 and was buried alongside the mazar of Ahmad al-Fārūqī al-Sirhindī at Sirhind. Afghan princess Wafa Begum was the main planner for the British invasion of Afghanistan which did take place in 1839 and Shujah Shah once again became the King of Afghanistan. The Duke of Wellington speaking in the House of Lords condemned the invasion, saying that the real difficulties would only begin after the invasion’s success, predicating that Anglo-Indian force would rout the Afghan tribal levy, but then find themselves struggling to hold on given the terrain of the Hindu Kush mountains and Afghanistan had no modern roads, calling the entire operation “stupid” given that Afghanistan was a land of “rocks, sands, deserts, ice and snow”. The British East India Company’s army totaled 200,000 men, making it one of the largest armies in the entire world but only 10,000 soldiers EIC soldiers took part in the Afghan campaign. Sikh King Ranjit Singh of Punjab, was supposed to contribute several divisions from the Dal Khalsa to the Grand Army of the Indus, but reneged on his promises, guessing that the Anglo-Indian force was sufficient to depose his archenemy Dost Mohammad, and he did not wish to occur the expenses of a war with Afghanistan.

    • Replies: @anon
  127. Malla says:
    @KA

    I forgot to add, when Afghan King Zaman Shah Durrani invaded India at the request of Tipoo, the terror filled Hindus and Sikhs began to flee their homes in large numbers and seek safety in far off places to escaping the invading Afghan army. Sikh generals Sahib Singh Bhangi and Ranjit Singh Sukarchakia evacuated Gujrat and Gujjranwala respectively.

  128. anon[785] • Disclaimer says:
    @Malla

    As someone has noted that you know a lot about Indian /subcontinental history and I have noticed that you also happen to know a lot about England’s colonial history .

    Why don’t you write a book and write with supporting bibliography (also that can refute the citations offered by Anon and KA ) which really can open the discerning eyes of the more recent and current scholars from the UK,USA, and Australia !!!!!

    By the way Al Quid can come up with a lot of anecdotes, reasons, and blame game to justify their presence in Congo. Its no difference than the justification offered by Britain for being in Afghanistan .

    No difference. Get that into your head .Al Quiada will corner some supply lines and procure some local helps and fear of some blowback or uprising against their other presences in the continent .

  129. anon[393] • Disclaimer says:
    @Malla

    1 Durrani and Tipoo sounds Maratha joining British same time or like
    India asking Israel ( and geting the resources ) to help it screw
    Kashimiri civilans ! It also smells of the same flavors offered by
    India in its request to USA NATO not to leave Afghanistan . Oh by the
    way while it was building some buildings in Kabul , it was also
    violating airspace to ferry ISIS ,bombs,RAW to Afghnaistan to work on
    its beuatuful decorated designs on Pakistan and on Chinese interests
    and was using Kandahar embassy to kill Chinse in Baloch.

    3 – Did Marahata power lay siege to father of Tipu’s fort and did they
    lay waste to the areas around Southern Karnataka ? Yes ,they did and
    Sultan puhsed them back without British support which the treaty with
    British allies should have porvided (INDIA A History John Keay page
    396. ) I guess people came out of the Hindu religious schools , homes , and the temples to
    welcome the Maratha . By the way Tipu enetred into pacts with Louis
    XVI, Ottoma,and with Burma.

    Marathas joined Cornwallis to destroy Tipu’s kimgdom. I am sure at
    least one person died from war , and one died from imjury, and one
    from stravtion.

    By the way Cornwaliis ‘s victory paved the way for Britush supremacy
    thorughout India , at least that what Keay thinks ( p 400) .

    By the any idea what Maratha did to their beloved Hindus of Bengal ?

    Now , read this from Boston NPR

    https://www.wbur.org/news/2017/07/31/opium-boston-history

    July 31,2017

    Only 10% of the 100 % profit from Opium trade was cornered by Americans ‘Boston Brahmins With that they built modern Boston , powered industrial revolution : rail , steam ships , mills – and built Mass General ( MGH ) .
    What did Britain do with remaining 90% of the trade ?

    I guess they built orphanages and animal shelters and paid the retired Gurkha soldiers .

    • Replies: @Malla
  130. @Malla

    The reality is that the Chinese resisted opium being brought into their country and the Europeans used gunboats to push it.
    Actions speak for themselves your historical books give a false picture.

    • Disagree: Malla
  131. Malla says:
    @anon

    Durrani and Tipoo sounds Maratha joining British same time

    Booohoo. Tipoo would have give India to France in a platter. Now both French and British Empires had their pros and cons, the French mixed more with the Empire peoples but the British were more tolerant of other religions. Either option, they would have helped India develop and modernise from its medieval society far more than Tipoo. Check out the development work done by Lieutenant-General Sir Mark Cubbon, British Commissioner of Mysore State after Tipoos death.

    By the way Cornwaliis ‘s victory paved the way for Britush supremacy
    thorughout India , at least that what Keay thinks

    What about the Maratha Empire? What about the Sikh Empire? Anyways Lord Cornwallis worked hard to improve their condition of the poor. He introduced legislation to protect native weavers, outlawed child slavery in Company territory, and established in 1791 a Sanskrit college for Hindus that is now the Government Sanskrit College in Benares. He also established a mint in Calcutta that, in addition to benefiting the poor by providing a reliable standard currency, was a forerunner of India’s modern currency. Lord Corwallis got the legal frameworks of Muslim and Hindu law translated into English, and promulgated administrative regulations and a new civil and criminal code. This work, introduced in 1793, was known as the Cornwallis Code

    Durrani was as much a foreigner as were the British. And you cunnigly ignore the brutality, loot and massacres of Indians during the Durrani invasions. But I guess the lives of lowly Hindus and Sikh kaffirs do not matter to you.

    Did Marahata power lay siege to father of Tipu’s fort and did they lay waste to the areas around Southern Karnataka ? Yes ,they did

    Was Tipu Sultan a fanatical Islamist who used brutality on Hindus and Christian Indians? Yes he was.
    And why do you forget the Muslim Nizam of Hyderabad who too allied with the British (earlier the French) against Tipoo Sultan and at times with the British against the Marathas? Indeed the Muslim Nizam of Hyderbad was one of the most closest allies of the British till the end. Cherry picking much.

    You also forget that the Maratha Empire and the British Empire fought major wars with each other. You also forget that Maratha Lords like Chandra Saheb took part in the 1857 mutiny. You also forget that when the British took Bengal, they started paying yearly tribute to the Mughal court (like the Nawabs before them) and the Mughal Emperors trusted the British more for regular payment of tribute than they did the Muslim Nawabs of Bengal. You also forget that the British invasion of Afghanistan was originally the brainchild of Afghan princess Wafa Begum, she is the one who convinced Lord Auckland.

    What did Britain do with remaining 90% of the trade ?

    That money was Indian revenues. With that money the EIC/ Raj Government funded madrassas and mosque building. LOL

    Its no difference than the justification offered by Britain for being in Afghanistan .

    The constant Afghan invasions of India, hell all the Islamic invasions of India had far far less justification than these. Get that into your head

    • Replies: @Malla
    , @Anon
  132. Malla says:
    @Malla

    Check out the development work done by Lieutenant-General Sir Mark Cubbon, British Commissioner of Mysore State after Tipoos death.

    Sir Mark Cubbon’s improvements in Mysore state after death of Tipoo Sultan. Today many places in Bangalore are named after him including Cubbon Park.
    Sir Mark Cubbon

    Sir Mark Cubbon was born in India but was of Manx descent (Island of Man). During his tenure, he established a law and order system, introduced judicial and economic reforms and through action in all spheres of governance helped develop the economy of Mysore.

    1] The first priority for Sir Mark Cubbon was law and order. Prior to his actions, murders to settle disputes were extremely common in the towns and villages and Cubbon was disturbed by its apparent acceptance in society. There was no police force until July 1834, when a code or police hukumnama was formulated. This separated the local police from the military force. There was an armed and unarmed section with the armed part having the duty of dealing with prisoners,prevent thefts, watch key positions and towns and prevent sandal trees from being cut. The unarmed peons or khalihaths (literally “empty hands”) were to help in the repair of roads, irrigation tanks and follow other orders. There was no code of law in 1834 and Cubbon drew upon and expanded a system described by his uncle Wilks in 1804. Sir Mark Cubbon created a judicial system that became quite popular but it was causing considerable demands on the system and in 1841 they made vexatious suitors liable to fines.

    2] Sir Mark Cubbon also made administration very strict and based on codes. Revenue officers taking bribes and a court officer holding extreme Wahabi tenets were dismissed. He set up nine departments or kacheris: revenue (dewan),posts (anche),police (kandachar), public works (maramat), military (sowar and barr), medical, public cattle (Amrit Mahal), judiciary and public instruction

    3] Prior to Sir Mark Cubbon, government documents were written in Urdu, Hindi, Persian, Kannada or Marathi and this led to difficulties and corruption. Cubbon restricted the languages to be used to Kannada and Marathi.

    4] As part of financial reforms record keeping of all revenues collected was made stringent and all spending was controlled. Sir Mark Cubbon maintained public accounts using the Kantarayi pagoda (=Kantirava Fanam) as the currency. This system was followed until 1854 and replaced by the East India Company currency in 1855.

    5] Sir Mark Cubbon supported educational institutions run mainly by missionaries and also worked on healthcare, establishing hospitals and homes for lepers.

    • Replies: @Malla
  133. Malla says:
    @Malla

    6] Sir Mark Cubbon issued strict orders against various forms of slavery that were traditionally followed in parts of Mysore. Sir Mark Cubbon made illegal by order all forms of forced labour and torture in civil life. Sir Mark Cubbon improved the prison system and convict labour was utilized in public works. During the 1857 rebellion, Mysore was peaceful owing to benevolent and popular governance of Sir Mark Cubbon

    7] Agriculture had been particularly hit by anarchy, with money lenders and revenue officials causing great trouble to farmers. Sir Mark Cubbon dilligently worked on the improvement of irrigation and to help farmers in everyway possible. These included the Marikanive project in Hiriyur, work on the Nugu, Shimsha (Maddur), Hemavathi (near Sakleshpur), Tunga & Bhadra (near Shimoga) and Kaveri river project near Siddapur. Sir Mark Cubbon founded the agri-horticultural society in 1839 and had the Lalbagh gardens transferred to it. In 1836 Sir Mark Cubbon wrote that “great public benefit may be expected to arise from this institution, not only in regard to objects merely horticultural and the extension of botanical knowledge, but in the promotion of the agricultural interest of the country, by introductions suited to the climate, amongst which may be enumerated varieties of sugar-cane, cotton, and tobacco far superior to any produced in Mysore, and by affording the people the means of obtaining gratuitous instruction in improved modes of cultivation.” Sir Mark Cubbon introduced new crops, varieties of crops, new breeds of livestock and also took an interest in forestry. In 1846 sisoo plantations were tried and in 1855-56 teak was planted in Lakwalli on the banks of the Tunga and Bhadra. He also issued orders against kumri or slash-and-burn agriculture.

    8] Sir Mark Cubbon also worked towards improving the road system of Mysore State with four classes of roads and oversaw the building of bridges at key points such as at Fraserpert, Maddur, Hoskote, Shimoga and Hiriyur. The road system also required key passes through the Western Ghats and for this he opened up passes at Agumbe, Boond, Sampaje and Periambadi.

    9] Sir Mark Cubbon took special interest and financially supported the publication of the first Canarese (local South Indian language of Kannada) translation of the Hindu epic Bhagavad Gita, The Bhagavat-Geeta, Or, Dialogues of Krishna and Arjun in Eighteen Lectures, with Sanskrit, Canarese and English in parallel columns, edited by Rev. John Garrett, published by the Weleyan Mission Press, Bangalore in 1849.
    Sir Mark Cubbon also financially supported the printing and publication of the first Canarese – English dictionary, which was compiled by William Reeve, edited by Daniel Sanderson and published in 1858, by the Wesleyan Mission Press.

  134. Anon[423] • Disclaimer says:
    @Malla

    ? Why did you bring Durrani – Tipo? There is not difference between Durani and Martha . Get that in your thick head .
    Martha fought against British , yea so did Tipo .

    Muslim from Afghanistan invaded . Yes. And Hindus from that rugged broken triangular entity known as India , invaded each other and killed each other and destroyed each other’s temples .

    Tipu was no less communal and sectarian than the contemporaneous local Hindu kings were . He was no less communal than the RSS-BJP’s leaders were and are now .

    Thomas Keay (p399) did not think he was an anti Hindu , bigoted king . He was authoritarian and arrogant possibly suspicious . But you would be also if you were living in a bad feuding neighborhood and foreigner power was eying your kingdom .

    By the way it’s about Opium trade .The British
    financed their empire with opium production and sale .

    Opium money of Sassoon family was bankrolling Chiang Kai-Shek ( The Last King of Shanghai
    The Rival Jewish Dynasties That Helped Create Modern China
    Jonathan Kaufman ) and opium built few new cities in China ostensibly to promote opium , slavery , and make life as luxuriously opulent for the foreigners as possible.
    These foreign traders of opium would even sack local Chinese for abusing same opium and will fight tooth and nail against banning opium .
    Chinese could be seen as different and so they could be inundated with opium was the rationale
    (When Jews were kings ( and opium lords ) in Sanghai
    Forward
    June 2,2020)

  135. anon[344] • Disclaimer says:
    @KA

    Opium trade is intimately and organically related to both the capitalism and the nation building at home and to the colonial fiefdoms building abroad- think of H-K and Singapore . Empire woudnt have even started expanding beyond European borders .
    Opium destroyed the old way of living ,doing ,carrying out business ,and banking .It destroyed the local business doing what Amazon and Wall Mart have done to the mom and pop businesses and what Cargill has done to the Agriculture.

    Global reserve currency status of both Pound and later Dollar are intricately related to the seed wealth generated by opium. Global currency concept was the child of this economic system based on money laundering and opium production. Spanish dollar achieved that status also and again instead of Opium ,it had the monopoly of Gold/Silver . Corruption and bribery became norms in the colonized world and today Nigeria Pakistan India are 3 countries where bribery are the norms.

  136. Che Guava says:

    I tend to recall events, and lies and truths about them.

    In the U.S.A. invasion. they made much use of something called ‘The Northern Alliance’ in English, a buffer of anti-Taliban war-lords, in some places to the north and east of the place.

    Their independence from the Taliban had clearly support from the former U.S.S.R. ‘stans and Russia.

    That the U.S.A. was exploiting it to the hilt is a farce of recent history.

    I would not be surprised if they become separate again. but would not trust Max Parry’s version, still, it is a good topic for somebody who really knows to write about.

    OTOH, who cares abt Afghanistan, except U..S. war crimes, they seem to do very good ’jobs’ on themselves.

  137. @Rev. Spooner

    Malla, people commenting on UNZ don’t copy paste long screeds. Please do reply in your own words.

  138. Alfred says:
    @Bombercommand

    Thank you for your informative reply. I was moving cities so I could not reply sooner.

    I had no idea that synthetic opiates used the natural stuff as raw material.

  139. Alfred says:
    @anon

    Hence, I agree with Roatan Bill. If people want to ingest all these dangerous products and shorten their lives I say let them. Like cigarettes and alcohol I would make all dope legal. No matter what one says or does people are going to get their fix. You might as well let them have it and be done with the trade……….and them !

    I agree in general. But the stuff should be taxed at a reasonable rate.

    Here, in Ukraine, 20 cigarettes cost as little as \$1.38. In consequence, all the sidewalks smell of cigarette smoke. Frequently, I speed up while walking to pass a smoker in front of me.

    Convert the prices below to USD by dividing by 26.70. In the top right are small cigars, 5 for \$3.37 🙂

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