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Editor’s note: Prof. Ricardo Duchesne has written a series of articles on my book Individualism and the Western Liberal Tradition, originally posted at Eurocanadian.ca. These essays are not only informative on the contents of the book, but also contain incisive commentary. Well worth reading!

General Remarks

Kevin MacDonald’s Individualism and the Western Liberal Tradition: Evolutionary Origins, History, and Prospects For the Future (2019) is the first book that employs an evolutionary psychological approach to explain the rise of the West — actually, it is the first book that aims to comprehend the dynamics of the entire history of the West from prehistoric to current times to explain as well the decline of the West, the ways in which the “egalitarian individualism” originated by northwest Europeans in hunting and gathering times planted the seeds of the West’s current decision to destroy its genetic heritage through the importation of masses of immigrants.

Difficult as this task may seem, MacDonald performs it extremely well. In a normal academic world in which criticism of immigration was permissible, MacDonald’s book would have been the subject of immediate debate rather than complete silence. The books currently dominating the “rise of the West” tend to downplay any substantial differences between the West and other civilizations. They talk about “surprising similarities” between the major civilizations as late as the 1750s, and argue that the West diverged only with the spread of the Industrial Revolution. Some books go back in time to the family structure of medieval northwest Europe, or to the enforcement of monogamy by the Catholic Church, or to the rise of modern science in the seventeenth century. While MacDonald makes effective use of earlier arguments on Western uniqueness, including my own argument about the importance of the “aristocratic egalitarianism” of prehistoric Indo-Europeans, he believes that the starting point must be “the genetic history of the West”.

For MacDonald, the most unique trait of Europeans is their individualism, a trait manifested in two different forms, in the aristocratic individualism of Indo-European cultures, and in the hunter-gatherer egalitarian individualism of northwestern Europe. There is a genetic basis for these two forms of individualism. To understand their origins it is necessary to document how these two forms were naturally selected within populations living in particular environmental settings, as well as within the novel cultural-environmental settings they created. The egalitarian form of individualism, in MacDonald’s estimation, was the form that eventually came to dominate European culture. While the aristocratic individualism of Indo-Europeans predominated in ancient Greece and Rome, the trend in European history was for the accentuation of egalitarian individualism, with the Church playing a critical role, and then the Puritan revolution with its “moralistic Utopianism” gradually spreading in the United States.

The Jews did not invent this egalitarian individualism. They interpreted this egalitarianism into a call for a plurality of cultures and races inside the West — the “ethnic dissolution of non-Jews” — while protecting Jewish in-group solidarity and ethnocentrism. They insisted that the egalitarian values of Europeans required them to abolish their exclusive and unequal ethnic-based concept of citizenship for the sake of a truly egalitarian multiracial concept open to the arrival of millions of immigrants.

MacDonald’s emphasis on the “primordial” foundations of the egalitarian individualism of northwest hunter gatherers should not be confused with the standard observation that hunters and gatherers across the world were egalitarian. His focus throughout the book is on kinship systems, whether lines of descent were bilateral or patricentric, whether marriages were exogamous or endogamous, monogamous or polygamous, whether families were nuclear or extended, whether there was individual choice in marriage or arranged marriages, and whether individuals were inclined to establish relations outside their kinship group, with relatively weak ethnocentric tendencies, or whether they were seen as embedded to their kinship group, with relatively strong levels of ethnocentrism. His central argument is that already among northwest European hunter gatherers we can detect relatively weaker collective kinship systems, which gave room for more individual initiative and relationships outside extended families and blood lines, with individuals forming associations outside kinship relationships, as if they were in a state of equality rather than in a state of inequality between ingroups and outgroups.

It is this focus on the individualistic family systems of the West that allows MacDonald to offer a comprehensive explanation of both the rise and the decline of the West. Most scholars writing about the rise of the West today are concerned to answer why the Industrial Revolution occurred in eighteenth century England/Europe. Some emphasize the unique family structure of northwest Europe, but they trace this family structure to the Middle Ages, and none of them go back to the evolution of genetic dispositions among northwest hunter-gatherers to explain the rise of the West. I am not aware of any scholar who focuses so consistently on the weak ethnocentric tendencies of Europeans to explain both the rise and decline of the West. If meeting the scientific criteria for parsimony is valuable to you, then reading MacDonald’s book will be very illuminating indeed.

What follows is the first of nine or ten commentaries I will be writing about Individualism and the Western Liberal Tradition

Three Foundational Genetic Populations of Europe

Chapter One brings up the latest research on population movements into prehistoric Europe to argue that three distinct populations came to constitute the genetic foundations of this continent:

  1. A “primordial population” arriving in Europe about 45,000 years ago, which he calls “Western hunter-gatherers (WHGs),” and which developed a unique culture of egalitarian individualism in the northwest areas of Europe.
  2. Early Farmers arriving from Anatolia about 8000 years ago, bringing agriculture and having the greatest genetic effect on the WHG population in the southern areas of Europe.
  3. Indo-Europeans migrating from the Pontic-Steppes beginning around 4500 years ago, starting with the Yamnaya peoples and later associated with the Corded Ware culture. The greatest genetic impact of the Yamnaya and Corded Ware peoples was on central Europe and some regions in the north, with less impact in the east and south.

This first chapter, the shortest at 25 pages, may be the most tricky for readers to digest; and I fear that, if not read carefully, it may create the impression that MacDonald is arguing that Europe’s population was formed by non-white genetic groups coming from the outside, “mysterious” Yamnaya peoples coming from “the steppes”, as they were described in the mainstream media, and by farmers from the Near East. Because MacDonald presents this argument in a scholarly and judicious manner, using the geographical and ethnic terminology of the literature, and avoiding descriptions about the “white race” until the last pages, it may lead some readers to infer that only the WHGs in the northwest were white and native to the continent.

Up until about page 13, MacDonald describes (correctly) the EFs as a people from “Anatolia”. He describes the I-Es as an “amalgam of Armenian-like Near Eastern people,” Caucasus hunter-gatherers, Siberian North Eurasians (“related to North American Indians”), and Eastern Hunter-Gatherers. I have no dispute with this terminology, except that it may lend itself to manipulation by the mainstream media — into the notion that only one genetic population, WHGs (in the north) was white. This seems to be the impression of Morris V. de Camp, the reviewer of Individualism and the Liberal Tradition at Counter Currents, when he writes that “Western Hunter Gatherers are Europe’s indigenous population” while describing the other two populations using the ethnic-geographical terms MacDonald uses, without adding that these two other populations were also white, or undergoing selection for white skin, brown eyes and tallness.

Readers may underestimate the subsequent points MacDonald develops in the closing pages of this chapter where he states with definiteness that the EFs who entered Europe from Anatolia had “white skin and brown eyes” and that they actually eliminated “the dark-skinned WHGs in the south of Europe” (24). While “proto-Indo-European genes for light skin pigmentation were relatively infrequent…compared to contemporary Ukrainians,” there was selection for white skin and other European physical traits as the I-Es “spread north”. He describes the I-Es from the Pontic Steppes that migrated into Europe 4000 years ago as “white-skinned, brown eyed peoples”.

Making white skin or eye color the defining traits of Western Civilization is not the point. I am in agreement with MacDonald that “individualism” is the best word that defines and allows us to understand the unique trajectory of Europeans. But we must be upfront about the racial identity of Europeans in light of the extremely deceitful way in which the mainstream media and academics are using these recent findings on the population genetics of Europeans to argue that Europe was not the “ancestral home of white people”, but was from the beginning a continent populated by “diverse immigrants” from external regions.

The current promoters of mass immigration want us to believe that Europe’s original populations were already diverse and that whites were not the original population, even though these findings actually demonstrate that evolution, or genetic differentiation along different racial paths, occurred in different regions of the world, including Europe, after homo sapiens migrated out of Africa some 60 or 50 thousand years ago. The media, and the scientists themselves, are deceitfully speaking about the “mysterious” Yamnaya and the Anatolian farmers as evidence that Europe was a “melting pot” of “immigrants” from “diverse” racial groupings arriving from “Eurasia” and the “Near East”. Indeed, since the WHGs themselves were descendants of African migrants, the media has been contriving headlines and arguments about how Europeans were an amalgam of “Africans,” “Near Eastern migrants,” and “mysterious” Yamnaya people who “shared distant kinship with Native Americans”.

Many reacted with disbelief at the African look of the “first European” Dr. Richard Neave created from fragments of fossils of a 35,000 years old skull found in Europe, with Lawrence Auster calling it an “undisguised fraud“. But why should we expect the first generations of homo sapiens in Europe to have evolved “white” traits not long after they entered this continent? The research that is coming out suggests that today’s races are very young (outside Africa), and did not appear until about 12,000 to 10,000 years ago; and it may be that the European race is the youngest race, the last evolutionary stage of homo sapiens.

The WHGs were not initially European but evolved into Europeans thousands of years after they had inhabited the northwest regions of Europe. From a Darwinian perspective, the question that should matter is when and how the inhabitants of Europe became European. According to Sandra Wilde et. al. “strong selection favoring lighter skin, hair, and eye has been operating in European populations over the last 5000 years“. In terms of these physical markers, Europeans are a very young race emerging in the course of centuries from a preceding people that were not European. This evolution, of course, was not merely about the evolution of “white” physical traits, though we should not underestimate the importance of these traits. It stands to reason that there were other key traits, including behavioral traits, which did not emerge at once but through time, which means that it is difficult to state with any definiteness when the inhabitants of Europe became “European”.

This argument is implicit in MacDonald’s observation that new evolutionary pressures in the natural environment of Europe, including in the “novel environments” created by farmers and by Indo-European horse riders, selected for different mutations and eventually different traits, including lighter skin and eyes combined with individualist behaviors. He uses the phrase “selection in situ” to refer to how the environment of Europe selected for new mutations among the EFs and I-Es, or for physical and psychological predispositions, making them more pronounced. Genes for lighter skin and eyes likely become more pronounced as I-Es and EFs spread into the northwest. MacDonald writes, “the larger point is that…selection for lighter eye, hair, and skin pigmentation occurred within Europe after the EFs and I-Es migrations”.

We need to think of Europeans as a race that evolved through thousands of years inside Europe, not always gradually, but at an accelerated pace from about 10,000 years ago, in response both to the unique ecology of Europe and to their own unique cultural activities. The upper Paleolithic peoples who first inhabited Europe, coming from Africa via the Near East, were not Europeans but a people closely descended from the homo sapiens who left Africa some 50,000 (or 60,000 years ago), carrying in their genes only a fraction of the African genetic diversity, which set them on a different evolutionary trajectory as they inhabited and reproduced under very different environmental pressures, relatively isolated from other evolving/isolated races.

Anthropologist Alice Roberts: I look at that face and think “I’m actually looking at the face of [my ancestors] from 40,000 years ago.”
Anthropologist Alice Roberts: I look at that face and think “I’m actually looking at the face of [my ancestors] from 40,000 years ago.”

The genetic history of Europeans has been totally politicized. The media used the African-like reconstructions of the “first Europeans” to put Africans at the center of European ancestry, with the British anthropologist Dr. Alice Roberts gushing over the reconstruction, and going to Africa to trace her ancestral roots, for a BBC documentary called “The Incredible Journey”, which aired in 2009.

The fact that this early Upper Paleolithic inhabitant of Europe was dark, and that lighter skin, eyes, and hair were later evolutionary acquisitions, supports our side of the debate. The cultural Marxist view that human genetic evolution somehow came to a halt after homo sapiens migrated out of Africa, as Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin argued, and as the entire establishment today continues to insist, has been falsified.

Population Movements into Europe after Origins of European Race

We don’t know exactly when other racial traits and differences may have evolved in Europe, such as rate of physical maturation, gestation period, details about body built, blood types, resistance and susceptibility to various diseases, and brain size. But we know that Europeans were a race that evolved certain anatomical and behavioral traits by reason of breeding for thousands of years within a geographical area we call Europe. The I-Es were not a “mysterious” people who came from outside Europe but a people native to this continent. The official geographical definition of the “continent of Europe” is consistent with the cultural history of this continent in comprising “European Russia”, the Pontic Steppes located north of the Black and Caspian seas, present day Ukraine, the original homelands of the I-Es.

Other than the EFs who came from Anatolia, who already had genes for white skin, and then evolved into Europeans in Europe, there is strong genetic evidence showing that once a European race emerged out of the three populations MacDonald highlights, Europe did not experience any major genetic mixing from non-European immigrant races.

We learn this from Jean Manco’s Ancestral Journeys: The Peopling of Europe from the First Venturers to the Vikings (2013). This book draws on recent ability of geneticists to trace ancestry and human migrations by studying two types of DNA, mtDNA, which traces direct chains of descent from mother to maternal grandmother, and Y-DNA, which traces descent from father to paternal grandfather. Using this technique it investigates the “peopling” of Europe from the “first Europeans” all the way to the Viking era. Even as Manco plays up politically correct tropes about multiple “migrants” moving into Europe, most of the “invaders” and “migrants” she mentions came from within Europe’s boundaries, and the ones coming from outside barely had any genetic impact, which is why she can’t help saying there is a “high degree of genetic similarity among Europeans”.

Manco shows that the Angles and Saxons who colonized Britain around AD 400-600 came from the Proto-Germanic Corded Ware and Bell-Beaker cultures that had melded during the Nordic Bronze Age (1730-760 BC) in Jutland, or what is present day Denmark. After connecting the Mycenaeans to the Indo-Europeans, she writes that the Classical Greeks “came to think of themselves as European” (177). She refers to Rome as a “melting pot”, but then adds that those contemporaneous Roman authors, in the first centuries AD, who “railed against the level of immigration” for diluting the Roman character, were “rather short-sighted” since the Italian-born, she estimates, made up about 95% of its inhabitants (199). She writes about the “great wandering” of the Germanic peoples who overran the Roman empire, the Goths, Gepids, Vandals, Burgundians, Angles, Saxons, in favor of her ‘migrationist’ thesis, but not only were these movements strictly intra-European affairs, but, as she observes, “we should not expect much, if any, genetic distinction between these peoples. They were of the same stock” (213).

She writes about the Slavic expansion and movements between 300-700 AD in-through what we today consider to be Slavic countries, yet goes on to emphasize “the striking genetic similarity of Slavic speakers…Slavic populations are more similar across national boundaries than non-Slavic nations.” (224). She describes the movements of Bulgars and Magyars in the seventh century AD, two mobile peoples from the Asian side of the steppes, connected to the Turkic-Mongoloid in race. But she then informs us that, while the Bulgars gave their name to Bulgaria, the Bulgarians of today are genetically similar to Slavic speakers, with genes distinctive for Asian Turkic speakers occurring in only 1.5 percent of Bulgarians. While the Magyars gave their Ugric language to Hungary, “modern Hungarians appear genetically much like their Slavic neighbors”, for even though Magyars imposed their rule upon a Slavic population, subsequent migrations from Slavs diluted the Magyar input to Hungary (235-40).

Europeans evolved in the course of time inside Europe and have remained European through almost their entire history until mass immigration came to be promoted in the last three decades. In our examination of chapters 2 and 3 of MacDonald’s book we will go over his crucial argument that Europeans were selected for egalitarian individualism as well as aristocratic elite social ties “where kinship was deemphasized, and individual talents and accomplishment valued”. How important these two behavioral traits were in determining the unique historical trajectory of Europeans?

(Republished from The Occidental Observer by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: History, Science • Tags: Europeans, Individualism 
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  1. “Individualism” is a nice way of saying “immaturity.”

    The West has never promoted emotional maturity in society–the development of empathy and practice of reciprocity–and that’s why we’re in the pickle we’re in.

  2. Malla says:

    The research that is coming out suggests that today’s races are very young (outside Africa), and did not appear until about 12,000 to 10,000 years ago; and it may be that the European race is the youngest race, the last evolutionary stage of homo sapiens.

    I am not sure if that is true. Cro magnon man found during the UP about 35,000 years ago was the same as modern Europeans in body structure according to Coon. Indeed it might be that African Negroids were formed from a mixture of Cro Magnons who back migrated and Homo Erectus.

    • Agree: Oliver Elkington
    • Replies: @Bardon Kaldian
  3. OK, I’ll repeat it once again: ‘yamnaya’ is not a proper noun. It’s an adjective derived from Russian яма (yama, ‘pit’). The culture in question had been known for decades as the ‘pit grave culture’ (German: Grubengrabkultur) and often wasn’t even capitalized.

    Then, around 1990 someone decided it does not sound scary enough for the “barbarians from the East” narrative:

  4. Malla says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    the development of empathy and practice of reciprocity

    Westerners are more empathetic than many Third Worlders.

    • Agree: Fuerchtegott
  5. Ok, I’m not a scientist, but none of this makes sense. How could the indigenous Euros, with dark skin and blue eyes, mix with brown-eyed (dark hair?) white-skinned peoples from the East, and we end up with blond, blue-eyed, white-skinned Scandinavians? The brown eyes would have cancelled out the blue eyes, and the dark skin would have cancelled out the white skin. There is no way recessive traits can win out without aggressive head chopping. Please, somebody explain this to me.

  6. Ricardo Duchesne should be added as an Unz.com columnist.

  7. While being among the world’s most empathetic people, those from Northwest Europe also seem to be the only ones with anything less than mass corruption in government. While corruption in the West is too high, it is tiny compared to Eastern Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

    All the desirable countries in the world (Northwest Europe, Canada, United States, Australia and New Zealand) were settled by Northwest Europeans. Later arrivals were more often drawn to the idea of using the generous Western social safety net as a hammock.

  8. The genetic history of Europeans has been totally politicized. The media used the African-like reconstructions of the “first Europeans” to put Africans at the center of European ancestry, with the British anthropologist Dr. Alice Roberts gushing over the reconstruction, and going to Africa to trace her ancestral roots, for a BBC documentary called “The Incredible Journey” , which aired in 2009.

    BBC zealots are more interested in pushing SJW dogmas than facts.

    Edward Dutton aka The Jolly Heretic and co-author of the book The Genius Famine: Why we need geniuses, why they’re dying out, and why we must rescue them has highlighted the harm people like Alice Roberts are doing in academia and science.

    • Agree: Red Pill Angel
  9. It is impossible to measure when light skin and hair appeared in Europe but it must be very ancient, genes for blonde hair were found in a skeleton in central Siberia 15 000 years ago so it has a very ancient origin, Kennewick man who was among one of the first native Americans was found to have skeletal features very similar to north west Europeans so there it is likely that white looking people were in evidence across the entire northern hemisphere for as long has those areas have been inhabited. Even the Ainu in Japan often share very similar traits to Europeans, in skin colour they resemble from pictures i have seen Mediterranean Europeans and i heard that some even had light eyes. According to Carleton Coon the very pale skin evolution was more recent as it is mainly confined to those areas surrounding the North and Baltic seas but European looking people have probably been around since our ancestors left Africa, there is no reason why people with European facial features could not have inhabited Africa 200k years ago though their skin would certainly have been as dark as that of the Khoisan or Arabs.

  10. Hegar says:

    the ways in which the “egalitarian individualism” originated by northwest Europeans in hunting and gathering times planted the seeds of the West’s current decision to destroy its genetic heritage

    Complete American B.S. as usual. Romans – you know, in southern Europe – mixed with non-Whites and became dark. As did Spaniards and Portuguese, and long before that the Greeks. Socrates lamented the darkening of the Greeks in his days.

    Germanic peoples have always been the only race conscious Whites. Sweden was the most racialist country before the Reich, with a eugenics program with forced sterilization and racial medical research. It was from Sweden that the Reich got its race science. Sweden was a de facto ally of Germany, selling them crucial copper at a low price, escorting their ships, allowing train transport through Sweden to Finland, and sending volunteers to fight the Soviets together with Finland. The Finnish had been attacked by the Soviets, and that’s why they fought, to take back lost territory.

    Sweden was the ONLY Western country that voluntarily aided Germany. (Italy didn’t. Mussolini wanted a front with Britain against the Reich. Britain refused and cursed Italy for taking Ethiopia.)

    It is because of the Germanic racialism that these countries are targeted above all, with the U.S.-created guilt machine that reaches into people’s homes for many hours every day, and which fills all the sociology departments with anti-White textbooks. In particular, and above all, anti-Germanic textbooks.

    Greece under the Marxist Syriza government eagerly transported Arabs to the northern border and gave them maps showing how to reach Germany, and phone numbers to U.S.-funded organizations to call for legal aid.

    Italy and Spain eagerly feed Arabs and transport them north, to attack the hated Germanics who have given them pretty much everything.

    Italians also invented the “Wez be all equalz in Christ” dogma, which is what is actually behind egalitarianism, unless you want to lie about it.

    In the U.S., Italians and Spanish eagerly vote Left. And of course, the Spanish and Portuguese mixed with non-Whites all over Latin America. Kind of like the Russians with Mongoloid peoples.

    But keep pretending, Richardo Duchesne.

    • Replies: @Erzberger
  11. @Godfree Roberts

    Spot on observation. Whites have a single religion, it’s called Money, which they worship through it’s patron saint who they pompously call “Self-Interest” (thievery). Now after 500 years of worship, Western societies are starting to feel the final consequences of this psychopathic endeavor and as is very typical of the white Western trash, instead of taking responsibility for what they did wrong, like an East Asian society would do, they start with these infantile conspiracy theories about Jews, communists, immigrants, blacks, etc. Everybody is guilty, only the white trash is the victim. I hope they know how to swim because their Titanic is going down fast!

    • Disagree: hfel
    • Replies: @Malla
    , @hfel
  12. @Godfree Roberts

    Whites have vastly more empathy then non-whites sport. If ALL Jews left white countries we wouldn’t be in this pickle.

  13. antibeast says:

    Other than the EFs who came from Anatolia, who already had genes for white skin, and then evolved into Europeans in Europe, there is strong genetic evidence showing that once a European race emerged out of the three populations MacDonald highlights, Europe did not experience any major genetic mixing from non-European immigrant races.

    Really? Nobody — immigrants, traders, slaves, soldiers — from the Mediterranean World settled in Greece and Rome during ‘antiquity’? What about the Moors, Turks, Mongols during the Medieval Age? None of them conquered Europe? So the Moorish Empire didn’t colonize the Iberian Peninsula for 700 years? No Ottoman Empire? No Mongolian Empire?

    She refers to Rome as a “melting pot”, but then adds that those contemporaneous Roman authors, in the first centuries AD, who “railed against the level of immigration” for diluting the Roman character, were “rather short-sighted” since the Italian-born, she estimates, made up about 95% of its inhabitants.

    Estimates? Here’s a genetic study of the human populations of Rome spanning a period of 12,000 years:

    https://www.genengnews.com/news/dna-analysis-suggests-ancient-rome-represented-a-genetic-crossroads-of-europe-and-the-mediterranean/

    An analysis of some of the earliest samples is in basic agreement with what has been found around Europe—and demonstrating an influx of farmers primarily descended from early agriculturalists from Turkey and Iran around 8,000 years ago, followed by a shift toward ancestry from the Ukrainian steppe somewhere between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago. “The first major ancestry shift in the time series occurred between 7,000 and 6,000 BCE, coinciding with the transition to farming and introduction of domesticates including wheat, barley, pulses, sheep, and cattle into Italy,” the scientists noted. “The second major ancestry shift occurred in the Bronze Age, between ~2,900 and 900 BCE … During this period, major technological developments increased the mobility of populations.” It was a period during which people had developed overland transport methods, including chariots and wagons, while advances in sailing technologies also “facilitated easier and more frequent navigation across the Mediterranean.” By the founding of Rome, traditionally dated to 753 BCE, the city’s population had grown in diversity and resembled modern European and Mediterranean peoples.

    Rome began as a humble city-state, the authors suggested. “Although there is no direct historical or genetic information about the origins of Rome, archaeological evidence suggests that in the early Iron Age, it was a small city-state, among many culturally and politically similar Etruscan and Latin neighbors. However, within 800 years Rome had gained control over an empire that extended to the west as far as Britain, south into North Africa, and east into Syria, Jordan, and Iraq. Archaeological evidence and contemporary accounts indicate that as the empire expanded there were connections between Rome and other areas in its domain, through trade, military campaigns, slavery, and transport routes. While this was borne out by the genetic evidence, the results also indicated that there was a huge shift in the ancestry of people who lived in Rome, but that this ancestry was primarily from the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East.

    The next few centuries appear somewhat turbulent. The empire split in two, diseases ravaged the Roman population, and the city was invaded more than once. Those events left their mark on the city’s residents, who shifted towards a western European ancestry. Later, the rise and reign of the Holy Roman Empire brought an influx of central and northern European ancestry. “During the Imperial period … the most prominent trend is an ancestry shift toward the eastern Mediterranean and with very few individuals of primarily western European ancestry,” the team noted. “One possible explanation for the predominance of gene flow from the east into Rome is the higher population density in the eastern Mediterranean than the west.”

    The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were part of the Mediterranean World, as depicted in the map below:


    And so were the ancient Romans, as shown in the map of the Roman Empire below:


    Europe is named after Europa, the daughter of a Phoenician King who was abducted by Zeus from Phoenicia to the island of Crete. The Phoenicians were trading with the Greeks, Romans, Etruscans and Iberians who were part of the Mediterranean World, not the “Western World” nor “Europe” which didn’t exist during that period of ‘antiquity’. The idea that Europe wasn’t settled or colonized by non-Europeans is a figment of imagination, invented by Nordic supremacists who can’t stand the idea that Europe is an amalgam of different ‘races’, cultures, languages and religions.

    • Replies: @Alba -
  14. @Red Pill Angel

    ‘Recessive trait’ hair and eye color is fake news. It’s routine for brown-haired European parents to have blond-haired kids.

  15. @Malla

    Definitely. Caucasoids are ca. 40,000 years old (according to forensic anthropology); Negroids perhaps 6- 10,000. Sub-Saharan Africans are the youngest race, if we are to follow forensic anthropology.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asselar_man

    I am not going into details like varieties of skin color or eyes, just a skeleton. Also, I suppose that races are even older- probably 50,000-100,000 years old; just, we haven’t excavated enough skeletons.

    • Agree: Malla
  16. Realist says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    …and that’s why we’re in the pickle we’re in.

    We’re in??? You self hating asshole you live in Thailand.

    You want people’s lives to be regimented…to your liking.

    • Replies: @Godfree Roberts
    , @Alden
  17. Alba - says:
    @antibeast

    Europe is genetically 95% identical of what it was 4500 years ago when aryan became the last part of the puzzle giving europe the language, gods, myths institutions and culture , they are the fathers of europe , the rest were nothing more than invaders of slaves that didnt change the average genetic profile of the continent .

    Europe form its owm ethno genetic cluster like middle eastener and north african form their own there is no mediterranean genetic cluster .

    Is not a nordicist phantasy but an ARYAN REALITY In the iliad and odyssey the true bible of our people is perfectly represented the process of indo european takeover and formation of the ancien graeco roman world so that the mayority of the gods and protagonist are blonde or redhead shouldnt surprise anybody

    Fuck look at this reconstruction using the remaining pigment of a roman emperor statue

    https://ibb.co/xjybyKD

    And then look to the tocharian monks living in china at the same time .

    https://ibb.co/3kYpSVw

    They are nearly identival like anybody could expect knowing how both belong to the same aryan family that spread around the world in the bronze and iron age

    • Replies: @Malla
    , @Malla
    , @Malla
    , @antibeast
  18. 22pp22 says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    Many of these caring, sharing societies Godfree extols are wildly corrupt. Nobody does anything without a pay-off.

  19. Nobody does anything without a pay-off? Nobody in the Western bloc of fake Athenian democracies, perhaps.

    Which explains why, by this time next year, every Chinese in the bottom 50% income bracket will own a home and have an income, plenty of food and clothes, safe streets, health insurance, a pension, and old age care.

    Chinese mothers and infants will be less likely to die in childbirth, their children will graduate from high school three years ahead of ours and live longer, healthier lives, too.

    Just 12 months from now, there are more drug addicts, suicides and executions, more homeless, poor, hungry and imprisoned people in America than in China.

    And 400,000,000 urban Chinese will have more net worth and disposable income than the average American.

  20. @Realist

    It’s not just me who thinks so:

    The Collapse of the United States Is No Longer Avoidable
    PAUL CRAIG ROBERTS • JUNE 30, 2020 • 500 WORDS

    Within the last few days two commentators I respect—The Saker and Dmitry Orlov—have written that the United States is now undergoing systemic collapse.

    My view, reflected in my articles published over the years, is that the United States ceased to exist decades ago. It is only the foundational strength of the country put in place by great men, such as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and James Madison, that has kept the image alive of a functioning country. The house that sat on the foundation long ago washed away in the flood of anti-American propaganda from the self-hating white liberal elites who dominate education, media, and government. Today the statues of our great founders are themselves pulled down and desecrated by the ignorant products of American education.

    https://www.unz.com/proberts/the-collapse-of-the-united-states-is-no-longer-avoidable/

    • Replies: @Realist
  21. Tusk says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    Mr Expat is coward who fled his native country and now shills for China. Good riddance.

    • Agree: Alden
    • Troll: Godfree Roberts
  22. Malla says:
    @Anti-White

    Spot on observation. Whites have a single religion, it’s called Money, which they worship through it’s patron saint who they pompously call “Self-Interest” (thievery).

    LOL this has to be the dumbest B.S. I have ever read in my life. if you want to understand worship of money meet our marwari and Gujrati traders, they would trade a loser’s ass like you to a Pathan boy lover. They would sell your mother too in the deal.

    • Agree: hfel
    • Replies: @Anti-White
    , @Anti-White
  23. Malla says:
    @Alba -

    And then look to the tocharian monks living in china at the same time .

    The Scythians and Alani of Central Asia were Nordic looking folk. The Tocharians were a related people and many of them eventually came and settled in India. They were called Tusharas in ancient Sanskrit. Tushar is a common name in India.

  24. Malla says:
    @Alba -

    Fuck look at this reconstruction using the remaining pigment of a roman emperor statue

    https://ibb.co/xjybyKD

    https://www.theapricity.com/earlson/history/emperors.htm
    Pigmentation of the Early Roman Emperors

    Of the 18 Emperors from Augustus to Commodus: 9 had blond or red hair; 5 had grey or white hair; 3 had no recorded hair colour, and just 1 (Hadrian), was referred to as dark-haired.

    Of the 18 Emperors from Augustus to Commodus: 9 had blue or grey eyes; 2 had “wine-coloured eyes” (whatever that may mean), and 7 had no recorded eye colour.

    “Although several of the Emperors were white/grey-haired old men, we still possess information which depicts a few of them as light-eyed. If records had been made during their youth, it is likely that they would have been called fair-haired as well. Of the 9 Emperors who had fair hair, 5 are listed as also having light eyes, whilst the remaining 4 have no noted eye colour. Remarkably, only Hadrian is called dark-haired, but even then, he was still described as being light-eyed. Strangely enough, for whatever reason, we possess absolutely no description at all of the “philosopher Emperor” Marcus Aurelius.”

    Also
    https://www.thoughtco.com/alexander-the-greats-hair-color-116833
    What Color Was Alexander the Great’s Hair?
    Aelian on Alexander the Great’s Hair Color
    Aelian was a Roman rhetoric teacher of the second to third century A.D. who wrote in Greek. His most important writings were De Natura Animalium (Περὶ Ζῴων Ἰδιότητος) and Varia Historia (Ποικίλη Ἱστορία). It is in the latter (Book XII, Chapter XIV) that he refers to Alexander the Great’s hair color and says it was yellow, according to this translation:

    “They say that the most amiable and beautiful amongst the Greeks was Alcibiades; amongst the Romans, Scipio. It is reported also that Demetrius Poliorcetes contended in Beauty. They affirm likewise that Alexander Son of Philip was of a neglectful handsomness: For his Hair curled naturally, and was yellow; yet they say there was something stern in his countenance.”

    Pseudo-Callisthenes on Alexander the Great’s Appearance
    The story of Alexander is full of heroic elements making it fit for embellishment. The Alexander Romance is a term referring to collections of stories about the romantic hero. A court historian, Callisthenes (c. 360-328 B.C.) wrote about Alexander, but some of the legendary material originally attributed to him is considered spurious, so it is now labeled Pseudo-Callisthenes.

    Pseudo-Callisthenes labels Alexander’s hair “lion-colored,” or as we might say, “tawny.”

    “For he had the hair of a lion and one eye was blue; the right one was heavy lidded and black, and the left one was blue; and his teeth were sharp as fangs, and he looked upon a defensive attack the same as a lion would.”

    Plutarch on Alexander the Great’s Appearance
    In Plutarch’s Life of Alexander (Section 4) he writes that Alexander was fair “passing into ruddiness” but doesn’t say specifically that he had red hair.

    “Apelles…in painting him as wielder of the thunder-bolt, did not reproduce his complexion, but made it too dark and swarthy. Whereas he was of a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his face.”

    • Replies: @Alden
    , @Alba--
  25. Alden says:
    @Red Pill Angel

    Right you are. 50,000 years is not long enough to evolve from negroes to Whites. We’ve had black and White mixing for 400 years in America and it’s completely obvious that negro genes predominate.

    It takes 2 blonde parents to produce a truly blond child whose hair doesn’t turn brown by 15 or so

    The Out of Africa research was seriously flawed to produce a forgone conclusion by a feminazi researcher at Cal Berkeley. The major flaw she used only American, not African black subjects And all American blacks have some White and Indian ancestry.

    The bones of cheddar man in England are 40,000 years old. DNA testing revealed a direct descendant living near the site of the bones.

    And who knows who was living in what’s now sub Saharan Africa 50,000 years ago. I understand the Bantu, the modern negro didn’t exist 50,000 years ago. It would be the yellow skinned high cheekbone narrow eyes San people. At least that’s what scientists claim.

    • Agree: Red Pill Angel
    • Replies: @Malla
  26. Alden says:
    @Malla

    There’s the mosaic of Alexander light brown hair light brown eyes.

    • Replies: @Malla
  27. Alden says:
    @Realist

    Godfree works for the Chinese government but they won’t even let him live in China. His oh so progressive parents named him Godfree because atheism was considered daring and cool back in the day.

    His other job is arranging sex tours for elderly western pedophiles

    • LOL: Realist
  28. Realist says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    You did not address my comment We’re in??? You self hating asshole you live in Thailand.. You’re not an American any more.

    Using PCR to bolster your position is laughable…I see he is pouting again and not allowing comments…he wants the final word. How many times is this?

    Individualism is not immaturity. It is what made this country great…through innovation. What ruined this country was White people not defending and supporting their race.

    • Replies: @Godfree Roberts
  29. @Red Pill Angel

    It was those “people from the east” (the Ancient North Eurasians) who brought the allele linked to blond hair in Europeans. It is also one of several alleles related to blue eye color, so describing these people as dark eyed is disingenuous. Many of them probably had light eyes.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_North_Eurasian#Evolution_of_blond_hair

    The derived allele of the KITLG SNP rs12821256 is associated with, and likely causal for, blond hair in Europeans.[16] The earliest known individual with this allele is the Siberian ANE individual Afontova Gora 3, which is dated to 16130-15749 BCE.[7] This allele is also present in one hunter-gatherer from each of Samara, Motala and Ukraine (I0124, I0014 and I1763), as well as several later individuals with Steppe ancestry. Since the allele is found in populations with EHG but not Western Hunter-Gatherer ancestry, it suggests that its origin is in the Ancient North Eurasian population.

    Geneticist David Reich said that the KITLG gene for blond hair entered continental Europe in a massive population migration from the Eurasian steppe, by a people who had Ancient North Eurasian ancestry.[17]

    Remember that, from a human genetics perspective; what we call “Europe” today extended well beyond the Urals 10,000 years ago. Ancient North Eurasians were “indigenous Europeans”.

    And by the way, skin and hair color don’t operate on recessive/dominant inheritance.

  30. Alba-- says:
    @Malla

    Thanks for the info

  31. Malla says:
    @Alden

    And is that Mosaic accurate?

    • Replies: @Malla
  32. Malla says:
    @Malla

    The Mosaic is from 100 BC but it is believed to have been copied from a Greek original from the 3rd-century BC. I do not know if it was accurate in its copy.
    However they have found a bust of Alexander from 200 BC.

    Which looks nothing like Alexander of that Mosaic in facial features. We cannot know hair and eye colour from these statues.

    Also there is a Marble statue of him in Istanbul, Turkey right now from the Second-century BC.

    which does not look like Alexander of the mosaic as far as facial features are concerned.

    Who knows which depiction is accurate.

  33. @Malla

    Right, because we all know that a disgusting Curry Nigger like you is the most advisable person to criticize any other ethnic group. Maybe you should take your own advice and try to help your filthy “country” to elevate it’s GDP per capita to the level of let’s say… Botswana, you know, the “Real Niggers”. After that, maybe your trashy and cowardly brown ilk can get some white pussy just like the “Real Niggers” do, instead of just “sporting” this stinky shitskin of yours. I don’t know much about your mother because I seldom visit the zoo and I would never pay a dime just to take a picture of an unwashed monkey like her. If you want, after helping your shithole reach “Botswanan levels” of wealth maybe you could introduce the benefits of soap bars to your kind.

    • Replies: @Malla
  34. @JohnPlywood

    “And by the way, skin and hair color don’t operate on recessive/dominant inheritance.”

    There are several genes, right, that play into skin, hair, and eyes. I get that. But you are saying they are not recessive/dominant at all? At least some must be. No child of a black African and a blond European will ever be blond or black; that tells me that black skin has several genes, and those for light brown must be dominant, because every child of European/African parents will have light brown skin. Always. They will never ever have blue eyes or blond hair if the darker parent is pure African. Likewise, no child of African/European parents can have really black skin, thus black skin requires some recessive genes and two parents with those genes. Am I incorrect? My source is Carlton Coons if I remember correctly.

  35. Anti-White says: • Website
    @Malla

    Here is your “land” Curry Nigger, if this open sewer becomes a “superpower” anytime in this millennium, I will change my name to Donald J Trump.

    • Replies: @Malla
    , @Malla
  36. @Realist

    We’re not in a pickle?

    What a relief!

    For a moment I was afraid that, by December of this year, every Chinese in the bottom 50% income bracket would own a home and have an income, plenty of food and clothes, safe streets, health insurance, a pension, and old age care. That Chinese mothers and infants will be less likely to die in childbirth than ours, their children will graduate from high school three years ahead of ours and live longer, healthier lives, and that there will be more drug addicts, suicides and executions, more homeless, poor, hungry and imprisoned people in America than in China. I guess that will all evaporate somehow.

    Just so I can relax completely, reassure me that, in every application from A2A to ICBMs, all Chinese missiles don’t outrange and out-punch ours. Then I’ll relax completely and return to your America of 1970.

    • Replies: @Realist
  37. Malla says:
    @Anti-White

    After that, maybe your trashy and cowardly brown ilk can get some white pussy just like the “Real Niggers” do, instead of just “sporting” this stinky shitskin of yours.

    Oy Vey, anti-White has become anti-Brown. Your heart is full of hatred which mutates from race to race. Not surprising.

    because I seldom visit the zoo

    Of course, you are the exhibit. Zoo to zoo you go.

    I would never pay a dime just to take a picture of an unwashed monkey like her.

    Do not project your family tendencies on others. The World does not always work like that.

    Anyways what I wrote about our mercantile skills (selling your smelly ass), still holds true.

  38. Malla says:
    @Anti-White

    Here is your “land” Curry Nigger

    Yet my “curry nigger” brothers went to post Apartheid South Africa and took over the entire economy, Jewish style. Heard about the Gupta brothers? LOL

    becomes a “superpower” anytime in this millennium

    I do not see us becoming a superpower and I do not want India to be a superpower. USA became a superpower and is getting used around like a weapon by the Jew elites. I do not want India to share the same fate. Indian soliders going to foreign lands and dying for Jew bankers. But those cunning Zios are making their inroads into my country too, exploiting and blood suckin. An Israeli company close to the IDF is responsible for the security of the Indian parliament.

  39. Malla says:
    @Alden

    50,000 years is not long enough to evolve from negroes to Whites

    Whites/ Caucasoids never evolved out of African Negoid black race. African Negroids have DNA of earlier humanoids which Caucasoids and Mongoloids do not have. The ancestors of the African blacks were a parallel group living in Africa having nothing to do with the people who left Africa. The earliest African Negoid skulls are at most 10000 – 12000 years old. There are older skulls of humans in Africa which resemble no race today. And there are older Caucasoid skulls found in Africa (Hofmeyr Skull found in SOUTH AFRICA) which have nothing to do with Bantu or Khoi San and are older than the earliest recorded Bantu or Khoi San skulls.

  40. Malla says:
    @Anti-White

    BTW if Whites disappear from America, that (slum) is what America will look like in the future. LOL.

  41. Malla says:
    @Alba -

    Europe form its owm ethno genetic cluster like middle eastener and north african form their own there is no mediterranean genetic cluster .

    Very true, This is the Global PCA genetic map.

    https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2ARnUeK-Y8WejZ1c3ZZZUE4YWs/view

    Europeans form their own genetic cluster and are one “end” of humanity, the other end being North East Asians and third end being African blacks. There is one more end of Oceanians like Papuans.
    All other humans fall in between these ends. Middle Easterners fall in between Europeans and black Africans. We Indians/ South Asians fall in between Europeans and Papuans/ Abos/ Melanesians (not surprising).
    Black Africans are very distant from the rest of humanity.

  42. Realist says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    We’re not in a pickle?

    What a relief!

    I did not say that. You are including yourself in being part of the US when you say We’re in.

    You simpleton asshole…you are not part of the US you moved to Thailand.

    Just so I can relax completely, reassure me that, in every application from A2A to ICBMs, all Chinese missiles don’t outrange and out-punch ours. Then I’ll relax completely and return to your America of 1970

    There you go again using the term ours to include yourself as an American…you are not an American…you are a lefty, self hating asshole. Do not return here your kind is not wanted by intelligent Americans.

    • Troll: Godfree Roberts, Jazman
  43. antibeast says:
    @Alba -

    Europe is genetically 95% identical of what it was 4500 years ago when Aryan became the last part of the puzzle giving europe the language, gods, myths institutions and culture , they are the fathers of europe , the rest were nothing more than invaders of slaves that didn’t change the average genetic profile of the continent.

    Yes, I agree with you that Indo-Europeans settled in Europe and interbred with the original inhabitants there around 4,500 years ago. But those Indo-Europeans came from the Pontic Steppes in Eurasia and so did the Indo-Aryans who settled in India and the Indo-Iranians who settled in Iran whose ancestors were called “Aryans”. That’s why Iran means “Land of the Aryans” in Persian. Asian languages such as Sanskrit, Tocharian and Persian are related to European languages such as German, Greek and Latin because they comprise the Indo-European family of languages:

    Europeans living in Southern Europe developed cultural, economic and political ties with North Africans or Near Easterners because they were part of the same Mediterranean World. The Greeks and Phoenicians had established trading colonies on both sides of the Mediterranean while the Romans politically unified the same. Greek culture and Hellenistic Civilization spread eastward to the whole of West and Central Asia after Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Persian Empire which saw the establishment of numerous Hellenistic kingdoms and empires after his death such as the Seleucid Empire, Greco-Bactria Kingdom and Indo-Greek Kingdom. Greek culture even influenced Buddhist art as reflected in Buddhist sculpture depicting the Buddha in human form:

    The Maurya Empire in India spread Buddhism to Central Asia and thence to China from the Indo-European Buddhist Kingdom of the Tocharians along the Silk Road after the Han Dynasty annexed the Tarim Basin in today’s Xinjiang Region.

    The fact that European DNA show a high degree of genetic similarity today does not imply that no racial intermixing occurred in the past as it would take only a few generations to breed out the non-European genes. That can be explained by historical events such as the spread of Christianity in Europe and the rise of Islam which separated Christian Europe from the rest of the Mediterranean World which turned Islamic. This “Christian vs Muslim” dichotomy shapes Western historiography today regarding the history of Europe in the Mediterranean.

    • Replies: @alba..
  44. Erzberger says:
    @Hegar

    “ Germanic peoples have always been the only race conscious Whites. Sweden was the most racialist country before the Reich, with a eugenics program with forced sterilization and racial medical research. It was from Sweden that the Reich got its race science. ”

    Rubbish. Whiteness was and is an Anglo obsession. Race science and eugenics in the Reich and Sweden were part of a much wider movement. Both Sweden and Germany were latecomers compared to the UK and US

  45. hfel says:
    @Anti-White

    I think you are conflating Western outbreeding with money worship as such. Being the most outbred people in the world, Euros are less concerned with family and kin loyalties, but at the same time slightly more oriented towards the commonwealth of everyone (here you also get Western universalist humanitarianism, UN, etc). Hence, their appearance as a homo economicus concerned mostly with self-interest which yet at the same time never yields the kind of cowboy capitalism of Asia, where unscrupulous trading and constant deception are commonplace. In contrast, Asia, being more inbred and hence family-oriented, does value explicit dedication to family and — if you will — traditional values more, but at the same time they are less concerned with the commonwealth and those outside their immediate ingroup and thus happy to sell your mother if it helps them and their family. The paradox explained. 🙂

  46. antibeast says:
    @JohnPlywood

    Remember that, from a human genetics perspective; what we call “Europe” today extended well beyond the Urals 10,000 years ago. Ancient North Eurasians were “indigenous Europeans”.

    Sorry but you’re wrong.

    There are two contenting hypotheses regarding the migrations of humans into Western Europe: 1). Anatolian farmers and 2). Steppe pastoralists. These two waves of human migrants then merged with the paleolithic population of “hunter-gatherers” who can be considered the “indigenous” Europeans.

    Those Indo-Europeans from the Pontic Steppe in Eurasia are not “indigenous” Europeans because they were latecomers to Western Europe which was settled four to five thousand years earlier by Anatolian farmers who had encountered the indigenous Europeans of paleolithic hunter-gatherers. This Indo-European Steppe hypothesis effectively debunks the so-called “Nordicist” theory which posits the Nordic origin and migration theory of the Indo-European family of European AND Asian languages.

    • Replies: @Malla
  47. Malla says:
    @antibeast

    Many Steppe pastoralists like the Scythians and Alani were Nords.

    • Replies: @antibeast
  48. antibeast says:
    @JohnPlywood

    Remember that, from a human genetics perspective; what we call “Europe” today extended well beyond the Urals 10,000 years ago. Ancient North Eurasians were “indigenous Europeans”.

    The DNA of Ancient North Eurasians (ANEs) was found in a boy who died in Siberia some 24,000 years ago. One group of ANEs migrated eastward, interbred with Ancient East Asians and then crossed into the Americas to become “indigenous Americans”.

    What is called Europe today didn’t exist 5,000 years ago until settled by Indo-Europeans who are a Eurasian admixture with half of its DNA from the ANEs who originated in Asia (Siberia is in Asia) while the other half originated in Europe. These migrants displaced the Western Hunter Gatherers (WHG) who are the indigenous Europeans in Northern Europe while interbreeding with the Early European Farmers (EFF) in Southern Europe.

    Thus, modern Europeans and indigenous Americans share the same DNA of the ANE indicating common Asian ancestry in Siberia. In other words, the so-called “whites” share the same Asian DNA from the ANEs as so-called “native Americans” in the USA!!!

  49. antibeast says:
    @Malla

    Many Steppe pastoralists like the Scythians and Alani were Nords.

    Both the Scythians and Alans are tall and blond and white as they are East-Iranian-speaking Eurasian warrior-pastoralists, descended from East Asian migrants from North Siberia who moved West to the Pontic-Caspian Steppe and interbred with the Indo-Iranians from Central Asia. According to this study, they carry both Indo-European genes (from Indo-Iranians) as well as East Asian genes (from North Siberians):

    https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14615

    Our genomic analyses reveal that western and eastern steppe inhabitants possess east Eurasian ancestry to varying degrees. In our ADMIXTURE analyses we find an East Asian ancestry component at K=15 in all Iron Age samples that has not been detected in preceding Bronze Age populations in either western or eastern parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Another ancestral component that is maximized in the north Siberian Nganasan population becomes visible from the 2nd millennium BCE onwards in the eastern steppe (Okunevo, Karasuk, Mezhovskaya). This component appears later in all Iron Age populations but with significantly higher levels in the eastern steppe zone than in the West. These findings are consistent with the appearance of east Eurasian mitochondrial lineages in the western Scythians during the Iron Age, and imply gene-flow or migration over the Eurasian Steppe belt carrying East Asian/North Siberian ancestry from the East to the West as far as the Don-Volga region in southern Russia. In general, gene-flow between eastern and western Eurasia seems to have been more intense during the Iron Age than in modern times, which is congruent with the view of the Iron Age populations of the Eurasian Steppe being highly mobile semi-nomadic horse-riding groups.

    The Alans have an interesting history as they migrated westwards towards West Asia and Southern Europe, often serving as mercenaries:

    https://iranicaonline.org/articles/alans-an-ancient-iranian-tribe-of-the-northern-scythian-saka-sarmatian-massagete-group-known-to-classical-writers-from

    The history of the Alans can be divided into three periods: (1) from the beginning of the Christian era to the great migration of peoples; (2) from that period to the Mongol invasion; (3) subsequent to the Mongol invasion. During the first period, the Alans appear as a nomadic, warlike, pastoral people who were professional warriors and took service, at various times, with the Romans, Parthians, and Sasanians. Their cavalry was particularly renowned. They participated in Mithridates’ wars with Rome (chronicled by Lucan), as well as in Roman campaigns in Armenia, Media, and Parthia in the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D.

    The invasion of the Huns split the Alans into two parts, the European and the Caucasian. Some of the European Alans were drawn into the migration of peoples from eastern into western Europe. With the Germanic tribes of Visigoths and Vandals they passed into Gaul and Spain, some even reaching North Africa. The Alans fought on the side of the Romans in the battle of the Catalaunian Fields (A.D. 451), when Aetius defeated Attila, chief of the Huns. In 461 and 464 they made incursions into Italy. After Attila’s death they struggled, together with the Germanic tribes, to free themselves from Hun domination. Large Alan hordes settled along the middle course of the Loire in Gaul under King Sangiban and on the lower Danube with King Candac (the historian Jordanes sprang from the latter group). Another settlement is indicated by the name of the Spanish province Catalonia, which is but a slight deformation of Goth-Alania, “province of the Goths and Alans.” The French proper name “Alain” and English “Alan” are an inheritance from the tribe. The Alans also left an imprint on Celtic folk-poetry, e.g., the cycle of legends concerning King Arthur and his knights of the Round Table.

    Those Alans who remained in the Pontic Steppe later became the Ossetians of Russia and Georgia today.

    • Replies: @Malla
  50. Malla says:
    @antibeast

    Thanks for this info. Central Asia is very interesting, a channel of gene flow in between the populated regions of Europe, East Asia and Middle East.
    For example take this
    The Uyghurs are hybrids of East Asians and Northern Europeans.

    Uyghurs are hybrids
    https://www.discovermagazine.com/the-sciences/uyghurs-are-hybrids

    • Replies: @antibeast
  51. antibeast says:
    @Malla

    Thanks for this info. Central Asia is very interesting, a channel of gene flow in between the populated regions of Europe, East Asia and Middle East.

    The Uyghurs are hybrids of East Asians and Northern Europeans.

    The Eurasian Steppe stretches from East Asia near Mongolia all the way to Southeastern Europe near Ukraine. After the last Ice Age, human migrations became possible along this “highway” of grasslands where nomadic and warrior pastoralists moved westward, stopping along the way to either conquer or settle with native populations in North Asia, Central Asia, West Asia and Southeastern Europe, germinating new ethnic groups in the process. With few exceptions such as the eastward migrations of Indo-Iranians from the Pontic Steppe to Central Asia and the southward migrations of Indo-Aryans from Central Asia into North India, human migrations along the Eurasian Steppe for the last 10,000 years have been westward, from East Eurasia to West Eurasia.

    That’s how the Uyghurs — a Turkic tribe from East Asia — moved into Central Asia where they settled and interbred with Indo-Iranians living there, as seen in the map of Turkic migrations below:

  52. alba.. says:
    @antibeast

    pure indo europeans only conquered europe ,from what is now ukraine they moved to poland to give rise to corded ware (genetically identical to north europeans today) and from there they spread around the world killing the original vosolovo culture(eastern hunter gatherer ) and all the descendatns of yamnaya like catacoumb culture thats why there is neholitic european farmer ancestry in india today

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