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The Derek Chauvin Trial - Coverage to Eleventh Day
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Day Eleven

Court began with discussions outside the presence of the jury. Derek Chauvin’s lawyer, Eric Nelson, objecting to the prosecution’s plan to call another use-of-force expert. He said it would only be repetition of what other witnesses have said. Earlier, Judge Peter Cahill cautioned prosecutors about “cumulative” witnesses, and said he would not let them bring every cop in and ask, “What would you do differently?” The judge said this again, but decided to allow the witness, though with limits on the questions.

There was also a discussion about Morries Hall’s testimony. Mr. Hall was in the passenger seat of George Floyd’s car when Floyd was arrested. Those of you who saw the video may remember that he was dressed in a red hat and red pants. Mr. Hall’s lawyer said that Mr. Hall wanted to take the fifth because testifying could open him to charges. Floyd’s girlfriend testified earlier that Floyd often bought illegal drugs from Mr. Hall, and if Floyd died of an overdose, he could be charged with third-degree murder. Mr. Hall gave two different fake names to officers when Floyd was arrested, and he fled Minneapolis. He was caught in Texas.

Mr. Nelson said he would limit questions to what happened in the car before police arrived. If Mr. Hall would not testify at all, Mr. Nelson would show a video of Mr. Hall being interviewed by an agent from the Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA). Judge Cahill said he would rule on this question at 1 PM.

The lawyers also discussed “spark of life” witnesses, who would talk about Floyd and humanize him for the jury. Prosecutor Matthew Frank said that this would include photos at various stages of Floyd’s life. Mr. Nelson warned that if these witnesses testify, it would be grounds to call witnesses to talk against Floyd’s character. Judge Cahill said, “I’m not allowing a lot of past that would amount to character evidence . . . . As soon as you start getting into propensity for violence or propensity for peacefulness, then we’re getting into character evidence, and that does open the door for the defense to cross-examine about his character for peacefulness.”

The judge said he would allow photos and descriptions of Floyd’s upbringing, but he told the prosecution to keep it brief.

Next, Mr. Nelson requested sequestration of the jury, in light of the police shooting from the previous night (Sunday, April 11th) that resulted in rioting. One of the jurors lives in the city where the shooting took place. Mr. Nelson wanted the judge to resume voir dire with the jurors to find out if they could still be impartial.

Judge Cahill decided not to sequester the jury, because the rioting was not because of a court verdict. He also said it would “just annoy” the jury. During jury selection, all of the jurors worried about what would happen if they acquitted Mr. Chauvin.

When the jury came in, the state called Dr. Jonathan Rich, a cardiologist, who specializes in heart failure and transplants. He works with Intensive Care Unit patients who often have low oxygen and need ventilators. Sometimes they die. Dr. Rich was not paid for reviewing evidence, but said that he would get $1,200 per day for testifying.

April 12, 2021, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Dr. Jonathan Rich, Cardiologist, testifies during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
April 12, 2021, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Dr. Jonathan Rich, Cardiologist, testifies during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

Asked about Floyd’s cause of death, Dr. Rich said, “Mr. George Floyd died from cardiopulmonary arrest. It was caused by low oxygen levels, and those low oxygen levels were induced by the prone restraint and positional asphyxiation that he was subjected to.”

He added: “After reviewing all of the facts and evidence of the case, I can state with a high degree of medical certainty that George Floyd did not die from a primary cardiac event, and he did not die from a drug overdose.” “Primary” means something happens in the heart itself, such as a heart attack, when an artery is blocked, or if the heart goes into sudden arrhythmia.

Dr. Rich said the medical records showed hypertension (high blood pressure), drug taking, and anxiety. He did not see anything in the records to show that Floyd may have had heart problems. The doctor thought Floyd had a “strong” heart because of his high blood pressure. He said high blood pressure is bad for you over the long run, because the heart eventually “tires out.” However, patients with high blood pressure never need a heart transplant, because their hearts are strong enough to keep working. Floyd had high blood pressure, with a recorded top (systolic) pressure of over 200. Floyd was prescribed medicine for high blood pressure, but the doctor didn’t know if Floyd took it.

Dr. Rich said that in the videos, Floyd never complained of chest pain or palpitations. He also said that when Floyd got out of his car, he did not seem to be suffering from any medical problems. When Floyd was asked to sit in the police car, and when he was on the ground, the doctor did not see anything that suggested there might be something wrong with his heart. Floyd did not say he was dizzy and did not seem to be dizzy, but when he was on the ground he was “restrained in a life threatening manner.”

The doctor said that the most common fatal arrhythmia is ventricular fibrillation (VF), which leads to sudden loss of consciousness, with the patient “keeling over” and dying. The doctor said Floyd passed out gradually.

According to the paramedics and hospital staff who treated Floyd, he had pulseless electrical activity (PEA). Dr. Rich described PEA as a “chaotic heart rhythm” that shows up on a heart monitor. He said the most common cause for PEA is hypoxia (low oxygen). Prosecutor Jerry Blackwell asked the doctor if Floyd could have had a “silent heart attack.” Dr. Rich says silent heart attacks are most common in patients with diabetes, and Floyd was not diabetic. Dr. Rich said that putting Floyd on his side would have saved his life, and that giving him CPR as soon as his heart stopped would also have saved his life.

On cross-exam, Mr. Nelson asked Dr. Rich if, hypothetically, a patient with a 90 percent artery blockage can die of a heart attack and the doctor agreed. He agreed that Floyd had heart disease, but repeated that he did not think Floyd had a heart attack. He said his body had created extra blood vessels to compensate for the blockage, and added that a patient is more likely to have a heart attack with less than 90 percent blockage.

Dr. Rich agreed that there is no safe amount of any illicit drug, that methamphetamine constricts blood vessels, and Floyd’s prolonged meth use contributed to heart disease. Mr. Nelson asked, “Would you recommend that someone with Floyd’s extent of heart disease use methamphetamine?” Dr. Rich said he would never recommend drugs “off the street.”

Mr. Nelson asked Dr. Rich if Floyd would have survived if he had gotten into the squad car. The doctor said that Floyd would have survived if he had not been restrained. Nelson repeated the question, and Dr. Rich said, “I think my answer remains the same.”

Mr. Nelson asked if the prone position is inherently dangerous. The doctor said that for the average person, it is. Dr. Rich said that patients in the ICU are put face down when they are in severe respiratory distress, but they are on a respirator and are sedated. Mr. Nelson asked if all of Floyd’s problems combined could cause death without the restraint, and Dr. Rich said, “No.”

When court resumed after lunch, Judge Cahill ruled that the video of Morries Hall talking to BCA agents would not be admissible. This was a blow to the defense because Mr. Hall says that Floyd was falling asleep in the car. As many doctors have already testified, sleepiness is a symptom of fentanyl overdose.

The first witness after lunch was Philonise Floyd, age 39, George Floyd’s younger brother with “spark of life” testimony. Minnesota is unusual; most states allow this kind of testimony only at the sentencing stage. Philonise remembered playing video games with George and that his big brother was always measuring his height because he wanted to grow tall and be an athlete. He was shown a photo of Mrs. Floyd holding her son when he was a baby, and Philonise teared up, saying he missed them both so much.

April 12, 2021, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Philonese Floyd, brother of George Floyd, testifies during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
April 12, 2021, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Philonese Floyd, brother of George Floyd, testifies during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

Philonese said George talked to his mother on the phone the day before she died, but could not come say goodbye in person. Philonese said that during the funeral in 2018, his older brother cried and said “Mama” several times. That was the last time Philonise Floyd saw his brother.

The prosecution’s last witness was Seth Stoughton, an associate professor at South Carolina University Law School, who has written a book about police misconduct. He was a police officer for fewer than five years before becoming an academic, and he said that he had had to cuff suspects who were resisting him. The prosecution is paying him $295 an hour.

He started with a discussion of Graham v. Connor, a Supreme Court case that defines when force is justified, according to:

  • The severity of the crime.
  • Whether the suspect is an immediate threat to officers or others.
  • Whether the suspect is resisting arrest or trying to get away.

The professor said that the size of a person and recent drug use are “relevant considerations” but not a “threat,” while trying to get away from police is a threat. He said that an officer must consider the foreseeable effect of force, not what actually happened. When an officer fires a weapon, it is foreseeable that the person he shoots at will be killed, even if the officer misses. Prof. Stoughton also emphasized that force must be “appropriate, proportional and reasonable.”

The prosecution showed bits of video for Professor Stoughton to comment on. When a segment showed Floyd struggling with the officers as he was in the car and refusing to sit, Prof. Stoughton said, “This does not appear to be active aggression in the sense that Mr. Floyd does not appear to have the intention to assault or attack the officers.”

April 12, 2021, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Seth Stoughton, University of South Carolina Law Professor, testifies during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
April 12, 2021, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Seth Stoughton, University of South Carolina Law Professor, testifies during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

In one segment, Officer Kueng checks Floyd’s pulse and says there is no pulse. The professor said that once Floyd was non-responsive, use of force was not needed and was having a bad effect on Floyd’s health.

He said it was not necessary to put Floyd in the prone position, which limits breathing. Prof. Stoughton said that the officers talked about drugs being found and that Floyd was probably under the influence. He said they should have known that being under the influence would make it harder to breathe. He said that after Floyd said he couldn’t breathe, a reasonable officer should have known from the tone of Floyd’s voice, that he was suffering.

After playing a video that showed Officer Thao talking to bystanders, the professor argued that what he said — “This is why you don’t do drugs, kids” — showed that the officer did not think the bystanders were a threat.

Another video showed the crowd shouting angrily as some yelled, “Don’t you touch me!” The professor said this was after the paramedics took Floyd away, and that there was no threat to officers while Floyd was being restrained. He said that the bystanders went back on the sidewalk when Officer Thao told them to.

The professor said unreasonable force began when Mr. Chauvin put his knee on Floyd and ended when he took it off. He said that no reasonable police officer would believe this was reasonable.

On cross-examination, Mr. Nelson got Professor Stoughton to agree that there is more to Graham v. Connor than the three considerations mentioned above, and that an officer must consider the “totality of the circumstances.” He asked if a “reasonable police officer” is entitled to rely on his training. The professor said he is not looking at whether the officer is using his training; he is looking at what is generally accepted.

Mr. Nelson asked, “If someone says, ‘I’m going to cooperate! I’m going to cooperate!’ . . . but their actions are not cooperative, what is an officer supposed to do? Just automatically believe that at some time they’re going to cooperate?” Professor Stoughton said, “No, I don’t think an officer has to assume that person, at some future point, will comply.”

Mr. Nelson asked the professor if he agreed that a suspect should not get to decide whether he will sit on the ground or in the squad car. Professor Stoughton stammered, but then said, “Yes.”

Professor Stoughton insisted that it was unreasonable to put Floyd into the prone position. Mr. Nelson referred to an article Professor Stoughton wrote that was published in The Washington Post on May 29, 2020. He quoted: “Officers might need to hold someone down in the prone position, but they should do so by putting their shin across the subject’s upper back, not the neck.” Professor Stoughton explained that he had written that only four days after Floyd’s death.

Mr. Nelson asked the professor if Mr. Chauvin’s knee had been on George Floyd’s neck for the entire nine minutes and 29 seconds. He said that was “irrelevant;” the knee should have never been there.

Mr. Nelson asked if a reasonable police officer would know that he was being videoed; Prof. Stoughton agreed. He also agreed that use of force is not very pretty, and that something that looks bad may not be unlawful.

Mr. Nelson mentioned that at one point Officer Thomas Lane had said, “Jesus Christ.” The professor said that was because Floyd had smelly feet.

When Mr. Nelson asked about the crowd that gathered, Professor Stoughton said that 10 to 15 people is not a “crowd.” Cross-examination ended with Professor Stoughton agreeing that if Mr. Chauvin’s knee was on the trapezius muscle, that was not deadly force

Judge Cahill informed the jury that this was the last witness for the prosecution and they would hear from defense witnesses next. He told them closing arguments should be on Monday. He also told them that they should bring a packed suitcase on Monday, because they will be sequestered for deliberation.

Day One

Former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin’s murder trial began yesterday, accompanied by all the expected theatrics.

Reverend Al Sharpton has held several press conferences recently, accompanied by members of George Floyd’s family and their attorney Ben Crump, who represented them in the civil suit against the city of Minneapolis, which resulted in a $27 million settlement. On Sunday, Rev. Sharpton spoke at a Baptist Church in Minneapolis, saying “Chauvin is in the courtroom, but America is on trial.”

On Monday morning, Rev. Sharpton again stood before the press and called George Floyd’s death a “lynching by knee.” He led those assembled as they took a knee for eight minutes and 46 seconds — the time that former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin restrained Floyd. Some of those surrounding Mr. Sharpton were wearing facemasks with “8:46” and a flatlined heartbeat printed on them. The group then chanted, “No justice! No peace!”

March 29, 2021, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Surrounded by family, Ben Crump and Al Sharpton took a knee for 8 minutes and 46 seconds after a press conference on the grounds of the Hennepin County Government Center. (Credit Image: © TNS via ZUMA Wire)
March 29, 2021, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Surrounded by family, Ben Crump and Al Sharpton took a knee for 8 minutes and 46 seconds after a press conference on the grounds of the Hennepin County Government Center. (Credit Image: © TNS via ZUMA Wire)

Mr. Crump said this would be “a referendum on how far America has come in its quest for equality and justice for all,” and would determine “if we live up to the belief that all men are created equal.” One of George Floyd’s brothers told the press, “If we can’t get justice for a black man here in America, we will get justice everywhere else in America. This is a starting point.”

Inside the courtroom, the trial started with the prosecution’s motion to prohibit the defense from suggesting that George Floyd had been “malingering” which is “the act of intentionally feigning or exaggerating physical or psychological symptoms for personal gain.” Judge Peter Cahill informed both teams that it would be okay to say that George Floyd “appeared to be resisting,” but not that he “was resisting.”

Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill. (Credit Image: © B4859 / Avalon/Avalon via ZUMA Press)
Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill. (Credit Image: © B4859 / Avalon/Avalon via ZUMA Press)

The trial is being televised, but the jurors aren’t. During the selection, only jurors’ voices were broadcast, and they were assigned numbers to protect their identities. According to Court TV, the 12 jurors and two alternates are six men and nine women; ten under 50 and five over 50; eight whites, four blacks, and two who identify as multiracial.

The prosecution’s opening remarks were made by black lawyer Jerry Blackwell. He showed the jury the Minneapolis Police Department’s motto: “To protect with courage, to serve with compassion.” He told them that MPD officers take an oath that says they will never employ unnecessary force. Mr. Blackwell told the jurors, “You will learn what happened in that nine minutes and 29 seconds, the most important numbers you will hear in this trial are 9:29, what happened in those nine minutes and 29 seconds when Mr. Derek Chauvin was applying this excessive force to the body of Mr. George Floyd” — a number that did not match the “8:46” touted by Rev. Sharpton and the Floyd family earlier.

Mr. Blackwell then quoted what Floyd said as he lay on the ground in handcuffs, and said of Mr. Chauvin’s actions: “He doesn’t let up and he doesn’t get up.” He said that Derek Chauvin maintained his position with his knee on Floyd’s neck, even as he was told that Floyd did not have a pulse, and that Mr. Chauvin did not get up when a paramedic examined Floyd.

Mr. Blackwell said that “in your custody” is equivalent to “in your care,” and went through a list of witnesses he plans to call to demonstrate that Mr. Chauvin “did not administer care.” These witnesses will include:

  • A use-of-force expert from Los Angeles.
  • A police officer who was present at the scene and felt Mr. Chauvin used excessive force.
  • Minneapolis Police Commander Katie Blackwell (no relation to Jerry Blackwell), who will testify about Mr. Chauvin’s training.
  • A firefighter who wanted to take Floyd’s pulse and care for him.
  • Minneapolis Chief of Police Medaria Arradondo, who will say that Mr. Chauvin’s actions were excessive force.
  • Bystanders who saw Floyd’s arrest.
  • Several experts, such as doctors, toxicologists, and a medical examiner.

Mr. Blackwell expressed sympathy for police officers in general, saying that they have difficult jobs and need to make split-second decisions, but that “9:29” was not a split second decision. He then gave a “trigger warning” before playing the video of Floyd’s arrest, explaining that people in the video would be called as witnesses. Derek Chauvin seemed calm as the video played, alternating between watching the screen and writing on his notepad. When the video ended, Mr. Blackwell told the jury that bystanders were calling the police on the police. He told them about another witness who would be called, a 911 dispatcher who also “called the police on the police.”

Regarding the cause of Floyd’s death, Mr. Blackwell told the jury, “You can believe your eyes.” He added that experts will explain that “compression for 9:29 is enough to take a life.” and that further video evidence will show that Floyd died of oxygen deficiency, not a heart attack. Drawing attention to the autopsy report that described cardiopulmonary arrest as the cause of death, Mr. Blackwell said, “All that means is the heart stops . . . [it’s] another way to say death. Cause of death is death.”

Mr. Blackwell denied that Floyd died from an opioid overdose. Acknowledging that Floyd had heart disease, Mr. Blackwell said Floyd lived for years with the condition — until “9:29.” He concluded his opening statement by describing George Floyd as a “Covid survivor” whose life meant something to other people.

Derek Chauvin’s lawyer is Eric Nelson, who is contracted to defend police officers in Minneapolis. He began his opening statement outlining the concept of “reasonable doubt” and stated, “There is no political or social cause in this courtroom.” He also told the jury, “This case is about more than nine minutes and 29 seconds.” There had been an extensive FBI investigation, search warrants, and interviews with first responders and nearly 400 witnesses.

Defense attorney Eric Nelson and defendant Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Star Tribune / TNS via ZUMA Wire)
Defense attorney Eric Nelson and defendant Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Star Tribune / TNS via ZUMA Wire)

Mr. Nelson outlined what happened to bring Floyd to the attention of the police in the first place. A cashier at Cup Foods noticed that Floyd was using a fake $20 bill to pay for cigarettes. He asked Floyd twice to either pay for his cigarettes with real money or give the cigarettes back. Floyd refused, so the cashier called the police. The employee noticed a problem with Floyd’s behavior, and reported that he thought Floyd was under the influence of drugs or alcohol.

Mr. Nelson told the jury they would hear about what happened in Floyd’s Mercedes Benz before the police arrived: Floyd took two pills and passed out. Two of his friends were in the car with him, and they panicked when they couldn’t wake him up. One called her daughter and asked her to come pick them up. The police arrived first, and Mr. Nelson claimed that bodycam footage will show that the officer who first drew a weapon on Floyd did so after Floyd refused to show his hands. When confronted by police, Floyd put drugs in his mouth to conceal them.

“When an officer responds to what is sometimes a routine and minimal event,” Mr. Nelson said, “It often evolves into a greater and more serious event.” Two search warrants were executed on Floyd’s car, revealing pills known as “speedballs,” which are manufactured to have the appearance of Percocet, but are a mixture of uppers and downers. Partially dissolved pills — found in the squad car that Floyd refused to sit in — contain Floyd’s DNA.

Mr. Nelson contrasted Mr. Chauvin’s build (5’9” and 140 pounds) with George Floyd’s (6’3” and 223 pounds), and told the jury that they will see bodycam footage with conversations between the officers that the bystanders who filmed the event on their phones did not hear.

Mr. Nelson said the police officers made two calls for emergency medical care; the first was a call regarding Floyd’s injured nose, and the second was a “Code 3,” which heightened the urgency. When paramedics arrived, they did a “load and go” because of the angry crowd of bystanders at the scene. Floyd was quickly put in the ambulance, and paramedics began resuscitative efforts several blocks away. There were additional attempts to save Floyd at the hospital, but he was pronounced dead that evening.

Nelson said the only person who conducted an autopsy on Floyd was Dr. Andrew Baker, and he told the jury they will hear about interviews Dr. Baker had with law enforcement about his conclusion. Floyd had no telltale signs of asphyxiation, such as bruising to the neck, even beneath his skin, and no petechial hemorrhaging. There is no evidence that his airflow was restricted. Blood toxicology revealed the presence of Fentanyl and methamphetamine. Nelson described Floyd’s heart and lung issues, and revealed that Floyd had a paraganglioma tumor that secreted adrenalin.

On the actual cause of death, Nelson said, “Evidence will show that George Floyd died of a cardiac arrhythmia that occurred as a result of hypertension, coronary disease, the ingestion of methamphetamine and Fentanyl, and the adrenalin flowing through his body. All of which acted to further compromise an already compromised heart.” Therefore, he concluded that the only reasonable verdict would be to find Derek Chauvin not guilty.

Day Two

The first witness on Tuesday was Donald Williams, one of the people who saw George Floyd die. He is a black man in his 30s, a former wrestler and professional MMA fighter who now works as a bouncer and security guard. His testimony began with a recording of his 911 call to the police to complain of what he thought was excessive force. In the call, Mr. Williams referred to Derek Chauvin as “Officer 987” because he had made the effort to remember his badge number. He got emotional as the recording played and let out a “Whew!” and wiped his eyes when it finished.

Mr. Williams composed himself when Mr. Chauvin’s defense lawyer, Eric Nelson, began cross-examination. Mr. Nelson recounted the previous day’s testimony, in which Mr. Williams discussed his training in choke holds. A “blood choke” is a wrestling hold that limits blood supply to one side of the neck and can render someone unconscious. At the scene of George Floyd’s arrest, Mr. Williams told Derek Chauvin that it looked as though he was using a blood choke. Mr. Nelson asked how long it takes for someone to pass out from a blood choke, and Mr. Williams said that it takes only a few seconds.

Mr. Williams refused to agree with Mr. Nelson that he had been angry, even after Mr. Nelson reminded him that he was on video cursing and calling Officer Chauvin names such as “tough guy.” Mr. Nelson reminded him that he had called Officer Chauvin “bum” 13 times and also called him “bitch.” “You can’t paint me to be angry,” Mr. Williams said, maintaining that his behavior had been “professional.” Mr. Williams had continued to argue with Officer Thao even after Floyd was put in an ambulance and removed.

As Mr. Williams recalled his feelings as he watched George Floyd pass out, Matthew Frank, a lawyer for the prosecution, asked him why he “got more and more angry.” Instead of denying that he was angry, as he had just done, Mr. Williams said it was because the police were not listening to him. Just before Mr. Williams was excused, Mr. Nelson asked if he was able to have a conversation with an opponent while the opponent was being rendered unconscious in MMA. Mr. Williams was taken aback by the question, and said “no.”

Credit Image: © Alex Segura/EFE via ZUMA Press
Credit Image: © Alex Segura/EFE via ZUMA Press

Minor witnesses were called next; none of their faces could be seen on TV. Prosecutor Jerry Blackwell, a black man, talked to a black girl named Darnella Frazier, who was 17 on the day of George Floyd’s arrest, and saw her life change after the 10-minute video she took went viral. She said, “It seemed like he knew it was over for him.”

Mr. Blackwell had her look at a photo of the bystanders, and asked if she would characterize the group as an “unruly crowd.” She said no; the bystanders were just reacting to what they were seeing. “It wasn’t right.” She testified that she did not see violence from bystanders, just from the cops. She said it was unfair to call the bystanders “a mob.”

Miss Frazier said she saw Officer Chauvin put his hand on his mace, and she felt threatened. “I felt like I was in danger when he did that.” As she filmed the arrest scene, Miss Frazier said it looked like Officer Chauvin was kneeling harder on George Floyd, “feeding on the energy” of the bystanders. Mr. Blackwell asked her if she saw Mr. Chauvin “let up or get up,” and she said no, but later mentioned seeing him get up when a paramedic motioned for him to do so.

Mr. Blackwell asked Miss Frazier how seeing the way George Floyd died had affected her life. She sighed. “When I look at George Floyd, I look at my Dad; I look at my brothers; I look at my cousins; my uncles, because they are all black . . .” Her voice began to quiver. “I have black friends, and I look at that, and I look at how that could have been one of them. There have been nights, I stayed up apologizing and apologizing to George Floyd for not doing more, and not physically interacting and not saving his life. But it’s not what I should have done; it’s what he should have done.”

Another witness was Alyssa Funari, a white 17-year-old girl who drove with a friend to “the corner store” and passed the scene of Floyd’s arrest. She parked nearby, and she saw that people standing on the sidewalk were in distress, and there was a man on the ground, also in distress. She borrowed her friend’s phone and got out of the car to film.

Miss Funari saw Officer Chauvin holding Floyd down with his knee, and could see other officers restraining him. Questioned by prosecutor Erin Eldridge, a white woman, Miss Funari described seeing George Floyd struggling to breathe. She said he was vocal at first, then became less so. “He was talking with smaller and smaller breaths, and he spit when he talked . . . If he were to be held down much longer he would not be able to live. . . His eyes were rolling back, and one point he just sat there.” Miss Funari started crying and Miss Eldridge paused her questioning to allow her to compose herself.

“It was difficult,” Miss Funari said, “Because I felt like there wasn’t anything I could do as a bystander. I felt like I was failing him.” She described feeling powerless because another police officer kept bystanders on the sidewalk, preventing them from getting close. She testified that the men restraining Floyd did not move much, but then observed that Officer Chauvin’s back foot came off the ground and he put his hand in his pocket. She said she saw Officer Chauvin’s knee move further down on Floyd. She said his knee remained on Floyd when the paramedics checked Floyd’s neck for a pulse.

The video Miss Funari recorded was shown in the courtroom; her voice is heard on the video, asking Officer Chauvin, “Why are you kneeing him more?!” After Floyd passed out, she walked away, but soon came back to film a second video. She explained that she walked away because it was hard to watch, but came back to the scene because she knew what was happening was wrong. Miss Funari was heard on her video, shouting to the officers, “It’s over a minute!” and she explained that she was worried “time was running out. He was going to die.” She added, “I kinda knew that he was dead or not breathing.” Miss Funari saw paramedics check Floyd’s eyes and take his pulse. She described feeling “emotionally numb,” afterwards, saying that she “didn’t rush to the internet,” and just tried to go on with her day. “It was a lot to take in.”

Day Three

[Editor’s Note: The first half of this article covers testimony from Day 2. What follows after the “* * *” is testimony from Day 3.]

Kaylynn Gilbert, a white 17-year-old, told the jury that she was in court “for George Floyd.” She and her friend Alyssa had parked near Cup Foods, and Miss Gilbert stayed in the car while Alyssa got out to film, until the voices got louder and prompted her to get out, too.

Women rally in front of a large portrait of George Floyd in front of Cup Foods in Minneapolis (Credit Image: © Jack Kurtz / ZUMA Wire)
Women rally in front of a large portrait of George Floyd in front of Cup Foods in Minneapolis (Credit Image: © Jack Kurtz / ZUMA Wire)

She saw Officer Chauvin putting pressure on Floyd’s neck that she felt was not needed, after Floyd appeared unconscious. She asked the police why they were still on top of Floyd. Miss Gilbert described Officer Thao’s tone of voice as “really hostile,” and said she saw him push one of the bystanders onto the sidewalk. She did not see any bystanders get physically aggressive, and said, “They were just using their voice.”

She thought Officer Chauvin’s body language looked “angry” as he was put his knee into Floyd’s neck, and she said that he grabbed his mace and shook it at her. She saw Officer Chauvin release Floyd after a paramedic signaled for him to do so.

“I didn’t know for sure if George Floyd was dead,” she said, “But I had a gut feeling.”

Genevieve Hansen, a white 27-year-old, came to court wearing her Minneapolis Fire Department dress uniform. Miss Hansen, a former lifeguard, went through Emergency Medical Technician training, earning state and national licenses, before beginning her firefighter training. She has been a Minneapolis Firefighter for two years.

On the day of George Floyd’s death, Miss Hansen was off duty and on a walk when she saw the lights of an emergency vehicle. Wondering if her coworkers were there, she went over, then saw a woman on the street screaming, “They’re killing him!”

Miss Hansen said she remembered seeing four officers putting their full weight on Floyd’s body, but “we know now” that there were only three officers restraining Floyd. “Three grown men putting a lot of their weight on someone is too much.” She described Officer Chauvin as “looking comfortable” as he held Floyd down with his knee, because he had a hand in his pocket and was not distributing his weight.

Miss Hansen said that Floyd’s face was “smushed to the ground,” and it “looked puffy and swollen.” She saw fluid on the ground and thought it was coming from George Floyd’s body. “In a lot of cases, we see a patient release their bladder when they die. I can’t tell you exactly where the fluid was coming from, but that’s where my mind went.”

Wanting to help Floyd, Miss Hansen said that she identified herself as a firefighter but did not show Minneapolis Fire Department identification; she had not brought it with her. Officer Thao told her, “If you really are a Minneapolis Firefighter, you would know better than to get involved.”

Miss Hansen disagreed with him. “That’s exactly what I should have done. There was no medical assistance on the scene . . . I could have given medical assistance.”

When asked what she would have done, Miss Hansen said that she would have called 911 for paramedics, checked Floyd’s airway, checked his pulse, and done chest compressions if there had been no pulse. Since Officer Thao wanted her to stay on the sidewalk, she shouted to the police, “If he has no pulse, you need to start compressions!”

Prosecutor Erin Eldridge asked Miss Hansen if she felt frustrated. She started crying and took a tissue, before saying, “Yes.”

In his opening statements, prosecutor Jerry Blackwell had told the jury that they would see examples of people “calling the police on the police.” Miss Hansen was an example of that. After the ambulance pulled away with Floyd inside, she called 911, asking to speak to a supervisor. She said that she did this because she was worried about black men who were still at the scene, but did not elaborate on why she was concerned about them. She ended her call when her coworkers from the nearest fire station arrived and went into Cup Foods, looking for a victim.

During cross examination, the defense showed that police had requested paramedics at 8:21, and Miss Hansen arrived at the scene at 8:26. Defense lawyer Eric Nelson asked Miss Hansen if she agreed that a paramedic had more training than an EMT, and she agreed. He asked if anyone had ever come up to her while she was fighting a fire to tell her she was doing it wrong, and she said, “No.” They discussed the fact that medical personnel do not go into a police scene until a Code 4 is called, indicating that it is safe.

There were times when Miss Hansen was defiant. Mr. Nelson asked if it would be reasonable to assume that if a patient were having a medical emergency and the police were present, that police had already called for Emergency Medical Services. Miss Hansen replied, “Your question is unclear because you don’t know my job. So, I can’t answer.” After a slight rephrase, she agreed that it was reasonable, but added a qualifier — she felt that the response time was not normal that day. When asked if she would agree that the other bystanders were angry, Miss Hansen said, in a mocking tone, “I don’t know if you’ve ever seen someone killed, but it’s upsetting.”

Mr. Nelson impeached Miss Hansen by providing documentation that she had told investigators last year that George Floyd was a “small, slim man.” Miss Hansen explained, “With three grown men on top of him, it appeared that he was small and frail.” Mr. Nelson responded with, “OK,” but she tried to keep speaking. “There was no question,” Mr. Nelson said. Miss Hansen said with an eye roll, “I was finishing my answer.”

Judge Cahill sent the jury out, then admonished Miss Hansen for interrupting:

Miss Hansen, I’m advising you. . . . You will not argue with the court. You will not argue with counsel. They have the right to ask questions. Your job is to answer them. I will determine when your answer is done. . . . Do not argue with the court. Do not argue with counsel. Do not volunteer information that is not requested. The attorneys for the state have redirect; they can ask you questions if they think that certain things were left out. It is counsel’s prerogative to ask you leading questions, and for you to answer those, and not volunteer additional information. Are we clear on this?

* * *

On Wednesday morning, witness #9 was called. Christopher Martin, a 19-year-old black man, lives above and worked at Cup Foods, the store where the incident took place. He testified that a man wearing red pants who was seated on the passenger side of Floyd’s car when Floyd was arrested had come into Cup Foods earlier in the day, and tried to pass a counterfeit bill, which Mr. Martin did not accept. The store had a policy that if an employee accepted a counterfeit bill, it would be deducted from his paycheck.

Later in the day, the man in red pants returned to the store with Floyd. Mr. Martin took notice of Floyd because of his large size. When Floyd came to the counter to make a purchase, Mr. Martin talked with him. Floyd spoke slowly, giving Mr. Martin the impression that he was under the influence. Floyd’s demeanor was friendly, but Mr. Martin suspected he was high.

Security footage from inside the store was shown for the first time, and Floyd could be seen moving in a way that was different from everyone else in the store. At one point, he seemed to be doing a strange dance. Mr. Martin said that Floyd used a $20 bill with blue pigment on it to pay for cigarettes. He suspected that the man in the red sweatpants knew he was using counterfeit money, but thought that Floyd might not realize the money was fake. Mr. Martin took the suspicious $20 and told his manager. Mr. Martin’s manager told him to go outside and ask Floyd to come back to the store. Mr. Martin did this twice, and both times, Floyd would not leave his car, so the manager called the police.

While Mr. Martin was still being questioned, Juror #7 raised her hand and left the courtroom, so the judge took a break. Court TV later reported that the juror left because she had an emotional reaction to the testimony, though it’s unclear which part upset her.

When court resumed, Mr. Martin talked about how Floyd reacted when he went to the car to ask him to come back to the store. He said that Floyd raised his hands and touched his head, in gestures that seemed to say, “Ugh, why is this happening?”

Mr. Martin was busy working when police came into the store, but when he heard the commotion outside and saw the store emptying, he followed the crowd to see what was going on. Like other bystanders, Mr. Martin took a video, but thinking that Floyd had died in front of him, he deleted his video.

After video taken from the outside of Cup Foods was shown to the court, showing Mr. Martin standing with his hands on his head. Matthew Frank — a prosecuting lawyer — asked Mr. Martin what he had been thinking. Mr. Martin said that he felt “disbelief and guilt” and that if he had accepted the counterfeit bill, this would not have happened.

The 10th witness was 61-year-old black man Charles McMillian. Mr. McMillian said he stopped his car when he saw police activity and got out to watch because he was “being nosey.” Mr. McMillian is the gentleman in the viral videos who encouraged Floyd to cooperate with police, telling Floyd that he couldn’t “win.”

The prosecution asked Mr. McMillian to review the video of himself witnessing the incident, and he broke down sobbing when Floyd started calling for his mother. He said that he had lost his own mother on June 25th, and he was so distraught that the lawyer asked for a break. The defense lawyer, Eric Nelson, did not cross examine Mr. McMillian.

The 11th witness was Lieutenant Jeff Rugel, a surveillance- and bodycam-video expert for the Minneapolis Police Department. During this portion of the trial, surveillance and bodycam footage from city-owned cameras on the street were entered into evidence, and jurors saw bodycam footage from the four arresting officers, including brief footage from Derek Chauvin’s own body camera, which fell off while he was struggling to get Floyd into the squad car.

Footage from all of the officers showed their struggle to get Floyd into the car. One officer, who was trying to get Floyd into the car from the door that opened toward the sidewalk, took care twice to keep Floyd’s head from bumping into the car as he tried to get Floyd to sit down. Floyd tried to get out of the car through the door facing the street, and kicked at Derek Chauvin and the other officer on that side. As Floyd tried to get out, he moved himself toward the ground, and an officer was heard saying, “Get him on the ground.” After Floyd was restrained on the ground, an officer is heard calling for an ambulance.

It was interesting to see footage of Officer James Alexander Kueng, a light-skinned black man, kneeling on Floyd right beside Chauvin, for the same length of time, not releasing Floyd until paramedics arrived. Later in the video, Mr. Chauvin looked concerned as he helped paramedics load Floyd into the ambulance.

Day Four

Fencing erected around the Hennepin County Government Center in preparation for the trial of Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: Lorie Shaull via Wikipedia)
Fencing erected around the Hennepin County Government Center in preparation for the trial of Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: Lorie Shaull via Wikipedia)

See our coverage of the first day of the trial here, the second day here, and the third day here.

The surprise of the day came when George Floyd’s girlfriend, Courteney Ross, told prosecutor Eric Nelson that she was saved in Floyd’s phone as “Mama,” Floyd’s pet name for her. This raised the possibility that the “Mama” Floyd called for as he was dying could have been his opioid-addicted girlfriend rather than his mother, who died in 2018.

Miss Ross, a 45-year-old white mother of two, got emotional when lawyer Matthew Frank began questioning her. Miss Ross first met Floyd in August 2017, when Floyd was working as a security guard at a Salvation Army shelter. Miss Ross had gone to the shelter to talk to her son’s father, who was staying there, about the child’s upcoming birthday. While she waited for him at the receptionist’s desk, Floyd approached her, saying, “Sis, you OK, Sis?”

Miss Ross did not feel OK and was especially touched when Floyd asked if he could pray with her. They shared their first kiss at that meeting. The couple continued to date, off and on, until Floyd’s death. She said that Floyd was a physically active man who lifted weights every day, did calisthenics at home, biked, and played several sports, especially football.

When asked about Floyd’s health, Miss Ross said that he complained about pain from injuries he had suffered to his neck and his back. She said he never complained about shortness of breath.

Their romance had a dangerous undercurrent. Both were opioid addicts, and Miss Ross described how the couple used drugs they were prescribed and ones from the black market. The pair took oxycontin and oxycodone pills throughout their three years together. In March 2020, Miss Ross took Floyd to the hospital because he was doubled-over with abdominal pains. This led to a five-day hospital stay; she later found out this was because Floyd had overdosed on heroin. When asked in cross-examination if Floyd had been foaming at the mouth when she took him to the hospital, Miss Ross said that there had been a dry, white substance on his mouth.

Miss Ross talked about the two people who were passengers in Floyd’s car when he was stopped by police on May 25, 2020: Maurice Hall and Shawanda Hill. Floyd often bought drugs from both of them. When she was interviewed by the FBI following Floyd’s death, Miss Ross speculated that Floyd obtained the heroin that led to his March 2020 overdose from Shawanda Hill, because he had gotten pills from her before.

March 2020 was a difficult month for Floyd. Miss Ross said that he had been clean and sober at the beginning of the year, but in March, his behavior had changed, and she was suspicious that he was taking drugs again. Then, they fell back into the habit of getting high together. That month, Floyd brought her some pills that looked thicker than the ones they normally took. Opioids usually made Miss Ross feel relaxed, but these thicker pills made her jittery, and kept her up all night.

A week before Floyd died, they got the unusual pills again. Miss Ross told the FBI that this time the thicker pills made her feel like she was “going to die.” She also told investigators that she noticed a behavioral change before his death: There were times when he would be bouncing around erratically and his speech would be unintelligible. The last time she had contact with Floyd before his death was over the phone a day before he died.

The two paramedics who were called to the scene of Floyd’s arrest also testified. Seth Bravinder and Derek Smith — both white men — said they were first dispatched to aid a civilian with a mouth injury. The urgency level was “Code 2,” meaning that the ambulance traveled with no lights or sirens. But en route, the call was upgraded to a “Code 3,” so the lights and sirens were turned on.

After arriving at the intersection of 38th and Chicago, near Cup Foods, both men reported seeing a man lying on the ground with three police officers on top of him. This made Mr. Bravinder think the man might struggle during treatment, but when he looked again, he did not see any breathing or movement. Mr. Smith noticed that Floyd’s chest was not rising and falling. When he checked Floyd’s pupils, they were dilated, and Floyd had no pulse. “In lay terms,” Mr. Smith said, “I thought he was dead.” He told Mr. Bravinder that he wanted to “move this out of here,” so they could begin care in the back of the ambulance. He motioned to Officer Chauvin to move off of Floyd. As Mr. Bravinder unloaded the stretcher, he also noticed a “crowd of upset, yelling people on the street,” and “wanted to get away from that,” and be in “a controlled space” so they could focus their energies on the patient.

A video of the scene shows Mr. Bravinder supporting Floyd’s head as he gets him into the stretcher. He explained that he wanted to keep Floyd’s head from slamming into the pavement, as Floyd was limp and unresponsive. Mr. Smith remarked that the police officers were “very helpful in moving the patient onto the canvas.”

Officer Lane went with them, and the three men tried to resuscitate Floyd, as the ambulance was driven three blocks away from Cup Foods. Officer Lane performed manual chest compressions (CPR). Mr. Smith unclothed and uncuffed Floyd to provide better care. He saw that Floyd had superficial injuries on his nose and shoulder, which would not cause cardiac arrest.

Mr. Bravinder saw a flatline on the heart monitor. With Officer Lane’s help, he placed a Lucas device on Floyd, which does chest compressions to circulate blood throughout the body. He also placed a device down Floyd’s throat to keep his airway free of fluid and help him breathe. A firefighter who had been called to help them also assisted. Mr. Smith administered epinephrine, an adrenaline shot used to jumpstart the heart. Soon after, the paramedics shocked Floyd with a defibrillator, but with no success.

Recently retired Minneapolis Police Sergeant David Pleoger was the last witness of the day. He was Derek Chauvin’s sergeant the day of Floyd’s death. If any of the sergeant’s officers use force, they do a “Force Review” report, which includes interviews with the officer and the victim. Officers have to notify the sergeant after use of force, but there are exceptions. When George Floyd was pronounced dead at the hospital, it became a “Critical Incident,” so Sgt. Pleoger was not involved in reviewing the use of force on Floyd as the review went “up the chain” and was taken over by other administrators.

On May 25, 2020, Sgt. Pleoger received a call from 911 dispatch operator Jena Scurry. Their recorded conversation was played in court. Miss Scurry said on the phone:

You can call me a snitch if you want to, but we have the cameras up . . . They must have already started moving him . . . I don’t know if they had to use force or not, but they got something out of the back of the squad, and all of them sat on this man, so I don’t know if they needed you or not, but they haven’t said anything to me yet.

“Yeah, they haven’t said anything. Must have been just a takedown, which doesn’t count, but I’ll find out,” Sgt. Pleoger responded. Sgt. Pleoger then called Officer Chauvin on his cell phone. Chauvin said: “Yeah, I was just gonna call you, have you come out to our scene here. . . We just had to hold a guy down. He was, uh, going crazy; he wouldn’t go in the back of the squad.”

Officer Chauvin told the sergeant that he and the other officers had tried to put Floyd in the car and that he became combative. Floyd injured his face while resisting, and after the officers struggled with him, Floyd suffered a medical emergency, so the officers called an ambulance. Officer Chauvin asked Sgt. Pleoger to head to the scene. Officer Chauvin did not say anything about putting a knee on Floyd’s neck or back, but the sergeant testified that a knee to the neck may not be a reportable use of force.

Sgt. Pleoger spoke with all four officers at once. They told him that their suspect had been handcuffed and taken away in an ambulance. He decided to go to Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC) to check on the suspect, and told Officers Lane and Kueng to stay by Floyd’s car. He told Officers Chauvin and Thao to go to HCMC too but to speak to witnesses first. Officer Chauvin said he could try to, but that they were hostile.

At HCMC, Sgt. Pleoger was taken to the stabilization room, where he saw a Lucas machine doing chest compressions on Floyd. He spoke with a nurse for a condition update, and she said that Floyd was doing poorly. He told a lieutenant about Floyd’s condition, and the lieutenant contacted Internal Affairs.

The lawyers asked Sgt. Pleoger about “positional asphyxia” and he said that MPD officers are trained on the dangers of it. If you leave someone on his chest or stomach too long, he can suffer breathing difficulty. A patient’s own body weight can cause positional asphyxia, even without another person pressing down on the patient. Sergeant Pleoger stated that he felt the police should have ended their restraint of Floyd after he stopped resisting.

Day Five

Hennepin County Sheriffs Officers examine the scene where protestors have been since the beginning of the trial outside the Hennepin County Government Center during the Derek Chauvin Trial in Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Credit Image: © imageSPACE via ZUMA Wire)
Hennepin County Sheriffs Officers examine the scene where protestors have been since the beginning of the trial outside the Hennepin County Government Center during the Derek Chauvin Trial in Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Credit Image: © imageSPACE via ZUMA Wire)

See our coverage of the first day of the trial here, the second day here, and the third day here, and the fourth day here.

On Friday morning, the prosecution called Lt. Richard Zimmerman, a white man who has been a Minneapolis police officer since 1981. He works in the homicide unit, and one of his duties is to respond to “critical incidents” in which someone dies. He reached the intersection of 38th and Chicago, at 9 pm, after Floyd had been taken the hospital. Police Sergeant Bob Dale arrived and told Lt. Zimmerman that Floyd had died, so this was a “critical incident.” Police put crime-scene tape around the intersection and locked down the area to preserve evidence. Agents from the State Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA) took over, and took both the squad car and Floyd’s Mercedes Benz into custody.

Prosecutor Matthew Frank asked Lt. Zimmerman to explain the “Use of Force Continuum” to the jury. The lieutenant said that this is a Minneapolis Police Department (MPD) guideline for de-escalation, ranging from simply being present at the scene in uniform, to using deadly force. Force levels change according to the threat to the officer. Lt. Zimmerman said he was never trained to kneel on the neck of a handcuffed suspect in a prone position (lying face down). He testified that he received MPD training on the prone position and that the department considers it “deadly force.” When an officer has a suspect handcuffed and prone, he must get him on his side, so he can breathe easily.

According to Lt. Zimmerman, police are trained in some first-aid techniques, and get CPR training every other year. An officer must give first aid, even if he has called an ambulance.

Lt. Zimmerman reviewed the body camera footage of Officer Chauvin kneeling on George Floyd. He told the court that he believed this use of force was “totally unnecessary. . . . Pulling him down to the ground, face down, with a knee on the neck for that amount of time, it’s just uncalled for. . . . I saw no reason why the officers felt they were in danger, if that’s what they felt. And that’s what they would have to feel to use that kind of force.” Prosecutor Frank asked, “In your opinion, should that restraint have stopped once he [Floyd] was handcuffed and prone on the ground?” Lt. Zimmerman replied: “Absolutely.”

On cross-examination, defense attorney Eric Nelson pointed out that the lieutenant had not been a patrol officer for over 20 years, and that tactics and equipment have changed dramatically. He added that although the lieutenant had use-of-force training, he does not teach it to other officers. Mr. Nelson got Lt. Zimmerman to concede several points:

  • Other factors may supersede an officer’s medical responsibilities. He must keep the scene secure and consider the safety of everyone in the immediate area, not just the person he’s arresting.
  • There are times when an arrestee is unconscious but wakes up and becomes more combative than before.
  • “Holding for Emergency Medical Services (EMS),” in which officers hold someone while they wait for EMS to arrive, is MPD policy.
  • Sometimes police restrain a suspect for his own safety and the safety of others, not just for the safety of officers.
  • An officer must consider whether he has the tactical advantage.
  • Handcuffing can fail, and sometimes additional force is required. Perps have attacked officers using handcuffs as weapons.
  • Use of force depends on “the totality of the circumstances.” It is a “dynamic series of decision-making . . . and it’s based on a lot of information that is not necessarily captured on a body cam.”
  • In a fight for your life, you may use any force that is reasonable and necessary.

Mr. Frank began his redirect examination by having Lt. Zimmerman testify that he gets the most up-to-date training on use of force. Then he asked about the threat presented by the bystanders. Lt. Zimmerman did not think they were “an uncontrollable threat to the officers at the scene.” He said that the crowd “doesn’t matter. . . as long as they’re not attacking you.”

This was Mr. Frank’s final round of questions:

Mr. Frank: Does “Holding for EMS” excuse the officers from providing medical attention that they’ve been trained to provide?

Lt. Zimmerman: No, it doesn’t.

Mr. Frank: Does it excuse officers from continuing to use the decision-making model for use of force?

Lt. Zimmerman: No.

Mr. Frank: Did you see any need for Officer Chauvin to improvise by putting his knee on Mr. Floyd for nine minutes and 29 seconds?

Lt. Zimmerman: No, I did not.

Judge Cahill adjourned for the day.

Day Six

Day Six started with an intriguing but mysterious ruling by the judge that there had been no juror misconduct. He did not say what the misconduct might have been.

Before the jury came in, the prosecution objected to the admission of the entirety of some officer bodycam video. Judge Peter Cahill asked if a particular piece of video was a way to get Floyd’s state of mind in “through the back door.” Earlier, he had ruled that Floyd’s state of mind is not relevant. The judge allowed one video of Officers Lane and Kueng, but not another.

There was also some discussion about admissibility of further prosecution evidence about use of force. Judge Cahill allowed it, but said it must be brief, saying “We’re not going to ask every officer, ‘What would you do different?’ ”

After the jury was seated, it heard from Dr. Bradford Langenfeld, the ER doctor who pronounced Floyd dead. He told the court that he was the primary medical decision-maker for Floyd, and that when Floyd was brought in, his heart was not beating. The primary goal was to get the heart beating again, and to try to find out why it had stopped beating, in case the reason was reversible.

Dr. Bradford had received a message from Emergency Medical Services (EMS) that they would be bringing in a 30-year-old male in cardiac arrest, so the doctor prepared a bay with critical care equipment and prepped a team for Floyd’s arrival. The doctor told prosecutor Jerry Blackwell that, at the time, he had not seen any video of what had happened to Floyd.

When Floyd arrived at the ER, there was a Lucas machine attached to him, rhythmically compressing his chest to keep blood circulating. The paramedics gave the doctor a report that said they were called to treat someone detained by the police who had facial trauma, and the call was upgraded to an emergency. The patient had no pulse when he arrived. They gave Floyd an airway tube, medication, and CPR. They followed protocol for treating patients with cardiac arrest, and tried to revive Floyd for 30 minutes. The paramedics did not say that Floyd suffered a drug overdose or had had a heart attack. The doctor explained that there is a 10-15 percent decrease in chance for survival for every minute that CPR is not administered after the heart stops beating.

The Lucas 2 chest compression system. The external mechanical device provides chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (Credit Image: © Larry Fisher / Quad-City Times /
The Lucas 2 chest compression system. The external mechanical device provides chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (Credit Image: © Larry Fisher / Quad-City Times /

When Floyd arrived at the hospital, his heart had some pulseless electrical activity, which suggested bleeding or low oxygen. The monitor later showed a flat line. Shocking the heart with a defibrillator would not have done any good for a patient in Floyd’s condition. The doctor used ultrasound to rule out possible causes for the cardiac arrest; there had been no internal bleeding. There was no report from EMS that Floyd had overdosed on a specific drug, so the doctor did not consider drug antidotes. The paramedics had not reported typical symptoms of a heart attack, but the doctor said that heart attack could not be ruled out. Dr. Langenfeld ultimately decided that “one of the more likely” reasons Floyd’s heart stopped beating was hypoxia — he did not have enough oxygen.

At the end of 30 minutes, the doctor pronounced Floyd dead. (In Minnesota, only a physician can declare a patient dead.) Floyd’s heart had been stopped for 60 minutes and there was no possibility of resuscitation. The prosecutor asked if death from lack of oxygen is also called “asphyxia,” and Dr. Langenfeld said yes.

Under cross-examination, defense lawyer Eric Nelson asked if drug use could cause hypoxia, and the doctor said it could. Mr. Nelson inquired about Floyd’s high carbon dioxide levels, and whether that could be caused by Fentanyl. Dr. Langenfeld said that it could; the “primary reason” Fentanyl is so dangerous is that is depresses the lungs. A high carbon dioxide level causes shortness of breath, even without stress. The doctor also said that Fentanyl causes sleepiness, and Mr. Nelson said in his Opening Statement that he would produce a witness to testify that Floyd was very sleepy before the police showed up.

The next witness was Minneapolis Chief of Police, Medaria Arradondo. Much court time was devoted to reviewing the Chief’s qualifications, his tenure with the MPD since 1989, and all of the steps as he rose through from patrol officer to Chief of Police. The chief explained how the MPD is structured. The Police Officer Standards of Training (POST) board grants the license to become a sworn police officer, and officers need continuing training to keep their licenses.

April 5, 2021: Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo testifies about department training, procedures and ethics on the sixth day of the trial of former Minneapolis Police Officer Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
April 5, 2021: Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo testifies about department training, procedures and ethics on the sixth day of the trial of former Minneapolis Police Officer Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

On the day George Floyd died, the deputy police chief told Chief Arradondo that someone taken into custody was not expected to survive. After Floyd was pronounced dead, the chief was able to see what happened from footage from a city-owned camera, but all he could see were the backs of officers, and there was no audio. That video showed nothing disturbing. He was not able to see Floyd at all until the paramedics put him on a gurney. Close to midnight, a community member contacted him and said, “Chief, have you seen the video of an officer choking and killing that man?” After that, the chief saw the bystander video.

He reviewed the bystander video and the body cam footage of all of the officers. Based on that, the chief does not think Officer Chauvin followed the MPD’s de-escalation policy, and that restraint should have stopped “once Mr. Floyd had stopped resisting, and certainly once he was in distress and trying to verbalize that.”

All Minneapolis police officers get a policy manual, and are required to know the policies. The jury viewed many pages from this manual, and heard the chief’s opinion that Officer Chauvin violated policy. Both Mr. Chauvin and his defense lawyer were vigorously taking notes during the discussion on de-escalation policy, which the chief defined as “stabilizing situations with the goal of a safe and peaceful outcome.” He said that use of force can be part of de-escalation, or the opposite of de-escalation, depending on the circumstances. The chief also said that de-escalation can include “seeking the community’s help.”

Chief Arradondo talked about the concept of “meeting our community where they are.” He said, “It may be the first and last time they have an interaction with a Minneapolis police officer, and we have to make it count.” Police officers are expected to be able to deal with a wide variety of behavior from people they meet during 911 calls, and sometimes they will encounter someone who will not comply with commands. Police officers have to make their own assessment about whether the person they are dealing with is in crisis, and can be considered an EDP (Emotionally Disturbed Person). “People in crisis may not have brought it upon themselves,” the chief said, adding that those who did bring the crisis on themselves must still be treated according to MPD policy.

Chief Arradondo also said, “We recognize that we are often going to be the first to respond to someone who needs medical attention and so we absolutely have a duty to render that aid.” An officer must request EMS and use his first-aid training. The chief said that Officer Chauvin violated policy when he failed to give aid when Floyd lost consciousness.

Police officers carry Narcan kits. This is an inhaler that helps save someone who has overdosed. Only the Fire Department used to carry Narcan, but since the increase in opioid overdoses, the police have been trained to use Narcan.

Vials of the drug Naloxone (known by the brand name Narcan). (Credit Image: © TNS via ZUMA Wire)
Vials of the drug Naloxone (known by the brand name Narcan). (Credit Image: © TNS via ZUMA Wire)

On use of force, Chief Arradondo said, “The one singular incident we will be judged forever on will be our use of force. So while it is absolutely imperative that our officers go home at the end of their shift, we want to make sure our community members go home too, and so sanctity of life is absolutely vital.”

He said neck restraints and choke holds are taught and authorized by MPD policy, and he classified the neck restraint he saw Officer Chauvin using in video footage as a “conscious” neck restraint, one that was not intended to render someone unconscious. An unconscious neck restraint is authorized only if an officer is in fear of bodily harm.

In cross examination, Eric Nelson asked an intriguing question: Was Chief Arradondo familiar with “Camera Perspective Bias.” The chief said he was not. Camera Perspective Bias refers to the fact that the point of view from which you see an event can change your opinion of it.

Two videos were shown in court, both separately and side-by-side. The side-by-side version matched the timing of the two videos, so you could see the same event from two points of view. One video was taken by 17-year-old Darnella Frazier with her phone and the other was video from Officer J. Alexander Kueng’s body camera. From Darnella Frazier’s perspective, it looks like Officer Chauvin had his knee on George Floyd’s neck — but Police Chief Arradondo agreed that from the perspective of Officer Kueng’s body cam, Officer Chauvin’s knee was on Floyd’s shoulder blade. Up until that moment, the chief said he thought the knee had been on Floyd’s neck.

The last witness of the day was Inspector Katie Blackwell of the police department, who was commander of a training division on the day Floyd died. She said she had known Officer Chauvin for 20 years, and that at one time they had worked the same shift. She said that as a training commander, she had chosen Officer Chauvin to be a Field Training Officer (FTO) to train police recruits.

Minneapolis Police Officer Katie Blackwell. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
Minneapolis Police Officer Katie Blackwell. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

Documents were entered into evidence to show that in 2016, Officer Chauvin had 40 hours of FTO training for this purpose, and that he took a shorter, “refresher” course in 2018. Miss Blackwell testified that FTO medical training includes CPR, opioids, positional asphyxia, etc. She said that officers are told that a prone handcuffed position can cause asphyxia, so they need to get someone in that position on his side as soon as possible.

She was shown a photo that is a screenshot from bystander video that seems to show Officer Chauvin kneeling on George Floyd’s neck. “This is not what we train,” Miss Blackwell said, adding that she had no idea what technique Officer Chauvin was improvising. The day ended after brief cross-examination by Mr. Nelson.

Day Seven

April 6, 2021: Former New York Gov. David Paterson joins representatives of the Floyd family at the Hennepin County Government Center in Minneapolis where testimony continues in the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © TNS via ZUMA Wire)
April 6, 2021: Former New York Gov. David Paterson joins representatives of the Floyd family at the Hennepin County Government Center in Minneapolis where testimony continues in the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © TNS via ZUMA Wire)

Court began with a hearing without the jury present. The lawyer for Morries Hall, the man who was in the passenger seat when police came to arrest George Floyd, wanted to quash (invalidate) the defense subpoena for him to appear in court. George Floyd’s girlfriend had testified that they bought illegal drugs from Morries Hall. Mr. Hall now wants to invoke his 5th-amendment right not to incriminate himself by testifying. His lawyer told the court that any activity on May 25th, both before and after police arrived, could incriminate Mr. Hall:

There is an allegation that Mr. Floyd ingested a controlled substance as police were removing him from the car; a car that has been searched twice, and from my understanding, drugs have been found in that car twice. This leaves Mr. Hall potentially incriminating himself into a future prosecution for third degree murder.

The charge would be: “Whoever, without intent to cause death, proximately causes the death of a human being by, directly or indirectly, unlawfully selling, giving away, bartering, delivering, exchanging, distributing, or administering a controlled substance.”

Derek Chauvin’s defense lawyer, Eric Nelson, agreed to submit proposed questions for Morries Hall and his lawyer to review. A decision on his testimony is expected in the coming days.

After the jury was called, Sgt. Ker Yang, a Minneapolis Police Department (MPD) Crisis Intervention Training Coordinator, took the stand. He defined “crisis” as “any event or situation that is beyond the person’s coping mechanism or beyond their control.” The goal is to bring a person in crisis back to pre-crisis level. Examples of crisis include mental health emergencies, reactions to a car crash, drugs, intoxication, etc. According to MPD policy, officers should try to de-escalate a person in crisis, when it’s “safe and feasible.”

Sgt. Yang remembers that Officer Chauvin attended one of his training sessions. The MPD hires professional actors for crisis intervention training. They act out roles in which police officers deal with simulated real-life crises. Training also includes a decision-making model with five basic steps:

  1. Information Gathering — Can be based on a dispatch or officer’s observation. “Listening is key.”
  2. Threat/Risk Assessment — Assess risk based on information.
  3. Authority to Act — Based on policy and city statutes for use of force, crisis intervention, and de-escalation.
  4. Goal and Actions — See if the person needs help and what kind of help.
  5. Review and Reassess — See if your technique is working, and if not, adjust it as more information becomes available.

Sgt. Yang believes this is a useful model, and that it can be used in a quickly changing situation. The sergeant said he thinks his training works.

On cross-examination, Sgt. Yang said that the critical decision-making model itself is not policy. Mr. Nelson asked if crisis intervention means the officer has to consider that it could become a crisis for bystanders, and the sergeant said that is correct, acknowledging that when police use force, it can “look bad” to the public, even if the officer’s actions are lawful. Therefore, the behavior of onlookers is part of decision-making. Officers are trained to look for signs of aggression in a suspect and observers, such as: standing tall, muscle tensing, getting red in the face, and raised voices. Mr. Nelson emphasized that an officer has to consider the “totality of the circumstances” when making decisions, a point he has brought up with previous witnesses.

Sergeant Yang said that a “crisis” could include an overwhelming event, such as seeing something upsetting, or taking drugs. The sergeant agreed that an officer may have to deal with several people in crisis at once and has to consider everything when he takes his next steps. Officer Chauvin was dealing with many people in crisis on the day George Floyd died. As the level of crisis intensifies, the risk to the officer rises. An officer is trained to stay calm, not let anyone get too close, appear confident, and avoid staring at people. What an officer hears, such as people making threats, goes into his decision making.

The defense emphasized that according to MPD policy, in a crisis, all decisions are about what is “safe and feasible.” The prosecution emphasized that an officer always needs to keep in mind his legal “authority to act.”

Next on the stand was Lt. Johnny Mercil, a MPD use-of-force instructor who knows martial arts, particularly Brazilian Jiu Jitsu. Jiu Jitsu often uses body weight instead of striking to apply force. Documents shown in court prove that Officer Chauvin took training from Lt. Mercil in 2018.

The lieutenant’s testimony began with a definition of use of force:

Any intentional police contact involving:

  • Any weapon, substance, vehicle, equipment, tool, device or animal that inflicts pain or injury to another.
  • Physical strikes to the body.
  • Physical contact to the body that inflicts pain or injury.
  • Restraint applied in a manner or circumstance likely to produce injury.

Lt. Mercil added that use of force must be reasonable when it starts and when it stops. As levels of resistance decrease, the officer should decrease use of force. Police officers are taught to use the least amount of force for any purpose, such as putting people in handcuffs. Policy states that “a peace officer making an arrest may not subject the person arrested to any more restraint than is necessary for the arrest and detention.”

The jury was shown an image of the human body used to train officers on where they should or shouldn’t hit a suspect. The head, neck, spine, and tailbone were in the “red zone,” meaning that “injury to those areas tends to range from serious to long lasting, and may include unconsciousness, serious bodily injury, shock or death.”

(Credit Image: Screengrab via @AnaViLastra on Twitter)
(Credit Image: Screengrab via @AnaViLastra on Twitter)

This expert witness confirmed that MPD policy allows neck restraints. In general, a neck restraint is considered non-deadly force. It puts pressure on the side of the neck to slow blood flow to and from the brain. Light to moderate pressure is a controlling technique, and maximum pressure can make a person blackout.

Lt. Mercil said that he taught police officers to put the subject’s neck in the crook of the arm, and apply pressure with the forearm and upper arm. He never taught anyone to use a knee in a neck restraint. He did train people to use a leg, but to apply pressure with the thigh. Police officers may use conscious neck restraint against subjects who are actively resisting. The unconscious neck restraint may be used only:

  • On subjects who are actively aggressive.
  • For life-saving purposes.
  • In order to gain control of an actively resisting subject and if lesser attempts at control have been or would probably be ineffective.

A neck restrain is not authorized on someone who is not resisting. When Lt. Mercil was asked to give his opinion of the photo of Officer Chauvin with his knee on Floyd’s neck, he said it is not the kind of neck restraint MPD trains officers to do, but that it is authorized. When asked how long this technique should last, Lt. Mercil said that it would depend on the type of resistance from the subject. He said it would not be authorized if the subject were handcuffed and under control. Lt. Mercil said that a “choke hold” is considered “deadly force,” but that in the video he saw, he did not see Officer Chauvin use a “choke hold” on Floyd.

Lt. Mercil explained that handcuffs go on one cuff at a time, and when the officer has control, he needs to check the fit and the double-lock. The double lock prevents further tightening — for the comfort and safety of the arrestee — and keeps the cuffs closed. Lt. Mercil said that when someone is handcuffed face-down, he teaches officers to use a knee to control the subject’s shoulder. “You put one knee on each side of the arm, so one would be on the upper shoulder and one would be one the back. And then isolate the arm, present the arm for cuffing.” He added that when the subject stops resisting, that is not necessarily the time to remove the knee, because people can still thrash around and be a threat. “They can kick, bite, and some other things. So control doesn’t end with handcuffing.”

He also said that once the subject is compliant, that’s a good time to remove the knee. After that, an officer should get the subject in another position, such as the “side recovery” position, which allows better breathing, or let him stand or sit. Prosecutor Matthew Frank asked, “How soon should you place the person in side recovery?” Lt. Mercil said, “When the scene is Code 4 and you’re able to do it. . . . The sooner the better.” (Code 4 means that the scene is safe.)

The lieutenant also testified about “maximal restraint technique,” or the “hobble,” in which an officer ties the legs of the subject so he can’t kick. The officer should then puts the subject on his side. “When you restrict their ability to move, you restrict their ability to breathe.”

Lt. Mercil agreed with the defense that people make excuses when they are arrested. In the past, he had had to decide if a suspect was making excuses or was really having a crisis. He arrested people who claimed to be having an emergency and said, “I can’t breathe” to avoid arrest. Sometimes Lt. Mercil thought they were lying.

Mr. Nelson showed the lieutenant a photo of a paramedic checking George Floyd’s carotid pulse by feeling the side of Floyd’s neck while Officer Chauvin still had his knee on him. “In your experience, would you be able to touch the carotid artery if the knee was on the carotid artery?” Lt. Mercil replied, “No, sir.”

The defense then showed a screenshot from one of the officers’ body cameras, that showed Officer Chauvin holding Floyd down. Lt. Mercil agreed that Officer Chauvin’s shin appeared to be across Floyd’s shoulder blade, not on his neck. There were two other screenshots with different time stamps that also showed Officer Chauvin’s shin across Floyd’s shoulder blade.

When he looked at a fourth photo that showed Officer Chauvin’s knee, the lieutenant said this seemed to be a “hold,” not a neck restraint. He conceded that it’s possible he had to hold someone down for 10 minutes in his own police career, and that he had held people down while waiting for Emergency Medical Services. He has trained officers to do this.

The court viewed photos from a training manual that show an officer putting a knee on a subject’s shoulder, with his shin across the neck. This is a technique for handcuffing someone in a prone position. An officer may need to stay in that position for a while, but Lt. Mercil said that officers must be mindful of the neck. He also testified that he had been taught that if someone can talk, he can also breathe.

The next expert witness, Nicole MacKenzie, a MPD medical support coordinator who trains officers in first aid, said that she does not teach that if someone can talk he can breathe. She said it’s possible that a talking person may not be breathing adequately. Officer Chauvin attended one of her courses, which included CPR training, a Narcan (antidote for certain drug overdoses) update, and casualty care.

(Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
(Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

Miss MacKenzie said the department’s policy is that you need to give CPR and call an ambulance when someone is in critical condition. She went over steps for treating an unresponsive person. If he has no pulse, officers are trained to do CPR. They may stop if the situation is not safe or if they are exhausted and cannot continue.

Miss MacKenzie talked about “agonal breathing,” which is gasps that do not give someone enough oxygen. She called it “the brain’s last-ditch effort to get air.” She told Mr. Nelson that agonal breaths can be misinterpreted as effective breathing, and it’s easier to make that mistake if there is a lot of noise and commotion.

She was asked if she was familiar with “load and go,” which means putting a patient in the ambulance and leaving as quickly as possible to treat him elsewhere. This is what paramedics did with George Floyd. Miss MacKenzie agreed that the people in the area affect an EMT’s decision to load and go. Miss MacKenzie said this happens if you have a very hostile crowd. “Bystanders sometimes do attack.” She said hostility is “a growing contingent of people . . . yelling, being even verbally abusive to those that are trying to provide scene security.”

The last witness of the day was Sgt. Jody Stiger, a black use-of-force expert from Los Angeles whom the state paid $13,000 to review video, reports, and MPD manuals. He said Officer Chauvin used excessive force. The prosecution did not finish direct examination, so Sgt. Stiger will probably be the first witness tomorrow.

(Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
(Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

This was a good day for the defense. The prosecution witnesses who were supposed to be proving homicide or manslaughter beyond a reasonable doubt said what they were supposed to say on direct examination, but on cross-examination they conceded many points that were useful for the defense. Nicole MacKenzie, who gives first-aid training, was so favorable for the defense that Eric Nelson told the court he intends to call her as a witness when he puts on his case in chief.

Day Eight

Day eight began with continued testimony from the prosecution’s paid use-of-force expert, Sergeant Jody Stiger. He is a black man who spent his law-enforcement career with the Los Angeles Police Department. Yesterday, he began his testimony by saying he thought Mr. Chauvin had used excessive force on George Floyd.

Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire
Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire

Today, the prosecution established the amount of time Mr. Chauvin restrained Floyd. Prosecutor Jerry Blackwell had said in his opening statements that this case was all about those “nine minutes and 29 seconds.”

Prosecutor Matthew Frank showed Sgt. Stiger five photos of Mr. Chauvin and Floyd, taken from various sources. The sergeant said Mr. Chauvin used his body weight to hold George Floyd down, with his left knee on Floyd’s neck and his right knee on Floyd’s back. He said that the majority of Mr. Chauvin’s weight would have been on Floyd’s body, and that Mr. Chauvin’s position did not change. In the final photo, Mr. Chauvin’s left knee is on Floyd’s shoulder blade, and his right knee is near Floyd’s cuffed hands, low on his back, but Sgt. Stiger said, “The defendant’s left knee is still on Mr. Floyd’s neck, uh, or neck area, and the right knee is on his back area.”

“So, based on your review of all the camera footage,” Mr. Frank asked, “the defendant’s body position, with that particular force, did not change for the entire restraint period?” Sergeant Stiger answered, “Correct.”

Next, the prosecution showed a photo of Mr. Chauvin’s right hand holding Floyd’s left hand, with Floyd’s hands cuffed behind his back. Mr. Chauvin appeared to be pulling Floyd’s fingers down through the cuff. Sgt. Stiger said this is a standard procedure to cause pain. An officer is supposed to stop doing this as the subject becomes more compliant, but that Mr. Chauvin did not change his hand position throughout the nine minutes and 29 seconds. The sergeant thought this was inappropriate because Floyd was not an immediate threat.

Sgt. Stiger said that the number of officers on the scene goes into what would be an appropriate level of force. In this case, there were five officers; three used their body weight to hold Floyd down; and two others were present. The sergeant said this means Floyd was not a threat.

The sergeant also discussed “proportionality;” an officer may use force only if it is proportional to the level of crime or level of resistance. Sgt. Stiger said that Mr. Chauvin used deadly force on George Floyd. A Minnesota statute defines “deadly force” as “force which the actor uses with the purpose of causing, or which the actor should reasonably know creates a substantial risk of causing death or great bodily harm.”

Sgt. Stiger said he first learned about positional asphyxia in 1995; he said it can kill a subject even without pressure on the body.

Sgt Stiger said he has been in situations in which a crowd threw rocks and bottles at the police. In reviewing video evidence, he did not see anyone throwing things or attacking the officers. He saw people using foul language, but he did not think they were a threat, so he did not “factor them into his analysis.” He said they were not a threat; they were worried about Floyd. He did admit that bystanders can be a distraction, but that the 866 hours of training Mr. Chauvin had should have been enough for him to deal with this distraction.

To prove that Mr. Chauvin was capable of “being attentive” to Floyd in spite of hostile bystanders, the prosecution played part of Officer Lane’s body cam video. This is how the video sounded to me:

Floyd: [unintelligible] . . . moving. My stomach hurts.

Chauvin: Uh, huh.

Floyd: My dick hurts.

Chauvin: Uh, huh.

Floyd: Everything hurts. (groan) [unintelligible] Please, please!

Lane: Jesus.

Floyd: (groan) I can’t breathe, officer.

Chauvin: [unintelligible] stop talking [unintelligible]

Floyd and Chauvin: [unintelligible]

Floyd: Mama!

On cross examination, Derek Chauvin’s lawyer, Eric Nelson, questioned Sergeant Stiger’s qualifications to serve as an expert, getting him to concede that he had never testified as an expert in use-of-force, and emphasizing that he got his training in another state. Sgt. Stiger agreed that different cities have different policies on tactics and use of force. Mr. Nelson asked if the sergeant had watched the Minneapolis Police Department (MPD) training videos that had been shown as PowerPoint presentations, and Sgt. Stiger said that he had not, because they were PDFs.

Eric Nelson, Chauvin’s defense lawyer. (Credit Image: © B4859 / Avalon/Avalon via ZUMA Press)
Eric Nelson, Chauvin’s defense lawyer. (Credit Image: © B4859 / Avalon/Avalon via ZUMA Press)

Sgt. Stiger agreed that according to MPD policy, one cannot use 20/20 hindsight when judging use of force. One has to allow for the fact that police officers must make split-second decisions in quickly changing situations. Mr. Nelson has often used the phrase “the totality of the circumstances,” and Sgt. Stiger said he took that into consideration when reaching his conclusions.

Mr. Nelson explained what Mr. Chauvin knew at the time. Dispatch told officers to go, Code 3 with lights and sirens, to deal with a suspect who was 6’5” and under the influence. Although Sgt. Stiger laughed and said he had seen small people put up bigger fights than big people, he agreed that a reasonable officer would have a heightened sense of concern about the call. Mr. Chauvin knew that other officers were using force even before he arrived.

When he got to the scene, he saw Floyd in the back seat of a squad car, resisting two other cops. With the information he had, he could have used his taser, but did not. In other words, Mr. Chauvin used less force than he would have been allowed to use.

Floyd was actively resisting until he was on the ground. Floyd was talking as he was being put in the car. He said, “I can’t breathe,” as he was resisting efforts to be put into the car. He used his body weight against the officers, and all three officers together could not get him into the car.

Mr. Nelson asked Sgt. Stiger if anyone had ever tried to bargain with him to avoid going to jail. Sgt. Stiger said people feign illness. Mr. Nelson asked whether Floyd’s saying he couldn’t breathe while he was violently resisting arrest was inconsistent with being unable to breathe. Sgt. Stiger said it was.

Mr. Nelson read the sergeant’s own words in the report he wrote for the state: “When the futility of the three officers continuing their efforts forcibly to seat Floyd in the squad’s back seat became clear, they put him on the ground in the prone position.”

Mr. Nelson asked Sgt. Stiger if he had used the “swarm technique,” in which multiple officers hold a suspect down. The sergeant said that this is typically done to put on handcuffs.

Mr. Nelson talked about how things can “be missed” during a chaotic arrest. He played part of the video from Officer Kueng’s body camera. Floyd is on the ground crying out, and his words are unintelligible. Mr. Nelson asked if Floyd was saying, “I ate too many drugs.” When the video was replayed, Floyd’s words sounded like “I ate too many drugs,” but Sgt. Stiger said, “I can’t make that out, no.”

Mr. Nelson showed a screenshot from a city camera video and pointed out that Mr. Chauvin’s right shoulder is lower than his left shoulder, indicating that there is less pressure on Floyd’s upper back and more pressure on the lower back. He said that use of force often leaves injuries on the suspect, a topic that will no doubt come up when the medical examiner testifies. Sgt. Stiger admitted that Mr. Chauvin’s knee was on the base of Floyd’s neck, rather than on his neck, and that Floyd had been able to lift his head slightly and turn his head.

Mr. Nelson brought up an officer’s responsibility to give first aid to someone he is arresting, including CPR in case of a heart attack. However, in order to give CPR, Floyd would have had to be taken out of his cuffs. Sgt. Stiger agreed that an unconscious subject may revive and become even more violent than before.

On redirect, Matthew Frank pointed out that positional asphyxia is not necessarily about pressure on the neck, but general pressure on the body that can make it hard to breathe. He reintroduced the concept of “in your custody, in your care,” which led Sgt. Stiger to say that an officer must believe an arrestee who is making a complaint about his medical condition; “You can’t opt not to believe.”

Mr. Nelson had mentioned “lawful but awful,” which means that the public may not find lawful police work palatable. Mr. Frank asked, “To be lawful, the force has to be objectively reasonable. If it isn’t lawful, then what’s left?” Sgt. Stiger gave a short laugh and said, “Even though the situation may be deemed lawful, in the community’s eyes, the use of force is awful . . . it looks horrible to the common eye, but based on the state law, it’s lawful.”

Mr. Frank added, “But if it’s not objectively reasonable and it’s not lawful, then it’s just awful.”

Next, the prosecution called James Reyerson, a black man who is a senior special agent with the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA). He explained that BCA has four divisions: investigation (where he works), laboratory, information services, and training. On the day George Floyd died, his role was to investigate homicide involving use of force. His supervisor called him at 9:45 p.m. and Mr. Reyerson went to City Hall. He took photos of Mr. Chauvin in the uniform he was wearing during the incident. He said Mr. Chauvin weighed 140 pounds and was wearing a duty belt that weighed 30-40 pounds. He took the officer’s body cam, uniform, and equipment.

James Reyerson (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
James Reyerson (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

Mr. Reyerson met forensics scientist McKenzie Anderson and other members of their crime-scene team at the scene. They took two $20 bills and a glass pipe, which they submitted for lab testing. Mr. Reyerson turned over the squad car and Floyd’s car to the agencies for analysis. He gathered body camera and surveillance camera videos, and compared timestamps. A nearby establishment, Dragon Wok, initially did not turn over its surveillance video, so they had to get a warrant for it. Mr. Reyerson watched all the video evidence.

Mr. Reyerson got the autopsy and toxicology report from the medical examiner. He had preliminary information about Floyd’s drug use from audio files and radio traffic, but he did not know which drugs he had taken. Mr. Reyerson said that the defense lawyer inspected the squad car under proper security, and at that time, he found pills in the back seat, which BCA sent to the lab.

On cross examination, Mr. Nelson confirmed that it was legal for the defense to inspect the car, and Mr. Reyerson said he was not suggesting that the defense planted the pills in the car.

Mr. Nelson asked Mr. Reyerson if he reviewed the body cam video closely, and if he ever heard Floyd say, “I ate too many drugs.” Mr. Reyerson said, “No.” After he watched the video again, he changed his mind and said, “Yes, it did” sound like Floyd had said, “I ate too many drugs.”

Mr. Nelson asked about the liquid that bystander Genevieve Hansen had noticed on the ground near Floyd and thought it might be urine. Mr. Reyerson said the liquid was condensation from the squad car.

During Mr. Frank’s redirect, Mr. Reyerson said that this was the first time he had been asked to listen to the video that sounds like Floyd saying, “I ate too many drugs.” A slightly longer part of the video was played in court, and Mr. Frank said that Mr. Reyerson should listen for the question Mr. Chauvin asks Floyd before he replies. This time, Mr. Reyerson said, “I believe Mr. Floyd is saying, ‘I ain’t doing no drugs.’”

I listened to the video more than five times, listening as carefully as I could, but I can’t make out what Floyd was saying.

The court saw video from the Dragon Wok surveillance camera. It shows Morries Hall, Floyd’s passenger, standing by Floyd’s car, at a moment when the police are not paying attention to him, Mr. Hall gets his backpack out of the car, takes something out of it, and throws it onto the street. There was no testimony about what he might have thrown.

In the afternoon, three women testified, beginning with McKenzie Anderson, who works for the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension as a forensic scientist. On the day Floyd died, Miss Anderson came to the crime scene. She learned there was a video of what happened and she watched part of it to find the spot where Floyd was held down. She found no blood, but acknowledged that it had rained before she got there and rain could have washed blood away.

McKenzie Anderson (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
McKenzie Anderson (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

She did not collect evidence from the scene. Her team towed Floyd’s car and the squad car back to the BCA garage for processing in a controlled environment. Miss Anderson and two others photographed the outsides and insides of the cars. They went through the contents, documenting what was inside. They found a cell phone on the front passenger seat and a small white pill on the center console next to a pack of gum.

Miss Anderson searched Floyd’s car again on December 20, because there was a request to recover pills, gum, and money. Miss Anderson found an open Suboxone packet on the floor and a sealed Suboxone packet on the driver’s seat. Suboxone is used to treat patients dependent on opioids like heroin, morphine, oxycodone, or codeine. She also found two white pills in the center console, which she sent to a lab for testing.

In the squad car, Miss Anderson found a black fabric strap on the back seat and a pair of black sneakers on the floor. When she picked up the sneakers, she found a white pill on the floor. She also found four partially dissolved pills and some blood stains. The saliva on the pills and the blood matched George Floyd’s DNA.

The next forensic scientist was Breahna Giles, a BCA chemist. She spoke with a slight quiver and seemed nervous. She tested the “slightly charred” residue on a glass pipe from George Floyd’s car, and found THC, the main psycho-active ingredient in marijuana. Miss Giles tested a white, round tablet with markings that indicated it should contain oxycodone and acetaminophen. The result showed that it was a disguised pill that actually contained fentanyl and methamphetamine. The three other pills, which were smaller than the first, contained methamphetamine.

Breahna Giles (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
Breahna Giles (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

The last witness of the day was forensic chemist Susan Neith. She tested three partial pills recovered from George Floyd’s car and got results from two of them. Both contained less than 1 percent fentanyl and 2 percent methamphetamine. Miss Giles testified that this level of fentanyl is common in street drugs, but the methamphetamine level was lower than usual.

Day Nine

Day nine was all about how George Floyd died — the most important question in this case. The prosecution called Dr. Martin Tobin, a pulmonologist with impressive credentials. Prosecution lawyer Jerry Blackwell noted that the medical journal The Lancet calls Dr. Tobin’s book on mechanical ventilation (breathing) “the Bible.”

Dr. Tobin has been a paid expert witness in medical malpractice cases. When the prosecution contacted him about this trial, Dr. Tobin offered to waive his usual $500 an hour fee, because he has not done a criminal case before.

Mr. Blackwell asked Dr. Tobin what he thought George Floyd’s cause of death was. The doctor answered, “Mr. Floyd died from a low level of oxygen, this caused damage to his brain, and it also caused a PEA [pulseless electrical activity] arrhythmia, and that caused his heart to stop.” The doctor explained that other terms, such as asphyxia and hypoxia, all mean a low level of oxygen. He said the low level was the result of “shallow breathing . . . small breaths that weren’t able to carry the air through his lungs down to the essential area of the lungs that gets oxygen into the lungs and gets rid of the carbon dioxide.”

The doctor said several things led to Floyd’s shallow breathing: prone position, handcuffs, knee on neck, knee on back, knee on side. All this would lead to shallow breaths. He also said many times that pressure from lying on pavement, instead of something soft, like a mattress, also made it hard for Floyd to expand his lungs.

The jury got a lesson in lung anatomy. “Dead space” is the part of the lung air travels through before reaching the alveoli, the tiny air sacs where oxygen enters the blood. Incidentally, in severe cases of Covid-19 — and Floyd was positive — the alveoli don’t work properly.

Although both the police officers’ positions and George Floyd’s position changed, Dr. Tobin said that Mr. Chauvin’s left knee was on Floyd’s neck for more than 90 percent of the nine minutes and 29 seconds Mr. Chauvin had a knee on him. Mr. Chauvin’s right knee was on Floyd’s back for 57 percent of time, and at other times it was on Floyd’s arm or “rammed in against” the left side of Floyd’s chest. The doctor said this would all have similar effects on Floyd’s breathing.

Dr. Tobin explained that when a person breathes, the chest expands both front-to-back and side-to-side. A photo shows Mr. Chauvin’s hand pushing down on Floyd’s wrist, while it was handcuffed behind his back. Dr. Tobin said the pressure against Floyd’s back prevented the front-to-back movement that Floyd needed to breathe. Dr. Tobin said that in the case of Floyd’s left side, it was “as though a surgeon had gone in and removed the lung,” so he was totally dependent on his right lung.

Dr. Tobin used photos from the scene to argue that Floyd was using his fingers and knuckles to push up against the street and the squad car’s tire to try to open his chest. He said Floyd was lifting his shoulder to try to get more breathing room.

Dr. Tobin said that the knee on Floyd’s neck was extremely important because it kept air from getting through to the lungs. The hypopharynx is a very narrow part of the throat that has no cartilage to protect it from compression. The doctor said that at different times in the video, he could see Mr. Chauvin putting pressure on Floyd’s hypopharynx. If the hypopharynx is completely blocked, oxygen deprivation will cause a seizure or a heart attack within seconds.

When Floyd rolled his head face down against the street, the doctor thought he was trying to get leverage to expand his chest. This released some of the pressure on the hypopharynx. When Floyd’s head was to the side, there was greater pressure on the hypopharynx. Once the airway is 85 percent blocked, it takes much more effort to breathe, and at some point, a person can’t breathe anymore.

Dr. Tobin pointed to a moment when Mr. Chauvin’s toe does not touch the ground, suggesting that much of his weight was on Floyd’s neck area. The doctor calculated the weight on Floyd’s neck at that moment as 86.9 pounds. The sides of the neck expand as a person inhales, but the doctor said it doesn’t really matter whether Mr. Chauvin’s knee was on Floyd’s back, neck, or side. Any position, in combination with the pavement, could lead to shallow breathing.

The doctor explained that when we exhale, we do not exhale all of the oxygen from our lungs; we have a reserve. He used an illustration to show what are called the End-Expiratory Lung Volume (EELV) and the Residual Volume (RV). “The EELV is now really squashed down by the combinations of turning him prone and also having the knee on the back,” Dr. Tobin explained. “You’re seeing a 43 percent reduction in the EELV, which means, there is also a 43 percent reduction in his oxygen reserves, which means there is also a huge reduction in the size of the hypopharynx, because this is directly linked to the hypopharynx.”

The doctor talked about how hard Floyd’s body was working to keep breathing. “When you’re turned prone and with the knee on the back, now the work that Mr. Floyd has to perform becomes huge . . .with each breath, he has to fight against the street; he has to try to fight with the small volumes that he has; then he has to try to lift up the officer’s knee.” Dr. Tobin said that the other officer pushing down against Floyd’s handcuffed hands also pushed Floyd’s chest against the ground. “There is a huge increase in the work that Mr. Floyd was performing just to cope with what was happening below the neck, let alone what is happening above the neck.”

Dr. Tobin said that when the level of oxygen reaches 36, a person loses consciousness. George Floyd, a 46-year-old man, had a normal level of 89. Floyd lost consciousness at about 8:25pm. Dr. Tobin, who works in an intensive care unit, said he can tell by looking at a patient’s face whether the patient has lost consciousness. After Floyd blacked out, the amount of oxygen in his body went to zero in less than a minute. Mr. Chauvin lifted his knee off Floyd three minutes and two seconds after Floyd’s air supply was completely gone.

The doctor was aware of Floyd’s pre-existing medical conditions from the autopsy report, but said they made no difference. Nor did it make any difference that Floyd had been fighting police officers for 10 minutes. “A healthy person subjected to what Mr. Floyd was subjected to would have died.”

Dr. Tobin said Floyd’s paraganglioma tumor was not impotent because “one of the key things about a paraganglioma is that it’s called the ’10 percent tumor.’ This means 10 percent of the people with paraganglioma secrete extra adrenalin (which would have made Floyd’s condition worse). Well, that could be important, but 90 percent of them don’t secrete adrenalin.” The doctor added that when someone dies from a paraganglioma, it’s a sudden death. There are six reported cases of people with paraganglioma who died suddenly, but those people complained of headaches, and Floyd did not. Dr. Tobin said Floyd’s death was not sudden.

The doctor said it was important to note when Floyd was able to speak. He said that while Floyd was speaking, there was enough oxygen to keep his brain alive. However, he said that “if you can speak, you can breathe” is “a very dangerous mantra.”

Pulmonology Expert, Dr. Martin Tobin, is questioned by prosecuting attorney, Jerry Blackwell, during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
Pulmonology Expert, Dr. Martin Tobin, is questioned by prosecuting attorney, Jerry Blackwell, during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

“It’s a true statement, but it gives you an enormous false sense of security. At the moment that you are speaking, you are breathing, but it doesn’t tell you that you are going to be breathing five seconds later.” The doctor elaborated, saying that people speak only when they are exhaling. There must be inhalation before you speak. Floyd was talking for 4 minutes and 51 seconds, so his airway was not fully blocked for that period of time.

There is a moment in the video that shows Floyd’s leg kicking up backwards. The doctor said this is an involuntary reaction that indicates a fatally low level of oxygen going to the brain. “The brain is only 2 percent of our body weight but it takes 20 percent of our oxygen supply. . . . If you stop the flow of oxygen to the brain, you lose consciousness in eight seconds.”

On cross-examination, defense lawyer Eric Nelson said, “MPD officers have nowhere near your level of expertise . . . they are not even EMTs.” He said that while the doctor had the luxury of slowing down and repeatedly looking at the video — “literally hundreds of times” — the police were making decisions in real-time, based on far less medical knowledge.

Mr. Nelson said that the physics were constantly changing and could be different at each moment. Of the mathematical calculations the doctor made, Mr. Nelson said, “You’ve taken this case, and you literally boiled it down to a nanosecond.” Dr. Tobin disagreed, saying that he had given a chronology.

Mr. Nelson pointed out that Dr. Tobin is not a pathologist and doesn’t look at everything the way a pathologist would, but the doctor disagreed. “A pathologist is looking at the nanosecond of death.”

Doctor Tobin had mentioned that the back of the neck is very hard and can withstand pressure. Mr. Nelson asked the doctor if Mr. Chauvin’s knee had been on that spot, and the doctor conceded that “at times” it was.

Pulmonology Expert, Dr. Martin Tobin, is cross examined by defense attorney, Eric Nelson, during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
Pulmonology Expert, Dr. Martin Tobin, is cross examined by defense attorney, Eric Nelson, during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

The defense tried to turn the doctor’s negative view on If you can speak; you can breathe to his advantage, by pointing out that even doctors keep that expression in mind as they work. Doctor Tobin insisted that it’s a bad concept to teach police officers. Mr. Nelson also prompted Dr. Tobin to admit that the calculations he presented in court assumed an equal weight distribution on Mr. Chauvin’s right and left leg.

Mr. Nelson asked Dr. Tobin if Fentanyl can cause death from low oxygen. The doctor said it can, but that it puts patients into a coma. Doctor Tobin calculated Floyd’s breaths per minute from the part of the video in which Floyd was still breathing. He said Floyd’s breaths were too frequent to suggest that Fentanyl was causing respiratory failure. Mr. Nelson brought up the pill fragments that had been found in the back seat of the squad car in which Floyd had spent some time. If Floyd had swallowed Fentanyl-and-methamphetamine pills before getting onto the pavement, wouldn’t they reach peak effect in about five minutes? Dr. Tobin had to agree that they would.

The next witness for the prosecution was Daniel Isenschmid, a forensic toxicologist, who tested Floyd’s blood and urine. He compared their chemical contents to those of thousands of other patients, both living and dead. He said the concentration of drugs in blood may appear higher if the blood is taken after the patient dies.

Forensic Toxicologist, Dr. Daniel Isenschmid, testifies during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
Forensic Toxicologist, Dr. Daniel Isenschmid, testifies during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

He had lots of charts showing that George Floyd’s Fentanyl levels were low compared to other samples in his database, but on cross-examination, Mr. Nelson pointed out that the findings presented for deaths with Fentanyl included patients who had died of other causes and the data were not limited to people who had died of recreational Fentanyl overdose. For all anyone knew, they could all have been shot dead or died in car crashes and were then found to have Fentanyl in their systems.

Dr. Isenschmid also compared Floyd’s Fentanyl levels to living people who were in DUI cases. Some were driving with higher levels of Fentanyl than were found in Floyd’s blood. Dr. Isenschimd called that “pretty amazing,” suggesting that Floyd’s Fentanyl level need therefore not be fatal. The doctor said the amount of methamphetamine in Floyd’s blood was about what someone with a prescription for the drug would take. There was morphine in Floyd’s urine, but he said it can stay in urine for a few days after someone takes morphine. He also found that Floyd smoked tobacco and marijuana and drank coffee.

Dr. Bill Smock, an emergency medical doctor with a specialty in forensic pathology, was hired by the state to testify for $300 an hour. He is a police surgeon, who accompanies SWAT teams in case someone gets hurt. He mostly just agreed with Dr. Tobin: “Floyd died of positional asphyxia. He died because he had no oxygen in his body.”

Dr. Smock said he ruled out other causes of death, including excited delirium, a controversial diagnosis not recognized by the American Medical Association or the American Psychiatric Association. He showed a chart of symptoms of excited delirium and said that Floyd did not have any of them.

He did not think Floyd died of an overdose because he didn’t think Floyd looked sleepy or lost awareness of where he was or what was happening. The doctor also did not see other signs of Fentanyl overdose, such as constricted pupils.

Dr. Smock talked about “air hunger,” which means being desperate to breathe. He told the court that saying “I can’t breathe,” is a sign of air hunger. In an opioid overdose, there is no air hunger because the patient falls asleep and then goes into a coma. The doctor said he never saw an opioid overdose in which someone had air hunger and cried out in pain.

On cross-examination, Dr. Smock conceded that methamphetamine — which Floyd had in his system — when combined with an opioid such as Fentanyl would produce a different kind of death from one caused exclusively by Fentanyl.

This was a good day for the prosecution. Its witnesses said what they were supposed to say and stuck to their guns. However, cross-examination was limited to subjects that came up on direct examination, so Mr. Nelson could not introduce new facts that were useful for the defense. The real test will come when the defense puts on its own experts, who will make a different case for how Floyd died. The trial continues on Friday.

Day Ten

Outside the Hennepin County Government Center on April 2, 2021 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Protestors have not left the space in Government Plaza since the beginning of the trial. (Credit Image: © imageSPACE via ZUMA Wire)
Outside the Hennepin County Government Center on April 2, 2021 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Protestors have not left the space in Government Plaza since the beginning of the trial. (Credit Image: © imageSPACE via ZUMA Wire)

The first witness called was Lindsey Thomas, a forensic pathologist. She described forensic pathology as “where medicine and the law meet.” Dr. Thomas works on unexpected and suspicious deaths; she is qualified to determine causes of death. She said that pathologists investigate a patient’s history, run laboratory tests, and look at what was going on at the time of death. Her job is to take information from both the body and the events around the death to find its cause. The state of Minnesota reached out to her for this trial and she did not charge a fee for her testimony.

She reviewed the medical examiner’s report, Floyd’s medical records, interviews, medical literature, and videos. “The use of videos is unique in this case,” she said. “There has never been a case that I worked on that used so many videos from so many different perspectives.” Dr. Thomas’s conclusion was that the primary reason for George Floyd’s death was “asphyxia.” In layman’s terms: low oxygen.

Prosecutor Jerry Blackwell led her through the information on the death certificate. The cause of death has different sections: “Immediate,” “Underlying,” and “Other Contributing Conditions.” George Floyd’s immediate cause of death is: “Cardiopulmonary arrest complicating law enforcement subdual, restraint and neck compression.” When asked to explain “cardiopulmonary arrest,” Dr. Thomas said that everyone dies when his heart stops. This does not mean that Floyd died of a heart attack or fatal arrhythmia. On “complicating law enforcement subdual, restraint and neck compression,” Dr. Thomas said, “What it means to me, is that the activities of the law enforcement officers resulted in Mr. Floyd’s death, and that specifically those activities were the subdual, the restraint, and the neck compression.” She said her own conclusion matches that of the medical examiner, Dr. Andrew Baker, whom she used to work with.

Mr. Blackwell asked Dr. Thomas to elaborate on the “mechanism of death.” She gave the example that with a gunshot wound, the mechanism would be blood loss. In Floyd’s case, she said, “The primary mechanism was asphyxia or low oxygen . . . He was unable to get enough oxygen in, to maintain his body functions.” She went on to say that after reviewing the video of his arrest, she concluded that Floyd’s bellows (“the system comprising the diaphragm and thorax”) malfunctioned because of the physical position the police put him in for an extended period of time. She noticed that Floyd had an “anoxic seizure,” an involuntary twitch of the body that indicates that the brain is not getting enough oxygen.

The doctor said that for a forensic pathologist, an autopsy is helpful for ruling things out. For instance, Floyd had Covid-19, but the autopsy showed that his lungs were not diseased. Floyd had no blood clots or ruptured blood vessels in the brain. A heart attack was ruled out because a recent heart attack would have shown damage in the heart muscle. Prior heart attacks would have shown scarring. “This was not a sudden death,” she said. The autopsy did not show signs of fatal heart arrhythmia. Her examination of the video evidence also led her to rule out Fentanyl overdose as the cause of death, as people who overdose become very sleepy.

On Floyd’s death certificate, “Underlying Conditions” was left blank, and “Other Contributing Conditions” were listed as, “Arteriorsclerotic and hypertensive heart disease; Fentanyl intoxication; recent methamphetamine use.” Dr. Thomas said she considered whether the “other contributing conditions” could have been the “immediate” cause of death. She ruled out methamphetamine as an “immediate” cause because meth overdoses are very sudden, causing a full-blown seizure, not like the minor twitch she observed in the video. When asked what “Underlying Conditions” meant, the doctor said those are the sequence of events that leads to a death. For example, an elderly person falls and breaks a hip, then goes to a hospital for surgery, where he then gets pneumonia.

The jury received autopsy photos in a packet. As they looked through them, Dr. Thomas explained that the superficial injuries on Floyd’s face, shoulders, wrists, and knuckles supported what they saw in the videos of Floyd’s arrest. Since he was being restrained, Floyd had to rub his face against the concrete ground, pull against his handcuffs, push with his shoulder, and push with his knuckles, to try to get into a position where he could breathe. She told the jury she did not think there was any evidence that Floyd would have died that evening without the actions of law enforcement. Her argument echoed what Prosecutor Jerry Blackwell told jurors on the first day of the trial: “You can believe your eyes.”

Mr. Blackwell asked her to discuss physiological stress. Dr. Thomas gave the example of the elevated stress a driver feels after narrowly avoiding a serious car accident and the way a mother feels when she loses track of her toddler at the beach. In Floyd’s case, the elevated stress lasted nine minutes. This chemical stress in Floyd’s body, in combination with everything else that was going on, made for a “double whammy” against his nervous system. The doctor explained that there are five possible choices for “manner of death”: natural, accident, suicide, homicide, and undetermined. Floyd’s death certificate states that the manner of death was “homicide.”

Dr. Thomas was asked about a study (Chan, et al.) of various restraint positions that concluded, “the restraint position resulted in a restrictive pulmonary function pattern but did not result in clinically relevant changes in oxygenation or ventilation.” She said that “in laboratory safe settings,” studies can show that the prone position is not harmful, but they “have no relevance to real world situations.” The studies use volunteers who have agreed to be in this position for the experiment, and they know that they can end the restraint at any time if they feel scared or uncomfortable — meaning there’s never any physiological stress. Dr. Thomas did not find the study relevant in determining George Floyd’s cause of death. Mr. Blackwell’s last question for her was about whether a healthy person would have died under the same circumstances. Dr. Thomas avoided a yes-or-no answer and said, “I wouldn’t want to be put in that position.”

Eric Nelson, Derek Chauvin’s lawyer, started his cross-examination by asking Dr. Thomas to explain what “complicating” means on George Floyd’s death certificate. She said that it meant “both things were present,” referring to Floyd’s heart stopping and the compression put on him by the police. Mr. Nelson then focused his questions on Floyd’s health. “Let’s talk about Mr. Floyd’s heart first,” he said. Dr. Thomas said Floyd’s heart, at 540 grams, was “slightly enlarged.” She said that 250 to 510 grams would be the normal range for someone of Mr. Floyd’s height. The primary cause of an enlarged heart is high blood pressure, and she acknowledged that Floyd had high blood pressure. An enlarged heart needs more blood and oxygen to function than a healthy one. Floyd had a 90 percent blockage in his right coronary artery and a 75 percent blockage in his left artery. Mr. Nelson asked Dr. Thomas, if — knowing these facts — she would have concluded that Floyd died of heart disease, had his body been found at home. She said yes, and that she had certified deaths of that nature before.

Mr. Nelson then asked if some of Floyd’s abrasions could have happened when Floyd was first put down on the ground, but Dr. Thomas wouldn’t give a straight answer. Next, he asked her about an article from the Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine called “Incidence and outcome of prone positioning following police use of force in a prospective, consecutive cohort of subjects.” The doctor asked, “Was that the Canadian study?”

Mr. Nelson discussed the study, which was in fact Canadian. It was not conducted in a controlled laboratory environment, but was an analysis of actual police encounters, and real-life variables were considered. Out of over 1,000 arrests in which the suspects were placed in the prone position, there were no deaths. “Isn’t that amazing!?” Dr. Thomas exclaimed. “When you consider that virtually every forensic pathologist in the United States has probably had an officer involved in a death like this . . . It utterly baffles me, which is why I kept saying Canada, because I don’t know what’s different.”

When they moved on to the topic of drugs, Dr. Thomas said there is no safe amount of methamphetamine and it can increase the heart rate. She was aware that Floyd had likely ingested “speedballs,” a combination of Fentanyl and methamphetamine, before he died. She also said that some controlled substances affect the ability to breathe, which leads to low oxygen. Mr. Nelson presented her with a hypothetical situation in which a person is found at home after having ingested as much Fentanyl as Floyd had the day he died. Mr. Nelson asked if she would consider this an overdose, and she said she would.

On redirect, Mr. Blackwell started to say that Mr. Nelson’s questioning was like asking Lincoln’s wife if her husband would have died had he not been shot. This was objected to as argumentative, and Mr. Blackwell had to rephrase. Dr. Thomas seemed to agree that the hypothetical questions were not useful. She told Mr. Blackwell that she needed only pertinent information to make a decision about cause of death. Mr. Blackwell asked if there was any indication that Floyd had suffered sudden fatal arrhythmia or a heart attack. She said no. Mr. Blackwell asked if Floyd’s heart had been so “ordinary” in terms of injury that the medical examiner had chosen not to photograph it intact. Dr. Thomas replied that that was true: The heart had no scars or acute injury.

Regarding the Canadian study, Mr. Blackwell asked if there were studies with the same conclusions in America, and Dr. Thomas said no. “What is so peculiar about Canada that we’re talking about Canadian studies here?” Blackwell asked. “That’s what I don’t understand,” Dr. Thomas said, shrugging and shaking her head. “I don’t, I mean, yeah. I found that study and I thought, I don’t know how to interpret this. It’s so contrary to the actual experience of forensic pathologists in the United States.”

On redirect, Mr. Nelson asked Dr. Thomas if meth constricts the arteries. Then he asked, “Would you as a physician prescribe methamphetamine to a person who has a seventy percent to ninety percent occlusion in his or her heart?” Dr. Thomas smiled as Mr. Blackwell objected. Judge Peter Cahill said she could answer if she had an opinion. She didn’t.

After the lunch break, Dr. Andrew Baker, the medical examiner who conducted the autopsy on George Floyd, was sworn in. He is the chief medical examiner for Hennepin County. Dr. Baker said he conducted a “robust data set,” which meant that the autopsy was more detailed than usual. Extra photographs were taken, and there were extra notes on what was found and not found. He did this because it was likely that there could be a trial concerning Floyd’s death. The doctor did two things for Floyd that are not part of a typical autopsy: 1) He made incisions around Floyd’s wrists to look under the skin, and 2) He looked under the skin on Floyd’s back to see if there was fresh bruising.

April 9, 2021, Minneapolis, Minnesota : Dr. Andrew Baker, Chief Medical Examiner of Hennepin County, testifies during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)
April 9, 2021, Minneapolis, Minnesota : Dr. Andrew Baker, Chief Medical Examiner of Hennepin County, testifies during the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Credit Image: © Pool Video Via Court Tv via ZUMA Wire)

The jury went through their packet of autopsy photos again, this time with Dr. Baker explaining things as they went. There were no injuries to Floyd’s back, but there were several injuries to his face and shoulder, which were consistent with Floyd getting scraped on asphalt. The doctor said that the blunt force injuries on Floyd’s knuckles could have been either from fighting with the police or from banging into the asphalt.

Dr. Baker said he hadn’t taken a picture of the heart intact because it appeared to be normal. The heart was found to be enlarged later on, only after weighing it, but this would not have been apparent in a photograph. He found no visible or microscopic damage to the heart. The doctor said plaque buildup caused two arteries to be 75 percent blocked. A careful dissection of the heart revealed no damage that would have killed Floyd.

The medical examiner also found nothing wrong with Floyd’s brain, other than that it had been deprived of oxygen. Floyd had a lot of fluid and congestion in his lungs, but Dr. Baker said this could have happened for several different reasons. There were no pulmonary emboli, and the doctor didn’t see any evidence of Covid-19. Dr. Baker found no pills in Floyd’s stomach, either. He did not send the stomach fluid to be analyzed.

Dr. Baker did find a paraganglioma tumor in Floyd’s pelvis, but didn’t think it had anything to do with Floyd’s death. He ordered a toxicology screen to look for both prescription and illegal drugs. Dr. Daniel Isenschmid, who testified in court on Thursday, did all the toxicology screening. Dr. Baker also said that Floyd had asymptomatic sickle cell trait. Floyd’s blood sickled when examined after death, but there was no evidence that his blood was sickling when he was alive.

When asked about the manner of death, Dr. Baker said that medical examiners only get involved when the cause of death does not seem natural. He said “homicide” means that the actions of other people are involved in the person’s death, and he emphasized that on a death certificate, it is a medical term, not a legal term.

Mr. Blackwell asked why the doctor had not mentioned drugs on the top line of the death certificate. Dr. Baker said the drugs “may have contributed, but were not the cause” of death. Defining his top line cause of death, the doctor said “cardiopulmonary arrest” is just a fancy medical term that means the heart and lungs stopped. “Complicating” means “occurring at the setting of.” On “subdual restraint and neck compression,” the doctor said that Floyd had hypertensive heart disease. “In the context of an altercation with other people, those events pour adrenalin out to ask the body for more oxygen,” Dr. Baker said, adding that it was “just more than Mr. Floyd could take, by virtue of those heart conditions.”

During the cross-examination, Mr. Nelson asked Dr. Baker many of the same questions he’d asked Dr. Lindsey Thomas before lunch. He started with, “How do you define ‘complicating’?” Dr. Baker answered, “I use the word ‘complicating’ the way I think most physicians use the word ‘complications’ . . . Somebody goes in for hip surgery and they develop a blood clot in their leg. That’s a complication.” Mr. Nelson asked him about the “Other Contributing Conditions” part of the death certificate, and Dr. Baker said that those conditions are relevant. “We don’t put something on there that doesn’t play a role.” Illicit drugs, heart disease, and hypertension all played a role in Floyd’s death.

Mr. Nelson got Dr. Baker to point out many of the same medical points as Dr. Thomas had earlier in the day: That at 540 grams, Floyd’s heart was enlarged; that two of Floyd’s arteries were 75 percent blocked; that Floyd’s right coronary artery was 90 percent blocked; and that 75 percent blockage (or more) can cause sudden death. Dr. Baker also stated that Fentanyl is a respiratory depressant that slows breathing, lowering oxygen levels, and methamphetamine is a stimulant that makes the heart work harder. He said meth is not something he would want to see in the blood of a man with heart disease. Dr. Baker certifies deaths by overdose hundreds of times per year, and he said he has certified deaths by Fentanyl overdose for people with Fentanyl levels that were equal to Floyd’s, lower, and higher. Dr. Baker said he has seen levels as low as 3 ng/mL that caused overdose deaths; Floyd’s level was 11 ng/mL.

Mr. Nelson asked the medical examiner for his opinion on the prone position, and Dr. Baker said that according to medical literature, it is not inherently dangerous. This contradicted testimony from earlier in the trial, when some witnesses claimed the prone position is dangerous and causes positional asphyxia.

Referring to transcripts of interviews that various agencies had conducted with Dr. Baker, Mr. Nelson’s questioning revealed the following timeline:

  • May 25th — George Floyd dies.
  • May 26th — Dr. Baker conducts his autopsy on Floyd, without viewing video of his arrest. Later that day, he has a meeting with Hennepin county attorneys, and he tells them that the autopsy found no physical evidence that Floyd died of asphyxiation.
  • June 1st — Dr. Baker had viewed the videos by now. The toxicology report is issued, and the autopsy report is completed and filed.
  • July 8th — Dr. Baker is asked “but for” questions on conference calls with many people from the DOJ and FBI.

Mr. Nelson asked the doctor about his past comment that had Floyd been found at home with the same Fentanyl levels, he would have called Floyd’s death an overdose. Dr. Baker explained:

I don’t recall specifically what I told the county attorney, but it almost certainly went something like this: Had Mr. Floyd been home alone in his locked residence with no evidence of trauma, and the only autopsy finding was that fentanyl level, then yes, I would certify his death as due to fentanyl toxicity. But again, interpretation of drug concentration is very context-dependent.

He added that it was Floyd’s interaction with police that “tipped him over the edge” in combination with Floyd’s other health problems.

Mr. Nelson wrapped up his cross-examination with some questions about the mechanics of Floyd’s death. He asked if Mr. Chauvin had blocked Floyd’s carotid artery. Dr. Baker said he had not, and even if he had, the other artery could have supplied blood to Floyd’s brain. The doctor acknowledged that Mr. Chauvin’s knee had been on the back of Floyd’s neck, and he said that doctors don’t often see pressure to the back of the neck causing asphyxiation.

Mr. Nelson’s final question of the day was: “In terms of the placement of Mr. Chauvin’s knee . . . would that, anatomically, cut off Mr. Floyd’s airway?”

Dr. Baker answered: “In my opinion, it would not.”

During Mr. Blackwell’s redirect, Dr. Baker said if he had to do it again, he wouldn’t change his topline cause of death. The other conditions were contributing causes, but not direct causes. He would still classify the death as a homicide and would not change the death certificate.

(Republished from American Renaissance by permission of author or representative)
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  1. Blacks vs Blues. Whites only win if both sides lose. Only a fool trusts a black or a cop.

  2. aandrews says:

    “…and he broke down sobbing when Floyd started calling for his mother.”

    George Floyd’s pet name for his white girlfriend was “Mama”.


  3. This trial is total charade. All three policeman are innocent. CNN accidentally released a video with sound where Chauvin several time repeated these words: Are you going to go into car!!!!!
    While Floyd was repeating I can breathe. So all Floyd had to say I will and Chauvin would release him.
    This is the all essence of the encounter.

    • Agree: GomezAdddams
    • Replies: @Rev. Spooner
    , @Jake
  4. Ultimately, if old George Floyd had a chance to live another day and enjoy getting high with his delightful “fiancée”, Courtney Ross, that chance was ended by the MMA expert, Donald Williams II, along with the horrid Genevieve Hansen.

    Why did MN Attorney General, Keith Ellison (a negro), allow those bystander videos of only that limited portion of the full police encounter with Floyd, without releasing the full body cam footage? Because he wanted to incite death and destruction.

    Ellison should be on trial.

    Otherwise, if you believe white lives matter, consider Courtney Ross and Genevieve Hansen. Although, admittedly Minnesota is a weird place.

    • Agree: TKK, Realist, Genrick Yagoda
  5. unit472 says:

    I have watched as much of this legal lynching as I could which is most of it. With brass like Chief Arradondo and that wimp Lt. Zimmerman throwing their patrol officers to the wolves I suspcct the resignations will be coming fast and furious at the MPD so it won’t be a lack of funding that will cripple this department but a lack of officers.

    Courtney Ross, the ‘girlfriend’ of Floyd was a real mess and a disaster for the prosecution. Forced to admit she had told police investigators she ‘felt like she was going to die’ after taking one of the pills Morries Hill had provided the loving couple whose ‘romance’ seemed to depend on Floyd’s ability to provide her narcotics she tried to rehabilitate herself by claiming it just made her ‘jittery and unable to sleep. Her sobbing rendered her initial testimony unintelligible but like all these clowns and mountebanks they compose themselves when defense attorney Eric Nelson cross exams them. No tears when they must cover their ass and not reveal what scum they and George Floyd were.

  6. If you’re not following Andrew Branca’s excellent coverage, do so.

    At this point, it appears in 100% seriousness that the prosecution is deliberately trying to throw the case. Some say that the prosecutors want their own city incinerated. But unless Frank, Schleiter et al have jets on standby to their homes in Israel, that theory really doesn’t make a ton of sense.

    It is entirely possible, on the other hand, that the prosecutors have been instructed by higher ups or otherwise put under immense pressure to bring a case that they cannot in good conscience vigorously prosecute.

    Whether willful incompetence absolves them, if true, of their attempted lynching of an innocent man is another question, one that I’m sure they themselves would answer harshly if the shoe were on the other foot.

    • Agree: John Henry
  7. Arcturus says:

    Thanks for this thorough recap

    • Agree: stevennonemaker88
    • Replies: @Thomasina
  8. Dan Hayes says:

    “Legal Insurrection” also gives daily trial coverage by a seasoned police defense lawyer. His analysis is way more defense-positive than that of the MSM!

  9. anon[422] • Disclaimer says:

    Katz says Gilbert is white

  10. @Chris Mallory

    From a historical viewpoint, when did whites and blues separate? What color are white criminals?

  11. gotmituns says:

    Chauvin will be found guilty by this jury of misfits. I’ve got no love for the police, but this pomceman is being tried for being White and that’s it. The only unknown factor is how long the dimwitted jury takes to find him guilty. My guess is anywhere from 8-10 mins.

    • Agree: Bernie, CelestiaQuesta
  12. He’s innocent. What do we tell the negroes?

  13. When 12 percent of the population overruns the rest, the population was beyond help and very weak.

    Only the systematic dismantling of all of Minnesota and the enslavement of millions in Minnesota will bring back the multiple felon, drug overdoser, deadbeat dad, and accused fake $20 passer.

    You could pay the 12 percent $100,000 each to sit in a chair for 7 hours a day, 40 hours a week and 88 percent would quit within one week.

    • Agree: AceDeuce
    • Replies: @frontier
  14. rocky says:

    The unlimited power given to cops discussion should be a big service to the society. When I see these over weight with shaved shinny heads like mirrors black cops committing atrocities against black population (to please their white supervisors) it confirms my believe that it is the power more than skin color that makes them do it. There was no reason for the cop to sit on top of a handcuffed George Floyed (criminal or no criminal) while cop’s buddy kept the public away.
    Now the professional opportunists are in full swing to get more TV exposure, Sharpston, and his cohorts. Free TV time.

    No one is talking about the recent murder of a South East law abiding Uber driver in Washington DC by two criminal black teenage girls. A plea bargain is underway so they would be free at the age of 21. The black Mayor of DC has no time to say a single word of such minor infractions by her own. And no debate on why politician are not talking about the physical attacks on Chinese old people for no reasons, including blacks, Chinese, Indians, foreign born politicians who get their marching orders every morning from speaker of house and her counter part in the Republican party.

    What Chinese have done to these blacks? to deserve this?

    Why the Black of BLM movement were so kind to Diamond district in New York during the 2020 Riots? The diamond district was off limits to BLM. Where are those investigative citizen journalists hiding and avoid the above mentioned subjects?
    Something is smelly. Who is behinds all these planned attacks?

    • Replies: @Lee
    , @Marckus
    , @Alden
    , @kokor hekkus
  15. Well… I hope they acquit him just to watch the fking Biden Administration control the Soros storm troopers who’ll be sent out… or to see if the Soros storm troopers get sent out… might not since Sniffy the Demented is in power along with the rest of the vile scum in the District of Corruption.

    This country is a shitty clown show anymore and getting scarier by the moment.

    This stupid trial is just par for the course of this country… this legal system like the rest of the enterprise is just full of crap at every turn. It is indicative of a collapsing disaster when logic and reason are gone and we’re replaced with bullshit everywhere.

    I see a comment that only a fool trusts the cops or the people of color or is it colored people…

    Yes that is true. Watch the cops enforce the Brave New Idiocy World we are in… but in this case, St Floyd died from drugs.. not the cop… but we are in this lunacy world such that reality doesn’t register anymore…

  16. some_loon says:

    Cops like Chauvin do not make the otherwise law-abiding arm themselves, however much ‘righteous anger’ (most of it fake) some incidents generate.

  17. Lee says:

    Rocky said:

    Why the Black of BLM movement were so kind to Diamond district in New York during the 2020 Riots? The diamond district was off limits to BLM.

    Perhaps having heavily armed guards might have had something to do with this——–no conspiracy here I would suggest.

    Ahead of these events, members of the Jewelers Helping Jewelers Facebook group posted several videos of 47th Street storefronts and buildings preparing for unrest throughout Monday morning and afternoon. Most of the storefronts on the block appeared to be boarded and heavily guarded.

    • Replies: @rocky
  18. @Father O'Hara

    He’s innocent. What do we tell the negroes?

    Defund Minnesota.

  19. The State has no case. Never should have gone to trial.
    The defense has actually called a States witness as a defense witness.
    Take about a baller move.

    Nelson is very good, you don’t see him coming because he is working 3 moves ahead of you.
    Morries Hall appeared on Zoom from jail, notice the cinder block walls behind him. He is in jail on a domestic violence charge.
    It’s a joke, that isn’t funny.

    • Replies: @Katrinka
  20. Dumbo says:
    @Negrolphin Pool

    From the point of view of the powers above, an innocence verdict for Chauvin, followed by riots everywhere, is excellent. In fact, I bet that they are planning on:

    Summer of Floyd II – The Vengeance!

  21. Dumbo says: • Website

    What will happen is that cops will not police blacks anymore, who will be free to kill, rape and riot.

    In fact I bet there will be more black riots this summer. They will be let free.

    Cops will dedicate all their energy to arrest white people not wearing masks or not showing a vaccine certificate when requested.

  22. gotmituns says:
    @Stonewall Jackson

    but we are in this lunacy world such that reality doesn’t register anymore…
    Interesting. I call it logical. We are in an illogical situation all around. People are so detached from the physical world surrounding them they have no idea of the “laws of nature.” It is truly fascinating to watch people [go about their business] daily so unaware of everything surrounding them except in a very superficial concept of things.

    • Replies: @Majority of One
  23. Every juror hearing this case must know Minneapolis will burn and the media will dox them if they find Chauvin not guilty. At this point I hope they already have sold their houses and bought their marshmallows. For the record I don’t care about Chauvin, but Floyd died due to drugs, and Chauvin was on his shoulder. Note to all cops: just pull out the taser instead for the next drugged up, foaming from the mouth black (or whatever) man.

    • Replies: @Bernie
  24. Marckus says:

    The diamond district was off limits because it is controlled by a certain Tribe. Entering would be to attract severe pain and no doubt this fact was brought to the attention of the riot organisers.

    Hence the BLM crew moved on to easier meat. They do what they do because they get away with it.

    • Replies: @Realist
  25. Marckus says:

    Correct ! Corona Virus miscreants are to be arrested and locked up. Black criminals are to be ignored.

    Churches are to be raided BUT the Ghetto ?? Well some other time !

    I am curious as to how Biden is going to enforce his gun laws in the Black areas. Are the police going to enter say South Chicago and conduct gun confiscation raids ? I can hardly wait to see how that turns out.

  26. Marckus says:

    You know, I like your comment. It would be very amusing to see a full scale Chimp out this summer. Chauvin guilty verdict or not, I have a feeling some groups are just waiting for any excuse to freak out.

    Since the Police are liable to stand on the sidelines and watch things burn things could get very interesting. Maybe Biden has anticipated this and hence his Infrastructure Initiative LOL.

    • Replies: @Thomasina
  27. Patriot says:

    When will the trial start for that Black Capital officer who executed that unarmed white woman protester who was sticking her head through the broken window?

    No warning shot, taser, or shot to an arm or leg. His first shot was to the neck or head, if I remember correctly.

  28. unit472 says:

    The whole incident in many ways seemed a ‘set up’. The cashier turned down a fake $20 from Morries Hill earlier then Hill and Floyd enter the store and they exchange what appears to be more of their ‘funny money’. How often does this ghetto market get counterfeit bills. Apparently a lot if the store policy is to hold 18 year cashiers responsible for detecting it. So Floyd tries to use the same fake $20 on the same cashier only this time the cashier accepts it. He then thinks better of it and notifies the manager. Very odd.

    In a normal world the person passing the fake currency wouldn’t be waiting outside long enough for the cashier to notify the manager, be told to go and find the counterfeiter and be told to bring him back into the store. Especially since the cashier knew how large Floyd was and that he was on drugs. If you saw the store video you would notice a tall dark negro in a white tee shirt standing behind the store counter area doing nothing. My guess he was the Arab markets ‘security’. Christopher Martin, the cashier, goes out and makes a lame attempt to get Floyd to come back into the store. Why not send the security guard out with him? Martin comes back in and one of the Arab owners goes back out with Martin and again Floyd and crew are still sitting in whomever’s car they are driving. It isn’t Floyd’s. We are talking 10 or more minutes since the ‘crime’ occured and by the way isn’t passing countefeit currency a Federal crime and the Minneapolis police had only a 19 year old cashiers word that any fake currency had been used?

    My guess is none of the players in this drama could withstand scrutiny including the owners and employees of the Cup Market.

    • Agree: Peripatetic Itch, Hans
    • Disagree: gleongelpi
    • Replies: @Thomasina
    , @gleongelpi
  29. @Father O'Hara

    He’s innocent. What do we tell the negroes?

    “We” don’t tell them anything. This is exactly the kind of situation where you hire a qualified Nigsplainer.

  30. “Mr. Crump said this would be “a referendum on how far America has come in its quest for equality and justice for all,” and would determine “if we live up to the belief that all men are created equal.””

    “All men are created equal”. This is the kind of nonsense that people in America are subjected to every day. There is no way, biologically or mathematically that human beings are created equal. Yes, equal under the law but otherwise we are unequal. Some are stronger, taller, faster and yes, smarter. Some are weaker, shorter, slower and not as smart. We knew even back in third grade that some were smarter, stronger and faster. But yet we are subjected to this equality propaganda every day. Even among the races there is no biological equality. After all, how could two groups separated by tens of thousands of years all of a sudden measure on average, the same on all indices.
    There is a certain group of people who peddle the equality nonsense who will profit by shakedowns and riots.

  31. @Patriot

    I too am waiting for that trial. I probably could die of old age before that happens.

    • Replies: @Realist
  32. @Negrolphin Pool

    To paraphrase Feynman and apply it to the present topic, to successfully advance a cause, reality must take precedence over Narrative, for in the end, reasoning people cannot be fooled.

    Either that or you need to take into account Eric Nelson, member of the Minnesota Bar.

    Forget what anyone else is telling you about Officer Chauvin not getting proper legal representation. Mr. Nelson is methodical. He is thorough. He knows when to “bid up a hand” and “when to fold.” He is respectful and gentle with the prosecution witnesses he is destroying on cross examination. He is humble and affable of affect in the way Officer Chauvin is not. I think he connects with the jury.

    • Replies: @dimples
  33. FedUpSOB says:

    The way I look at it, I don’t really care if Floyd died of an overdose or by a knee on his neck, or even the overarching issue of police brutality. Floyd was a human parasite that offered nothing to society or those around him. The world would be a much better place if about a billion more Floyd’s were erased from the planet today. My give-a-damn meter is broken, F Floyd, I’m glad he’s gone and I hope he burns in hell too.

    • Replies: @JimB
    , @Badger Down
  34. Mike Tre says:

    I expect the negroes to riot regardless of the verdict.

    • Agree: GeneralRipper
  35. Bernie says:
    @Old and Grumpy

    True but black jurors simply vote on the basis of skin color. They should not be part of the jury in race related cases as they always side with the black criminal no matter the evidence.

    • Replies: @Negrolphin Pool
  36. Are there ANY White Police Chiefs in any major city?

    • Replies: @rocky
  37. Trinity says:

    Win, lose or draw, Eric Nelson is a helluva an attorney. The guy is very impressive. Smart man. Of course there will be no fanfare for Nelson the way there was for the buffoonish Johnnie Cochran of OJ fame. IMO, I have to say Chauvin is indeed guilty of some sort of involuntary manslaughter charge but I taint exactly an expert on criminal law or courtroom proceedings. hehe. The video tape is pretty damning, and Nelson has his work cut out for him but the dude is one sharp cookie.

    Meanwhile while the Floyd case receives 24/7 coverage, guards in a D.C. jail fractured the jaw and permanently blinded the eye of an inmate being held in their custody. The man was allegedly involved in the infamous so-called, “Capitol Insurrection.” Given the demographics of D.C. and knowing that most of those arrested for trespassing on the Capitol that day where White, my guess is and it has been reported by the mostly White defendants that they are being harassed with racial taunts and given rough treatment. Fracturing a jaw and beating a man so severely that you blind him in one eye is definitely police brutality in my book. That is if you want to call a flunkie jail guard a police officer.

    Speaking of police overstepping their boundaries. Still no word on Ashli Babbit shooter. Who was he or was she. The rumor mill says that Ashli Babbit’s shooter was Black. Will we ever see the shooter of Babbit stand trial. Funny how the media with the exception of Tucker Carlson cares nothing about the treatment of the White defendants being held in a D.C. jail or seeing that Babbit’s shooter is to held accountable for his or her actions by standing trial. Hmm, are the people over at CNN and MSNBC a bunch of anti-White racists who really do not care about JUSTICE FOR ALL?

    • Thanks: Majority of One
    • Replies: @Abbybwood
    , @Alden
  38. Realist says:

    Absolutely correct. As long as Whites allow themselves to be screwed…it will continue.

    • Agree: Richard B
    • Replies: @Richard B
  39. Realist says:

    I too am waiting for that trial. I probably could die of old age before that happens.

    Everyone will die of old age before that happens.

  40. gotmituns says:
    @Mike Tre

    Yes, even when Chauvin’s convicted there’ll be celebratory riots.

  41. rocky says:

    Thank you for the link. The question still persist about leaving the diamond district alone? Yes the arm guard may have some influence to some extent but when the brave BLM were looting around Times Squire or around Macy, 47 street is not far off.
    I wonder those “armed guards” were white armed guards? or blacks who were hired merely for their looks and not for their professional skills. During those riots days BLM corporation employees acting like trained pit bull used to attack authorities, police, guards, or whatever.

    The guard did an excellent job to keep the district safe and untouched. May the the police and other law enforcement agencies could learn from the armed guards around the diamond district.

    Would interesting some citizen journalist look into this story.
    Cell phone conversation between the guards and BLM operatives, perhaps.

  42. frontier says:
    @Tyronee Lemont

    When 12 percent of the population overruns the rest, the population was beyond help and very weak.

    This! Minnesota’s Nordic Whites are dumber than bricks… Fact. Look at their elected officials, police chiefs… how is that at all possible? Sweden? Germany? They aren’t alone unfortunately. Tell me that story about high IQ again… What good is it if it doesn’t fit the empirical data?

    • Agree: aandrews
  43. How do you say nationwide “Burn Loot Murder” riots after the verdict is read?
    The predictable outcome is so obvious it would be laughable if it weren’t so destructive to civilization.
    No amount of white justice is going to satisfy feral hoards of violent hoodrats, wiggers and pandering government plantation masters from their ultimate penalty for whites. (See Afrikaners)
    If anyone believes that a olive branch peace offering is written in the stars, I got a planet to sell you.

  44. Guilty as charged not because the evidence shows it but it is what the powers that be desire it as part of over all reparations.

  45. rocky says:
    @Irish Savant

    Because the white police officers don shave their heads as often as their counter parts. And they not only shave but spent hundreds of dollars for buffing and making their heads shine like mirror just to distract from their pearly teeth. We all know why these over paid, over sex police chiefs are selected? tokenism. Some of the black police chiefs are well qualified but majority should be on the docks.

    In lot of medical schools there is 5 years graduation program for Black and Saudi students compared to 4 years for their counterparts of other ethnicity. I can understand the Saudis but why for blacks.

  46. Katrinka says:
    @Crescent Moon

    Morries Hall should be the guy on trial. He supplied Floyd with the drugs that eventually killed him.

    • Replies: @James Speaks
  47. World Politics
    semester 1 paper
    Time allowed .. as long as you like …

    1. The Derek Chauvin trial is akin to the Stalinist “show trials” of 1930’s USSR.

    2. Derek Chauvin and O J Simpson.
    Compare and contrast.

    3. There is/will be self-blame among Jews/Zionists since the process which they began (vide Frankfurt School/Hollywood et al.) will result in there being zero contributions to Israel after USA collapses or becomes a Black-run country.
    Evaluate this statement.

  48. Richard B says:
    @Negrolphin Pool

    …unless Frank, Schleiter et al have jets on standby to their homes in Israel, that theory really doesn’t make a ton of sense.

    Some would argue that this is one of the reasons Israel was created in the first place.

  49. Richard B says:

    As long as Whites allow themselves to be screwed…it will continue.

    That’s exactly right. You get what you put up with.

    And Whites as Whites seem to be willing to put up with just about anything.

    In any event, you’re right. It will continue. Only, it’ll get worse.

    One thing’s for sure. This insanity isn’t going to stop itself.

    • Agree: Joseph Doaks
    • Thanks: Realist
  50. Richard B says:
    @Chris Mallory

    The MPD hires professional actors for crisis intervention training. They act out roles in which police officers deal with simulated real-life crises.

    Show Trial for a Show Crime.

    Sgt. Yang remembers that Officer Chauvin attended one of his training sessions.

    Well of course he did! It’s all on video.

    They always film these things. Cause, ya never know when it’s going to come in handy.

    Like, for example, if you wanted to bankrupt and gut an entire country and use one part of the population to subdue another, while you raze cities as a part of a real estate investment for future development so as to house the new population your letting into the country by the millions. Very handy indeed.

    No constitution – No country.
    No borders – No country.
    No rule of law – No country.

    All three, and no doubt more, apply in this case, and not just this case.

    After that, all you’ve got to do is apply The 911 Template:

    1. destroy the evidence
    2. control the narrative
    3. enforce the law (on anyone looking for evidence to question the narrative)

    • Thanks: Irish Savant
    • Replies: @36 ulster
  51. @Katrinka

    Questions I would ask:

    Q1) How much Fentanyl in his system?
    A1) 11 ng/ml (nanograms/ml)

    Q2) How much Fentanyl is lethal?
    A) 3 ng/ml

    Q3) How fast does a Fentanyl overdose kill?
    A3) It’s almost immediate.

    Q4) Is there anything Chauvin could have done to save Floyd’s life?
    A4) No.

    • Replies: @Skeptikal
  52. @Dumbo

    What will happen is that cops will not police blacks anymore.

    I’ve been saying that all along. It’s lose-lose for the cops. Risking their lives tackling emboldened black criminals in the full knowledge that their bosses will throw them under should anything happen to the perp.

    • Agree: 36 ulster
  53. Thomasina says:

    Yes, Anastasia Katz has done a spectacular job here. Good work, Anastasia!

  54. Emslander says:

    Chauvin will be found fully justified in his behavior, whether by the jury or by an appellate court. The key fact is that Chauvin was not “kneeling on the neck”. He had his shin on his shoulder blade.

    All the hype and bs we’ve been fed for a year was proven to be false by that fact, which was established by video from the proper angle. I’m sure Chauvin and his fellow officers will testify to that uncomfortable fact, as well.

  55. Thomasina says:

    I’ve said previously that I thought the riots last year were allowed, even encouraged, in order to rebuild all of these blue cities. Watch who is buying up those destroyed properties. All part of the plan.

    • Replies: @Marckus
  56. Mass killing: Ex 49er kills six; including self, report says
    Will the MSM ignore this black-on-white mass killing?

    • Thanks: Just another serf
  57. @Negrolphin Pool

    Unfortunately it will likely not matter whether the Jury believes Chauvin is not guilty. They will vote guilty to keep from being hunted down an killed by BLM.

    • Replies: @Negrolphin Pool
    , @Truth
  58. If he was white and the cop kneeled on his neck and he died
    A. You’d say the cop killed him, and
    B. You’d be screaming bloody murder.

    Just sayin’

    • Disagree: Rogue
    • Troll: Alfred Muscaria
    • Replies: @Gizmo880
    , @Rogue
  59. anon[116] • Disclaimer says:

    “One million Arabs are not worth a Jewish fingernail.”- Rabbi Yaacov. Black skin is the Curse of Ham by God. The only thing wrong with Chauvin being on his knees is that he did not have a Schvartze schlong in his mouth. When the White Gentiles are finally bred out, Gods Chosen shall have absolute rule over Gods cursed.

  60. Thomasina says:

    Yes, all of this could be one great big, huge set-up. All of it could be staged. I waffle between thinking this way, but then get sucked back into the narrative . Thank you for reminding me again of the other side.

    Your explanation about the counterfeit bill is a great example. It doesn’t add up. Then Chauvin with his knee on Floyd’s neck for more than eight minutes, staring right at the cameras for full effect. The people tell Chauvin to get off Floyd’s neck, but he doesn’t budge, doesn’t adjust his positioning, and this incites the crowd. This anger allows the ambulance attendants to whisk Floyd a few blocks away before working on him, away from the eyes of the public. No one sees Floyd’s body. He is just sainted and his family given a large payout.

    The burning and looting of the Blue cities was just allowed to occur, almost as if they wanted them to. Was this planned all along? Who is buying up these properties? I see lots of corrupt construction contracts in the future. Lots of infrastructure money that now miraculously has a place to go.

    We saw what happened on November 3rd, 2020 (the rigging of the election), and the resultant “insurrection” on January 6, 2021 (to deflect us from looking at the rigged election). Ashley Babbitt is conveniently murdered, and others mysteriously die.

    Covid-19 has been a great excuse to print money like there’s no tomorrow in order to shore up the deflating economy. The flood of new illegals being invited and encouraged to come will aid in this endeavor.

    And we thought Hollywood was the place to go to watch fiction! Here it is staring us right in the face and we don’t see it.

    • Replies: @Peripatetic Itch
  61. @gotmituns

    Minneapolis and its suburbs, particularly the allegedly middle-class but in truth edjumacated paycheck workers ones including that 4th-tier burb where I’m presently staying, are about as deeply divorced from the natural world and from common-sense reality as one can find in deliberately dumbed-down technocratic, post-industrial dystopian and clinically insane, sub-urban America.

    What do I mean by all this? The whole plandemic, “Great Reset” thing has been in the hatchery for years. The Covid matter was cooked up by U$ military bio-war planners, whose primary center of operations is located at Fort Detrick, Md, where even yesterday one navy man shot and killed another. That incident will go down the memory-hole as fast as you can say “Jackie Robinson”.

    Consider Minneapolis and Minnesota as an ideal petri-dish for an otherwise commonplace police/black incident to get blown all out of proportion. Governor of the state- Walz- is an ex Marine Corpse major, a former Congre$$man, issued a raft of directives and is all about maintaining the lockdown as long as he can. Mayor of Minneapolis is an extremely youthful Jewish guy, who of course, is a member of the state’s ruling Democrat Former Labor Party. Police chief is a black with a Hispanic name. Congre$$critter is Ilhan Omar, of that city’s approximately 15% Somali population and is a member of the “Squad” headed by Ocasia. Both U$ Senators are also members of the DFL party, a favorite hangout of “Wokes”, jokes, edjumacated burbies and assorted “progressives.”

    With the stage no nicely set and you want riots? No problemo. Enter stage left, one made-man name of $orrow$, a Hungarian Jewish 14 Y.O. refugee who made it to England after the war and magically and mysteriously found himself invited to some of that nation’s top educational institutions and then shortly after a stint in City of London banks, moved to the U$ and immediately got a nice slot on Wall $treet and soon became known as the guy who knew the most about the direction markets would be taking…as he raked in the billions. Even more billions appeared magically as he sold short on the British Pound-Sterling. Do we need to ask the question? How was he so well connected, when his father, working with other Zionists, condemned some 400,000 fellow Jews to embark on the railroad cars to Konzentrationslagers in 1944 Germany. Like the Khazarian guy in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s most famous novel said: “You gotta have gonnections”.

    Okay, so let’s cut to the chase. Who are the financially best connected in the world, dominating City of London, world center for finance, communications, precious metals, mining, shipping and a host of other controlling entities in the world of economics? Has anyone yet guessed the Rottenchild Crime Clan? Good job. Move to the front of the class.

    So little Georgie of our $orrow$, the made-man and primary minion for the ruling crime clan, was the founder and primary funder of a once little known organization. It’s name: “Black Lives Matter”.

    Clue the alleged anarchist street-thug-punks who call themselves ANTIFA. How are they financed and why are they rarely arrested, like for their antics of destruction in Portland, Seattle, Minneapolis, Kenosha, Charlottesville and elsewhere? It costs $$$ to move people all around the fruited plain and to provide them with bricks, gasoline, masks, black uniforms, clubs and places to hang out while in a new town. It is not logical to assume they are self-financed. Anyone wanna offer some guesses as to the source/s for the slough of Shekels?

    Thus is the stage set for the fireworks show to highlight the plandemic, lockdown, masked-bandido scenario. Add in the mass media/social media barrage of attacks on the Trumpsters and then ++ the corrupt Democrat regimes in Philadelphia, Detroit, Milwaukee and other swing-state metros and finally those Dominion voting machines and…BINGO. The (S)election works as planned and the feeble-minded creep Joe the Crow heads up (for a few more months anyway) the ticket which also included Willie Brown’s “lap-lander” prosticutor, Ms Kamala’s Foote, soon to be “our” Commander in Chief.

    The Show Trial is on. The issue is not a matter of taking away all the war-toys from the police, but to defund them, leaving the urban streets to thugs and hooligans. All this scenario will be heavily praised by the media as “variants” and “mutations” of Covid allow bought and paid-for gubernators such as Minnesota’s Walzed all Night to continue with the lockdowns, making for a smooth transition engulfing a fear-filled populace into the “Great Reset”.

  62. @Rev. Spooner

    CNN is TV station. (News)

    • Replies: @Rev. Spooner
  63. It is obscene that this decent White police officer would suffer even most minor inconvenience because of the death of a third-world savage drug addict and life-long criminal.

    As it is, this fine White man will no longer be able to find a job when he is acquitted.

    It’s time to put an end to this Leftist tyranny in which good is bad, bad is good, cowardice is courage, courage is violent oppression, pathetic victimhood is transcendent moral superiority, and in which the White people who built this country and civilization are demonized and marginalized and dispossessed.

    Ha ha. Just look at the photos of that ugly-as-sin Black savage. People actually think that ugly is beautiful.

    • Troll: Mulga Mumblebrain
    • Replies: @bronek
  64. You people don’t understand economics. This whole issue and everything surrounding it is economic. And I don’t mean “welfare chiseling” which is you guys shorthand way of saying, “I am stupid.”

    This website assiduously avoids economics. But never shies away from complaining about some race thing or other, always couching it in oppositional race terms, and never ever in economic terms.

    For your information, this whole issue is not racial at all. Race unrest, from either side, is nothing but a lame smokescreen to hide the economic privatization and financialization and commodification of everything.

    Think on this, why don’t you. Here’s Alistair Crooke. About as left wing as John Birch, explaining what China and Russia and Iran are up to:
    “[Their alliance] represents the notion that any rent-yielding resource – banking, land, natural resources and natural infrastructure monopolies – should be in the public domain to provide basic needs to everybody – freely.”

    The idea of rent-yielding resources belonging–obviously–in the public domain is
    A. too complicated for your three-toed newt brains, and
    B. so far beyond anything you have experienced as to constitute a Martian invasion.

    Economics will eat you, not negroes, pals. Russians and Chinese and Iranians are smart enough to understand this. You cretin Americanoes? Go back to your barcalounger and eat some of your jerkie.

  65. Anonymous[251] • Disclaimer says:

    I’ve spent the last two mornings phoning and e-mailing Minnesota GOP state representatives explaining that I was disappointed in the MN GOP response to these George Floyd/BLM protests, riots, looting in Minneapolis and now the day in day out, live TV coverage of a rather obvious Stalin style Show Trial of Officer Chauvin.

    I mostly left messages, but did speak to a couple of aides who were very polite and understanding as was I.

    I explained that I do not support real cases of police misconduct, police brutality and if the officer involved is proven to have acted in error he should be disciplined. But I explained my view that all the evidence indicated that the person responsible for George Floyd’s death was the hard drug dealer George Floyd who apparently swallowed large, lethal amounts of his own opioids and meth. I also explained that successful places like Singapore have very strict laws against opioid/heroin trafficking and said we should do the same.

    I said I strongly oppose these BLM/Antifa riots, mass looting that swept so many of our cities last year and I hoped MN Republicans would work very hard that this doesn’t happen again this year.

    I followed up with “thank you for listening to my concerns” e-mails.

    This is something simple all of us can do to stand up against BLM/ANtifa riots, looting, shake down scams and to just spread word about the very dishonest, fake news, lying media that incites frustrated poor Black Americans, POC to riot, loot, beat and kill elderly White Americans and Asians Americans.

    If you want to know how to get contact information for MN state reps, just do a simple duck duck go search or also you can write us and I’ll send you a text list.

    Please be polite
    Don’t make any threats
    Never lie
    Try to engage in a back and forth dialogue

    Here’s our contact email

    jackryanod (at) protonmail (dot) com


    J Ryan
    Left behind in Chicago

    • Replies: @TheMoon
  66. Abbybwood says:

    I am pretty sure video still shots of the officer who killed Babbitt are online.

    Large Black man probably 45ish with a sharp suit and tie and the gun clearly visible in his right hand finger on the trigger not off to the side. He had like an orange bracelet on his right wrist. Snazzy tie.

    If I saw these pictures of the perp millions of others probably did too. It wouldn’t be that difficult to find the photos and ID the killer.

    • Thanks: Trinity
    • Replies: @Alden
  67. frontier says:

    The idea of rent-yielding resources belonging–obviously–in the public domain is

    … obvious only to idiots. All properly functioning assets are rent-yielding, basically you are a commie. There’s absolutely no need to make them “public” in order to fix the economy, in fact, doing so will only accelerate the ruin, which is politically driven.

    Economics will eat you, not negroes, pals. Russians and Chinese and Iranians are smart enough to understand this.

    Economics is a fake science, everybody knows it. Negroes are used to make it worse and prevent us from fixing it. They play their role diligently… that’s why the smart Russians and Chinese and Iranians… have none of them.

  68. Gizmo880 says:

    Actually, I would be saying no such thing. You are a fucking liar. As usual.

  69. TheMoon says:

    “What will happen is that cops will not police blacks anymore, who will be free to kill, rape and riot.”

    If it can be contained to their areas, then fine by me. There was a point last summer during the riots when yet another black woman called for white women like me to be dragged into the street, gang raped, and forced to watch our children murdered in front of us, that I stopped caring about anything black. If I was in charge, they’d be rounded up and shipped as far away as possible. Or the Marianas trench.

    (Morgan Freeman) “But she was not in charge, and so the United States was doomed.”

    OK, Morgan, you can stay. And maybe Cadence Owens. And that football guy who still supports Trump.

  70. Abbybwood says:

    The Black officer who shot Ashli Babbitt can be seen in these still shots from video at the Capitol.

    He was placed on Administrative leave:

    Someone must have given him an order to shoot to kill, because with his $2000 suit and tie and snappy white shirt, “somebody” certainly ordered him to commit murder. In one of these pictures the gun with his finger on the trigger is clear as day with the gun pointed at someone not toward the ground or in any known “safe” position.

    I think he should be ID’d and arrested with a mug shot and charged along with whoever ordered him to murder.

    Let’s have another trial.

  71. TheMoon says:

    Isn’t this just the conservative strategy that failed to conserve anything for 60 years?

    The nation is in the grip of psychopaths and their mentally broken supporters on one side, and the feckless legions of the GOP and Conservative, Inc on the other. Trump hopped in and kicked the murder hornet next for 4 years, but then he got yeeted out of DC by election fraud that tribes in the Amazon rain forest with no external contact could have predicted. Then he buggered off to Florida to write angry letters and make half-arsed web sites, and leave us to deal with the buzzing, angry hornet swarm. He should just buy Gab or something.

    There is absolutely no one in power on the side of ordinary Americans. 1000 corporations are openly opposing secure elections because something something negroes something. The only way any of this gets fixed is by putting all the evil fleaders in the ground, and chasing the Democrat and other leftists voters out of society.

    Funny thing- getting called a fascist for four years made me realize the fascists were on to something. There’s simply people you can’t have around and still have a functioning civilization.

    • Agree: Alden, Joseph Doaks
    • Replies: @Joseph Doaks
  72. Agent76 says:

    Nov 6, 2020 Qualified Immunity: Explained

    What is qualified immunity? How does it work? Do police officers need qualified immunity to protect their split-second decisions? Here are some facts on the controversial judicial doctrine that lets government officials escape lawsuits when they violate constitutional rights.

    May 27, 2020 New video shows Minneapolis police arrest of George Floyd before death

    Four white officers involved in the death of George Floyd have been fired from the Minneapolis Police Department, but Mayor Jacob Frey is saying that one of the officers should be arrested for pressing his knee on Floyd’s neck.

  73. Thomasina says:

    Of course it’s about economics. It’s always about economics. Follow the money. All a staged play, all rigged. Anything to keep globalization running full steam ahead, anything to keep the herd’s eyes from focusing on what the elite are doing.

    In the meantime, though, Blacks, unchecked at the moment, have been given license to rape, murder, loot and shoot. And they appear to be running with it.

    • Troll: Agent76
  74. lysias says:
    @Mike Tre

    Why wasn’t the trial moved to a place like Duluth?

    • Replies: @Alfred Muscaria
  75. Thank you, sir.

    This whole George Floyd thing has really got me thinking.

    Just the other day I was in the gym, on the treadmill ( wearing my mask as tight as I could possibly get it, btw ) and I was relieved to see that CNN has a “special” this Sunday on the Klan.

    I said to myself, (as best I could, with my mask at full negative pressure) “Well ain’t it about goddamn time!”

    How long have those hooded evil, racist, hillbilly cocksuckers carried on with their sick, inhuman shit?

    Just like the fucking skinhead nazi’s running all over this once great nation.

    I’ll tell ya what, I’ve damn near had enough!

    • Troll: Agent76
  76. @lysias

    “Why wasn’t the trial moved to a place like Duluth?”

    Almost like they want MSP burned down. Detroit is clearly the model they are following.

  77. 36 ulster says:
    @Richard B

    I wish I could disagree–even mildly. But I fear that every vowel, consonant and punctuation mark you’ve written is true–or will be revealed to be true in the not-too-distant future.

  78. unit472 says:

    Prosecution pulled a Force Majeur on the defense today. Bringing in a ‘pulmonary’ expert, Dr. Martin J. Toobin, who went on like Dr. Fauci with irrefutable science for several hours including anatomical drawings and math equations that showed with 99% precision that Chauvin was exerting exactly 91.2lbs of pressure on Floyd’s neck and that cause of death was without doubt hypoxia due to the restriction of the airway.

    I wondered how Eric Nelson would be able to respond and he really wasn’t able to at all BECAUSE he only received Toobin’s drawings, formula and conclusions last night. So much for discovery. Hope Chauvin’s defense team can come up with the money to hire their own ‘pulmonary’ expert to counter the prosecutions expert who seemed to have a faint accent one might hear in Tel Aviv.

    • Replies: @Zarathustra
  79. @unit472

    Please, spare us the nonsense. Too many coincidences.

  80. Marckus says:

    I dont need to watch. This game has been played in NYC since the 70’s. There is nothing to beat a sweet rock bottom price than an area reduced to rubble. One man may see piles of bricks and trash but other sharp beady eyes see $$$$$$ and big noses sniff out those capital gains. There is gold in dem daar ruins and with free demolition already accomplished those savings go straight to the bottom line LOL

  81. @Thomasina

    And we thought Hollywood was the place to go to watch fiction! Here it is staring us right in the face and we don’t see it.

    Have a look at the balance weight on the tire of the patrol car in these videos. In one the balance weight is directly over the center hub. In the other it’s off at a sixty degree angle. This needs to be explained. We saw nothing to indicate the car had been moved during the encounter. So one might well conclude there were two takes involved.

    • Replies: @unit472
    , @Thomasina
    , @Stephane
  82. BLM protested during jury selection because they wanted higher percentage of blacks seated.
    They won.

    Among the 12 jurors and three alternates selected for the panel are three Black men, one Black woman and two jurors who identify as multiracial. If none of the three alternates — all of them white — is needed in the deliberation room, 50% of the panel that will vote on Chauvin’s fate will be Black or multiracial.

    Hennepin County, where the trial is being held, is only 17% Black or multiracial, while it is 74% white.

    Rigged jury.

  83. unit472 says:
    @Peripatetic Itch

    Very interesting. Hope someone can get this to Chauvin’s lawyer!

  84. Jake says:

    The Deep State of the Anglo-Zionist Empire is damned determined to start delivering major white scalps to the Numinous Negroes. The sacred Negro wants Chavin’s head on a platter. And white Liberals agree.

  85. @unit472

    None of that nassty commentary is relevant to the fact that a handcuffed man, surrounded by three armed police, was murdered by asphyxiation and interference with blood flow to the brain.

    • Troll: 36 ulster
    • Replies: @gleongelpi
    , @ALden
    , @ALden
  86. @Stonewall Jackson

    My nassty side wants Chauvin acquitted so that the riots ensue, like those in countries subverted by USA malevolence, but then my increasingly vestigial moral conscience says that that would be bad, because innocents would suffer, and the riots be used as a justification for a further repressive crackdown.

  87. @Mulga Mumblebrain

    Please, spare us the lies.

    • Replies: @GeneralRipper
  88. Alden says:

    The plea bargain the prosecutor made with the black girls who killed the Uber driver had the words “ not in a prison environment”. That’s weasel words for probation. Perhaps in a group home unlocked where the girls are free to leave at 7/am and not come back till 9 or 10/pm. And if they don’t get back by curfew? so what. Perhaps at home wi’ dey mammas. Probable counseling or anger management by some 300 pound black female affirmative action hires.

    • Replies: @Negrolphin Pool
  89. Alden says:

    White American Ashli Babbit was murdered by David Bailey a black Brazilian immigrant affirmative action hire. Try google, bing it’s on all search sites. His name was known a day after the murder.

    • Thanks: Patriot
  90. JimB says:

    F Floyd, I’m glad he’s gone and I hope he burns in hell too.

    I hear Hell plans to reduce its carbon and sulfur footprint by switching from flames to electric shocks.

    • LOL: Zarathustra
  91. dimples says:
    @Inquiring Mind

    “To paraphrase Feynman and apply it to the present topic, to successfully advance a cause, reality must take precedence over Narrative, for in the end, reasoning people cannot be fooled.”

    Surely you are forgetting that we now live in the post-normal world where Narrative takes precedence over reality. We see this on a daily basis, particularly from the bourgeois left intellectual class.

    • Agree: Zarathustra
  92. Alden says:

    Ashli Babbit was murdered by David Bailey a black Brazilian immigrant affirmative action hire.

    • Thanks: Trinity, Genrick Yagoda
    • Replies: @Truth
  93. @gleongelpi

    Skullfuck Fumblebrain and his GAY ass Commie friends don’t live within’ 200 miles of niggers.

    But you and your middle class evil white family sure as fuck will.

    • Troll: Mulga Mumblebrain
    • Replies: @Mulga Mumblebrain
  94. @Mulga Mumblebrain

    Who will be the target of that repressive crackdown in your estimation? Since it was in the Deep State’s interest to use the riots to get out the black vote, BLM and Anti Fa skated right out of the Justice system… But do you suppose now that the have their puppet in place, they would then send out the riot troops on their former foot soldiers… like other political movement did… the crackdown by the Nazi party on the Brownshirts… various times in happened in Russia etc? Once your allies are not useful anymore… Or do we triple down on hammering the whities?

    • Replies: @Mulga Mumblebrain
  95. @unit472

    That doctor was a moron. Lungs expand and contract in the rib cage. yuu cannot compress rib cage without breaking the ribs.

    • Replies: @Mulga Mumblebrain
  96. Abbybwood says:
    @Mulga Mumblebrain


    Either way there will be riots!

  97. ricpic says:

    I didn’t know Floyd passed out before the contretemps with Chauvin. That alone should cast doubt that being pinned down by Chauvin “caused” his death.

  98. @FedUpSOB

    That’s a bit harsh! In my country, he’d get 20 years (actually served) in prison: 10 for the currency fraud, and 10 for the “dangerous drugs”. All that for a day of nonviolent crime.

  99. Emslander says:

    should be in the public domain to provide basic needs to everybody – freely

    If you mean that it ought to be owned by some central government, then I’d say that all your pejoratives about us ignorant skeptics need to be turned around and addressed at you.

    I trust the ownership of the resources in private hands a lot more than in the hands of moronic congressmen and government bureaucrats. I’d rather they were in my hands, but I haven’t had the luck.

  100. Smith says:

    Don’t mind me, I’m just here for the reaction and riots afterwards.

  101. @Mike Tre

    Death to the Left!

    • Replies: @Malla
  102. Wazeeroo says:

    There should be a national holiday to wash black protesters feet by white Americans. or kissing as…

    • Replies: @Mark Weatherly
  103. Wazeeroo says:

    An intelligent black man and a useful idiot debating.
    You decide?

    • Thanks: aandrews
  104. @Zarathustra

    Imbecile. Lying face down with 90kg of prime pork forcing you into the pavement severely restricts respiration, even besides the neck compression. Let’s give you 9 minutes 29 seconds of said treatment and see how you fair.

    • Replies: @Zarathustra
  105. @Stonewall Jackson

    Repression for EVERYONE but the ruling oligarchy, eventually.

  106. @GeneralRipper

    Rippsnorter is a Chabad big-hatter living on the Occupied West Bank, posting here to give us all a bad reputation by association. A very old Zionazi tactic.

    • Troll: Peripatetic Itch
    • Replies: @GeneralRipper
  107. ALden says:
    @Mulga Mumblebrain

    It wasn’t murder, just dumping the trash.

  108. thordaddy says:

    These prosecution “experts” are talking out both sides of their mouths.

    A real carotid choke usually requires a pincer mechanism compressing both arteries simultaneously causing unconsciousness in ten to twenty seconds given reasonable pressure. Clearly then, anyone entangled in a carotid choke for five. six, seven minutes IS NOT BEING “blood choked,” period.

    Likewise, any air choke lasting that same five. six, seven minutes would cause physical damage of the throat area even with low to moderate pressure. At minimum, there would be skin abrasion from the uniform textile. At eight or nine minutes of asphyxiation level pressure, there would be recognizable external and internal damage.

    What’s going down isn’t just economics, but the actual unraveling of the MODEL used to advance this economic meta-scheme. Part of that model memes protecting “killer niggers” ESPECIALLY at the expense of a white male.

    The very definition of “murder,” excessive force and self-defense is be “progressively” redefined to white man’s spiritual disadvantage.

  109. @Mulga Mumblebrain

    Of course, I’m correct.

    I usually am.

  110. ALden says:
    @Mulga Mumblebrain

    Floyd should never have been born. Nor should any of his relatives been born. Margaret Sanger was so right.

    We sterilize mosquitoes and dangerous crop devouring insects. Why should we allow the Floyds to exist and breed? .

    • Troll: Mulga Mumblebrain
  111. aandrews says:

    This is what’s going to sink Chauvin.

    Nonetheless I think it’s negligence, if anything. If Floyd had simply shut his trap and got in the car, none of this would’ve happened. I think Chauvin’s attorney is going to have to try to fob liability off onto the police training program/curriculum and the Minneapolis Police Department and make Chauvin a dindu.


  112. Blacks, like Jews and homos, are holy in the US. No matter what blacks do, never mention blackness. Just blame something else.

    If a Jew chews gum and spits in your face, blame the gum, not the Jew.

    If a Homo whistles a tune and pisses on your, blame the whistle, not the Homo.

    If a black rides a bus to where you live and kills you, blame the bus, not the black.

    Main reason this is so is due to Jewish Power that controls media and academia and brainwashed us into revering Jews, homos, and blacks as the golden calves of the West.

    • Replies: @Negrolphin Pool
  113. @aandrews

    Truth is when he passed the fake $20 the black clerk didn’t call the cops he came out to the car and Floyd didn’t give the change for the $20 and the cigs back. The guy in the car with Floyd tried to pass another fake $20 in this same store earlier in the day and was rejected by the same clerk, so they came back to try again. It would have ended then but he still would have overdosed as he did 2 months before in Mar 2020 when he spent 5 days in the hospital that the taxpayers must have paid for. He was walking death.
    Chauvin only weighs 140 lbs.

  114. RestiveUs says:
    @Mulga Mumblebrain

    Both my sides want you to post at some other website.

    • Replies: @Mulga Mumblebrain
  115. I think the following is emerging. Negroes, and admittedly others, are slamming increasingly powerful drugs to truly enjoy America in the 21st century.

    All police should be trained at least to the level of a paramedic, preferably they should have completed medical school. Also, they ought to be people of color or something similar to Genevieve Hansen. Whatever that horrid individual represents. Finally, gay would be good.

    It’s a weird, sick culture we are entering.

    • LOL: Emslander
    • Replies: @Emslander
  116. Malla says:

    What inspiring and beautiful music. Viva La Franco.

    However the Franco regime could have done more for the Working classes like the National Socialists in Germany.

    • Replies: @Commentator Mike
  117. nsa says:

    Notice the way Officer Chauvin’s designer shades are worn atop his head Redondo Beach SoCal style while calmly applying a knee to the neck of the cuffed face down afro. Police chic at its finest.

  118. @Malla

    What good did NS Germany do for its workers sending them to leave their dead bones all over Europe? Much like US does with its workers these days although the kill rate is far lower.

    • Replies: @Curmudgeon
    , @Malla
  119. Rogue says:

    If he was white… you’d say the cop killed him


    It’s the truth that matters – not our own biases.

    FWIW, I thought Chauvin was being a jerk kneeling on Floyd for so long, but I never bought into the “murder” hysteria at all.

  120. Thomasina says:
    @Peripatetic Itch

    Good find. I don’t know what to make of this. Another thing that surprised me was that the ambulance arrived only three minutes after he fell silent. I wasn’t aware they arrived so quickly. And then they chose to move him, a man with no pulse, instead of working on him right there? The whole thing doesn’t add up. Thanks for the link.

  121. @Bernie

    An all jogger POCs and female jury may well convict my cat of smoking JFK.

    Dullification means nullification.

  122. thordaddy says:

    If you wanted all your weight on the neck using your left knee, you’d lift your right knee off his back using the right foot as your plant foot maintaining balance with the left toe as you shifted weight from left knee to right toe and back depending on the necessity of force.

    What the picture actually shows is the bulk of Chauvin’s weight it tipped towards his right knee and right toe (right side) so much so that he can lift the left toe off the ground without losing balance essentially forming a triangle base between left knee, right knee and right toe. If he wanted all his weight on the neck, he would shift his base to left knee, left toe, right toe and bring his right knee off the back.

    • Replies: @Mulga Mumblebrain
  123. @Priss Factor

    Real Jew hatred is possible only when one fully appreciates their talents. This is the root of the chosenite notion that philosemites are worse than antisemites.

    The antisemite is some toothless Deliverance golem hick whereas the philosemite is a mensch undertaking a full accounting.

    As I pointed out to my Biden-voting boomer mother, the rigger chimpout highlighted above is archetypal. The POCs encounters chimpout stimuli, and in a simian heartbeat, five human lives are snuffed out.

    • Replies: @LeRoy
  124. @Alden

    Well, I guess the Uber driver’s entire extended family then is a bunch of infidel pig whores who terrified cowardice will stop from taking righteous vengeance before Allah.

  125. anon[125] • Disclaimer says:

    @Alden – #90

    “White American Ashli Babbit was murdered by David Bailey a black Brazilian immigrant affirmative action hire.”

    A black Brazilian named David Bailey? Did he immigrate from England to Brazil before he immigrated from Brazil to the US?

  126. anon[125] • Disclaimer says:

    @ 105

    “Imbecile. Lying face down with 90kg of prime pork forcing you into the pavement severely restricts respiration, even besides the neck compression.”

    It is reported that Chauvin is 5’9″ and 140 lbs. 90kg is about 200 lbs. The pork was lying under the officer and was anything but prime.

  127. @Mulga Mumblebrain

    Obviously you are blind (you are unable to see). Floyd face was on the side. And the pressure did not brake his neck. (You are obviously brainwashed and impressed by some medical terms.)
    You are a jerk. It is obvious that Floyd did die of heart attack. His death was sudden. Death from suffocation takes longer and it is accompanied by violent shakes of the body.

  128. @Zarathustra

    If you want a proof just suffocate your wife. You will be convinced!

  129. Emslander says:
    @Just another serf

    And Boomers just mumble something about being nice and crawl back into their retirement communities in Florida. It’s the fucking Boomer generation that failed our country. The most privileged, educated and selfish generation of human beings in history.

    Unfortunately, I’m one of them. I always hated them.

    • Replies: @By-tor
  130. @Zarathustra

    Thus spake Z, and his utterances were so wrong that it’s really sad. Who said that his neck was broken?

    • Troll: Peripatetic Itch
    • Replies: @Zarathustra
  131. Top news.
    English Prince Philip died of Corona virus.

    • Replies: @Commentator Mike
  132. @thordaddy

    What a crew of apologists for cowardly and cruel murder there are hereabouts. The man was handcuffed, behind his back, and faced by three or so armed thugs in uniform. Yet they still murdered him, and that’s OK by the race-haters.

    • Replies: @Commentator Mike
    , @Alden
  133. Skeptikal says:
    @James Speaks

    “Q4) Is there anything Chauvin could have done to save Floyd’s life?
    A4) No.”

    It is impossible to prove a negative. So there is no way to know the outcomes of counterfactuals.

    The only relevant question in the trial context is: Is there anything Chauvin could have done to save his *own* life. That is, so that he would not be standing trial for murder.

    I think if Chauvin had had an app that could tell him the future, he would have pulled back on the neck pressure.

    From what I have read so far in this trial it does look to me as though Chauvin held his knee on Floyd’s neck too long. He might also have been applying more pressure than he realized.
    If he didn’t want to be charged with murder, as soon as he heard Floyd say “I can’t breathe” he should have relieved the pressure. “Some people fake it” is not an excuse. And won’t get Chauvin off the hook.

    Amount of Fentanyl is not really relevant to Chauvin’s actions, unless he knew how much Fentanyl was in George’s system, and was a doctor.

    It looks to me like Chauvin stuck to the Police playbook. Maybe one aspect of competency is to recognize when you have to leave the playbook. Possibly Chauvin was also “playing to” the other cops who were there.

    As I say, from Chauvin’s point to view he has to be seriously regretting his poor judgment that day and inadvertently killing Floyd. Because for a lot of BLM and other folks he created a “Make My Day” scenario that ever since that day has been played to the hilt. I hope someone has the cojones to state this straight out at the trial. Chauvin showed poor judgment but he certainly didn’t intend to kill Floyd.

    However, he will pay for the poor judgment, and probably not for that alone.

    • Replies: @James Speaks
    , @Emslander
  134. aandrews says:

    “I think if Chauvin had had an app that could tell him the future, he would have pulled back on the neck pressure.”

    If he could’ve foreseen the future, he’d’ve installed the “hobble”, which was evidently protocol, on Floyd and said (silently to himself, in his head) screw the extra time it’ll take removing it for EMS. Then stood up, backed away and watched the wigged out pavement ape.

  135. @Mulga Mumblebrain

    It is difficult to argue with somebody so uninformed like you. To impede the air passage from side you have to break the neck. Concerning the good Doctor, he was lying. Body reflexes work for quite a time even after of brain is dead. Floyd body reflexes were impeded by not any other means than drugs.

  136. @Mulga Mumblebrain

    Yeah how do you “resist arrest” when you’re handcuffed behind your back? He was already under arrest once he was handcuffed. Not saying that maybe he didn’t deserve a bullet in the head under some other circumstance perpetrating some violent weapons crime but this is ridiculous.

    • Replies: @Catdog
    , @Zarathustra
  137. @Zarathustra

    I hope he doesn’t come back as a virus to kill off humanity. That was apparently his wish.

  138. Catdog says:
    @Commentator Mike

    He was refusing to get in the squad car, went alternately stiff and limp like an obstinate toddler.

    • Replies: @Commentator Mike
  139. @Mulga Mumblebrain

    Hey Mulga, I’ll bring the popcorn. It’s blue cities, destroyed by blacks, the favored ones. Because we Whites in our peaceful red neighborhoods, we’re at fault for never having been in jail, never robbed, raped or rioted. Liberal racial notions are so sick, demented really, as to be absolutely laughable. Let them hate us, but they can’t get to us without serious consequences and that’s from the police for a start. My department wouldn’t stand for ANY of it, Boston didn’t either, except their own neighborhoods. So far. But up north everyone has a zero tolerance stance. And guns. Lots of guns all friendly to local cops. Only way to live.

    They ain’t gonna get to the Reddies.

  140. Alden says:
    @Mulga Mumblebrain

    Floyd should never have been born. He met the fate of the average great pavement ape. To bad he didn’t meet it 20 years earlier. Woulda prevented many crimes and saved the taxpayers money.

  141. @Commentator Mike

    All Americans are so hopelessly so stupid that is unbelievable. Concerning Floyd he was technically arrested. But they could not get him into car. He did buttress himself with one foot against the car and pushed them back with his body. I think that they made several attempts. Than according to police manual the solution was to kneel on his neck. The manual was written with help of Israels instructions.
    Even some idiot from mental institution would figure out that Floyd needed also a feet restriction.
    So the keystone caps should have tied his shoe laces, and showed him into car and take him to the station and everything should have been just fine.
    I do think that all world should have a good laugh regarding this tragedy.
    Foot restriction is a standard practice in US prison, so why Police is not able to adopt this practice?
    To kneel on persons neck is in my opinion unbelievable bestiality, but not only that it is also a form of punishment which is usurpation of the right of the Judge. Only Judge may impose punishment, policeman newer.

  142. LeRoy says:
    @Negrolphin Pool

    OK. Mr. Negro
    your happy days are over. Who is paying you for your cut and paste work. You work with a group or individually?
    As a Talmudist you should be aware of teaching of Talmud. So from now on I am going to ask you to verify quotes from Talmud. You have a right to remain silent and ignore those quotes. Or you could ask your handlers for guidance. I will keep track of your comments and keep asking.

    BTW. Leave the blacks especially black Jews alone from your B.S. They have not harmed your people. Looking forward to hear from you. If you choose filthy language? No problem

  143. When you’re surrounded by a hostile crowd, your first thought becomes situational awareness. If things are going to get ugly, what do you do? If Floyd leapt up and started causing a commotion, the crowd could’ve gone wild.

    Chauvin was waiting for the ambulance, which should have arrived in under 5 minutes. Maintaining the appearance that he and his team were busy restraining Floyd was a calculated move for the benefit of the crowd. Had they all stood up and let Floyd lay on the ground writhing and moaning, the crowd may have taken that as a sign they ‘should have been doing something’, and that they were not in control of a distressed man.

    Chauvin made a good call. Let the excited delirium overdose lay down and conserve his oxygen. Hold position until the paramedics arrive. Don’t let the hostile crowd dictate the scene.

  144. @Catdog

    Wrong. He was dragged out of the back of the police cruiser before Chauvin kneeled on his neck. He had already been dragged out of his own vehicle before getting in the back of the cruiser. The cops were then manhandling and mauling him in the back of the cop car and then dragged him out to give him the coup the grace. He feared they would kill him and they did. It’s all so obvious; I don’t know what images and videos you’ve been watching. So he was mouthing off and shouting at the cops. So what? Presumably he was already read his rights that whatever he said would be used against him so he was free to give them some lip.

    • Agree: Mulga Mumblebrain
  145. Truth says:

    LOL, don’t you silly Karens and Karinos have anything better to do with your time, than watch these fairy-tales?

    • Thanks: Malla
    • Replies: @Commentator Mike
    , @El Dato
  146. @TheMoon

    “The only way any of this gets fixed is by putting all the evil fleaders in the ground, and chasing the Democrat and other leftists voters out of society.”

    This will never be accomplished as long as conservative patriots think that polite opposition is sufficient. If it had been up to today’s feckless population in 17776 we would still be singing “God save the Queen.”

  147. @Skeptikal

    I’ll try to make this simple – as you are.

    A Fetanyl overdose kills in a time span measured in seconds, not minutes.
    St. George popped pills just as the police arrived.
    His life expectancy at that point was less than a minute.
    Unless you believe in time travel, St. George was a dead man when the police arrived.
    It is not possible to save a dead man.

    Got it? Good.

  148. Emslander says:

    as soon as he heard Floyd say “I can’t breathe” he should have relieved the pressure.

    The way I read the testimony, Floyd first said “I can’t breathe” when he was struggling in the back of the squad car when no one had any pressure on him at all. His frantic behavior in that part of the incident was sufficient for officers to conclude that Floyd was having some kind of reaction. No one needs a blood test to see when a person is behaving out of the ordinary.

    • Replies: @Genrick Yagoda
  149. @Thomasina

    The whole thing doesn’t add up.

    Some other anomalies or red flags include pics with the flashers on the patrol car sometimes on and sometimes completely off. Others with the Asian officer sometimes wearing gloves, sometimes not, or with pics shot from across the street but not showing the mob on the sidewalk harassing Chauvin.

    Then there was the Corpus Christi lawyer, Timothy D. Japhet, who claimed he had buried George Floyd as his court-appointed Guardian Ad Litem just three years earlier.

    Then there is that retired basketball player Stephen Jackson, who claimed to be best buds with George Floyd and repeatedly referred to him as his “twin” in media events, but who had trouble remembering which of GF’s two names was his first name.

    In her cringeworthy testimony at trial, GF’s purported girl friend had the same problem, repeatedly referring to him as Floyd, rather than George. The only apparent purpose of her testimony was to establish that GF was a devout man who impressed her with an offer to pray together.

    Winnie Heartstrong, an unsuccessful black Republican candidate for congress believes the entire arrest sequence was a deep fake, splicing an image of Floyd’s face onto Jackson’s body:

    The ambiance of the arrest has also sparked speculation about what happened to George Floyd. Minnesota’s Governor Tim Walz issued a stay-at-home order for the state on March 15, 2020; an order that set into motion the requirement for mandatory face coverings for private citizens and public officials. In the arrest video date stamped for May 25, 2020, no one seems to be adhering to these COVID-19 guidelines. No one is wearing face-covering of any kind – not the police, not George Floyd, nor the passersby on the sidewalk. This simple fact is enough to question the timeline of the shooting, editing, and release of this arrest video production.

    GF’s purported second-grade teacher from 38 years ago showed up, looking wonderfully youthful for her by-now 60 years of life to say she had kept GF’s second-grade essay detailing how he just wanted to become a Supreme-Court justice. GF had, of course, a precocious level of hand-writing skills most of us had not achieved by grade 8. Oh and her name was Dr. Waynel Sexton. Do wonder if she will be called to testify about her resemblance to various other alleged crisis actors.

    • Replies: @El Dato
  150. Truth says:

    Well now Aldey, that person was a criminal in the midst of a felony. I though you were a probation officer, you know how it works; do the crime, pay…

  151. @Truth

    Another case of the Epstein ear lobe anomaly. Yeah when I saw photos of the accused it didn’t seem to be the same guy who took the knee to Floyd’s neck. Still, why couldn’t they drag the same Chauvin to court? Seems no reason to have a poor double stand by unless something happened to the other actor (or “actor”). But then a year in prison can change you.

  152. It’s no wonder the State did not want to call Dr Baker first. He just completely destroyed the case for the prosecution.

  153. @Emslander

    George Floyd was standing upright outside the cop car when he was screaming “I can’t breathe” and he yelled this 7 times.

    The cops could not get Floyd into a sitting position, as he was actively resisting, and so they put him on the ground. As Floyd requested (well, except for the knee thing)

  154. bronek says:

    What kind of a female would go with such a dreg of society? In the Slavic languages they call such a female kurva.

  155. bronek says:
    @Fisk Ellington Rutledge IV

    After martial law in Warsaw, I returned to the USA. For a year I rode a motorcycle all around the country. Despite what anyone will tell you, America is two countries in one. The Black City States are a fact. Monopoly media is very similar to that of the former communist countries. This country cannot survive as a moral enterprise. How long will it last? Well, that’s another question.

    While it is true that most AfroAms are about 1/3 European, it is also true that there is about 500,000 years difference due to evolution, culture and civilization. The USA has evolved into a lawless community. It is and has remained two countries in one. This is a verboten topic due to censorship in monopoly media.

    Overall, EuroAms do not hate Nigs. Those implying such have been indoctrinated, or are liars. Of course, there are plenty of Wiggers and Negropeans. However, the major reason demographics have changed in the USA is not due to hate; it’s all about people wanting to have peace, harmony and to be away from dysfunctional elements… EuroAms (also) want to have the same rights as Bs; they want free association and (2) to be able to be amongst their own. In other words, they are similar, in that aspect, as millions of AfroAms. This could be accomplished if it were not for the politicians in La CessPool Grande. The Bottom Line: The political system of election by popularity games has to be change

  156. Guess what? Idiots. Your witchhunt is falling apart, Chauvin’s solicitor is wiping the floor with your little witch-hunt.

    Your scumbag hero topped himself and Chauvin is an innocent man.


    • Agree: aandrews
    • Troll: Mulga Mumblebrain
  157. Emslander says:

    Overall, EuroAms do not hate Nigs. Those implying such have been indoctrinated, or are liars.

    I’d say quite to the contrary. White people often seem proud to hang out with blacks who regard them well. I think Shelby Steele has a theory about this in which white people are constantly looking for approval from black people and that black people are stupid not to take advantage of this desire. I suppose that the smart ones do and are able to get good jobs on that basis.

    On a slightly related matter, a couple of comments here point out that the Floyd thing looks sort of staged. A guy in red pants went into the same store and tried to pass a counterfeit $20 bill earlier in the day. It was rejected. Then he comes in with Floyd, apparently in some state of disorientation, and the rest is history.

    If there were an organization of politically interested activists offering money to the next of kin of black men who were willing to be the subjects of police actions, to the extent of committing suicide by provoking the police, would it look any different than this Floyd thing? Just asking.

  158. thordaddy says:

    The default assumption is “false flag,” but this doesn’t necessarily alter the intended effect.

    If A (real) then B (real consequence)…

    Can be transformed into:

    If not A (false flag) then B (same real consequence)…

    One manufactures a “false flag” with the exact same effect as though it were real.

    In this case, the effect of “George Floyd” is to purge “white supremacy” from the police force, protect killer niggers and redefine murder, excessive force and self-defense in a manner that disadvantages the white race, specifically, but also sets the state for mass self-annihilation amongst “blacks” themselves as nigger-on-“black” murder, rape and robbery will continue to skyrocket.

  159. aandrews says:

    From the Daily News Hungary:

    It was revealed earlier that a work related to the BLM movement would be exhibited in Budapest. This was opposed by many, including the Our Homeland Movement, who said the statue was “an anti-European, anti-white, anti-heterosexual, and anti-Christian symbol”.

    • Replies: @Mulga Mumblebrain
  160. @Chris Mallory

    Floyd family 27 million dollars richer —-Donald Trump stated George Floyd is now in heaven–talk about a Hollywood ending — WIN WIN

  161. @Thomasina

    did you read the transcripts?? they moved him because the agitated crowd made them feel it best to attempt resuscitation some distance away

  162. aandrews says:

    Something went haywire when I posted that. I was going to add, both Wright and Kaus say that there will be consequences for the jurors if they return the wrong verdict, that their vote and identity would come out be known. “If it all goes Chauvin’s way, would anybody have the balls to acquit?”

  163. @ravin' lunatic

    Resuscitation? What lurid lie is next? Headache treatment by a bullet to the head?

  164. @aandrews

    Patriots? Loyal to what? What ‘homeland’ would that be? Lynchistan, perhaps.

  165. aandrews says:

    An unfortunate frame capture, but nonetheless an interesting analysis. I especially appreciate his suggestion that Chauvin’s attorney do his closing remarks flat on his stomach, with three guys holding him down, thereby demonstrating that he can speak at length in such a position.


  166. @Zarathustra

    Link please. CNN is TV station. (News) is not a link that can be verified.

  167. @aandrews

    Chauvin killed him. Probably found the whole 8 minutes pleasurable. You’re a cnut and shouldn’t have quit your bank job. BTW the black guy was no saint but that doesn’t give you a right to justify murder.

  168. @aandrews

    So let me take a knee on your throat even though you have no drug history, no weak heart and just for my pleasure and because I don’t like you. Lets see how long you will survive. OK?

    • Agree: Mulga Mumblebrain
    • Replies: @Thomasina
  169. @Wazeeroo

    These white people are nothing more than subservient lap dogs and apologizing for something that they had nothing to do with. I’m white and I don’t owe black people or anyone anything other than to treat each person as I wish to be treated. Your irrational suggestions seem nothing more than measures intended to try to shame or provoke anger in white people. Why would you or anyone suggest something so dehumanizing as these things you have mentioned? If you are African-American, why would you suggest this when your people have been dehumanized for 400 years? Your words benefit no one including yourself.

    If you are angry about this ok. But wouldn’t it be more intelligent to have a rational discourse about this? I am not responsible for the condition of anyone else accept myself and neither is anyone else.

  170. By-tor says:

    And Boomers just mumble something about being nice and crawl back into their retirement communities in Florida. It’s the fucking Boomer generation that failed our country. The most privileged, educated and selfish generation of human beings in history.

    Unfortunately, I’m one of them. I always hated them.

    Why didn’t you run for office at some point or start a local populist revolt movement when you were 30 to 40 years younger? Do not blame the post-WWII generation for the actions of the WWII generation. The US was firmly placed on a path of self-destruction by the WWII generation. They ran the Warren Supreme Court.

  171. @gotmituns

    ‘Yes, even when Chauvin’s convicted there’ll be celebratory riots.’

    Even if he is convicted, the blacks will riot when they realize the conviction isn’t for murder one.

    We need to correct the impression blacks have acquired that they get to riot. Really, that’s the problem here; not whether or not some cop correctly handled some druggie.

  172. There’s bound to be a mistrial.

    At least some of the whites will realize guilt hasn’t been proven beyond a reasonable doubt, while the blacks are certain to vote to convict regardless of the evidence.

    If we ever straighten this country out, one change will have to be to bar blacks from serving on juries. Witness the O.J. Simpson acquittal.

  173. Stephane says:
    @Peripatetic Itch

    Maybe it’s an artifact of the two different viewpoints (the first one, with the weight looking like it’s in top is from the front of the wheel, the other is from the back) and the distortion of the lense ?

    What is the brand/model of the police car ? With a side picture we may be able to have a better grasp of the weight’s orientation, by comparing it’s position to the rear door frame.

  174. Thomasina says:
    @ravin' lunatic

    Of course I read the bit where they were afraid of the crowd. The ambulance arrived only three minutes after Floyd fell silent, and yet they spent what, five minutes moving him to a location several blocks away? WTF! These are critical minutes.

    If this whole event wasn’t completely staged from the get-go, then working on him where he lay would have been the proper thing to do.

    • Replies: @Just another serf
  175. Thomasina says:
    @Colin Wright

    “If the glove doesn’t fit, you must acquit.” What a complete joke. As soon as I saw that glove come out, I knew it wouldn’t fit. Leather gloves that have gotten wet, then dried, are almost impossible to get on at first. The prosecution were idiots, obviously from the South or a warmer climate and don’t know about leather gloves.

    I remember my mother giving me her leather gloves every spring (she used her old leather gloves for gardening), asking me to wear them for awhile in order to warm them up, re-stretch them. I remember I could barely get them on at first (it was a struggle), but then after awhile, from the heat of my hands and from me flexing my fingers about, voila, they were back to their original state.

    The gloves gave that stupid jury an excuse for acquittal. The prosecution didn’t correct the record. The result is a cold-blooded murderer got away with it.

    Done by design? Because they were afraid of rioting if Saint O.J. were found guilty? We’ll never know.

    Blacks react as one, as a single unit. Whites are going to have to do the same.

    • Replies: @LJ
    , @Colin Wright
    , @AceDeuce
  176. Thomasina says:
    @Rev. Spooner

    Read! The article said Dr. Baker acknowledged that Mr. Chauvin’s knee had been on the “BACK” of Floyd’s neck.

    “Mr. Nelson wrapped up his cross-examination with some questions about the mechanics of Floyd’s death. He asked if Mr. Chauvin had blocked Floyd’s carotid artery. Dr. Baker said he had not, and even if he had, the other artery could have supplied blood to Floyd’s brain. The doctor acknowledged that Mr. Chauvin’s knee had been on the back of Floyd’s neck, and he said that doctors don’t often see pressure to the back of the neck causing asphyxiation.

    Mr. Nelson’s final question of the day was: “In terms of the placement of Mr. Chauvin’s knee . . . would that, anatomically, cut off Mr. Floyd’s airway?”

    Dr. Baker answered: “In my opinion, it would not.”

    • Replies: @Curmudgeon
  177. @Commentator Mike

    According to historian AJP Taylor, the Hitler hating author, who lost his position at Oxford for writing The Origins Of The Second World War, the Germans were all over Europe in response to Allied provocations.

  178. @Thomasina

    Add to that, the fact that in a case where there was suspected drug ingestion, the contents of the stomach were not sent to the lab. What kind of pathologist wouldn’t do that? The few that I knew did it as a matter of course, even if it was not a “suspicious” death.

    • Agree: Thomasina
  179. LJ says:

    I know someone who got a deep wound while hiking and bled into her leather boot. After hiking out for help, blood was squishing out the top. The boot shriveled up and became hard. I was astonished the glove was allowed into evidence without challenge.

    • Replies: @Thomasina
  180. Thomasina says:

    Yes, and can you believe it was the prosecution, not the defense, who insisted O.J. try the glove on? Marcia Clark, a member of the prosecution team, did NOT want this to happen, but Christopher Darden, the black prosecutor, insisted. Why? Was it just stupidity? Or an excuse for the jury to acquit?

    I am sure they were advised (after their stupid mistake) that leather shrinks after getting wet with water or blood. I cannot understand why they didn’t correct the record by calling further evidence to explain this phenomenon.

    O.J. Simpson got away with the murder of two people. Disgusting.

    • Replies: @The Old Philosopher
  181. @rocky

    spot on!
    it strikes me he was posturing to the gathering crowd Gladiator fashion,
    showing off to the newbies he had with him.
    when it went, as robberies, arrests and burglaries often do,

    or the whole thing was faked.

    • Replies: @Arcturus
  182. @ADMIN got a slow down pop up ive only posted one comment!!

  183. @Thomasina

    The ambulance arrived only three minutes after Floyd fell silent, and yet they spent what, five minutes moving him to a location several blocks away?

    And while granted, the crowd represented some degree of danger, why not load him in the ambulance, CLOSE the doors, and start work using both paramedics. There were at least four armed police that could provide security for the stationary ambulance at that point.

    I’ve never heard this alternate scenario addressed.

    • Agree: Thomasina
    • Replies: @Colin Wright
  184. @Thomasina

    ‘Blacks react as one, as a single unit. Whites are going to have to do the same.’

    Indeed. It’s sad — I didn’t particularly want a race war. Not that I’m fond of blacks, but I did have better things to do.

    But they’ve started one — there’s no point in pretending otherwise.

    • Troll: Mulga Mumblebrain
  185. @obwandiyag

    gay proctologist to the waiter at the tossed salad bar: “I’ll have the obwandiyag plate.”

  186. @obwandiyag

    I know smart Marxists. You are not one.

  187. El Dato says:

    Protip: if you hold the head differently, the eyes and ears align.

    • Replies: @Truth
  188. @Colin Wright

    I do love you really loony, extremist, race-haters. Whenever I stray from habit, and dream that humanity might yet have a future, I just re-acquaint myself with insane racists, and I return to realism.

  189. El Dato says:
    @Peripatetic Itch

    The one thing that these Fox Mulder tier investigations always assume is that everything was artificial (complete, in this case with deep-faking the video – which is technologically a bit edgy – crisis actors, bots on Twitter and fake personae who can appear in court), but then miss completely stupid things even low-grade Hollywood scenarists wouldn’t miss so that Mulder can have his gotcha moment while watching video of the event at home (plus, nobody flags this during the trial? “your honor, this is a manipulated image”)

    Like these:

    Some other anomalies or red flags include pics with the flashers on the patrol car sometimes on and sometimes completely off. Others with the Asian officer sometimes wearing gloves, sometimes not, or with pics shot from across the street but not showing the mob on the sidewalk harassing Chauvin.

    Zoom in, Enhance!

    Winnie Heartstrong, an unsuccessful black Republican candidate for congress believes the entire arrest sequence was a deep fake, splicing an image of Floyd’s face onto Jackson’s body

    This is stupid.

    GF’s purported second-grade teacher from 38 years ago showed up, looking wonderfully youthful for her by-now 60 years of life to say she had kept GF’s second-grade essay detailing how he just wanted to become a Supreme-Court justice.

    That was fake but that doesn’t mean there is an extraterrestrial conspiracy.

    Now what I can believe is that the girlfriend is fake, but that’s another matter.

  190. AceDeuce says:

    The OJ glove thing was greenlighted by c olored boy “prosecutor” Chris Darden. I personally think he was working on the down low, as negroes say, with the defense, and he knew it would scuttle the case.

    Of course, he was stupid enough where it could be he gave the OK due to dumbness, but I think it was intentional.

  191. @aandrews

    But this kills the argument that Chauvin’s knee was wedged into Floyd’s side.
    140 pounds of weight on your back? C’mon, that’s nothing.

  192. unwoke says:

    “During Mr. Blackwell’s redirect, Dr. Baker said if he had to do it again, he wouldn’t change his topline cause of death. The other conditions were contributing causes, but not direct causes. He would still classify the death as a homicide and would not change the death certificate.”

    That’s it. The trial is effectively over. The top autopsy examiner for the county who did the official report on the case still calls it homicide. Rightly or wrongly, that’s all the jury needs to hear to safely convict. Might as well pack up & go home after this (except for you Derek, you’ll have a new home now).

  193. This whole matter has an new kink to it as a female suburban Brooklyn Center cop drew her pistol and shot a youngish black man. Allegedly, she was reaching for her taser and had yelled “taser, taser’ before she, perhaps subconsciously, drew the pistol instead. The “victim” was wanted on a warrant, but that was apparently not on heavy charges.

    Result of all this was a BLM fronted protest, rioting and looting in a nearby business area on that same Sunday evening. This time, with no election to keep up the fracas, Minnesota’s Democrat lockdown governor Tim Walz, called out the National Guard and put 5 Twin Cities counties on an overnight curfew-lockdown. That was likely all for show as cold, wet, windy weather was not the sort of conditions where your usual set of rioters cared to be having a jolly old time in the great outdoors.

    Unless the jury is being kept in total isolation, these events may well have a direct effect on the outcome of the trial. Meanwhile, the partiers are awaiting more springlike conditions to get out there on the streets once again so they can come home with plenty of booty, followed by vigorous booty-bopping.

    • Replies: @Majority of One
  194. Arcturus says:
    @kokor hekkus

    Yes, those are the two most plausible explanations.

  195. All I want is to add this fact.
    On video you can clearly see that Floyd did pee himself.
    Most of the children and women, and even some men do pee themselves in high stress situation.
    It is due to high volume of adrenaline injected into blood stream resulting in some cases of heart fibrillation.
    In case of Floyd the high adrenaline and drugs did cause heart failure.
    That is why he peed himself.
    He was freely breathing and speaking until his heart did stop.

    • Troll: Mulga Mumblebrain
  196. @Thomasina

    Sorry, but the case against Simpson was a complete fraud based on staged crime scene with fabricated evidence and mostly false. deceptive and fraudulent testimony that purported to substantiate material facts about the case.

    A simple case in point. Goldman had two half inch cuts to his aorta just above the bifurcation, but the medical examine found only 100 ml of free blood in his abdominal cavity that proves it was impossible for those injuries to have been inflicted on him until after he had lost almost all his blood when DiMaio, a forensic pathology conducted experiments to determine how much blood would flow out of the aorta from a corpse and found that around 700 ml was the least with more than 1,000 as the most. Moreover, the two knife wounds to his lungs produced a mer4e 200 ml o liquid blood into his pleural cavity, with none found in his trachea or mouth, next to impossible if these injuroi4s were inflicted while he was alive and the blood pouring out of the lung incisions would be flowing into his mouth as he continued to breathe.

    And then Nicole had her had practically severed, with a quarter inch deep cut into a vertebra, her pharynx sliced apart, the rear third of her epiglottis cut off, both carotids and jugular veins cut along with every other blood vessel in that area of the neck, yet aspirated not a molecule of blood into her lungs. These are physiologically impossible physical manifestations of her injuries had they been inflicted while she was still alive. And then there was not a single sign of spurting blood where both jugular arterie3s had been cut.

    If anyone wants to keep imagining Simpson murdered them could start could easily prove it by presenting evidence that completely substantiated how he could have injured these magic fatal injuries in a way that left no physical manifestations they were inflicted on a living, vital body.

  197. @Majority of One has the most thorough, localized reportage + video on the situation in Brooklyn Center, a Minneapolis first-tier suburb, where rioting, protests and looting/ransacking last night continued for nearly 3 hours after Minnesota’s Democrat governor Couldda Walzed all Night imposed a dusk to dawn lockdown/curfew for FIVE metropolitan counties, also calling up the Minnesota National Guard.

    My question: Why didn’t Walz move quickly last summer when half the private businesses in Minneapolis were ransacked, looted and burned? Duh…it was election year and the move to remove Trump required no holds barred, as per the orders of the Democrat National Committee and for certain, by the CIA/Bank$ters who give them their orders.

  198. Dr. Jonathan Rich is a weird individual. Is his Jeff Goldblum impression something they teach cardiologists?

    What I learned from him is that no amount of arteriosclerosis is dangerous. In fact, the occlusion makes the heart stronger!

    Also, he seemed pretty chill on the subject of meth use. He conceded that meth might result in an increased heart rate. But no biggee.

    And as I mentioned, all delivered in this strange Jeff Goldblum imitation. Odd guy. Probably did too much meth during his residency.

  199. @Dumbo

    ‘From the point of view of the powers above, an innocence verdict for Chauvin, followed by riots everywhere, is excellent. In fact, I bet that they are planning on:

    ‘Summer of Floyd II – The Vengeance!

    I was thinking along superficially similar lines — but with one slight difference.

    ‘From the point of view of the powers above, a guilty verdict for Chauvin, followed by riots everywhere, is excellent. In fact, I bet that they are planning on:

    ‘Summer of Floyd II – The Vengeance!’

    Stand up and walk like a man. Make the fuckers rue the day they started this shit.

  200. @Just another serf

    ‘And while granted, the crowd represented some degree of danger, why not load him in the ambulance, CLOSE the doors, and start work using both paramedics. There were at least four armed police that could provide security for the stationary ambulance at that point.

    ‘I’ve never heard this alternate scenario addressed.’

    This really misses the point. It’s a big, relatively violent country. With 330 million inhabitants, every now and then the police are going to screw up.

    It happens. Like house fires, auto accidents, miscarriages, and deaths at 43 of heart attack. Shit happens.

    The problem is that blacks — of all the various and multiple ethnic groups — somehow have been led to assume they have the right to loot, burn, and tear cities apart every time it does.

    No, they don’t. We need to correct them of this misapprehension first. Then we can get on to deciding what to do about cops that may or may not have fucked up.

  201. Time to take off the gloves. Watched CNN today as they summed up the 14 day trial and prognosticated what might happen this coming Monday, when both the prosecution and defense try to make their cases. It has become clear after watching and listening not so much to the trial, but the top legal experts give their running opinions after each segment. Only one or two of the panelists acknowledged that the defense presented several valid points, but the rest of their comments clearly supported the prosecution’s witnesses.

    Two of them Joey Jay who is Latino and perhaps African-American as well made a statement that the officers at the scene committed assault and battery against Floyd. If they did commit such a crime, it was certainly prompted by the perpetrator as he physically resisted arrest/detainment by the officers. The reason police were called to the scene was because a convenience store employee stated that Floyd tried to float a counterfeit $20 bill and would not talk with the store when asked.

    Throughout the entire trial the MSM has been overlooking his illegalities such as his counterfeit $20 bill, resisting arrest/detainment by physically kicking the officers as they tried to remove him from the vehicle he drove, while simultaneously complaining as they attempted to place him in a squad car, but could not keep him there. When police finally wrestled Floyd to the road, he kept calling out to “Mama,” and intermittently complaining of not being able to breathe.

    It’s as if the empaneled and so called experts could see no irresponsibility with Floyd’s miscreant type misbehavior. Since the trial’s beginning, they have painted him as a veritable “choirboy.” Hate to break it to anyone who is or was looking for a fair trial. There is nowhere in America that Chauvin and perhaps some of the other participants could hope to receive a fair one. Everywhere one might go, the MSM has prejudiced most people’s opinions. Perhaps a fair trial might be orchestrated in the Himalayas, oh snap, the Dali Lama has cable!

  202. Loup-Bouc says:


    Those texts present an unbiased, medically, forensically, and legally redoubtable view of the George Floyd murder.

    I shall not reply to comments addressing this comment or to comments addressing the above-linked texts. The above-linked texts speak for themselves.

  203. George Floyd (carrier criminal) is now officially beautified as first American saint by pope Joe Biden (totally senile.) It is time for all white Americans (not only Christians) to turn another cheek.

    If anybody thinks that saint George will now perform miracle and make all Negros civilized is out of his mind.

  204. Truth says:
    @John Henry

    Unfortunately it will likely not matter whether the Jury believes Chauvin is not guilty. They will vote guilty to keep from being hunted down an killed by BLM.

    Well you see, Old Sport; that just reinforces my belief in how smart my 5th grade civics teacher was.

    She was always trying to convince us in “the life and death power of the judicial branch.”

  205. Malla says:
    @Commentator Mike

    National Socialism WAS Socialism | Rethinking WW2 History

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