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The Merits and Inadequacies of Middleman Minority Theory in Explaining the Jews
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“The middleman and the host society come in conflict because elements in each group have incompatible goals. To say this is to deny the viewpoint common in the sociological literature that host hostility is self-generated (from psychological problems or cultural traditions).”
Edna Bonacich, “A Theory of Middleman Minorities,” 1973.[1]Bonacich, Edna. “A Theory of Middleman Minorities.” American Sociological Review 38, no. 5 (1973): 583–94, (589).

An interesting accompaniment to Nathan Cofnas’s 2018 attempted debunking of Kevin MacDonald’s work on Jews was the subtle resurfacing of Steven Pinker’s claim that a more plausible theory of the Jewish historical experience can be found in “Thomas Sowell’s convincing analysis of ‘middleman minorities’ such as the Jews, presented in his magisterial study of migration, race, conquest, and culture.” Pinker first involved himself in criticism of MacDonald’s work in a letter to Slate, in January 2000, where he made the above comment. A mere teenager in January 2000, it was only in the wake of the Cofnas affair that I first discovered and read Pinker’s initial response to MacDonald’s theory. It goes without saying that I disagreed with almost everything Pinker had to say, but I was especially vexed by his invocation of the “middleman minority” theory, something I’ve been familiar with for over a decade and always found strongly lacking. Pinker himself, of course, has relatively little expertise in the area, his only comment on the theme coming from a quasi-memoir on Jewish intelligence written for New Republic. Additionally, his gushing use of persuasive language (“convincing,” “magisterial”) to describe Thomas Sowell’s extremely derivative and now rather dated Migrations and Cultures: A World View (1996) struck me as a wholly contrived inflation of what isn’t really a rival theory at all, and certainly not a Sowell innovation. In fact, the history of “middleman minority” theory, and especially its application to the Jews, has a patchy, chequered, and ambiguous history that is worth exploring in its own right. The following essay is intended to provide such a history, as well as to broadly assess the merits and inadequacies of exploring Jewish history through this lens, and also the ways it complements, and falls short of, Kevin MacDonald’s theory.

History of the Theory

The comparing of Jews with other sojourning or diaspora trading peoples is far from new, and has even been a staple of anti-Jewish writing since at least the Enlightenment. Voltaire, for example, wrote in his Oeuvres Complètes (Geneva, 1756) and Dictionnaire Philosophique (Basle, 1764) that “The Guebers [Parsis in the modern terminology], the Banyans [Indian merchants] and the Jews, are the only nations which exist dispersed, having no alliance with any people, are perpetuated among foreign nations, and continue apart from the rest of the world.”[2]Francois-Marie Arouet de Voltaire, Oeuvres Complètes (Geneva, 1756), Vol. 7. Ch.1. See also Dictionnaire Philosophique (Basle, 1764), Vol. 14 . In the course of his essay, however, Voltaire concluded that, some surface similarities aside, “It is certain that the Jewish nation is the most singular that the world has ever seen.” Bruno Bauer (1809–1882), the German Protestant theologian, philosopher and historian, also used the example of the Parsis and Overseas Indians, writing in The Jewish Problem (1843),

The base [of the tenacity of the Jewish national spirit] is lack of ability to develop with history, it is the reason of the quite unhistorical character of that nation, and this again is due to its oriental nature. Such stationary nations exist in the Orient, because there human liberty and the possibility of progress are still limited. In the Orient and in India, we still find Parsees [sic] living in dispersion and worshipping the holy fire of Ormuz.[3]B. Bauer, The Jewish Problem (Die Judenfrage, 1843) ed Ellis Rivkin and trans. Helen Lederer (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion, 1958).

After Voltaire, commentary on the relationship between the economic activity of the Jews and other aspects of their behavior and history, a key theme in modern middleman minority theory, were common points of discussion and debate. Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773–1843), an avowedly anti-Semitic German philosopher, argued in his essay On the Danger to the Well-Being and Character of the Germans Presented by the Jews (1816), that Jews adopted their historical middleman role willingly, out of a hunger for profit and an innate sense of separateness, rather than being forced into it by broader economic structures and contexts (which again are a major focus of modern middleman minority theory). For Fries,

Both in Germany and abroad the Jews had free states where they enjoyed every right, and even countries where they reigned—but their sordidness, their mania for deceitful, second-hand dealing always remained the same. They shy away from industrious occupations not because they are hindered from pursuing them but simply because they do not want to.

Following Bauer and Fries—and before modern scholarship on the subject, the most prominent invocation of ideas similar to modern middleman minority theory can be observed in the work of Karl Marx. In fact, Marx’s essay On the Jewish Problem is an explicit reply to Bauer, with Marx accusing Bauer of “a one-sided conception of the Jewish problem.”[4]K. Marx, On the Jewish Problem (Zur Judenfrage, 1844) ed Ellis Rivkin and trans. Helen Lederer (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion, 1958). Marx decried Bauer’s focus on religious matters, perceiving the roots of the Jewish problem to reside instead in resource competition and raw economics. In many of his arguments and assessments of the economic and sociological position of the Jews, Marx anticipated Edna Bonacich (1940–), the Jewish Marxist anti-Zionist sociologist who essentially invented middleman minority theory in its modern form (and whose work will be discussed below), in arguing for a structural-contextual explanation of the middleman role of the Jews. In this view, the historical development of Capital essentially invites and entices certain sojourning or diaspora groups, including the Jews, to adopt lucrative but exploitative and antagonistic roles within society. In the words of Marx, “we recognize therefore in Judaism a generally present anti-social element which has been raised to its present peak by historical development, in which the Jews eagerly assisted.” [emphasis added] These antagonistic roles then generate host hostility, which reinforces ethnocentrism and negative characteristics in the minority, accelerating and deepening conflict.

Marx’s emphasis on economic opportunity and the capitalist superstructure influenced later writers such as the German economist Wilhelm Roscher (1817–1894), Werner Sombart (1863–1941), Max Weber (1864–1920), and Georg Simmel (1858–1918), all of whom attempted in some form to trace the relationship of ethnicity to occupational choice (a major concern of modern middleman minority theory), with particular attention paid to the Jews. In keeping with his flamboyant Marxism, Sombart was closest to Marx’s ideas on the Jews, arguing in The Jews and Modern Capitalism (1911) that Capital had drawn Jews into their influential, exploitative, and lucrative roles in such a comprehensive manner that Jews had become a kind of ur-middleman minority, and thus were both the prime movers of modern capitalism and the very embodiment of exploitative capital itself. Later, in Der moderne Kapitalismus (1913), Sombart claimed that the middleman nature of the Jews had become endemic in society, creating generations of mere “traders,” a bourgeois “Jewish species” whose entire intellectual and emotional world is “directed to the money value of conditions and dealings, who therefore calculates everything in terms of money.” This “spirit of Moloch” compelled the entrepreneur to “make money relentlessly until at last he conceives this as the real goal of all activity and all existence.”[5]W. Sombart, Der moderne Kapitalismus, Munich and Leipzig 1913. This work was published in an English translation by E. Epstein under the title, The Quintessence of Capitalism, London, 1915. For Sombart, the origins of the worst of modern capitalism can be found in the early middleman role of the Jews, their medieval semi-nomadic quest for usury-derived profit and Victorian hawking of shoddy goods being a precursor to modern advertising and the mass production of superfluous and quickly obsolete consumer products.

Max Weber’s interpretation of the Jewish middleman role was slightly softer, with Weber advancing the notion of “pariah capitalism.” Pariah capitalists, who include the Jews as well as the Parsis, the Overseas Indians, and the Overseas Chinese, are groups whose characteristics and situational contexts make them prone to willingly adopt socially negative positions in order to obtain wealth and influence. For Weber, capitalism itself was not intrinsically bad. The Puritans, with their industry and hard work, were held up in Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904/5) as exemplars of positive, “rational” capitalism. Jews, and other pariah capitalists, however, invariably advanced a negative “irrational” capitalism typified by consumer credit, speculation, and colonialism. According to Weber, middleman minorities or “pariah capitalist groups” perverted the essentially good nature of capitalism because of their practice of “dual ethics,” or moral double-standards, which was itself a product of their sojourning nature and situational context. Weber also perceived Judaism itself as reinforcing the Jewish preference for pariah capitalism.[6]W. P. Zenner, Minorities in the Middle: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (Albany: State University of New York, 1991), 5.

[7] W. Roscher, “Die Stellung der Juden im Mittelalter, betrachtet vom Standpunkt der allgemeine Handelspolitik,” Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft Bd. 31 (1875) S. 503–526.

Softer still were the ideas of Wilhelm Roscher, one of the founders of the historical school of political economy. Roscher was part of the historical economist or European Institutionalist movement (which also influenced Weber) that argued for a study of economics based on empirical work that laid special methodological emphasis on context, rather than logical philosophy. Roscher’s emphasis on context and the historical development of capitalism are exemplified in his 1875 essay “The Status of the Jews in the Middle Ages Considered from the Standpoint of Commercial Policy.”[7] In this essay, Roscher presented capitalism as neither inherently good or bad, and he made the argument that Jews, who like other middleman minorities were economic modernizers, were positive influences and crucial to the development of a burgeoning economic trading system. Gideon Reuveni offers the following summary:

According to Roscher, the modernizing role of the Jews explains the change in attitudes within the social majority: from tolerance and acceptance to exclusion and persecution. In other words, once, in the eyes of the majority the role of the Jews becomes superfluous, resentments towards the Jews become more prevalent. This cycle in relations towards Jews, Roscher observed, was not specific to the relationship between Jews and non-Jews but was rather a general development among many peoples who allow their economies to be administered by a foreign and more highly cultivated people, but later, upon having reached the necessary level of development themselves, often after intense struggles, try to emancipate themselves from this tutelage. According to Roscher, “one may defiantly speak in this connection of a historical law here.”[8]G. Reuveni, “Prolegomena to an “Economic Turn” in Jewish History,” in G. Reuveni (ed) The Economy in Jewish History: New Perspectives on the Interrelationship Between Ethnicity and Economic Life (Berghahn, 2011), 3.

Similar to Roscher’s ideas were the theories of the Jewish Marxist anti-Zionist Abram Leon (1918–1944). Leon, a Polish Jew said to have been executed at Auschwitz at the age of 26, published The Jewish Question: A Marxist Interpretation around 1942, in which he proposed that Jews were a “people-class.” For Leon, “Judaism mirrors the interests of a pre-capitalist mercantile class.” He explains,

Judaism was an indispensable factor in precapitalist society. It was a fundamental organism within it. That is what explains the two-thousand-year existence of Judaism in the Diaspora. The Jew was as characteristic a personage in feudal society as the lord and the serf. It was no accident that a foreign element played the role of “capital” in feudal society. Feudal society as such could not create a capitalist element; as soon as it was able to do so, precisely then it ceased being feudal. Nor was it accidental that the Jew remained a foreigner in the midst of feudal society. The “capital” of precapitalist society existed outside of its economic system. From the moment that capital begins to emerge from the womb of this social system and takes the place of the borrowed organ, the Jew is eliminated and feudal society ceases to be feudal. It is modern capitalism that has posed the Jewish problem. Not because the Jews today number close to twenty million people (the proportion of Jews to non-Jews has declined greatly since the Roman era) but because capitalism destroyed the secular basis for the existence of Judaism. Capitalism destroyed feudal society; and with it the function of the Jewish people-class. History doomed this people-class to disappearance; and thus the Jewish problem arose. The Jewish problem is the problem of adapting Judaism to modern society.

Georg Simmel, an ethnically Jewish sociologist, philosopher, and critic, moved in much the same theoretical direction as Roscher and Leon, as evidenced in his famous and still influential essay “Der Fremde” (“The Stranger”) (1908). Simmel argued that certain groups like Jews and other diaspora peoples may be members of host nations in a spatial sense but not in a social sense. They may be in the nation, but not of it. These groups are both near and far, familiar and foreign. This contextual scenario influences the behavior of “stranger” groups by permitting them freedom from convention and allowing them access to an alleged greater objectivity. For Simmel, “the Stranger,” the classic example of which in his estimation is the Jew, is “the person who comes today and stays tomorrow. He is, so to speak, the potential wanderer: although he has not moved on, he has not quite overcome the freedom of coming and going.”[9]As the son of Catholic and Lutheran converts from Judaism, Simmel’s relationship to his Jewishness is fascinating in itself. See A. Morris-Reich, The Quest for Jewish Assimilation in Modern Social Science, (New York: Routledge, 2008), chapter 4. For the influence of Simmel’s stranger minority theory see Werner Cahnman, “Pariahs, Strangers, and Court Jews — A Conceptual Classification,” Sociological Analysis, 35 (1974); C. R. Hallpike, “Some problems in Cross-Cultural Comparison,” in The Translation of Culture, T. Beidelman (ed), (London: Tavistock, 1971); Hilda Kuper, “Strangers in Plural Societies: Asians in South Africa and Uganda,” in Pluralism in Africa, Leo Kuper and M. G. Smith (eds) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971); Jack H. Porter, “The Urban Middleman: A Comparative Analysis,” Comparative Social Research, 4 (1981); R. A. Reminick, “The Evil Eye Belief among the Amhara of Ethiopia,” Ethnology, 13 (1974), W. Shack and E. Skinner, Strangers in African Societies (Berkelely: University of California Press, 1979); Paul Siu, “The Sojourner,” American Journal of Sociology, 58, (1952). This freedom, argues Simmel, makes “the Stranger” ideally suited to fulfil the role of middleman minority.[10]J. Stone, Racial Conflict in Contemporary Society, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985), 96. As with Roscher’s theory, which is markedly contradicted in several key areas of the historical record, there are a number of obvious logical and evidential problems with Simmel’s theory, and these will be discussed later.

Between Simmel’s 1908 essay and the 1970s, middleman minority theories continued to be advanced. With the exception of Philip Curtin and his Cross-cultural Trade in World History (1984), these efforts were developed primarily by Jewish scholars, and overwhelmingly within the context of trying to explicitly or implicitly explore, explain, or offer apologetics for the Jewish experience. For example, Abner Cohen (1921–2001), was an anthropologist at the University of London, who advanced, in his influential work Urban Ethnicity (1974) and numerous other publications, the idea that there are “trading diasporas.”[11]This coinage is frequently attributed to Philip Curtin, who employs the term in his Cross-cultural Trade in World History (1984), but the term was in use by Cohen, within a strict thematic sense, as early as the latter’s 1974 chapter “Cultural Strategies in the Organisation of Trading Diasporas,” in C. Meillassoux (ed) The Development of Indigenous Trade and Markets in West Africa (London, 1971). Of particular interest are Cohen’s ideas about “visibility strategies” pursued by such groups:

The use of symbols to maintain group boundaries can thus be seen as a cultural strategy. In fact, many groups in traditional and modern societies find that their interests are guarded better through invisible organisations such as cousinhoods, membership in a common set of social clubs, religious ties, and informal networks, than through a highly visible, formally recognised institution. At times, ethnic groups may need to heighten their visibility as strangers to maintain their interests while in other instances they may wish to lower their profile and appear to be an integral part of the society.[12]Quoted in W. P. Zenner, Minorities in the Middle: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (Albany: State University of New York, 1991), 8.

This bears a striking similarity to the sixth chapter of Kevin MacDonald’s Separation and Its Discontents, which is concerned with visibility strategies, especially among crypto-Jews, and concludes with the argument that “this attempt to maintain separatism while nevertheless making the barriers less visible is the crux of the problem of post-Enlightenment Judaism.”[13]K. MacDonald, Separation and Its Discontents: Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Anti-Semitism, 187. In fact, beginning in the 1970s, middleman minority theory began to develop several ideas that dovetail very well with the concept of Judaism as a group evolutionary strategy. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the work of Edna Bonacich.

Although the modern refinement of middleman minority theory is often traced to Hubert Blalock’s 1967 Toward a Theory of Minority-Group Relations, the greater scholarly interest has been shown in Edna Bonacich’s 1973 American Sociological Review article “A Theory of Middleman Minorities.”[14]E. Bonacich, “A Theory of Middleman Minorities.” American Sociological Review 38, no. 5 (1973): 583–94. Bonacich sought to refine and systematize Blalock’s theory within an anti-capitalist framework, essentially making the argument that all group conflict in such scenarios is the result of a rational competition for resources in which group characteristics and interests play a crucial role. A Jewish Marxist and anti-Zionist, Bonacich’s interpretations borrow heavily from Marx, Sombart, Weber, Roscher, and Leon, to the extent that Bonacich essentially concurs that capitalism created opportunities for exploitative middleman communities and the Jews and other middleman minorities, who possess certain predisposing characteristics including dual loyalty and a level of unscrupulousness, willingly and enthusiastically engaged in these roles.

Bonacich is well-known for her work on East Asian middleman minorities in the United States, especially her 1980 monograph The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community, but her earliest work on middleman minorities clearly demonstrates a concern with the Jewish experience.[15]E. Bonacich, The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berekely: University of California Press, 1980). In her discussion of middleman minorities in the 1973 article, Bonacich describes Jews as “perhaps the epitome of the form.” Some of the key features of the 1973 article include the arguments that Jews and other middleman minorities are essentially economic “teams,” and that these teams rely upon very high levels of ethnocentrism and related social and economic strategies, which in turn enable them to succeed in individualistic societies. Bonacich writes,

The modern industrial capitalist treats his workers impartially as economic instruments; he is as willing to exploit his own son as he is a stranger. This universalism, the isolation of each competitor, is absent in middleman economic activity, where primordial ties of family, region, sect, and ethnicity unite people against the surrounding, often individualistic economy. [emphasis added][16]Ibid, 589.
(E. Bonacich, The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berekely: University of California Press, 1980).)

Bonacich makes some very interesting, and controversial, remarks on the nature of conflict between middleman minorities and their hosts, with special reference to Jews. For Bonacich, accusations that Jews have simply been scapegoats for the woes of Europeans are based on nothing more than a “surface impression.”[17]Ibid.
(E. Bonacich, The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berekely: University of California Press, 1980).)
While noting that middleman minorities “are noteworthy for the acute hostility they have faced,” it remains that,

host members have reason for feeling hostile toward middleman groups. … Even the extremity of the host reaction can be understood as “conflict” behavior. The reason is that the economic and organisational power of middleman groups makes them extremely difficult to dislodge. … The difficulty of breaking entrenched middleman monopolies, the difficulty of controlling the growth and extension of their economic power, pushes host countries to ever more extreme reactions. One finds increasingly harsh measures, piled on one another, until, when all else fails, “final solutions” are enacted.[18]Ibid, 592.
(E. Bonacich, The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berekely: University of California Press, 1980).)
[emphasis added]

Bonacich has also argued that Jews and other middleman minorities do engage in economic and social “dual loyalty,” and that middleman minorities do in fact “drain” resources away from host populations and can become very powerful as a result. This then frequently causes host elites and masses to unite against the sojourning element, a conflict that can escalate rapidly if the sojourning element refuses to give up its monopolies. Bonacich explicitly rejects any idea that “host hostility is self-generated (from psychological problems or cultural traditions),” arguing instead that “the middleman and the host society come in conflict because elements in each group have incompatible goals.” With her apparent justification of host violence against middleman minorities, including Jews, as well as her objective view of certain Jewish characteristics, Bonacich’s theory has been heavily criticized in some quarters, despite its ongoing influence in contemporary sociology. Robert Cherry, for example, has lamented that Bonacich’s ideas on middleman minorities “reinforce persistent, negative Jewish stereotypes.”[19]R. Cherry, “American Jewry and Bonacich’s Middleman Minority Theory,” Review of Radical Political Economics, 22 (2–3), 158–173, 161.

Discussion

Before moving to an assessment of the merits and inadequacies of middleman minority theory in explaining Jewish history, it’s worth reflecting on the history of the theory in light of Steven Pinker’s claim that it represents a rival, or “more convincing,” analysis of the Jewish historical trajectory. The first problem, of course, is that, despite Pinker’s lavish praise, Thomas Sowell is not remotely regarded within scholarship as a leading or original thinker in the area of middleman minority theory. Not only does discussion of middleman minorities form a relatively small element of Sowell’s Migrations And Cultures, but what does appear is highly derivative of the work of Edna Bonacich, Walter Zenner, and others.

A further problem is Pinker’s assumption that there exists a single, unified theory on middleman minorities that will help explain the Jewish historical experience, and that somehow this will also be sufficient to counter the theory of Kevin MacDonald, or at least offer a more convincing framework that would allow MacDonald’s ideas to be dispensed with. As should already be clear from this brief, and incomplete, bibliographical overview, within middleman minority theory there is a plethora of often competing interpretations, as well as a general problem of definitions. Walter Zenner, a key proponent of middleman minority theory, concedes that “we tend to make our definitions and models fit the prototypical group. For decades, the Jews were the archetype.”[20]W. P. Zenner, Minorities in the Middle: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (Albany: State University of New York, 1991), 10. See also W. Zenner, “American Jewry in the light of middleman minority theories,” Contemporary Jewry, 5:1 (1980), 11–30, 18. Zenner argues that “As a synthetic concept, the phrase “middleman minority” is difficult to define so as to cover all groups so designated.” In other words, for a considerable time, middleman minority theory was built around trying to explain the experience of Jews, with other groups haphazardly mapped onto the theory in way that tried to give the impression of similarity, even where these similarities were thin to non-existent. Bonacich has made roughly the same argument, asserting that middleman minority theory should be regarded as incomplete because it can only point to an “ideal type,” and

In reality there are problems of fit between any actual ethnic group and this picture, problems in establishing which or how many of the traits a population need have before it can be classified as a middleman minority.[21]E. Bonacich, The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berekely: University of California Press, 1980), 22. See also E. Bonacich, “A Theory of Middleman Minorities.” American Sociological Review 38, no. 5 (1973): 583–94, 585.

Bonacich, very reasonably in my opinion, proposes that middleman minority theory, of which she herself is a pioneer, is something of a misnomer and should be regarded as little more than “a useful sensitiser to a host of interrelated variables.”[22]Ibid, 24.
(E. Bonacich, The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berekely: University of California Press, 1980), 22. See also E. Bonacich, “A Theory of Middleman Minorities.” American Sociological Review 38, no. 5 (1973): 583–94, 585.)
One is therefore pressed by Pinker’s claim to ask not only which of the many strands of middleman minority theories Steven Pinker is praising, but also just how “convincing” and “magisterial” he can find it given the field’s leading contemporary thinkers regard their work in such ambiguous terms.

Finally, it is not at all clear how any of the aspects of middleman minority theory obviate the need for a deeper theoretical framework in which to understand the behaviors and contexts under study. Middleman minority theory, as remarked above, is an incomplete tool, and has little to offer in terms of deeper explanatory value for such relevant key concepts under discussion as resource competition, ecological strategies, visibility strategies, psychological attitudes toward the majority, and social identity theory. One of the strong points of Kevin MacDonald’s work, which is truly cross-disciplinary and unusually well-equipped in terms of the relevant historical literature, is that is does offer such an analysis, and can be argued to fill a lot of the logical and evidential gaps of middleman minority theory. This is not to say that the two frameworks are in opposition, but that the concept of a group evolutionary strategy can be usefully and seamlessly integrated into middleman minority theory, especially in relation to Jews.

It’s been continually remarked by many scholars in the field that Jews should be regarded as either an “ideal type,” “the epitome of the form,” a singular example, or otherwise unique case—even within the context of broad comparative approaches with other trading diaspora peoples. The qualities that have made Jews so unique — cultural, historical, religious, and even biological — are rarely remarked or elaborated upon in sociological studies of middleman minorities, which are often lacking in depth in terms of their historical analysis. As will be discussed below, Zenner, in particular, has highlighted ways in which Jews do not fit the standard middleman minority pattern, especially in terms of their extravagant and influential involvement in the culture and politics of the host nation (see also MacDonald’s Diaspora Peoples on the Overseas Chinese, xlii ff). Unfortunately, middleman minority literature has little to say in terms of further explanatory theory on how or why Jews came to both define and exceed the middleman typology. Here, middleman minority theory not only isn’t a rival for MacDonald’s work, it positively cries out for it.

“American Jews do not fit the sojourner pattern, since their political involvement goes far beyond the support of Jewish causes. … Much Jewish political activity, whether right, center, or left, can be related to a perception of how to make America and the world safe for Jews. American Jewish support for domestic liberalism and internationalism can be interpreted in this way.”
Walter Zenner, “American Jewry in the light of Middleman Minority Theories,” 1980.[23]W. Zenner, “American Jewry in the light of middleman minority theories,” Contemporary Jewry, 5:1 (1980), 11-30, 18.

Merits of Middleman Minority Theory

The most obvious merit of middleman minority theory is that, like Kevin MacDonald’s theory of a group evolutionary strategy, it places an unusual and welcome emphasis on rational resource competition as the basis for social conflict involving certain minorities. By offering a socio-economic explanation for hostility toward Jews, middleman minority theory represents a unique space within academia where the otherwise ubiquitous “pure prejudice” idea that host hostility is self-generated (from psychological problems or cultural traditions) is summarily and comprehensively dismissed. Although this has not come without criticism, as seen in Robert Cherry’s denunciation of Edna Bonacich’s work as reinforcing bigotry[24]R. Cherry, “American Jewry and Bonacich’s Middleman Minority Theory,” Review of Radical Political Economics, 22 (2-3), 158-173, 161., this emphasis has been able to continue largely untroubled thanks to its advancement under a hardline traditional Marxist interpretive veneer.

Middleman minority theory, especially the variant advanced by Bonacich, also insists that host populations do have interests, and that these interests are genuinely and seriously threatened by middleman minorities who drain away resources. These minorities then use their accumulated resources to build up power and influence, sometimes even to the extent of gaining considerable economic, social, and political monopolies over the hosts. Since these monopolies can be very difficult to dislodge, and since monopolies may satisfy some interests of host populations or segments of host populations, middleman minority theory insists that it is rational and somewhat inevitable that increasingly harsh and even violent measures will be taken against the offending minority. As a result, middleman minority theory offers a far more plausible and objective understanding of group conflict than many of the ideas that dominate the academic discussion of group conflict, especially conflict involving Jews. In addition, the outright rejection of “scapegoat” theories as “superficial,” and the lack of appeals to concepts of victimhood in such a framework, can only be described in the context of the current academic climate as utterly refreshing.

A second major merit of middleman minority theory is the emphasis that some strands place on the characteristics of the minorities themselves. Middleman minority theory contains within it three basic theoretical approaches. Context-based theories like that of Roscher, and revived to some degree by Nathan Cofnas (who is particularly concerned with the urban environment-context), argue that middleman minorities are essentially creatures of the societies in which they are found, and are for the most part created by opportunities, status gaps, and vacuums over which they have no control and which have nothing to do with their inherent characteristics (a slight advantage in intelligence being the only characteristic that Cofnas feels comfortable in applying). Situational theories, like that advanced by Simmel are similar, but place more emphasis on the culturally-located role of the trader, the Stranger, and the “sojourner as trader,” as the determinant factor in the creation of middleman minorities. Culture-based, or characteristic-based, middleman minority theories, however, tend to be more numerous, and more convincing. These theories, like that advanced by Weber and given tacit assent by Bonacich and Zenner, place strong emphasis on the broad range of traditions, ideologies, behaviors, and aptitudes of middleman minority groups.

The most frequently highlighted of such traits within middleman minority theory is ethnocentrism, which again dovetails with the primary emphasis of Kevin MacDonald’s theory. Ethnocentrism is acknowledged as a central factor in the maintenance of self-segregation among middleman minority groups, and is often supported by ideological beliefs such as the caste system, or what Zenner describes as “the Chosen People complex.”[25]W. P. Zenner, Minorities in the Middle: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (Albany: State University of New York, 1991), 18. Ethnocentrism in middleman minorities is presented as crucial to understanding host hostility not only because of the way it facilitates the draining of resources from the host population, but also because of highly antagonistic correlates such as dual loyalty and a willingness to engage in lucrative but morally destructive (for the host) trading. Walter Zenner speaks of a “double standard of morality” that is

Expressed in dealings with outsiders, such as lending to them with interest, unscrupulous selling practices, and providing outsiders with illicit means of gratifying their appetites, while at the same time, denying the same means to in-group members.[26]Ibid.
(W. P. Zenner, Minorities in the Middle: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (Albany: State University of New York, 1991), 18.)

An excellent example of this process in action is the fact Israel is the largest producer and host of international online gambling sites, while making it illegal for its own citizens to use such sites. Of course, we are talking here about a nation state rather than a minority population, but this contradiction, and the nature of Israel within the international community, will be discussed in a critique of the narrowness of middleman minority theory later.

A further merit of middleman minority theory is the heavy emphasis the cultural-characteristic interpretation places on group strategies. Middleman minorities, again with Jews being held up by both Zenner and Bonacich as an exemplar or especially acute case, are said to engage in constantly adaptive activity in order to manage their visibility, ensure their safety, advance their interests, accumulate power and wealth, and entrench themselves ever deeper within the host. Bonacich has indicated that Jews are especially keen to remain entrenched in the West, and the United States in particular, because it is financially and politically lucrative, and only a catastrophic weakening of their monopolies would bring an end to existing strategies.[27]E. Bonacich, “A Theory of Middleman Minorities.” American Sociological Review 38, no. 5 (1973): 583-94, 592. Zenner goes as far as to claim that “much of the content of American Jewish life can be seen as visibility strategies. Strategy here includes both unconscious mechanisms of coping with situations and consciously formulated plans.”[28]W. Zenner, “American Jewry in the light of middleman minority theories,” Contemporary Jewry, 5:1 (1980), 11-30, 23. Zenner speaks of a “dynamic process” whereby Jews minimise visibility to avoid hostility, maximise visibility when pursuing certain interests, and generally work unceasingly to make their image more favorable in the minds of the host. Again, all of this corresponds very well with one of the central themes of the Culture of Critique — the idea that Jewish involvement in certain intellectual movements could be seen in the context of a pursuit of Jewish interests either consciously or in ways that involved unconscious motivations and self-deception. It also maps very closely to MacDonald’s framework on Jewish crypsis and other attempts to mitigate anti-Semitism, advanced in the sixth chapter of Separation and Its Discontents.

Problems in Middleman Minority Theory

Given the prevalence of Jews in the development and promotion of the modern incarnation of middleman minority theory, including Georg Simmel, Edna Bonacich, Abner Cohen, Abram Leon, Walter Zenner, Werner Cahnman,[29]W. Cahnman, ”Pariahs, Strangers and Court Jews,” Sociological Analysis 35, 3 (1974): 155-66. Donald Horowitz,[30]D. Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985). Gideon Reuveni,[31]G. Reuveni (ed) The Economy in Jewish History: New Perspectives on the Interrelationship Between Ethnicity and Economic Life (Berghahn, 2011). Ivan Light, Steven J. Gold,[32]I. Light & S. J. Gold, Ethnic Economies (Bingley: Emerald, 2000). and Robert Silverman,[33]R. Silverman, Doing Business in Minority Markets (New York: Garland, 2000). a reasonable concern might be that middleman minority theory is itself an intellectual “visibility strategy.” Just as it has been posited that Jews tend to support mass migration because it will result in Jews becoming “one among many” ethnic minorities, and thus in their logic less conspicuous and therefore safer, middleman minority theory can act to reduce Jewish visibility by offering the idea that Jews are just one among many diaspora trading groups and their history and behavior is therefore not unique or worthy of special attention. It remains the case that even in those interpretations which highlight negative Jewish behavior and portray host responses as rational (e.g. the work of Bonacich and Zenner), the proposed framework still insists on some level of commonality, no matter how tenuous, with the experiences of other minority groups, and it ultimately places the blame for conflict on a much broader context, often the impersonal historical development of capitalism.

In other words, while the framework can deny that Jews are “victims” of host nations, these theories also deny that host nations are truly the victims of Jewish exploitation. Both are simply argued to be the victims of capitalism, and any sense of individual or group agency is rhetorically dissolved. Again, this acts to lower Jewish visibility and culpability and remains attractive for that reason. There are certainly good reasons along this line of thought for proposing that Steven Pinker’s promotion of the theory over Kevin MacDonald’s ideas has less to do with a serious engagement with the content of the work of Bonacich et al. and significantly more to do with deflecting the entire conversation into an area of discussion in which Pinker feels Jews are less visible.

A major problem with middleman minority theory is that it has a very uncomfortable and unsatisfactory way of handling the obviously unique aspects of the Jewish experience, especially in relation to the unprecedented involvement of Jews in post-Enlightenment Western culture and politics, something for which there is absolutely no parallel among other diaspora trading groups anywhere. As has been discussed, middleman minority theory was essentially first created, consciously or unconsciously, by scholars anxious to find a way to explain the Jewish experience. Attempts to connect this experience, amounting to some two millennia of history, with the much more modern and straightforward experiences of, for example, the Chinese in the Philippines or the Japanese in America, have been doomed to the grossest of generalizations and the clumsiest of associations. This has resulted in a steady stream of admissions within the field that the best way to interpret middleman minority theory is simply that it proposes an “ideal type” (essentially the Jews) with unfortunate “problems of fit between any actual ethnic group and this picture [the Jewish experience].”[34]E. Bonacich, The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berekely: University of California Press, 1980), 22. Zenner has conceded that the concept has been very “difficult to define so as to cover all groups so designated.”[35]W. Zenner, “American Jewry in the light of middleman minority theories,” Contemporary Jewry, 5:1 (1980), 11-30, 13. All of which calls into question whether this concept possesses any real efficacy as an analytical or predictive tool in a comparative sense at all.

An interesting point of difference between the Jewish experience and that of other diaspora trading peoples is that the latter are acknowledged as possessing a genuine sense of sojourn. In other words, their first generations tend to be truly temporary, semi-nomadic groups who aim to make money before eventually returning to a homeland. A subtly different experience is observed in the Jews, as noted by Jack Kugelmass in his 1981 PhD thesis Native Aliens: The Jews of Poland as a Middleman Minority. For Kugelmass, “the so-called “middleman” character of the Jew is seen as an aspect of the Jewish sense of sojourn, which unlike most sojourns is ideological rather than sociological in nature.” [emphasis added] Another way of phrasing this would be to say that the Jewish sense of sojourn is cultural-biological rather than contextual, and since the concept of sojourning has been a major feature of Jewish life since at least the writing of the Exodus, this difference between other groups is really so stark as to require a distinct analysis — something offered to an unparalleled degree in Kevin MacDonald’s A People That Shall Dwell Alone. In this analysis, it would appear that, unlike a relatively small number of other peoples who have merely adopted some tactics in order to pursue a specific diaspora trade role, Jews have, from time immemorial, given themselves over entirely to these strategies as an entire way of life — the “middleman minority” as a raison dêtre.

This absolutely crucial distinction is linked to the remarkable fact of contemporary political life that the state of Israel exists largely according to the same strategies employed by Jews when in a diaspora condition. As stated above, an excellent example of the dual morality process in action is the fact Israel is the largest producer and host of international online gambling sites, while making it illegal for its own citizens to use such sites. The creation of the state of Israel has also exacerbated, rather than ameliorated, issues of dual loyalty in Jewish minority populations, even if these issues are more or less kept out of the public eye through diplomatic soothing around Israeli spying and the maintenance of certain taboos in the mass media. Israel itself would appear to be a kind of middleman minority archetype within the international community, cultivating close and lucrative ties with the elite (the United States), while engaging in more or less unchallenged exploitative and oppressive activities against lower social orders (Palestinians, and other vulnerable or indebted population groups in South America).

Like the “ideal type” of middleman minority, Israel heavily drains the resources even of its allies (U.S. military and diplomatic aid) and pursues its strategies in a ceaseless quest for security, while maintaining moral double standards and being rather shameless in engaging in what Zenner has described as the classic overrepresentation of middleman minorities in “morally shady” activities.[36]Ibid, 15.
(W. Zenner, “American Jewry in the light of middleman minority theories,” Contemporary Jewry, 5:1 (1980), 11-30, 13.)
Even in recent years, Israel has become notorious in the international organ trade, moneylending, and allegations of humanitarian atrocities. Israeli newspapers have also described their country as a “monopoly nation” due to the intense tendency towards economic monopoly in the country’s business life — a key feature of middleman minority life that Jews appear to continue to embody to an extent unparalleled in any other ethnic group. Further evidence for the apparently deep-seated, rather than contextual, nature of “middleman” traits in Jews might be found in studies indicative of a biological underpinning to Jewish ethnocentrism, such as that described by Kevin MacDonald in the Preface to the Culture of Critique:

Developmental psychologists have found unusually intense fear reactions among Israeli infants in response to strangers, while the opposite pattern is found for infants from North Germany. The Israeli infants were much more likely to become “inconsolably upset” in reaction to strangers, whereas the North German infants had relatively minor reactions to strangers. The Israeli babies therefore tended to have an unusual degree of stranger anxiety, while the North German babies were the opposite — findings that fit with the hypothesis that Europeans and Jews are on opposite ends of scales of xenophobia and ethnocentrism.

As well as dealing poorly with obviously unique aspects of the Jewish experience, a significant portion of middleman minority theory is devoted to context-based narratives that are often in stark contrast to, or completely disproven by, the historical record. With the exception of the work of Kevin MacDonald, which demonstrates a very extensive engagement with works of history, a general weakness in all of the late twentieth-century sociological studies discussed above is the fact that, despite their incredibly ambitious claims about the historical trajectory of capitalism or middleman minority populations, there is a quite serious neglect of any of the relevant historiography. This leads, in the case of the modern adherents of Simmel, Roscher, and Leon, to the constant repetition of error-laden tropes such as the idea that Jews turned to commerce because they were prohibited from owning land (rather than arriving as profit-seeking financiers), that Jews were most often invited into nations by elites seeking a financial stimulus, or that Jews were banished from countries once their position as loan merchant was superfluous. In fact, these three tropes, all of which remove Jewish agency and characteristics from consideration, are essentially the pillars of context-based middleman minority theory pertaining to Jews, and are absolutely crucial to Roscher’s ideas in particular.

The historical record is now acknowledged as more or less complete in relation to the issue of the Jewish ownership of land. It has been conclusively established, for example, that the general trend across Europe was that Jews were in fact able to possess and own land during the centuries immediately following their initial spread and expansion in Europe (c.1000–1300). Restrictions on land ownership were later enacted as penalties for exploitation or as part of a system of elite land transfer—e.g., the desire of the English kings to obtain the land of indebted lesser knights, and doing so by financially compensating Jewish moneylenders for forfeited lands they could no longer legally hold.

One of the correlates of the land ownership trope is the astonishingly naive assumption that land ownership would preclude involvement in financial speculation. Again, the historical record contradicts this. Mark Meyerson’s Princeton-published A Jewish Renaissance in Fifteenth-Century Spain (2010), for example, offers an expansive analysis of Jewish landowners in Spain who “did not necessarily cultivate the land themselves” and combined wine production operations worked by non-Jewish peasants with “lending operations and tax farming.”[37]M. D. Meyerson, A Jewish Renaissance in Fifteenth-Century Spain (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), 111. Pointing to the prevalence of early Jewish land ownership in Poland, France, and Germany, in which Jews enjoyed a “privileged status available to few Christians,” Norman Roth has described the trope that Jews were forced out of agriculture by restrictive laws and the violence of the Crusades as “patently absurd.”[38]N. Roth, Medieval Jewish Civilization: An Encyclopedia (New York: Routledge, 2003),

The theory that Jews, and by tenuous implication other middleman minorities, were most often invited into nations by elites seeking a financial stimulus or to fill a “status gap,” is also contradicted by the historical record. The early entry and expansion of Jews in Europe is relatively well-documented, the dominant trend being that Jews either presented themselves before elites in order to solicit business, or that they acted as financiers for conquest and then followed in the wake of the conquerors (e.g., the well-documented role of Jewish financiers in Norman Conquest of England and Strongbow’s conquest of Ireland).[39]J. Hillaby, “Jewish Colonisation in the Twelfth Century,” in P. Skinner (ed), The Jews in Medieval Britain: Historical, Literary, and Archaeological Perspectives (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2003), 36. Ireland’s Annals of Innisfallen (1079 A.D.) record: “Five Jews came from over sea with gifts to Tairdelbach [King of Munster], and they were sent back again over sea.” Unless Tairdelbach (Turlough O’Brien, 1009–86) had undergone a dramatic change of mind, it’s likely that the arrival of the Jews hadn’t been preceded by an invitation. In fact, unsolicited approaches for request to settle and establish financial activities are in evidence from the time of O’Brien to the 1655 “Humble Address” of Manasse ben Israel to the English government.

A very common form of government documentation found in the study of Early Modern Jewish communities are the charters outlining their terms of settlement, and these are very revealing. Rather than act as economic catalysts, Jews are more frequently observed following the trail of already economically improving areas, hoping to profit from their advancement. As Felicitas Schmeider has pointed out, in terms of the German context, “permission to settle Jews in a newly privileged town is one thing kings were frequently, if not regularly, asked for, especially in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.”[40]F. Schmeider, “Various Ethnic and Religious Groups in Medieval German Towns? Some Evidence and Reflections,” in, Segregation, Integration, Assimilation: Religious and Ethnic Groups in the Medieval Towns of Central and Eastern Europe (Burlington: Ashgate, 2009), 15.

The theory that Jews were banished from countries once their position as loan merchant or general role as a middleman minority was superfluous is also forcefully contradicted by the historical record. Just as medieval Jews perceived that they were the innocent victims of evil Gentiles, so Jewish historiography has overwhelmingly portrayed the expulsions as the result of “rumors, prejudices, and insinuating and irrational accusations.”[41]Joseph Pérez, History of a Tragedy: The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2007), 60. Context-based middleman minorities theories absorbed these tropes and reinvented them in narratives that blamed the expulsions on the fact that Capital had simply exhausted the usefulness of the Jews. Such understandings of the expulsions have only very recently come to be revised, most saliently in the work of Harvard historian Rowan W. Dorin, whose 2015 doctoral thesis and subsequent publications have for the first time helped to fully contextualize the mass expulsions of Jews in Europe during the medieval period, 1200–1450.[42]R. W. Dorin, Banishing Usury: The Expulsion of Foreign Moneylenders in Medieval Europe, 1200—1450 (Harvard PhD dissertation, 2015); R. W. Dorin, “Once the Jews have been Expelled,” Intent and Interpretation in Late Medieval Canon Law,” Law and History Review, Vol. 34, No. 2 (2016), 335-362.

Dorin points out that Jews were never specifically targeted for expulsion qua Jews, but as usurers, and notes that the vast majority of expulsions in the period targeted “Christians hailing from northern Italy.” Jews were expelled, like these Christian usurers, for their actions, choices, and behaviors. What the period witnessed was not a wave of irrational anti-Jewish actions, or for that matter an impersonal reflex of glutted Capital, but rather a widespread ecclesiastical reaction against the spread of moneylending among Christians that eventually absorbed Jews into its considerations for common sense reasons. A number of laws and statutes, for example Usuranum voraginem, were designed in order to provide a schedule of punishments for foreign/travelling Christian moneylenders. These laws contained provisions for excommunication and a prohibition on renting property in certain locales. The latter effectively prohibited such moneylenders from taking up residence in those locations, and compelled their expulsion in cases where they were already domiciled. It was only after these laws were in effect that some theologians and clerics began to question why they weren’t also applied to Jews who, in the words of historian Gavin Langmuir, were then “disproportionately engaged in moneylending in northern Europe by the late 12th century.”[43]G. Langmuir, History, Religion, and Antisemitism (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990), 304. The Church had historically objected to the expulsion of Jews in the belief that their scattered presence fulfilled theological and eschatological functions. It was only via the broader, largely common sense, application of newly developed anti-usury laws that such obstructions to confrontations with Jews became theologically and ecclesiastically permissible, if not entirely desirable. And once this Rubicon had been crossed, it paved the way for a rapid series of expulsions of Jewish usury colonies from European towns and cities, a process that accelerated rapidly between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries.

The lack of engagement with developments in historiography is worsened to a large extent by the absence of a truly cross-disciplinary approach in most, if not all, existing middleman minority analyses. This is particularly glaring in the works of Bonacich and Zenner which, while making multiple and apparently crucial references to conscious and unconscious group “strategies,” fail to engage in any kind of historiographical or psychological scholarly contextualization. How exactly such strategies as “visibility strategies” can operate at group level are left completely unexplained and without any substantial evidence beyond common sense observations of Jewish behavior. The lack of a cross-disciplinary approach in such instances doesn’t necessarily mean that these ideas are wrong, or that “visibility strategies” don’t exist, but it does mean that explanations and evidence are still required. To date, the only convincing attempt to fill in such gaps, and offer a truly cross-disciplinary approach (incorporating history, sociology, and psychology) to the idea of group strategies, is found in the work of Kevin MacDonald.

Conclusion

As stated at the outset of this essay, it isn’t at all clear how any of the aspects of middleman minority theory obviate the need for a deeper theoretical framework in which to understand the behaviors and contexts under study. Middleman minority theory, as remarked above, is an incomplete tool, and has little to offer in terms of deeper explanatory value for such relevant key concepts under discussion as resource competition, ecological strategies, visibility strategies, and social identity theory. Middleman minority theory, or at least some strands of it, is useful and valuable in the study of Jews to the extent that it places an unusual emphasis on group conflict as arising from resource competition, the characteristics of Jews (including Jewish ethnocentrism), and the existence of group strategies. There are, however, multiple, serious inadequacies in middleman minority theory, including the possibility that it is in part itself a “visibility strategy,” that is has a general problem of definitions, that it fails to adequately deal with unique qualities of the Jews and their experiences, that it generally fails to engage with the historical record, and that it has no real explanatory or predictive frameworks for many of the ideas it discusses, including group strategies. I am forced to concur with Edna Bonacich that, in regards to the study of Jews, middleman minority theory should be conceived, at best, as “a useful sensitiser to a host of interrelated variables.”[44]Ibid, 24.
(G. Langmuir, History, Religion, and Antisemitism (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990), 304.)

Notes

[1] Bonacich, Edna. “A Theory of Middleman Minorities.” American Sociological Review 38, no. 5 (1973): 583–94, (589).

[2] Francois-Marie Arouet de Voltaire, Oeuvres Complètes (Geneva, 1756), Vol. 7. Ch.1. See also Dictionnaire Philosophique (Basle, 1764), Vol. 14 .

[3] B. Bauer, The Jewish Problem (Die Judenfrage, 1843) ed Ellis Rivkin and trans. Helen Lederer (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion, 1958).

[4] K. Marx, On the Jewish Problem (Zur Judenfrage, 1844) ed Ellis Rivkin and trans. Helen Lederer (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion, 1958).

[5] W. Sombart, Der moderne Kapitalismus, Munich and Leipzig 1913. This work was published in an English translation by E. Epstein under the title, The Quintessence of Capitalism, London, 1915.

[6] W. P. Zenner, Minorities in the Middle: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (Albany: State University of New York, 1991), 5.

[7] W. Roscher, “Die Stellung der Juden im Mittelalter, betrachtet vom Standpunkt der allgemeine Handelspolitik,” Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft Bd. 31 (1875) S. 503–526.

[8] G. Reuveni, “Prolegomena to an “Economic Turn” in Jewish History,” in G. Reuveni (ed) The Economy in Jewish History: New Perspectives on the Interrelationship Between Ethnicity and Economic Life (Berghahn, 2011), 3.

[9] As the son of Catholic and Lutheran converts from Judaism, Simmel’s relationship to his Jewishness is fascinating in itself. See A. Morris-Reich, The Quest for Jewish Assimilation in Modern Social Science, (New York: Routledge, 2008), chapter 4. For the influence of Simmel’s stranger minority theory see Werner Cahnman, “Pariahs, Strangers, and Court Jews — A Conceptual Classification,” Sociological Analysis, 35 (1974); C. R. Hallpike, “Some problems in Cross-Cultural Comparison,” in The Translation of Culture, T. Beidelman (ed), (London: Tavistock, 1971); Hilda Kuper, “Strangers in Plural Societies: Asians in South Africa and Uganda,” in Pluralism in Africa, Leo Kuper and M. G. Smith (eds) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971); Jack H. Porter, “The Urban Middleman: A Comparative Analysis,” Comparative Social Research, 4 (1981); R. A. Reminick, “The Evil Eye Belief among the Amhara of Ethiopia,” Ethnology, 13 (1974), W. Shack and E. Skinner, Strangers in African Societies (Berkelely: University of California Press, 1979); Paul Siu, “The Sojourner,” American Journal of Sociology, 58, (1952).

[10] J. Stone, Racial Conflict in Contemporary Society, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985), 96.

[11] This coinage is frequently attributed to Philip Curtin, who employs the term in his Cross-cultural Trade in World History (1984), but the term was in use by Cohen, within a strict thematic sense, as early as the latter’s 1974 chapter “Cultural Strategies in the Organisation of Trading Diasporas,” in C. Meillassoux (ed) The Development of Indigenous Trade and Markets in West Africa (London, 1971).

[12] Quoted in W. P. Zenner, Minorities in the Middle: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (Albany: State University of New York, 1991), 8.

[13] K. MacDonald, Separation and Its Discontents: Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Anti-Semitism, 187.

[14] E. Bonacich, “A Theory of Middleman Minorities.” American Sociological Review 38, no. 5 (1973): 583–94.

[15] E. Bonacich, The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berekely: University of California Press, 1980).

[16] Ibid, 589.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid, 592.

[19] R. Cherry, “American Jewry and Bonacich’s Middleman Minority Theory,” Review of Radical Political Economics, 22 (2–3), 158–173, 161.

[20] W. P. Zenner, Minorities in the Middle: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (Albany: State University of New York, 1991), 10. See also W. Zenner, “American Jewry in the light of middleman minority theories,” Contemporary Jewry, 5:1 (1980), 11–30, 18. Zenner argues that “As a synthetic concept, the phrase “middleman minority” is difficult to define so as to cover all groups so designated.”

[21] E. Bonacich, The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berekely: University of California Press, 1980), 22. See also E. Bonacich, “A Theory of Middleman Minorities.” American Sociological Review 38, no. 5 (1973): 583–94, 585.

[22] Ibid, 24.

[23] W. Zenner, “American Jewry in the light of middleman minority theories,” Contemporary Jewry, 5:1 (1980), 11-30, 18.

[24] R. Cherry, “American Jewry and Bonacich’s Middleman Minority Theory,” Review of Radical Political Economics, 22 (2-3), 158-173, 161.

[25] W. P. Zenner, Minorities in the Middle: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (Albany: State University of New York, 1991), 18.

[26] Ibid.

[27] E. Bonacich, “A Theory of Middleman Minorities.” American Sociological Review 38, no. 5 (1973): 583-94, 592.

[28] W. Zenner, “American Jewry in the light of middleman minority theories,” Contemporary Jewry, 5:1 (1980), 11-30, 23.

[29] W. Cahnman, ”Pariahs, Strangers and Court Jews,” Sociological Analysis 35, 3 (1974): 155-66.

[30] D. Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985).

[31] G. Reuveni (ed) The Economy in Jewish History: New Perspectives on the Interrelationship Between Ethnicity and Economic Life (Berghahn, 2011).

[32] I. Light & S. J. Gold, Ethnic Economies (Bingley: Emerald, 2000).

[33] R. Silverman, Doing Business in Minority Markets (New York: Garland, 2000).

[34] E. Bonacich, The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berekely: University of California Press, 1980), 22.

[35] W. Zenner, “American Jewry in the light of middleman minority theories,” Contemporary Jewry, 5:1 (1980), 11-30, 13.

[36] Ibid, 15.

[37] M. D. Meyerson, A Jewish Renaissance in Fifteenth-Century Spain (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), 111.

[38] N. Roth, Medieval Jewish Civilization: An Encyclopedia (New York: Routledge, 2003),

[39] J. Hillaby, “Jewish Colonisation in the Twelfth Century,” in P. Skinner (ed), The Jews in Medieval Britain: Historical, Literary, and Archaeological Perspectives (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2003), 36.

[40] F. Schmeider, “Various Ethnic and Religious Groups in Medieval German Towns? Some Evidence and Reflections,” in, Segregation, Integration, Assimilation: Religious and Ethnic Groups in the Medieval Towns of Central and Eastern Europe (Burlington: Ashgate, 2009), 15.

[41] Joseph Pérez, History of a Tragedy: The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2007), 60.

[42] R. W. Dorin, Banishing Usury: The Expulsion of Foreign Moneylenders in Medieval Europe, 1200—1450 (Harvard PhD dissertation, 2015); R. W. Dorin, “Once the Jews have been Expelled,” Intent and Interpretation in Late Medieval Canon Law,” Law and History Review, Vol. 34, No. 2 (2016), 335-362.

[43] G. Langmuir, History, Religion, and Antisemitism (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990), 304.

[44] Ibid, 24.

(Republished from The Occidental Observer by permission of author or representative)
 
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  1. There’s this old joke (it goes, more-or-less, like this):

    What’s called a Black man at a Conservative Convention? The keynote speaker.

    Given Dr Thomas Sowell’s IQ (amongst other talents and merits) he absolutely deserves to be Ivy League-educated, a PhD, a Professor and so on… but let’s get real – he has only achieved ‘icon status’ (if not ‘legend status’) in the Conservative Inc./Libertarian Inc. milieux because he is Black.

    (I think Dr Sowell’s knows this, deep down – it’s both sad and bad because it means his academic contributions cannot be appraised in an unbiased and accurate fashion.)

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
    , @taylorseries
  2. Miggle says:

    I notice here a gushing use of persuasive language, such as “gushing”.

    But anyway, Andrew Joyce, thanks for the article.

    • Replies: @Moi
  3. @Vergissmeinnicht

    Sowell’s A Conflict of Visions has nothing to say about race, but it and its successors pretty much nail what is wrong with today’s progressives. And it’s the same as what was wrong with yesterday’s progressives.

    If we survive 2020, this volume will be what he’s remembered for.

    • Agree: YetAnotherAnon
  4. What about Gujaratis and 7-11s and midwestern motels?

    And Greeks and diners?

    In San Francisco, they call the local corner store, “the Arab store.” What’s up with that?

  5. So basically you hate the jews, Hindus and Parsis for not being Christian or Muslim?

    • Troll: Richard B
    • Replies: @Moi
  6. J says:

    The Zionist thinkers understood the unnatural and dangerous situation of the Jews in the Diaspora, and seized the first opportunity to re-reform the Jewish people as a normal nation in its homeland. In only one generation, all the Jewish communities in the Eastern lands liquidated their affairs and joined movement. The same with the powerful Russian and Ukrainian communities, they moved (mostly) to Israel. Last year, about 30,000 American Jews gave up their precious citizenship and moved to Israel. I foresee in two generations a more or less Jew-less America. What I am saying is that the Jews do not like their middleman foreigner status. In Marx etc. time there were no alternatives. Now there is Israel. Some 55% of the Jews have already moved there.

  7. Regarding

    Israel is the largest producer and host of international online gambling sites, while making it illegal for its own citizens to use such sites

    It should be noted that Monaco does the same thing with its gambling casinos. It has long been unlawful for Monaco’s own Monégasque citizens to enter into those casinos to gamble.

    Also, the ultra-high level of Jewish involvement in pornography sales is another relevant area here.

    One of those Jewish pornography-meisters was Jimmy ‘Jimbo’ Wales, afterwards recruited to head the CIA-Mossad Wikipedia, where paedophilic persons have been able to persistently post fake biographies of themselves and smears against their victims. Jimmy Wales has attended birthday parties of Israeli Presidents, and received a $1 million ‘prize’ from Tel Aviv University.

    • Thanks: Pheasant
    • Replies: @Jim Bob Lassiter
  8. Chris Moore says: • Website

    The most obvious merit of middleman minority theory is that, like Kevin MacDonald’s theory of a group evolutionary strategy, it places an unusual and welcome emphasis on rational resource competition as the basis for social conflict involving certain minorities. By offering a socio-economic explanation for hostility toward Jews, middleman minority theory represents a unique space within academia where the otherwise ubiquitous “pure prejudice” idea that host hostility is self-generated (from psychological problems or cultural traditions) is summarily and comprehensively dismissed.

    The Jews like to cast themselves as “just another struggling minority trying to make it among the oppressive majority.” This ignores the international Zionist (Jewish supremacist) agenda, and the pathological Jewish drive for totalitarian control.

    Where does that drive originate? Jesus of Nazareth, apparently Hebrew, preached the opposite, and called organized Jewish hypocrisy, greed, corruption and double standards “the Synagogue of Satan.” Of course, the corrupt Jewish Moneychangers (the Jewish establishment of his era) in bed with the Roman Empire didn’t like that one bit, and so instigated his murder. When the cosmopolitan Hebrew mob, prompted by the corrupt Jewish establishment, chose the criminal Barabbas over Jesus, the Jews made their choice for ideological evil and corruption.

    That is a choice they affirm time and again, day after day, year after year, century after century.

    Whether one wants to read this decision as a cosmic moral judgement on the Jews, or simply as a rational economic decision by the Jews (choosing systematic corruption and shady insider back room deals over honest work) makes no difference. They chose the path they chose, and they affirm that decision every day through their corrupt, criminal and murderous international Zionist works.

    One doesn’t have to be a Christian to wear the Jon Carpenter sunglasses from The Live which allow one to see that the Judeo-Imperial “ruling class are [social] aliens concealing their appearance and manipulating people to spend money, breed, and accept the status quo with subliminal messages in mass media,” but it helps.

    One doesn’t have to be a Christian to know that Jewish infiltrated Empires working in concert with a corrupt establishment are bad news, but again, it helps.

    • Replies: @roofus
  9. In Britain Jews are clearly influential but the Norman ruling class has had it’s grip on the UK ever since they landed here in 1066, indeed William the Conqueror was mentioned in the article above, he certainly had his uses for Jews, there is little information available though as to just how many Jews arrived and what lead King William 1 to bring them over with his troops. As of present much of inner London is owned by aristocratic families who can trace their descent to King Williams troops

    https://whoownsengland.org/2017/10/28/who-owns-central-london/

    Also a considerable proportion of high status people in Britain were educated at just a few private schools including a great deal of our present government

    https://www.theguardian.com/society/2019/jun/25/britains-top-jobs-still-in-hands-of-private-school-elite-study-finds

    In Britain it is often a case of who you know, not what you know that determines whether you will reach the top of society or not, compared to other European countries like Germany and Finland in Britain there is a tendency for the higher classes to promote people on the basis of whether they have a background in common with them rather than merit, just like the Jews.

    • Agree: Badger Down
    • Disagree: Pheasant
    • Replies: @neutral
    , @TelfoedJohn
  10. @obwandiyag

    When I was going to university there, the corner stores were all Chinese. As were the Laundromats. I suspect the children all became doctors and lawyers and graduated from the need to continue operating them. Arabs depress their IQs with all the dysgenic inbreeding, but I suspect the same will happen with them… eventually… if America continues to exist. Their networking helps.

    • Replies: @Awash
  11. @J

    Some 55% of the Jews have already moved there.

    MWAHAHA!

  12. Tom Verso says:

    Jews are a Nation!

    As per usual, Andrew Joyce demonstrates that he is an objective social scientific historian by flooding his article with a preponderance of documentable verifiable factual data.

    However, to my mind there is one ‘word’ in this 8,000+ word tour de force; one very important word that all lovers of Western history and culture dedicated to the perpetuation of that history and culture should focus on … one word: ‘NATION’!

    At the very top of his essay Joyce quotes Voltaire:

    “Voltaire concluded that, some surface similarities aside,
    ‘It is certain that the Jewish nation is the most singular that the world has ever seen.’ ”

    Similarly he quotes Bruno Bauer:

    “The base [of the tenacity of the Jewish national spirit] … the character of that [Jewish] nation...”

    Some say Jews are a ‘race’, some say they are an ‘ethnicity’, some say they are a ‘religion’. The case can be and is made for all these, in Voltarie’s words, “surface similarities”. However, none capture the essence of what constitutes the basis for Jewish POWER.

    Jews are a worldwide profoundly unified ideological NATION. And that ideological unity is the basis of their national power.

    This unity was succinctly captured in an interview with a Mossad agent when he said:
    “I can knock on the door of any Jew in the world and I will be invited in.”

    Ideological unified nations are powerful nations, and are conquers. The Jews are one of the most ideologically unified nations in the world. The power derived from that unity has allowed them to conquer the most economically and militarily powerful country in the world – America.

    Further, by conquering America, the wealthiest and most powerful country in Western Civilization, the Jews have de facto conquered the whole of the West.

    Ideological unified nations are strong.
    Ideological dis-unified nations are weak.
    So call ‘Color Revolutions’ are manifestations of dis-unified nations who in turn are weak and conquerable by strong unified nations.

    We have seen numerous weak nation color revolutions in Africa, Middle East and Europe. Now we are experiencing an American color revolution.

    The American ‘color revolution’ is the Jewish nation delivering the ‘coup de grace’ to America and the West.

    • Agree: Moi
    • Replies: @Richard B
    , @Njall
  13. neutral says:
    @Oliver Elkington

    but the Norman ruling class has had it’s grip on the UK ever since they landed here in 1066

    No ruling class openly attacks and demonizes itself, no ruling class produces propaganda for the common man to see them as the enemy. Now compare this to the jews, clearly this does not happen to them, they are absolutely immune from any criticism and crush anyone who dares to speak out. The Norman descendants have not had a grip on any real power for more than a century now.

    • Replies: @Oliver Elkington
  14. @neutral

    Descendants of the Normans are not immune from criticism simply because hardly anyone criticizes them in the first place, heck most people do not even know who the Normans really were or know that most of Britain’s aristocracy can trace their descent to William the conquerors troops. What do you mean by real power? i would have thought that the descendants of the Normans were still quite powerful making up a large number of politicians, media personnel, judges, bankers and property chiefs.

    • Replies: @Amerimutt Golems
  15. @obwandiyag

    Don’t forget the UK Vietnamese and illegal cannabis farming (men) and nail bars (women).

  16. Thomasina says:

    Andrew Joyce, your articles are so God-damned good!

    Jewish behavior reminds me of narcissism: sense of entitlement, self-centered, feeling of superiority, manipulative and deceitful behavior, desire for power and control, will suck a host dry, and once they’ve gotten what they want, will easily discard the host. Highly competitive, status-oriented.

    Don’t dare call them out on anything because that causes them to feel shame, and that’s like driving a stake through them. They work behind the scenes, secretly. They must always be seen in a good light. They will smear and destroy you (your reputation, your job, your life) if you expose them. They will retaliate in ways you would never be able to because they don’t have a conscience, and this is why they win and are so hard to fight. Very vindictive. No qualms about lying or twisting the truth.

    They are never content, always working to change things in their favor, to get the upper hand. Most people just want to live their lives, so they acquiesce, but this is a mistake because one day you turn around to realize they now own the farm! If they don’t get their way, they just regroup and come at you from another angle. They keep wearing you down, chipping away at you until you give in. It is really something to behold because you just can’t believe their gall.

    Their rabbis keep them in line by using fear (fear of the other), and fear is the greatest motivator/persuader. Keeps them solidly as one. They’re constantly reminded of the Holocaust, the ovens that are lurking around every corner, as well as the injustices they have suffered (through no fault of their own – ha!). Keeps them neurotic and they don’t stray.

    Highly destructive destroyers.

    • Agree: Robjil
  17. You all survived 2016…..

  18. Jewish Goy (Nation) sounds like an oxymoron

  19. Tom Verso says:

    Why is this very significant fact based article buried in the “History Articles” side bar five days after it was posted?

    I hope the editor has plans to move it to the top of the page.

    To my mind, there has been nothing posted at the top these past days that remotely approaches Joyce’s scholarship and social/political relevance.

    • Replies: @Tom Verso
  20. @J

    You’re delusional. Jews have a death-grip on America and will never give it up. They want to possess both Isreal and other countries too. It’s a multi-pronged attack strategy to control the world as promised to them by the sociopath Yahweh.

  21. @Oliver Elkington

    Descendants of the Normans are not immune from criticism simply because hardly anyone criticizes them in the first place, heck most people do not even know who the Normans really were or know that most of Britain’s aristocracy can trace their descent to William the conquerors troops. What do you mean by real power? i would have thought that the descendants of the Normans were still quite powerful making up a large number of politicians, media personnel, judges, bankers and property chiefs.

    It is easy to tell looking at surnames like Baskerville, Fitzroy, Marshall, and Spencer. The Guardian, Independent and Telegraph wrote articles in 2011 and 2013 alleging such persons still ‘run’ Britain. Lefties use this ploy to attack the Conservative Party whose members tend to be wealthy like champagne socialists.

    Back to the point raised by neutral , none of the above mentioned newspapers would run similar stories on Jewry. That is the litmus test of who really rules.

    Despite being a tiny minority Jews have shaped modern Britain. This has been documented here by Joyce, Langdon and others.

  22. Anon[238] • Disclaimer says:

    Those christian usurers probably were cripto jews

  23. Tom Verso says:
    @Tom Verso

    Still waiting for this very excellent social scientific history article to move from the sidebar to the lead article positions. Today, the great ’tisk-tisk’ moralizer and speculator Saker is once again at the top. And, even the very excellent James Thompson in today’s lead has little that is new.

    • Replies: @HappyBlueBreakfasts
  24. @Tom Verso

    Today, the great ’tisk-tisk’ moralizer and speculator Saker is once again at the top. And, even the very excellent James Thompson in today’s lead has little that is new.

    Sadly, I don’t think articles go in the ‘Featured Articles’ unless they’re new articles that have gathered a lot of views and comments.
    The articles you mention were posted yesterday, and are 2.4K words of length at most. This article was posted eight days ago, and is 8.6K words long. I don’t intend to disparage Mr. Joyce at all, but his articles tend to be long, difficult reads for most people. So I think the opportunity for the article to appear at the ‘Featured Articles’ section has passed.

    • Replies: @Tom Verso
  25. Tom Verso says:
    @HappyBlueBreakfasts

    Note that today’s top article “How Long Was the First Millennium?” is 11,700 words long.

    • Replies: @Badger Down
    , @gotmituns
  26. @Tom Verso

    And can be answered in three words: A thousand years.
    Obviously! (OK, four words.)

    • LOL: R2b
  27. Sure the middle man theory explains everything, but needs some footnotes:
    -These middle men are specifically encouraged to cheat us, it’s written in their holy books
    -they regard us as animals in human form, with either no souls or much lesser souls
    -they regard us as having been created ONLY to serve them.

    NOW the theory makes perfect sense!

  28. Biological lifeforms endure parasites. Perhaps understanding parasitism might be a usefal path to travel?

    • Replies: @Thomasina
  29. gotmituns says:

    The Merits and Inadequacies of Middleman Minority Theory in Explaining the Jews
    ———————————————————————————————–
    That’s why Hitler had to go. He figured out that you didn’t need the middleman. He took Germany back to the old barter system and broke the power of the Jews in Germany. The rest of Europe was still in the jewish depression and Germany was doing well. So the Jews gave Churchill, Stalin and FDR their marching orders, stop Hitler/Germany.

  30. Alfred says:
    @J

    Now there is Israel. Some 55% of the Jews have already moved there.

    As soon as Israel gets a handful of accurate rockets from the Hezbollah or Iranians, all these Jews will rush back to the USA and Europe. They all know that they don’t belong in the Levant and all their middle-class has 2 or more passports.

    Here is a typical piece of BS. The Jews played no role in the killing of priests and nuns in Spain. The Jews did not profit from German hyperinflation to buy up property cheaply. Always the victims.

    Due to Brexit, Jews seek passports from countries that oppressed their ancestors
    Concerned over losing valuable rights for traveling and staying in the 26-country Schengen Area, more Jewish Brits are turning to Spain, Portugal and Germany for citizenship

    • Replies: @Not Only Wrathful
  31. gotmituns says:
    @Tom Verso

    Wonce and articl∃ gets to be 500-1000 wurds, it’s two long.

  32. @brabantian

    I’m not certain of the current situation in Costa Rica, but when casino gambling was introduced circa late eighties, nationals (other than employees) were prohibited from admission to designated casino zones. Players had to have a valid and in order foreign passport.

    • Replies: @Not Only Wrathful
  33. Mefobills says:

    Let’s fix Bonacich’s comment and add to it:

    The modern industrial capitalist treats his workers impartially as economic instruments; he is as willing to exploit his own son as he is a stranger. This universalism, the isolation of each competitor, is absent in middleman economic activity, where primordial ties of family, region, sect, and ethnicity unite people against the surrounding, often individualistic economy.

    The modern finance capitalist…..

    Industrial capitalism after it was invented in the American Colonies, was characterized by injection of state capital (not Jewish finance capital) into industry, to then improve the labor value of the population. American labor was in short supply relative to the large land mass available.

    Industrial Capitalist will treat his workers as valuable contributors, because their labor value is constantly being improved upon by improved public health, and improved infrastructure such as roads and phone systems. Industrial Capitalist economic method is to raise up the existing people, and not import low wage “coolie labor.”

    The highest form of industrial capitalism was probably Germany, which adopted the American System through Frederick List.

    Workers in industrial capitalist Germany had access to best facilities of that era, their work hours were made sensible (no longer exploitative). Autobahns were built, and industry was built up using state capital (not finance capital) to high levels of productivity.

    Finance Capitalism is Jewish usury method. Finance Capitalism is middleman theory taken to extremes.

    The middleman is a hidden string puller whose god is Moloch. The middleman is the third entity in man’s relations, usurping the role of the King.

    It is the King who is to have the role of settling disputes, dispensing with just law, and overseeing high civilization. It is impossible to have high civilization with Jews operating as middlemen.

    Finance capitalism’s big bang event is traced to Amsterdam’s Jews invading Britain.

    1) Debt Spreading Private Banking .. the Bank of England in 1694. This event stripped the sovereign King of his money power and transferred it to hidden bank stock owners.

    2) Stock Market Capital. Absentee ownership of Companies. Hidden String Pullers control corporations, rather than the employees of said companies. The first manifestation was both the Dutch and English India Companies.

    3) Allowing Company stock to be on-sold into markets. The logic of prices and money (Moloch) is now tied to private banking ledger credit entry. BOE creates the private bank credit that is used in “free markets.”

    4) Corporation charters are now perpetual, and corporations are held up as being more than a god created human. Being perpetual is more than being a human, where said human has a finite life span.

    Jews are anti-logos, so everything they touch turns to shit. There is a religious and spiritual element to Jews, who are against the natural order.

    Virtually all of the “American System” politicians were assassinated. Countries that attempted to adopt “industrial capitalism” of the American system were invaded and destroyed in world wars. The world wars were engineered in back room deals, using hidden string pulling tactics.

    America was turned in 1912, and is now under Jewish finance capitalism control. The founding fathers of America would be appalled if they were alive today.

    • Agree: Lurker
    • Thanks: Robjil
  34. Awash says:
    @Supply and Demand

    ‘Dysgenic inbreeding’ has not negatively affected the IQ of Jews. It actually seems to boost it.

  35. Moi says:
    @Miggle

    And the extant powers are gushing over former justice RBG who supported gay rights, abortion rights and all the other “correct” causes–but not a word of sympathy/empathy from the old gal on Palestinians.

  36. Moi says:
    @Sher Singh

    Hindus are like Jews–they love money and believe themselves to be a special people (as exemplified by your PM Modi and his RSS buddies). Because of the caste system, Hindus barely tolerate lower caste Hindus.

  37. anon[427] • Disclaimer says:

    No matter how much reading and writing people do for a living, or what they see with their own eyes, they’re still blind as to how Jesus’ people could have gone from rulers descendants of David, of the country to paupers on their own land. Later to be cast out. Somehow in most peoples minds it all just started recently. Why can’t anyone see how easily someone else just steps in your shoes and pretends to be you except without ever walking a mile, and then claims you’re actually one of them.

  38. If you’re going to write endless totally unbalanced nonsense, might you not at least find the internal space to write it in a voice that isn’t so ridiculously self-regarding?

    Trying to read this article feels like talking with a particularly uncharming child who has convinced themselves of their understanding of the theory of relativity and how they therefore have, of course, solved the problem of faster than light travel.

    I remember being that child, aged 8, but then at least I was sweet to look at.

    I suppose the tone is seen as a fitting substitute for anything resembling truth. It isn’t, which is why this type of stuff remains on the fringe of the fringe of the fringe.

    • Replies: @AaronB
    , @EldnahYm
  39. @Jim Bob Lassiter

    This is standard in many countries. Nepal and Cambodia are two examples which I know. It is also how places like Malaysia and many Muslim countries treat alcohol. I suppose, in the West, the allowance of the “sin” of obvious racism to non-natives is a parallel phenomenon.

    • Replies: @Jim Bob Lassiter
  40. @Alfred

    The Jews did not profit from German hyperinflation to buy up property cheaply

    Price rises = cheap prices?

    So so stupid

    • Replies: @Thomasina
  41. Mefobills says:

    This comment is aimed at Andrew Joyce, the writer of the article. Good job Andrew.

    In addition to finance big bang event I discuss above, there was also the attack on Christianity. So the big bang event was multi-dimensional, and informs today’s reality.

    Here is your quote on Sombart:

    For Sombart, the origins of the worst of modern capitalism can be found in the early middleman role of the Jews, their medieval semi-nomadic quest for usury-derived profit and Victorian hawking of shoddy goods being a precursor to modern advertising and the mass production of superfluous and quickly obsolete consumer products.

    Here is another quote from Sombart, which I think is critical:

    https://www.unz.com/mhudson/finance-capitalism-vs-industrial-capitalism/#comment-3876284

    Werner Sombart in his book “The Jews and Modern Capitalism” came to an important conclusion.”That which is called Puritanism is in reality Judaism.”

    Our Jewish friends in Amsterdam created puritan Judeo-Christianity, which is a perversion of Jesus’ teachings. Jesus started his mission on the Jubilee year, aiming precisely at the Pharisee class. Jesus also whipped the money changers, his only act of violence.

    Weber also has some problems in his non treatment of usury:

    Max Weber’s book, “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism,” created a split definition. Jewish capitalism on one side, and Puritan (Calvanist) on the other. Jewish capitalism was speculative pariah capitalism, while Puritan was bourgeois organization of labor. Weber excluded the problem of usury, thus obscuring what is necessary to see. The Puritan was excluded from blame.

  42. AaronB says:
    @J

    Joyce is saying that Jews cannot accurately be classified as middleman minorities. Jews are unique and do not belong in any natural category with other groups.

    Joyce opposes any effort to place the Jew-Gentile dynamic in a neutral context where neither side is particularly at fault and both are victims of larger impersonal trends.

    Joyce is against the middleman minority theory because it lessens Jewish culpability and makes their behavior situational rather than genetic.

    Nor is Jews moving to Israel a solution. Israel exemplifies the same character traits as the diaspora Jew, according to him.

    So the diaspora Jew is incurable bad. Israel is incurable bad. And it is genetic, not situational (changing the position of Jews, or their education, or their economic status, will not change their behavior. Giving them their own country won’t either).

    Let that sink for a moment. I think you understimate – as did I – just how radical this site and it’s owner are, as well as the majority of the commenters, and just what they are tiptoeing around, and have been for some time. I also think within another few years, their position will become explicit.

    Incidentally, I argely agree that in a few decades most Jews will be flourishing in Israel, but I do think the US will always have a large and prosperous Jewish community as well, forever. It isn’t going anywhere.

    • Replies: @Fran Taubman
    , @Anon
  43. Richard B says:
    @Tom Verso

    Great comment! Thanks!

    However, though you make some good points, it’s what’s implied that is worth directing our attention to. Two quotes from your comment will serve that purpose.

    This unity was succinctly captured in an interview with a Mossad agent when he said:
    “I can knock on the door of any Jew in the world and I will be invited in.”

    Ideological unified nations are strong.
    Ideological dis-unified nations are weak.

    There are two things human beings, whether as individuals or groups, can not avoid. One of them is stability, or, in this case, social stability. To make that happen you do need an ideology with an organizing principle. Otherwise, unity is impossible. But there’s a snake in this garden.

    An ideology is an explanation. Nothing more, nothing less. And even the best explanation is just that, an explanation. To the point it’s successful it is continuously reinforced, giving us the illusion that it’s “true.” But, of course, it blocks out what is also true, but doesn’t fit the group’s belief-system, or, explanation.

    Think of a hunter so focused on his kill that he doesn’t feel the tickling of the poisonous spider crawling up his leg and about to administer the lethal bite.

    The only way out of this dilema is the second thing human beings can not live without, innovation. Innovation is necessary when our explanations no longer work. To the extent we can not innovate the individual or group’s behavior becomes dysfunctional and maladaptive to both itself and, more importantly, the environment that explanation is struggling to control, in this case, the world.

    That is exactly what is happening now to what some refer to as The Hostile Elite, but that is more accurately described as Jewish Supremacy Inc. Like a possessed and totally self-engrossed hunter JSI is of such a fixed orientation that it can not restructure its categories and modify its belief-system enough to adapt to a fast changing environment that it in effect has brought about.

    It’s for this reason that what is often seen as strong becomes weak over time. Or, as Machiavelli said, in so many words, in the beginning of its formation the problems of a group (or nation) are easy to cure, but hard to see. By the end those problems are easy to see, but hard to cure.

    People are so bemused, so impressed with the surface of JSI’s success that they rarely, if ever, see beheath that surface to what is obviously the real cancer of the human race. That’s why what we’re witnessing today is nothing less than

    The Pyrrhic Victory of Jewish Supremacy Inc.

    For evidence look at the following:

    City – New York
    State – California
    Country – The USA
    Continent – Europe
    Civilization – The West

    They have conquered the above the way a tumor conquers a human organism.

    • Replies: @Tom Verso
  44. AaronB says:
    @Not Only Wrathful

    He can’t – yet – express what he is really trying to say clearly and simply, he has to bury it in a thicket of dense verbiage which is tedious to cut through.

    In a few years, I think Unz will have developed to the point where writers like Joyce can make their point crystal clear in simple language.

    • Replies: @Not Only Wrathful
  45. @AaronB

    I doubt it. It seems like every time I check back there is another layer to their rationalizations – another self-confusion.

    I suppose the whole pointless structure that they have developed may eventually topple under its own weight, thereby liberating them from their tragic quest to find and hold external phantoms responsible for their own traumas.

    Clarity for Joyce would likely be something like “my father was mean, controlling and made me feel bad, he was always trying to bring me low to make him feel big, I now need to heal to come to terms with it.”

    Sorry Joyce that you feel bad. That’s real. Stop doing yourself the disservice of pretending your hurt is actually your concern for the world or whatever. That is stupid.

    • Replies: @AaronB
  46. Anon[381] • Disclaimer says:

    Judaism is an ethnic/religious supremacist ideology that sees the rest as nothing more than cattle to be exploited, so according to Jewish dogmas if you don’t declare the Jews to be your masters, you are technically anti-Semitic.

    BEING FREE IS LITERALLY ANTI-SEMITIC

  47. AaronB says:
    @Not Only Wrathful

    Clarity for Joyce would likely be something like “my father was mean, controlling and made me feel bad, he was always trying to bring me low to make him feel big, I now need to heal to come to terms with it.”

    Well, yes, in a deeper level that is what Joyce is really trying to say. And you’re right, I doubt he will ever achieve that level of clarity.

    I simply meant that Joyce in this essay is trying to reject any schema in which Jews are redeemable. He’s trying to say something that at the moment, is a little too radical and extreme even for this site. So he can’t quite being himself to say it and buries it in thick scholarly sounding language. But he in fact expresses himself quite clearly if you’re prepared to slog through his thick prose.

    If no environmental intervention can ever fix Jews, the implications of that are quite obvious, but can’t, yet, quite be spelled out explicitly.

    But I predict that within 2 years max, Unz and his writers will have moved in the direction of spelling out those implications explicitly, and calling for policy based on that.

    I suppose the whole pointless structure that they have developed may eventually topple under its own weight, thereby liberating them from their tragic quest to find and hold external phantoms responsible for their own traumas.

    Well, there is the idea that the “fool who persists in his folly becomes wise”. Considering where this site is at now, I would say the best chance for a breakthrough towards sanity is to become even more extreme – and I think each year this site moves more in the direction of insanity. The fact that this site hasnt settled down in a particular level of extremist insanity but gets more extreme and insane each year is a good sign.

    It doesn’t have any widespread social ramifications because Unz has no influence or resonance in society, but for the “inmates” of Unz itself, it is a good sign.

    Extremism also sometimes goes full circle – not into the sane, balanced, healthy, middle ground, but to an opposite extremism. I would not be entirely surprised if in 5 years Unz becomes a Rabbi and starts calling for the death of Palestinian children.

  48. @AaronB

    Really great set of insights on many levels. Very useful, even timely, for me to read. Thanks!

    • Thanks: AaronB
    • Replies: @Mefobills
  49. Joyce is correct….judaism cannot be redeemed on its’ own.

    jews could accept Christ and be redeemed but that isn’t likely to happen until they are facing the Lake of Fire.

    In the meantime we can expect even higher levels of miserable Bolshevism.

    • Replies: @roofus
  50. Njall says:
    @Tom Verso

    Tom,
    Thanks for your succinct, historically-informed, insightful and very correct note!

  51. TheIdiot says:
    @AaronB

    “Unz has no influence or resonance in society” –
    true, since the only politically and economically relevant remaining society
    is the jewish nation;
    but also irrelevant, since the bottom (by IQ) 98% of the population are exactly what the judaic ideology holds them for – a cattle in human appearance

    “Extremism also sometimes goes full circle”
    will this also be the case within 5 years
    when the top 2% (by IQ ) rise against the top 0,001% (by wealth)?
    would that also be the physical end of the “jewish nation”?

  52. Allba. says:

    Whites have lost everything , they lost their brain when cristianity take over europe but the aryan soul still impregnated every bit of the medieval age , they recovered their brain in the post crustian europe but lost their soul and in the post ww2 have lost their brain heart and soul , a pitiful creature that deserve to be exterminated for their own good

    The nazi regime was the last straw of the” aryan race ” where brain heart and soul resonated for a last time .

    Whites are now in the same position jews were 2000 years ago after romans destroyed israel to the ground ,some remained faithfull and more fanatical than ever to their special mision and chosen status in his covenant with yahve and other chose the easy way giving birth to christianity and mixing thenself to extinction

    A simular process of what is happening now two irreconciliable camp one that want to disolve their imposed guilt micing thenself to extinction and one that still believe that had a special rol to play and became ARYANS

    Wharever happen the whites race is death , death dissolving thenself to extinction or death by choosing to became aryans

  53. @Vergissmeinnicht

    How do you know Sowell’s IQ? It seems like your argument is circular. Regardless of IQ, what counts is the quality of the work and Sowell’s work is rubbish, high IQ or low.

  54. Tom Verso says:
    @Richard B

    The Pyrrhic Victory of Jewish Supremacy Inc

    This is a theme in E. Michael Jones’s book “The Jewish Revisionary Spirit”.

    Throughout their history, since they lost their war against the Romans, they have challenged the prevailing ideology of the societies in which they live (e.g. Spain, Germany, etc.). They rise to power and then the pendulum swings and they are, what they call, persecuted and/or expelled.

    Even the profound success they had in the so called Russian (Communist) revolution which many scholars say is more accurate “Jewish Revolution”; every though they literally destroyed the ideological core of Russian society (Orthodox Christianity) killing thousands of priest (Putin in a speech to Rabbis made reference to a single but representative incident where a thousand priest were place on a barge in the river and sunk … he asked rhetorically: “What did the priest do?”). The Jews oversaw the destruction of Orthodox churches, monasteries and convents.

    Most importantly, they destroyed the prevailing ideological value system whereby individual Russians governed their lives

    Yet, today Russia has returned to its Orthodox Christian roots; rebuilding the Churches (e.g. Cathedral of the Russian Armed Forces (Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ)) and reaffirming their history, culture and moral teachings.

    Which of course, following their historic pattern, the Jewish dominated Western Civilization is now in mortal conflict with Christian Russia (and, one might add: Islamic Iran).

    Nevertheless, even the enormous success they had in Russia pales when compared to their conquest of the US and Western Europe. It is not obvious that the past will be a guide to our future.

    It is not possible to posit a scenario whereby the people of West European descent will reaffirm their Greco/Roman/Christian history, culture and social values.

    You write:

    For evidence for their victory look at the following:

    City – New York
    State – California
    Country – The USA
    Continent – Europe
    Civilization – The West
    They have conquered the above the way a tumor conquers a human organism.

    The means by which the ‘tumor’ spreads is though domination of the financial, political, media and education system.

    There is no evidence of Europeans even being aware that they are suffering from the ‘tumor’; or the need to regain control of those institutions.

    They are in the streets fighting each other. They are destroying their Greco/Roman/Christian Civilization to the benefit of the Jewish Nation.

    • Replies: @Richard B
    , @roofus
  55. Bert says:

    Dr. Joyce,

    Reasoning from these quotes of yours:

    Given the prevalence of Jews in the development and promotion of the modern incarnation of middleman minority theory, including Georg Simmel, Edna Bonacich, Abner Cohen, Abram Leon, Walter Zenner, Werner Cahnman,[29] Donald Horowitz,[30] Gideon Reuveni,[31] Ivan Light, Steven J. Gold,[32] and Robert Silverman,[33] a reasonable concern might be that middleman minority theory is itself an intellectual “visibility strategy.” Just as it has been posited that Jews tend to support mass migration because it will result in Jews becoming “one among many” ethnic minorities, and thus in their logic less conspicuous and therefore safer, middleman minority theory can act to reduce Jewish visibility by offering the idea that Jews are just one among many diaspora trading groups and their history and behavior is therefore not unique or worthy of special attention.

    Further evidence for the apparently deep-seated, rather than contextual, nature of “middleman” traits in Jews might be found in studies indicative of a biological underpinning to Jewish ethnocentrism

    (The example given by you being a higher level of fear elicited by contact with a stranger demonstrated in Ashkenazi infants.)

    The lack of engagement with developments in historiography is worsened to a large extent by the absence of a truly cross-disciplinary approach in most, if not all, existing middleman minority analyses.

    perhaps you will agree that a more appropriate way to attempt an explanation of Jewish behavior would be to investigate whether it has a genetic basis. Surely genetics is causative in the higher IQ of Ashkenazi Jews.

    Why not test whether an innate basis exists for the apparent negative ethnocentricity of the Ashkenazi portion of the Jewish population? Psychological experiments coupled with brain scans, a search for genetic variants associated with psychologically-measured hostility to members of outgroups rather than a neutral attitude to outgroup members, evolutionary models of how increased reproduction could be favored by higher levels of negative ethnocentricity, etc. Comparisons could be made against other commercial diaspora communities and of course host populations. Comparisons could be made among the different Jewish populations that evolved during geographic isolation and perhaps had relations with their host populations of different intensities.

    Such biologically based work would break new ground, and likely replace the inadequate and perhaps subversive middleman speculation. They would also put real evolutionary theory behind Kevin MacDonald’s work.

  56. @Oliver Elkington

    the Norman ruling class has had it’s grip on the UK ever since they landed here in 1066,

    This is true and never mentioned in the press, so no one is really conscious of it. It’s like goldfish not being conscious of water. Drive around certain parts of London, and nearly everything you see is owned by Normans.

    One thing the ruling Norman elites are happy to do is socialize and do business with other rich elites – Americans, Jews, Chinese, Arabs, whatever. And their business is often to screw the majority. The Normans will always feel more affinity towards these people than their own peasant-descended countrymen.

    • Agree: Oliver Elkington
  57. anon[427] • Disclaimer says:

    In this current reenactment of the past, who plays king Herod? Bring in the foreigners, the Romans. Once they are in your land then the Jews will be in theirs. Maybe they could discuss the Libertarian idea of non-agression, which has nothing to do with our Constitution, but you can keep pretending like it does all day long.

  58. Jmaie says:
    @obwandiyag

    In San Francisco, they call the local corner store, “the Arab store.” What’s up with that?

    Who is “they?” Lived in SF for decades, never heard anyone use that term.

  59. …that laid special methodological emphasis on context, rather than logical philosophy.

    is joyce’s native langauge irish or english?

    is he from donegal?

    are you down with nationalism AND socialism?

    or are you out of touch with reality.

    are you down with the swastika and the glory that was greece?

    or are you down with an ersatz jewish diogenes?

    andrew, mein herr, until you stop confusing being irish with being roman, your people are rightly contemn-ed by other europeans as “problem whites”.

    is andrew consistent? has he explained how christianity is jewy? how it has replaced philosophy with the oriental authoritah of revelation?

  60. Thomasina says:
    @Not Only Wrathful

    “Price rises = cheap prices?” Yeah, AFTER the carnage was all over, didn’t prices then become cheap?

  61. Dube says:

    My gratitude to Andrew Joyce for his comparisons and contrasts to “middle-man theory,” which for me was set forth decades ago by Abram Leon’s The Jewish Question: A Marxist Interpretation. For those who find Joyce’s complex exposition daunting, I recommend Leon’s work as a start.

    It’s a quick, good read. Leon amplifies the insight of Marx, that “the Jews survived not in spite of history, but because of history,” through having a status as what Leon calls a “people-class,” which served a particular function among the protected classes of feudal society. And as feudalism crumbled, so did the protection.

    Joyce shows that there’s more to the history, but again, for an accessible point of departure, I’m happy to repeat the link to the book:

    http://www.marxists.de/religion/leon/.

    Abram Leon, who died early, didn’t have time to be tedious, and his pages turn rapidly, but his analysis by means of classes is confirmed by the actual organization of the feudal state in Poland and elsewhere.

    Must go for now; thanks again, Andrew.

  62. Mefobills says:
    @Not Only Wrathful

    Really great set of insights on many levels.

    I agree, it is insightful about the fear centers of the Jewish mind.

    Joyce covered this:

    Developmental psychologists have found unusually intense fear reactions among Israeli infants in response to strangers, while the opposite pattern is found for infants from North Germany.

    Bert also wonders about a genetic basis for Jewish behavior.

    https://www.unz.com/article/semitism-and-capitalism/#comment-4191057

    It only takes about three generations of selective breeding to have behavioral traits emerge. There also is the new science of epigenetics, and Sheldrake’s morphic resonance.

    Science is still scratching its head over morphic resonance… it may be that Jews are tied together in a morphic resonance field.

    You are probably right to fear another expulsion.

    It is insane for any people group to allow predators to be middlemen, to stand in the crucial nexus between two way relations.

    • Replies: @Not Only Wrathful
  63. Thomasina says:
    @Louis Hissink

    Parasites have been brought up many times to explain Jewish behavior, but an in-depth article comparing the two might be a good idea.

  64. @Thomasina

    I hesitate to teach you this basic, basic point but inflation is usually defined as higher prices.

    Now, as with all similar people, you’ll 180 and say Jews used hyperinflation to scam innocent Germans by charging them outrageous amounts, but whatever…

    • Replies: @Thomasina
  65. roofus says:
    @Chris Moore

    So “they” chose the Son of God instead of Jesus? Do you know what “Bar Abbas” really means? Try reading the Bible more closely. Muslims say it was all a trick, and that Jesus was actually standing by the Cross the whole time, laughing. They are probably on to something.

    Typical Catholic, has to “freeze” a moment in time in order to “paint pictures” but misses the process itself, or any conclusions. The entire Christian movement is Jewish and has nothing to do with you at all. Not even close, you just aren’t smart enough. Not your God.

  66. Richard B says:
    @Tom Verso

    The means by which the ‘tumor’ spreads is though domination of the financial, political, media and education system.

    That’s exactly right.

    There is no evidence of Europeans even being aware that they are suffering from the ‘tumor

    Of course there’s evidence. In fact, our exchange could be offered as evidence that at least two people are aware of it. But we’re far from the only ones, obviously.

    And it’s not at all necessary for all Europeans, or all Americans, or all Westerners to be “aware that they are suffering from the tumor.” All that’s necessary is a critical mass. TUR, and not just TUR, wouldn’t exist if there wasn’t that critical mass. So there is evidence that people are aware.

    But I would be the first to admit that being aware is not nearly enough. Action would have to be taken. But, barring a miracle, that is not going to happen.

    There is no evidence of…..the need to regain control of those institutions.

    I never said anything about that, for a reason. As I just said, I don’t believe it will ever happen. That wasn’t even my point. My point was their Pyrrhic Victory, not our recovery.

    And, knowing one must direct attention to evidence of this Pyrrhic Victory, I gave a short list. One, moreover, that is easily verified. Just look and see.

    But, perhaps I could put it this way to make my point clear. JSI might be good at infiltration, subversion, radical ingratitude, persecution mania, insanely hypocritical hatred, betrayal, destruction and death. But they’re no good at social management.

    For evidence of that, again, I would offer the above mentioned list in my previous comment. JSI is not invincible. Though many seem to think otherwise, it’s obvious that that is a judgment made in error.

    JSI is as vulnerable to the consequences of its actions as anyone else. That’s why, again, what we’re witnessing is their Pyrrhic Victory.

  67. @obwandiyag

    Back in the day, there was a movie starring Denzel Washington and the unknown Sarita Chowdhary set in a small Mississippi town. Sarita’s character is the daughter of a Patel family, who were explelled from Dada Idi Amin’s Uganda in 1971.

    Now Patels were not business owners but ordinary workers, albeit, skilled ones and were descendants of illiterate railroad workers brought in by British colonial government of the 19th century, making them fourth of fifth generation “Africans.”

    And once a large numbers of Hindus like Patels were brought into to the East Africa, the Jew-like minority called the Jains (bania in the caste system) followed to serve the diaspora community.

    From those humble beginnings, Jains/banias progressed to become very large mill owners, shop owners and in general business owners of all sorts legal and not so legal enterprises exploiting natural resources as well as the local population (if they had no compunction misusing other Indians, one can imagine what they felt towards the “savages”).

    But Patels in general were a useful lot serving as railroad workers, teachers, doctors etc and after the independence were employed by some of the large British banks and insurers, making modestly comfortable living but shunning miscegenation with the black natives.

    Fast forward to Field Marshal for Life, General Idi Amin Dada, a fanatic Muslim, trained by Israeli forces, who overthrew the government of Milton Obote, while he was attending an economic meet overseas, who was generally tolerant of Indians like the Patels along with the bania exploiters out of necessity of keeping the economy going.

    But the big bad black Dada felt no such need, as he had figured that he would just print the money, for the Patels of Gujarat (where their ancestors had been at times prosperous farmers and at times poor farm hands) in “his” African country. So he did what any moronic dictator would do: he cut his nose to spite his face by throwing the baby out with the bath water. He expropriated all Indians’ wealth and expelled them all, benevolent Patels along with malevolent bania.

    Many a Patel, after a few years in refugee camps across the world, found asylum in North America including San Francisco, where after working for the then local owners of small hotels and motels and with pulled resources bought those properties, where the entire family can be employed, from the dirty jobs to the front desk. And from those lowly beginnings, Patels of Gujarat have become a force in the hospitality industry… necessity is the mother of inventions.

    Now back to Denzel and Sarita: they fall in love but the parents, especially, the father, can’t forget the family’s misfortunes in Africa at the hands of a madman and would not reconcile to the idea of a marriage between his beloved daughter and the African American, a la the parents of Kamala Harris.

    So the moral of the story is that an Indian who owns a motel in Mississippi and a Chinese who owns a clothing store in San Francisco isn’t the same as a group that created the Federal Reserve.

    Jews are in a class all by themselves and they have and can move cultural and financial mountains… I hope, my long post, partly addresses your quest.

    P. S. I had seen the movie and had become curious about the Indian coolies in the East Africa just as I had been interested in the Chinese coolies of North America.

  68. roofus says:
    @Tom Verso

    It’s not Greco Roman, this is the founding lie. The civilization maybe but the nation is Hebrew Saxon and Anglo Celtic, which is to say Phoenician. Something I doubt you’ll grasp in this lifetime.

  69. roofus says:
    @Robert Dolan

    Read Zecharias. It comes in Armageddon, and it will put your fake try harder version to shame. Catholic is wrong, or mostly confused and frozen in a monent of time. It all begins with your utter ignorance of the Bible, founded in dogma and fables.

  70. Skeptikal says:

    Re F. Schmeider, “Various Ethnic and Religious Groups in Medieval German Towns? Some Evidence and Reflections,”

    I think that should be
    F. SCHMIEDER

  71. Thomasina says:

    Following is a good article titled “Napolean, French Jews, and the Idea of Regeneration”.

    https://csusm-dspace.calstate.edu/bitstream/handle/10211.3/196077/Sepinwall200754.pdf?sequence=1

    Napoleon thought that if he dismantled the Jewish ghettos, gave them equality, they would end their practice of usury and greed, intermarry with Christians and become good French citizens. The people back then felt like the progressives do today regarding the Blacks: just give them a leg up, free them, and they’ll be off to the races. Ha! It didn’t quite turn out that way, and it wasn’t long before he was calling them on the carpet and putting restrictions on them. Same old.

  72. TGGP says: • Website

    Israel is the largest producer and host of international online gambling sites

    The linked article does not say that. The headline is “Some of The World’s Largest iGaming Firms Are From Israel”, and it doesn’t bother to compare any other countries’ producing/hosting of such sites or say which is the largest. It says Israel has a “significant share”, but doesn’t put a number on that. The article in turn cites a source which has succumbed to linkrot, but it is accessible via the internet archive, and a live version can be found elsewhere (I think the embassy may have lifted it while only crediting the author for the photos):
    https://venturebeat.com/2015/10/23/the-deanbeat-two-decades-of-work-and-1b-in-sales-put-israels-game-industry-on-the-global-map/
    That doesn’t claim they are the “largest” either, instead making the more modest claim that they’ve had some recent (though perhaps tenuous) success and now have a “disproportionate” share. Since no actual numbers comparing other countries has been provided, it could well be possible that Israel is the largest, although I suspect the articles would have said that if it could be established.

  73. Thomasina says:
    @Not Only Wrathful

    “…inflation is usually defined as higher prices.” Yeah, hence the wheelbarrow full of money to buy a loaf of bread. And what caused the prices to rise exponentially? Excessive monetary expansion.

    As Milton Friedman said, “Inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon in the sense that it is and can be produced only by a more rapid increase in the quantity of money than in output”.

    These weren’t stupid people who orchestrated this. Even I would have known the outcome. Who were the people responsible for this? They should all have hung.

    Who bought up the assets after the peasants lost everything?

  74. anon[327] • Disclaimer says:

    Will read after I retire.

    Till then, which came first:

    tape worm or middle man?

  75. @AaronB

    Good job Aaron. Yes it is awesome to behold in these long, long articles that go in circles taking a point from column a and a 2 points from column b and subtracting and adding to come to the conclusion that Jews are just plain awful humans and a danger to humanity. This middlemen argument is hilarious since as other commentators have mentioned there are so many other ethnic middleman, like Asians and Indians.

    So the diaspora Jew is incurable bad. Israel is incurable bad. And it is genetic, not situational (changing the position of Jews, or their education, or their economic status, will not change their behavior. Giving them their own country won’t either).

    Michael Hoffman’s article on the Talmud form another thread, is a similar repetitious and noxious discussion. Hoffman’s article is Just as long and just as circuitous. The Talmud is the go to favorite for pointing to deep internal genetic Jew sickness and superiority towards the world. Claiming that the Jews are cheating with the help of the almighty for an unfair advantage. Many scholars have pointed out the time sensitive early AD writing of the Talmud, when Christianity was for Jews only. The fear of creating Jesus, his mother and father as demi gods was such an anathema to AD Judaism, that they referred to Christians in the Talmud goyim as enemies. Using the Talmud for Jew hatred because of its views of non Jews is like going back to the crusades or the burning at the stake of people considered Christian heretics.

    All of them need to come clean with their conclusions regarding the Jew problem they constantly point out. What is the solution.

    Let that sink for a moment. I think you understimate – as did I – just how radical this site and it’s owner are, as well as the majority of the commenters, and just what they are tiptoeing around, and have been for some time. I also think within another few years, their position will become explicit.

    • Replies: @James Forrestal
  76. asmaq says:

    Most chess stains I know are a good sort but a few,after a shot or two are nasty little flickers.
    There are a few such irishmen who lent there bomb making skills to the little brownies in Palestine,so i have been told or was it the other way around with the Israelites bombing a few of this and that
    Who knows ok.
    Choose one of the following.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Palestinian_suicide_attacks

    The thing is.The Brits and the irishites paid dearly and so did the Israelites but the Palestinians will never be forgiven.There is s peace in joyce’s Ireland simply because Islam is the fast growing religion.

    https://www.ibtimes.com/shamrock-crescent-islam-irelands-fastest-growing-religion-1557033

    You see joycie.you won the fight but lost the game.

  77. @Mefobills

    On one hand, you posit that Jews are genetically deficient and that’s why they are afraid of you. On the other hand, you argue that they are a genetically evil hive mind that will always be a mortal threat as long as they exist.

    Please pick one and step into your light.

    • Replies: @Mefobills
  78. @Not Only Wrathful

    We have equivalent practices in America. Las Vegas and Reno come to mind as do states which have local option alcohol sales. One case comes to mind is a poor hellfire and brimstone county that puts all of its state ABC stores (profits used to fund public schools) in desolate areas close to county lines of higher population and affluence counties. And then there’s the Nebraska package stores right on the border of Indian reservations. Then you have the Indians with their casinos.

  79. @Thomasina

    Inflation is defined as “too many units of circulating (fiat) currency pursuing too few goods in the marketplace”. Inflation or deflation may or may not be a factor in picking up hard assets at fire sale prices, but dire straights of the owners most definitely are. And dire straights can be and are contrived against individuals, classes of individuals and entire societies.

    • Replies: @Thomasina
  80. Thomasina says:
    @Jim Bob Lassiter

    Yes, that’s why I quoted Milton Friedman:

    “As Milton Friedman said, “Inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon in the sense that it is and can be produced only by a more rapid increase in the quantity of money than in output”.

    Excessive monetary expansion.

    “And dire straights can be and are contrived against individuals, classes of individuals and entire societies.”

    Yes, deliberately created, manufactured, engineered by people who actually know what they’re doing and what the outcome will be.

    Thanks.

  81. Anon[252] • Disclaimer says:
    @AaronB

    I don’t think he said half of the things you claim he did.

  82. Anon[252] • Disclaimer says:

    I hope that most people who stumbled on this article can see the high quality of it. Some Joyce articles are not so good, I can easily admit. This one was a home run.

  83. @Andrew Joyce

    Thank you for a good summary of the history of middlemen theory. I won’t comment your interpretations.

    The “dual moral standard” in business dealings stuff is misleading to wrong in the facts as well as their interpretation.

    European Jews always took interest from each other despite the halakhic prohibition, via a contract construction called Heter iska, literally permission to do business. Look it up. It’s interest by another name.

    The gaming firms in Israel are as far as I understand not actual game hosters, they are more like software firms providing stuff for gaming firms elsewehere. That’s a perfectly normal thing in international trade, you provide what overseas customers want. If countries like Britain and lately Germany allow and do not block gambling sites, it’s their problem. Not like the Opium wars by the Anglo-Saxons whose ideal of individualist fair play apparently also sometimes take second place when a nice profit can be made.

    Organ trade: You make it sound like Israelis kidnapped people to sell organs. This is nonsense, it was Israelis travelling to poor countries like India where they got organs by voluntary live donors who where remunerated (blame India for the poverty). There was a dearth of organs in Israel bevcause of pandering to orthodox halakhic “problems”. Meanwhile, Israel has changed its laws regardless, and now has one of the most enlightened organ donor legal frameworks anywhere.

    Bernie Maddox defrauded lots and lots of Jews.

    The dual standard is in ethnocentrism and ethnonationalism, which is typical of all large minorities and immigrants everywhere: you clamor for the host society to be open and non-ethnically exclusive, but practice ethnic or ethnoreligious networking yourself and are a nationalist regarding your home country.

    The finance industry is parasitic. Not the fault of honest artisans like my Jewish ancestors. It’s the fault of largely non-Jewish politicians who reduced capital gains tax from near 100 % for the highest incomes tro virtually zero, among other things. The only Jew among the primary candidates was pro higher taxes. It’s a stupid or an evil host society elite who lets the minority of economical right wing Jews like Milton Freedman and the (among Jews) minority of war-mongering neocons reign supreme.

  84. @Fran Taubman

    This middlemen argument is “hilarious” since as other commentators have mentioned there are so many other ethnic middleman, like Asians and Indians.

    Yet strangely enough, the concept of “anti-Parseeism” has yet to be reified — while we hear the self-chosenites whining about the social construct of so-called “antisemitism” 24/7. If, as you claim, Parsees are just as paranoid as the Tribe, and just as prone to believe that all non-Parsees suffer from some mysterious psychological defect that causes them to hate Parsees for no reason… then what accounts for this obvious difference? Very puzzling.

    The fear of creating Jesus, his mother and father as demi gods was such an anathema to AD Judaism, that they referred to Christians in the Talmud goyim as enemies. Using the Talmud for… [exposing jewish Christophobia] …is like is like going back to the crusades

    Really. So “Taubman” is attempting to claim that, while the “Oral Torah” may have served as the “preeminent text of Rabbinic Judaism” shortly after that sect’s founding in late antiquity, it has long since been abandoned, and is no longer taken seriously by observant practitioners of judaism.

    Fact check:

    FALSE
    “Orthodox Judaism continues to stress the importance of Talmud study as a central component of Yeshiva curriculum”
    “Conservative Judaism similarly emphasizes the study of Talmud within its religious and rabbinic education”

    See also:

    “Talmud, The: the basic compendium of Jewish law and thought”
    “The Talmud is the mainstay of the Jewish oral tradition.”

    Yeah that looks like a pretty big fail there. Presumably Taubman is simply lying (as hasbarats are wont to do), but just in case her gross mischaracterization of the role of the Talmud in present-day judaism is due to simple ignorance, I’m sure the Lubavitchers can help her out:

    https://www.chabad.org/multimedia/video_cdo/aid/1101356/jewish/Talmud-for-Beginners.htm

    Meanwhile, back in the real world, virulent, unreasoning Christophobia has always been a core element of rabbinic judaism, and continues undiminished to the present day. This specific hatred for Christ is, of course, combined with the older semitic tradition of generalized Hebrew hatred for the goy Other that is so clearly expressed in the legends of Amalek and Haman. Here’s a couple of examples of jews expressing vitriolic, unreasoning, Talmud-driven Christ hatred in the current year:

    This one’s actually a pretty good piece on how jewish Christophobia has actually intensified over the past 50 years. It does endorse some long-discredited semitic canards like “Oy vey, dem ebil Christians, they poisecuted us so!” — but it does a good job of demonstrating the futility of attempting to appease jewish hatred and paranoia nonetheless.

  85. Mefobills says:
    @Not Only Wrathful

    Where did I say that Jews are genetically deficient.

    I always say they are an evolutionary construct, honed over thousands of years. That is anything but deficient.

    Your fear centers are projecting. Overactive amygdala much?

    Or perhaps, Jews are indeed tuned into a different morphogenic field. Whatever the reason’s, Jews are not in alignment with the logos.

  86. j2 says:

    Good article, but like MacDonald’s theory, this omits the second reason for the Jewish experience in the Middle Ages. There were two reasons for expulsions and in general for this unique experience: usury, ritual murders. The latter was one aspect of messianism, it was a real part of kabbalism, and messianism is essential for that religion. I do not think this second reason should be missing from an explanation simply because it is politically even more incorrect that MacDonald’s thesis.

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