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Race and Evolution: The Causes and Consequences of Race Differences
Stephen K. Sanderson
Self-published, 2022

Stephen Sanderson is the author, coautho, or editor of sixteen books in twenty-two editions and some seventy-five articles in journals, edited collections, and handbooks. He is a retired professor of sociology and is quite unusual within his discipline for applying evolutionary principles to the study of society. His latest offering, dedicated to J. Phillippe Rushton, Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen, combines a useful summary of the best in recent research and theory regarding human racial differences (seven chapters) with applications to such topics as the history of slavery, liberal stereotype theory, social stratification by color, the history of human accomplishment, the rise of Northeast Asia, and the decline of Africa (six chapters); a final chapter discusses policy options. Being an American, the author devotes special attention to Whites and Blacks, but includes information on other races wherever helpful.

Sanderson begins his book with several epigraphs that indicate his awareness that he is stepping into a very politically incorrect minefield. These two are well worth pondering in the present context where woke ideology—an ideology based on moral judgments and equitable outcomes rather than science and facts—reigns supreme in universities, the media, and corporate culture:

A good society is one that permits a maximum amount of objective pursuit of truth and beauty, and this pursuit should be undertaken “irrespective of the consequences.” Such inquiry may lead to the discovery of “inconvenient facts,” but it must be undertaken nonetheless. We cannot know in advance whether the knowledge we create or discover will support or contradict certain moral positions already held. And “philosophies incongruent with the pursuit of a reduction in misery should be permitted since the basis of rationality is strengthened through argument,” and “all opinions, however obnoxious or however passionately held, [should] be heard and subjected to the test of rational criticism.” Barrington Moore, Jr.

Political thinking, especially on the left, is a sort of masturbation fantasy in which the world of fact hardly matters. George Orwell

The first section of the book, entitled “Foundations of Race Realism,” will be well-trodden ground for regular readers of The Occidental Observer, so I shall be brief. The first chapter defends the biological reality of races by providing a point-by-point refutation of two high-profile formal statements of social constructivism, one issued by the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in 1998 and the other by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) in 1999. The author explains what is wrong with “Lewontin’s fallacy,” i.e., the inference of the unreality of race from the fact of greater genetic variation within than between racial groups. He quotes some older texts to show that the concept of race was not invented by eighteenth century European colonialists, as the AAA and many antiracists maintain. A good example of the lengths to which some people will go to deny reality is the AAPA’s declaration that “human traits known to be biologically adaptive do not occur with greater frequency in one population than in others.” Sanderson marvels that this is “obviously false and a rather astonishing statement for a biological anthropologist to make,” giving a few simple examples. The chapter closes with an account of how cluster analysis of population genetic data can reliably identify “four to six major racial groups.”

Chapter Two explains the inadequacy of non-biological explanations for differences in racial outcomes, including discrimination, the lingering effects of slavery, and systemic racism. The best of these theories focuses on the higher rates of fatherless households among Blacks than Whites, but the explanation for this difference lies ultimately in racial biology after all.

Chapter Three summarizes evidence for genetically based racial differences in average intelligences. American psychometric data showing an average White IQ of about 100 and an average Black IQ of 85 has now accumulated for over a hundred years. In the course of childhood, the degree to which environment can explain such differences steadily declines, disappearing entirely by around age fourteen. Most damning for the social constructivist position, however, is that Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) now make it possible to identify specific genes that contribute to intelligence, meaning that intelligence can be reliably (albeit not perfectly) predicted from biological data alone. One particularly telling statistic Sanderson cites is the correlation between the average IQ of the nations of the world and the percentage of their population that is Black: .808.

Many Black-White socioeconomic gaps disappear once IQ is controlled for, but one difference that does not is out-of-wedlock births. In his fourth chapter, Sanderson explains race differences in sex, reproduction and family patterns, summarizing Rushton’s evidence for high mating effort/low nurturance among Blacks and low mating effort/high nurturance among Northeast Asians, with Whites intermediate. He demonstrates that fatherless homes are common in Africa and among Blacks worldwide, not something unique to post-World War II America.

Chapter Five discusses race differences in personality and temperament. In the American context, the most important are that Blacks have significantly higher levels of antisocial personality as well as higher time preference than Whites (i.e., Blacks are more likely to place less value on returns receivable or costs payable in the future and hence more likely to accept immediate rewards rather than wait for larger returns at a later date and more likely to take out disadvantageous long-term loans with immediate up-front payouts). Confusingly, the author systematically switches the terms “high” and “low” time preference; one hopes this mistake can soon be corrected through the print-on-demand system.

Chapter Six explains racial differences in law-abidingness, including violent crime, civil disorder (mob violence), and political corruption. Such differences are in large part a consequence of differences in intelligence and time-preference.

Chapter Seven outlines the historical development of racial differences following the migration of early humans out of Africa and into colder climates where getting through the winter required planning ahead. There is also a discussion of Life History Theory and the r-K continuum (basically the continuum from high mating effort/low nurturance to low mating effort/high nurturance).

The six chapters which make up Part 2 of Race and Evolution apply the race realist perspective to particular issues. Chapter Eight provides a brief history of New World slavery, including regional comparisons, arguing it was fundamentally an economic rather than a racial institution: “Europeans did not choose Africans as slaves because they considered them biologically inferior, but because Africa provided a huge supply of labor that could be transported to the New World more cheaply than slaves drawn from, say, India or China.”

Chapter Nine discusses racial stratification around the world, showing that Blacks have the lowest average socio-economic status in multiracial societies everywhere. The author explains that the phenomenon of “pigmentocracy”—where increasingly light skin is found the higher one goes up the socio-economic scale—results from a hierarchy of ability: “Lighter skinned people are regarded more highly because they are more talented.”

Ever since psychologist Gordon Alport published The Nature of Prejudice in 1954, “stereotypes” have been a staple of social constructivist discourse, the assumption being that they are unreliable. But this has never been demonstrated. In Chapter Ten, Sanderson summarizes the findings of a series of studies published since 2012 by social psychologist Lee Jussim and colleagues. They found a high positive correlation between racial, ethnic, and gender stereotypes and empirical reality. For instance, in one study comparing stereotypes with US Census data, correlations ranged from .27 (already moderately significant) to .96, with a mean as high as .83. Jussim et al. write that “stereotype accuracy correlations are among the largest and most replicable effects in all of social psychology.” This is no doubt because, over human evolutionary history, accurate knowledge of behavior patterns of social groups within one’s environment must have had considerable survival value, and thus been favored by natural selection.

Chapter Eleven demonstrates that the bulk of scientific discovery and other advances in human knowledge have been the work of European and European-descended men. Northeast Asians may have somewhat higher average intelligence, but they tend to produce highly conformist cultures where copying from accepted “masters” is inculcated and originality is frowned upon. Africa, of course, has produced nothing notable in scientific discovery.

Chapter Twelve discusses the recent rapid economic development of Northeast Asia and the dominance of Southeast Asian economies by the overseas Chinese.

Chapter thirteen contrasts this with the catastrophic fate of sub-Saharan Africa since decolonization and demonstrates the inadequacy of anti-colonial theories to explain it. The late Ghanaian economist George B. N. Ayittey has described the typical African post-colonial regime as a “vampire state.” Sanderson summarizes:

A vampire state is one run by crooks and gangsters who come to power either through rigged elections of coups d’état. Their leaders are functional illiterates who debauch all major government institutions: civil service, military, judiciary and banking system. They transform their countries into personal fiefdoms for the benefit of themselves, their cronies and tribesmen.

The author offers a brief tour of the continent filled with collapsing public services, universal corruption and bribery, civil wars, cannibalism, torture, a five hextillion percent rate of inflation (in Zimbabwe a few years ago) and outright genocide (in Rwanda). As he explains:

Before colonialism Africans had indigenous political institutions that were much simpler and more easily used to maintain order than those established by the colonists. The new colonial institutions were not natural to Africans and proved beyond their ability to manage effectively. Indeed, it took Europeans thousands of years to develop such institutions, . . . so it is not wonder that Africans did not understand them.

To this must be added that many who succeed in the ruthless world of African power politics have extremely antisocial personalities and are not really interested in economic development or the general welfare. They concentrate their efforts on enriching themselves at the expense of the countries they govern, displaying “a massive failure to adhere to social norms, no regard for truth, a lack of remorse or feelings of guilt, extreme aggressiveness, impulsiveness and recklessness, and an unusually weak moral sense.”

The final chapter of Race and Evolution is devoted to policy, explaining the failure of racial preferences, the lack of any evidence for the alleged benefits of “diversity,” and the many powerful objections to slavery reparations. Sanderson agrees with law professor Amy Wax’s position that “outsiders’ power to change existing [dysfunctional Black family] patterns is severely limited; the future of Black America is now in its own hands.” Yet he notes that the choices Blacks have to make are constrained by their own biological nature. Some Blacks do make good choices and prosper as a result, but these are generally those with above-average intelligence and an absence of antisocial character traits. Many others are unlikely ever to make better choices than they are making now.

Sanderson agrees that America needs a “national conversation on race,” as advocated, e.g., by Bill Clinton and Howard Schultz (the CEO of Starbucks), but unlike them he understands that it will do no good as long as knowledgeable race realists are banned from participation. As Arthur Jensen and J. Phillippe Rushton have written:

There is a need to educate the public about the true nature of individual and group differences, genetics, and evolutionary biology. Ultimately, the public must accept the pragmatic reality that some groups will be overrepresented and others groups underrepresented in various socially valued outcomes. The view that one segment of the population is largely to blame for the problems of another segment can be harmful to racial harmony. Equating group disparities in success with racism on the part of the more successful group guarantees mutual resentment.

Racial equality of outcome is not achievable, but race relations could be greatly improved if the biological reality of racial differences were understood by more people.

There is not a lot of original material in Sanderson’s Race and Evolution, but I am not aware of any other single volume which summarizes so much useful information about race between two covers. It could do a great deal of good if made widely available. Is there any chance it will be? The author is currently trying to get an e-book version published on Amazon. For the time being, you can order the book directly from him for \$12 US plus \$4 US shipping (domestic) or 10 EUR plus 7 EUR shipping (outside the United States). Write to:

Stephen Sanderson
460 Washington Road, Apt. G-3
Pittsburgh, PA 15228

E-mail: [email protected]

The author also maintains a website at www.stephenksanderson.com.

(Republished from The Occidental Observer by permission of author or representative)
 
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  1. Northeast Asians may have somewhat higher average intelligence, but they tend to produce highly conformist cultures where copying from accepted “masters” is inculcated and originality is frowned upon.

    This explains why Needham’s history of Chinese science and technology takes up 26,000 pages and why Chinese scientists lead the world in most areas

  2. I got my checkbook out to order the book and also quickly perused Sanderson’s web page.

    I got a good guffaw out of the American Sociological Review’s rejection this item:

    http://www.stephenksanderson.com/documents/TheorizingSexualHarassment.pdf

    • Thanks: Spanky
  3. These two are well worth pondering in the present context where woke ideology—an ideology based on moral judgments and equitable outcomes rather than science and facts—reigns supreme in universities, the media, and corporate culture

    No, ‘wokeness’ has no problem with blacks being dominant in sports, Jews being dominant in finance and media, and homos being prominent in fashion and culture.

    If ‘wokeness’ is about equality, why the silence about suppression of BDS? How come most ‘woke’ types are okay with US favoring Jews over Palestinians? How come ‘woke’ types care more about sub-nazis in Ukraine than about countless brown Arabs slaughtered by the white guys in uninform in the US military?

    ‘Wokeness’ isn’t an ideology of equality but an idolatry of the Holy Three: Jews, blacks, and homos.

    When will people ever get this straight?

    • Replies: @Karl1906
    , @Anonymous
  4. Instead of ‘race’, maybe the term ‘river’ is better.

    Race sounds too competitive, as if human groups exist to outdo one another.
    But in fact, races didn’t arise in competition with one another, unless they happened to be sub-races in the same region. Races emerged in ignorance of other races, and the traits evolved in adaptation to local environments. So, Eskimos in Siberia and Bushmen in Southern Africa weren’t competing or racing with one another but merely adapting to their own climates and environments.

    The notion of all the peoples of the world being in some kind of competitive race only came into consciousness with western imperialism uniting the whole world and setting all groups into some kind of competition in sports(the Olympics), military, and economics. But this kind of racing was the result of global imperialism.

    The actual races evolved for eons with most if them being totally ignorant of the existence of other races. Blacks in Africa only knew blacks and gorillas. Eskimos only knew Eskimos and seals. Hindus knew only Hindus and elephants. For most of European history, whites knew little of the nonwhite world.

    So, ‘race’ was a poor term to begin with. It projected the competitive spirit of the modern imperial age on the entire existence and emergence of races.

    It would have been better to refer to different groups as ‘rivers’. All human groups originated from one source but branched out like so many rivers flowing in different directions. And like some rivers are deeper and bigger while some are smaller and narrower, human groups are similarly different. Rivers can be violent or calm depending on volume and gradation. Some are clear and rocky, while some are muddy with lots of silt, like the Yellow River. As human groups moved far and wide, their ‘rivers’ mixed with elements of different climes and terrains. And maybe subraces can be called ‘streams’.

    Different rivers can also meet. They can diverge and then converge. And we’re now seeing massive convergence of human ‘rivers’ via globalism, what with African migration into the West and steep rise in ACOWW or Afro-Colonization-of-White-Wombs.

    Or, maybe ‘branch’ would be a good term too, certainly better than ‘race’ because, after all, the human groups are branches from the same tree.

    If ‘river’ or ‘branch’ sounds too awkward, then how about some foreign word?

    Latin for ‘river’ is flumen. It’s potami in Greek. Russian is best: Rika… though Japanese ‘kawa’ is good too. In Maori, it’s awa, which is okay too. Nadee in Hindi.

    ‘Branch’ in Latin is ramus. In Greek, it’s kladi, which is good enough.

  5. @Priss Factor

    I like your treatise. Now which river(s) would you prefer to canoe in?

  6. Realist says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    This explains why Needham’s history of Chinese science and technology takes up 26,000 pages and why Chinese scientists lead the world in most areas

    Your rebuttal is overstated. While it is true that China is most recently evolving from a conformist culture… its vast history has been conformist. Going forward it appears that the scientific future favors China.

  7. Levtraro says:

    To this must be added that many who succeed in the ruthless world of African power politics have extremely antisocial personalities and are not really interested in economic development or the general welfare. They concentrate their efforts on enriching themselves at the expense of the countries they govern, displaying “a massive failure to adhere to social norms, no regard for truth, a lack of remorse or feelings of guilt, extreme aggressiveness, impulsiveness and recklessness, and an unusually weak moral sense.”

    This part was funny. Replace “African” at the start with “Western” and the paragraph still makes a lot of sense. The indictment applies to politicians generally, not just in Africa.

  8. This part was funny. Replace “African” at the start with “Western” and the paragraph still makes a lot of sense. The indictment applies to politicians generally, not just in Africa.

    I won’t disagree completely, but have you looked at our body of lawmakers lately? A large percentage of the congressional members that happen to be POC are hard leftist progressives. Listening to them talk there’s no ambiguity into what they want, and who they want gone. It’s been said here often, where you have African’s, you have Africa. Sadly it looks like we’re going to roll over and allow it to happen.

  9. @Realist

    Doubtless you have read and annotated all 26,000 pages of Science and Civilisation in China, and spent years immersing yourself in China’s 4,000 years of well documented history.

    Don’t be such a silly prat.

    • Replies: @Realist
  10. FKA Max says: • Website

    Chapter Eleven demonstrates that the bulk of scientific discovery and other advances in human knowledge have been the work of European and European-descended men. Northeast Asians may have somewhat higher average intelligence, but they tend to produce highly conformist cultures where copying from accepted “masters” is inculcated and originality is frowned upon.

    Yes, Northeast Asians are, on average, more conformist:

    [MORE]

    there’s a gene in the serotonin system linked with social norm conformity. Where in the world do you think that that gene is most prevalent? Shout it out. China, China and Japanhttps://www.unz.com/isteve/is-the-cia-competent-enough-to-pull-off-psy-ops/?showcomments#comment-5282954

    But No, Northeast Asians DO NOT have higher average IQs than Northwest Europeans. But unfortunately, even intelligent people like, for example, Charlie Munger https://archive.ph/BAGUz#selection-1929.0-1929.86 believe this “race realist” myth, and have mistakenly invested their money based on this “junk/pseudo-science.” This is the reality:

    China’s average IQ is inflated by 20+ points. The real average Chinese IQ being around 84, currentlyhttps://www.unz.com/mhudson/the-dollar-devours-the-euro/?showcomments#comment-5305456

    Worldwide IQ estimates based on education data
    https://notpoliticallycorrect.me/2017/09/05/worldwide-iq-estimates-based-on-education-data/ or
    https://archive.ph/YXjjf

    In addition to having a stronger and globally consistent predictive power, my estimates reveal how Richard Lynn manipulates the data to fit desired racial patterns.

    As expected from the 0.96 correlation between my IQ data and HDI, the ranking of countries by cognitive ability shows a perfect gradient from high to low development status. Moreover, the highest gap between two following countries is the 6 points separating Russia and Iran, showing a marked difference between the developed and the developing world.
    […]
    By pointing this out, I’m warning honest researchers and laymen about the dangers of relying on data resulting from undisclosed, unsystematic and un-replicable methodology. And although my estimates do not result from any actual IQ measurement beyond the relationship between IQ and schooling evidenced in Norwegian cohorts, my method uses a single, universal conversion factor applied to representative official data collected by professional demographers whereas Lynn’s and the likes’ cherry-picking of samples is only the hobby of a dozen scholars and pseudo-scholars. This is how I found out strong, consistent and meaningful correlations between IQ and various development variables.

  11. Uh, sorry, but Rwanda was totally orchestrated by the US and France.

    Get it. It would not have happened without US and French provocation.

    Don’t you know that every single altercation on the face of the earth has US and its minions’ fingerprints all over it?

    Grow up.

    • Replies: @Son of a Jedi
  12. Realist says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    Doubtless you have read and annotated all 26,000 pages of Science and Civilisation in China, and spent years immersing yourself in China’s 4,000 years of well documented history.

    If I haven’t then I have to take your word for it??? LOL

    I know enough about China to know that the civilization has only started to advance in the last few decades. For most of those 4,000 years China has been a third-world country…conquered and subjugated by many.

    • Agree: Jim Crint
    • Troll: Godfree Roberts
  13. @Godfree Roberts

    China will eventually overtake the US in science and technology, but it is not there yet. Beating the US in number of publications is only the first stage, because most scientific publications are junk. The best Chinese science is as good as the best in the US, but it does not yet have the same breadth of high-quality research.

    China will undoubtedly lead the world in science, but it will need another decade or two to get there.

  14. @James N. Kennett

    The chart in my answer, above, includes only English language, peer-reviewed, citable papers.

    According to the the sinophobic Japan Science and Technology Agency, by 2016 China already led the world in math, engineering, chemistry and computer science and was neck-and-neck with the US in physics. The JSTA took the top ten of the most referenced studies in each field, and determined the number of authors who were affiliated with the U.S., the U.K., Germany, France, China or Japan. China ranked first in computer science, mathematics, materials science and engineering. The U.S. led in physics, environmental and earth sciences, basic life science and clinical medicine. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/China-ties-the-US-as-the-most-influential-nation-in-science.

    The Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence (Ai2) examined not just the number of AI research papers coming from China but the quality of those papers—as judged by the number of citations they receive in other work. The study suggests that China will overtake the US in the most-cited 50% of research papers this year, the top 10% of research papers next year, and the top 1% by 2025. China is already ahead in the number of AI patents filed, AI venture capital invested, and research papers cited worldwide. The number of Chinese students studying AI and graduating from universities worldwide exceeds the total number of other countries’ AI students combined. https://www.technologyreview.com/2019/03/13/136642/china-may-overtake-the-us-with-the-best-ai-research-in-just-two-years/

    The World Intellectual Property Organization, WIPO, ranked 167 universities and public research universities for the top 500 patent applications. 110 of the patents were from China, 20 from the United States and 19 from South Korea. China dominates a global ranking of the most-cited research papers published in the 30 hottest technology fields. https://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/wipo_pub_941_2018.pdf

    Militarily, China’s missiles outrange America’s, often by 100%.

    • Troll: Realist
  15. FKA Max says: • Website
    @James N. Kennett

    The U.S., and the collective West, is far ahead in the most important research field, namely AI. I don’t believe the Chinese will ever catch up:https://archive.ph/V1sPO/ebec2c75d21dd11c2e0578a17a8304f79ed2ebc5.jpg
    “Another example. For all the fears about China leapfrogging in AI, the US remains far ahead in terms of high-quality (publicly available) research. https://www.natureindex.com/supplements/nature-index-2020-ai/tables/countries Widely considered to be the top 3 AIs – DeepMind, Open AI, Google AI – all Anglo-American.” – Anatoly Karlin Mar 18, 2021 https://twitter.com/powerfultakes/status/1372567897210556418

  16. @Godfree Roberts

    The chart in my answer, above, includes only English language, peer-reviewed, citable papers.

    I should have been more precise, and said “most English language, peer-reviewed, citable scientific publications are junk”. I have occasionally reviewed such papers.

    Your links are interesting; but it is hard to assess the significance of the figures. Figures for patent applications will depend on the examination process, and the cost of application, as well as the incentives given to applicants by employers or the government. These vary from country to country. Again, I know from (admittedly minor) personal experience that many patents are junk. The reasons for holding a patent portfolio are not simply to earn royalties, but for prestige. When a metric is politicized, it ceases to be a valuable metric.

    The point is, however, that Chinese figures are rising and will continue to rise. Even if the average value of a 2022 patent application is not as high for a Chinese application as for a US application, China will eventually take the lead. We will suddenly find that China dominates in product innovation, design, and science Nobels. We are not there yet, but it will not be many years before we are.

    In the meantime, the USA is more interested in fighting wars that belong to an earlier century. If there is one thing that China can do to attain world leadership, it is to learn from other countries’ mistakes and not fight pointless wars: not invade Taiwan, and not make an issue over the Spratly Islands.

    • Agree: mark green
  17. FKA Max says: • Website
    @James N. Kennett

    The second image (see bottom of this comment) in my first comment to you upthread, didn’t load properly for some reason, but here is what the Tweet said, it was/is attached to:
    “The US remains the top place for scientist to work in. Their ability to poach talents from around the world compensates for their dysfunctional pre-tertiary public schools. On the other hand, China has a deep pool of talents but face difficulty in retaining them.” – Mar 18, 2021 https://archive.ph/slJAK#selection-1311.0-1311.263

    As long as China cannot keep their talented researchers in China there is no way “China will eventually take the lead.” By the way, the same top researchers “brain drain” dynamic applies to Europe, India, Iran, etc.

    America’s Got AI Talent: US’ Big Lead in AI Research Is Built on Importing Researchers
    https://macropolo.org/americas-got-ai-talent-us-big-lead-in-ai-research-is-built-on-importing-researchers/ or https://archive.ph/ZKFp2
    Takeaway #1: The United States has a substantial lead over all other countries in top-tier AI researchers, and that lead has been built on attracting international students and researchers to work at US institutions.
    Takeaway #2: China is the largest source of top-tier AI researchers, but a majority of these Chinese researchers leave China to study, work, and live in the United States.
    Takeaway #3: Over half of all top-tier AI researchers are immigrants or foreign nationals, researchers working in a different country from where they received their undergraduate degree.

    • Agree: James N. Kennett
    • Replies: @Godfree Roberts
  18. @James N. Kennett

    In support of your first point, this just in…

    There were approximately 85,000 research papers published globally on the subject of AI/ML in the year 2000. Fast-forward to 2021 and there were nearly twice as many published in the US alone.

    • Agree: James N. Kennett
    • Troll: Realist
  19. @FKA Max

    People go where they can exercise their talents to the fullest.

    I emigrated to the US because grad schools here offered me opportunities that did not exist in my native Australia.

    Now China’s crushing immature technologies like quantum communications, AI, supercomputing and utterly dominates every aspect of clean energy.

    And they outspend us on R&D, big time. Biden’s promising \$1.5 billion for quantum computing. Xi committed \$10 billion.

    We’ll never keep their best and brightest, the IQ 140+ crowd. China offers them unique opportunities.

    Officials in China are held in much higher regard than dukes in the UK, and similarly descendents’ marriage prospects for generations.

    These days, the smart kids choose administration or research, but the smartest choose both, because the selection committee (the opaquely named Organization Department) is looking for leaders who are empathic and intellectual geniuses.

    Xi, for example grew up in a desperately poor village whose people cast their eyes down in his presence because he could read, and ate bark most winters. He visited and fretted about them until they started giving guided tours of where he lived with them, telling tales of his youth, and showing cracked, faded photos of him as a teenager.

    Self-educated, he eventually got a (grudging) BSc in chemical engineering, from Peking University, and later, a PhD in rural marketization.

    The #1 priority of the current 5 Year Plan is raising rural incomes through rural marketization.

    In 2021, 28% of farmers’ profits came from direct sales to consumers. Billions of smartphones, millions of drones and thousands of miles of high speed rail let Beijingers choose oranges from the bough and receive them next morning.

    China’s next president could be one of two current provincial governors. Both have physics PhDs. They previously ran the rocket and space programs, and now they’re ‘father and mother officials,’ to a hundred million people, and responsible for doubling everyone’s real wages of by 2031.

    Where else can you exercise such talents?

  20. Karl1906 says:
    @Priss Factor

    Wokeness is the continuation of political correctness which was “invented” by the conservatives in the 1980s. The American conservatives to be specific.

    And the very same pandering to murderous ideology (racism, extremism, warmongering, transhumanism, etc.), a biased, venomous media (including permanent astro turfing on social networks) only ever became this oppressive since 911. Which was clearly not under the Democrats and certainly not (yet) with a totally “leftist” media and its shills pushing for it like now, but still very similar. Under Obama, from 2008 onwards, they basically only flipped the “switch”. But it already wasn’t much different before at that point.

  21. Some Blacks do make good choices and prosper as a result, but these are generally those with above-average intelligence and an absence of antisocial character traits.

    As has been proven by thousands of Jewish scholars – children of rabbis – intelligence has to do with selection rather than race.

    bgstudents.com.ng

    Ufot Ekong – Best Graduating Students

    Faculty: Electrical Engineering (2015)

    GPA: 4.0

    Institution: Tokai University, Japan

    Gender: Male

    In his first semester at Tokai University, Japan, Akwa Ibom native, Ufot Ekong, solved an electrical puzzle involving Mathematics that students have been unable to solve for three decades. He didn’t stop at that, he went on to break a 50 year old academic record by graduating the ‘Best All Rounder’ with a first-class degree in electrical engineering, and getting the highest grades the university had witnessed in 50 years.

    The remarkable young man didn’t achieve these feats on a gold platter, Ekong worked two jobs to pay his tuition through school, and runs a retail wears and accessories shop in Japan called Strictly African Japan.

    • Replies: @Realist
  22. Whites are pathetic mental slaves of Jews. Blacks act like animals, but progots holler BLM as if blacks are the poor victims.

    But conzos are hardly better. Blacks slaughter whites, but white cucks worry about BLM leading to more black deaths. Blacks feel zero sympathy for white victims of black violence, but white cucks go weepy-poo about more blacks dead as result of BLM.



    Video Link

    • Replies: @Realist
    , @BluEidDvl
  23. @obwandiyag

    Quite correct. But then we all know about ostriches and heads in sands….

  24. @Realist

    I know enough about China to know that the civilization has only started to advance in the last few decades. For most of those 4,000 years China has been a third-world country…conquered and subjugated by many.

    Obviously you know close to nothing about China.

    • Agree: Godfree Roberts
    • LOL: Realist
  25. @Godfree Roberts

    Yes, China is certainly in the forefront of quantum communications. It is still catching up in many other research topics.

    Officials in China are held in much higher regard than dukes in the UK, and similarly descendents’ marriage prospects for generations.

    This is a cultural trap. Many fine researchers will become officials, just as they become managers in the West.

    now they’re ‘father and mother officials,’ to a hundred million people

    Again, what a cultural difference from the West. To our ears, ‘father and mother officials’ sounds a little sinister, like Big Brother, because we know that the State is a blunt instrument for helping people’s welfare.

    and responsible for doubling everyone’s real wages of by 2031.

    China will continue economic growth for several years. What we do not know is how the system will cope when it has a recession. People will support a top-down one-party system as long as it delivers economic progress. What happens when progress falters, and the leaders are seen as having failed? In the West, such leaders would be replaced at the next election.

    • Replies: @littlereddot
  26. Levtraro says:
    @James N. Kennett

    I should have been more precise, and said “most English language, peer-reviewed, citable scientific publications are junk”. I have occasionally reviewed such papers.

    And you recommended publication? Or were they published despite your recommending against?

    • LOL: James N. Kennett
    • Replies: @James N. Kennett
  27. Gotta get back to the “Money Topic.”

    WWIII and starvation battling it out to see which one gets us first.

    But on here, gots to get back to the “Money Topic.” Always. Cause it’s the money topic.

  28. @James N. Kennett

    I consider true technological and scientific evolution only when a nation does something astonishing in the area of space exploration. Most people do not know, or have forgotten the sense of pride America felt when the space race was won and man landed on the moon. They say 3 to 5 percent of the budget was allocated to NASA back in those days(!!!!!). Where is China in that department? The day they launch a probe to scan Europa, Titan and Ganymede I’ll believe. The day they think of putting Chinaman on Mars I’ll take notice.

  29. Anonymous[134] • Disclaimer says:
    @PhilMuhCrevis

    A vampire state is one run by crooks and gangsters who come to power either through rigged elections of coups d’état. Their leaders are functional illiterates who debauch all major government institutions: civil service, military, judiciary and banking system. They transform their countries into personal fiefdoms for the benefit of themselves, their cronies and tribesmen.

    The US government has increasingly conformed to the above description after the election of former President Obama. Apparently Pres. Biden’s term of office is former President Obama’s third term. A senile White man is used as a figurehead while the country is run by Pres. Biden’s Chief of Staff, who is working for former President Obama.

  30. @Godfree Roberts

    Now China’s crushing immature technologies like quantum communications, AI, supercomputing and utterly dominates every aspect of clean energy.

    And they outspend us on R&D, big time. Biden’s promising \$1.5 billion for quantum computing. Xi committed \$10 billion.

    Perhaps China and the U.S. will both discover that technology is not the only criterion in creating a life fit for human beings.

    • Replies: @Godfree Roberts
  31. “He demonstrates that fatherless homes are common in Africa and among Blacks worldwide, not something unique to post-World War II America.”

    This is perhaps the most telling fact of all.

    • Replies: @Anon
  32. Herodotus, the ancient Greek (Ionian) ‘father of history’, writing in the 5th century BC, said the Egyptians had black skin and woolly hair. And that the ancient Greek pantheon was imported from Egypt. And that the conquerors of Peloponnese, the Dorians, who founded Sparta and were the aristocracy, came originally from Egypt.

    Egypt was the most technologically advanced civilization in the ancient world. Long term planning (based on the yearly rise and fall of the Nile) was key to their civilization.

    (Oddly enough, for those of you who like anomalies, Herodotus never mentions the Hebrews, though he does mention certain peoples who practice circumcision).

    • Replies: @Franklin Ryckaert
  33. @Godfree Roberts

    People who have never interacted with the top 0.1% in China (whether it be IQ, business, wealth, political power) have no idea what’s coming.

  34. @Godfree Roberts

    With 1,4 billion China has 4,2 times the population of the US. In most fields it has even less than 2 times the number of scientific publications. Actually only in chemical engineering it has 2 times the number of publications as the US. Most other ones are only slightly more than the US. I hope you understand the concept of relativity.

    • Agree: Occasional lurker
    • Replies: @Anon
  35. @WingsofADove

    “…Herodotus, the ancient Greek (Ionian) ‘father of history’, writing in the 5th century BC, said the Egyptians had black skin and woolly hair. And that the ancient Greek pantheon was imported from Egypt. And that the conquerors of Peloponnese, the Dorians, who founded Sparta and were the aristocracy, came originally from Egypt…”

    Herodotus may have been “the father of history”, but that does not mean that he was always correct. He may have seen some black slaves in Egypt and then wrongly generalized that all Egyptians were black, which is patently wrong. The ancient Egyptians were Caucasians (originally immigrated from the Middle East), which is clear from their own paintings and sculptures and from DNA taken from their mummies. Present day Egyptians are mixed with black Africans for 20%, but that happened long after the collapse of their ancient civilization.

    There is no similarity whatsoever between the pantheons of ancient Greece and Egypt.
    The Greek pantheon is a combination of imported Indo-European gods and those of the indigenous (Pelasgian) population.

    The Dorians were the latest of the Hellenic Indo-European invadors in Greece. They were generally described as blonde.

  36. @James N. Kennett

    China will continue economic growth for several years. What we do not know is how the system will cope when it has a recession. People will support a top-down one-party system as long as it delivers economic progress. What happens when progress falters, and the leaders are seen as having failed? In the West, such leaders would be replaced at the next election.

    The difference between Chinese and Western attitudes towards their leaders are truly worlds apart.

    In the West, the legitimacy of the ruler comes from HOW the ruler is selected. Western attitudes are essentially a legacy of the Divine Right of Kings, only now it is not God who confers the right to rule, but the Ballot Box. Once selected, it matters somewhat less how well the ruler performs, afterall he could be changed in the next election, as you have alluded to.

    In China, the primary focus is not how the ruler is selected, but how he PERFORMS. The ancient concept of Mandate of Heaven and its resulting social contract between ruled and ruler, has seen a long succession of Emperors overthrown because they were regarded as not serving the interests of the people. If the emperor did not do well, the mandate was withdrawn.

    Which system works better? The answer probably depends on where you were raised and what your resulting cultural attitudes are. But the Chinese are clearly happy with the latter.

    • Replies: @Franklin Ryckaert
  37. Nat X says:

    Come the day of the rope us dindoos have one hell of a “struggle session” planned for yt authors of drivel such as this.

    • Replies: @PhilMuhCrevis
    , @Anon
  38. gotmituns says:

    Recent Research on Race Realism
    ——————————————-
    Here’s my take on “race realism.” We Whites can shoot better than blacks, yellows and browns. In the end, Whites will win.

  39. A discussion on race realism should start with debunking out of Africa. There is no such thing as magic dirt that makes your skin white and your brain creative.

  40. SafeNow says:

    If the book is to be truly reality-based, the final chapter should have detailed pragmatic, protective, safety measures. Frank conversations might or might not help, but safety measures will be necessary forever, and increasingly so. Of course, regular readers of this website are already familiar with these.

    Regarding the Chinese, my Chinese-American doctors listen to me and answer my stupid questions with incredible patience, politeness, and non-arrogance. I think it is partially in the DNA. I hope so, because if so, it will not be Americanized.

  41. Anon[365] • Disclaimer says:
    @Ulf Thorsen

    “He demonstrates that fatherless homes are common in Africa and among Blacks worldwide, not something unique to post-World War II America.”

    This is perhaps the most telling fact of all.

    He failed to note however that in addition, children in fatherless homes as a rule, each have different fathers. Each black man arrives to deposit his seed before moving on.

    Its a merry go round the result being a worn out frequently pregnant Negress with a host of ragged children hanging on to her ragged skirts. All hungry !

    As in Africa, same in the US the difference being that in Africa the woman has little or no money to feed and clothe her bastards while in the US she spends her dole on wigs, clothes, bling fingernails etc.

    So, on two continents, thousands of miles apart in terms of distance, time and environment we have the pleasure of seeing the same cultural norms.

    • Replies: @pseudosyn
  42. Anon[365] • Disclaimer says:
    @Franklin Ryckaert

    You replied to Godfree Roberts::

    With 1,4 billion China has 4,2 times the population of the US. In most fields it has even less than 2 times the number of scientific publications. Actually only in chemical engineering it has 2 times the number of publications as the US. Most other ones are only slightly more than the US. I hope you understand the concept of relativity.

    Well so what ? China discovered the human propelled rickshaw, paper lantern, chopsticks, noodle and fortune cookie before whites. You will never know the pleasure of eating Ding Ding Mian noodles in a rickshaw while being pulled by a human Chinese donkey.

    You may not be impressed but 1.4 Billion Chinese are including at least one white (supposedly) named Godfree.

    NB: I am impressed too but in a reverse sense LOL.

    • Replies: @bwuce wee
  43. @littlereddot

    But how well did Mao Zedong perform and why was he never overthrown?
    And why are those oh so intelligent Chinese still worshipping him:

    • Replies: @littlereddot
  44. jsm says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    Lol.

    I hear this every time. “The reason White people did all the early work in science and technology
    (Newton and Tesla, for instance) is because they picked all the “low hanging fruit.”

    Well, the Chinese have had 5,000 years of civilization… So why is it the Asians didn’t “pick the low hanging fruit” and make all the “easy discoveries” long before 1665?

  45. Realist says:
    @Charles Martel France

    As has been proven by thousands of Jewish scholars – children of rabbis – intelligence has to do with selection rather than race.

    What the hell does that mean?

    • Replies: @Occasional lurker
  46. @RJ Macready

    I hope China catches up in a hurry. I’m sure China would have no problem mass producing a dune buggy that NASA said could be folded up to the size of a large suitcase. Does Alibaba have a wish list?

    https://centerforaninformedamerica.com/moondoggie-2/

  47. Realist says:
    @Priss Factor

    Whites are pathetic mental slaves of Jews.

    Indeed, but what is to be done?

  48. Realist says:
    @RJ Macready

    I consider true technological and scientific evolution only when a nation does something astonishing in the area of space exploration.

    Very narrow-minded.

    The day they think of putting Chinaman on Mars I’ll take notice.

    China may well put one of their own on Mars before the U. S. does.

  49. “Africa provided a huge supply of labor that could be transported to the New World more cheaply than slaves drawn from, say, India or China”

    Now not only the Blacks but the Indians and the Chinese are going to hate us too. Oh, well!

    • Replies: @littlereddot
  50. @PhilMuhCrevis

    “Where you have African’s, you have Africa.”
    Minus the good things, of course: Giraffes, elephants, stunning landscapes…

    • Replies: @PhilMuhCrevis
  51. Treg says:

    I believe what is coming shock everyone no matter what you think and believe. That is the power to turn and off certain gene-sets, select & insert certain gene-sets, and so on. The various genetic rivers will be mined for all sorts of goodies, and because of our need to have a unique identity, need to be sexually attractive, need to be fashionable, need to all fit in, and need to not fall behind in any unequal way…. the river turbulence will have amazing speed and violence.

    For example, imagine a group who is well off, very competitive, a bit nervous and yet open to “new and exclusive and exciting ideas”. And so, one or two members of this group, naturally wanting to help their future child, slips in a certain gene-set thats been mined from Mankind’s genetic rivers. Say such child has amazing eyes. At the age of six, all his school classmates are thrilled that he can tell you what is far in the distance. He’s becoming popular because of his amazing eyes. “Hey Nathan, look up to the top of that mountain! I bet you see trees!”…..

    Nathan, yes i see pine trees and three hikers. A red jacket, a yellow jacket and a…a … green jacket. They are walking that way. Now the man in a red jacket is holding up a sign. “What does it say…
    Oh it says, “Hi Nathan. Happy birthday! You’re seven!”….

    And the race to mine the river is on. Like in the movie GATTACA, all future parents will become future designers. you think purple hair is outrageous now? Wait til you see whats coming. How about your daughter having the most amazingly pleasant “natural” human fragrance possible? How about becoming literally addicting? What powers would that bring her? It would certainly trump your daughters normal powers in the competitive sexual marketplace, maybe even making her susceptibility to exploitation, heaven forbid…

    We can already see what sexual selection pressures do to us already. I’m old enough to recall Donahue show years ago having “breast repair surgeons” on his show giving us all ASSURANCE that their methods would ONLY go to helping ladies with “flat boy-like chests, damaged chests via car accidents and for those 1 in 4 women who get breast cancer and went through a whole breast removal process”….Oh the pictures! People were shocked. People were sad. People were afraid. And that opened the door and the public approved.

    Not even five years later, they were all where doing them made-order for any old reason, even the “Just Because I Can” reason. Soon the very rare and natural Cynthia Myers bazooka double DD Breast became the number one thing to order on the “menu of breast”.

    And every teenager knows its only a matter of time for a made to order Penis. If your evil parents didn’t provide you one in utro, then there will be “things that you can do” and heavens forbid your a teenager without. But surprise, can you imagine size not being the number one thing selected for, but rather a penis that is very chemically addictive to the receiver? The fact is chemical arms race is very natural in the world of beatles and in the world of mice, and so I see no reason why it will be any different in Man.

  52. @Franklin Ryckaert

    Who are we to believe, Herodotus, who traveled to Egypt, Persia, all over the Greek world, who wrote detailed descriptions of Egypt and their religious worship based on direct experience, who saw things and people with living eyes, who was Greek with a vast knowledge of Greek history or……you, who lived 2500 years later?

    I would say Herodotus is the more credible witness.

  53. Treg says:

    I believe what is coming shock everyone no matter what you think and believe. That is the power to turn and off certain gene-sets, select & insert certain gene-sets, and so on. The various genetic rivers will be mined for all sorts of goodies, and because of our need to have a unique identity, need to be sexually attractive, need to be fashionable, need to all fit in, and need to not fall behind in any unequal way…. Yes the river turbulence will have amazing speed and violence.

    For example, imagine a group who is well off, very competitive, a bit nervous and yet open to “new and exclusive and exciting ideas”. And so, one or two members of this group, naturally wanting to help their future son, slips in a certain gene-set thats been mined from Mankind’s genetic rivers. Of course height will be chosen and eye color. “Everyone’s doing that”. But they made sure their son had amazing eyes.

    What would that look like? At the age of six, all his school classmates are thrilled that he can tell you what is far in the distance. He’s becoming popular because of his amazing eyes. “Hey Nathan, look up to the top of that mountain! I bet you see trees!”…..

    Nathan, yes i see pine trees and three hikers. A red jacket, a yellow jacket and a…a … green jacket. They are walking that way. Now the man in a red jacket is holding up a sign.

    “What does it say?” They all scream with excitement for what’s to come.

    Oh it says, “Hi Nathan. Happy birthday! You’re seven!…

    And the race to mine the river is on. Like in the movie GATTACA, all future parents will become future designers. You think purple hair is outrageous now? Wait til you see whats coming. How about your daughter having the most amazing HAIR, BUT also a very pleasant “natural” human fragrance that is “humanly possible”? Would breathing her in become literally addicting? As addictive as caffeine maybe? What powers would that bring her? It would certainly trump your daughters normal powers in the competitive sexual marketplace, maybe even making her susceptible to exploitation, heaven forbide…and the race to mine the genetic river is on. It most likely is on right now, we just don’t see it yet. We might notice when a taller younger walking clone of Brad Pitt walks by us.

    We can already see what sexual selection pressures do to us already. I’m old enough to recall Donahue show years ago having “breast repair surgeons” on his show giving us all ASSURANCE that their methods would ONLY go to helping ladies with “flat boy-like chests, damaged chests via car accidents and for those 1 in 4 women who get breast cancer and went through a whole breast removal process”….Oh the pictures! People were shocked. People were sad. People were afraid. And that opened the door and the public approved.

    Not even five years later, they were all where doing them made-order for any old reason, even the “Just Because I Can” reason. Soon the very rare and natural Cynthia Myers bazooka double DD Breast became the number one thing to order on the “menu of breast”.

    And every teenager knows its only a matter of time for a made to order Penis. If your evil parents didn’t provide you one in utro, then there will be “things that you can do” and heavens forbid your a teenager without. But surprise, can you imagine size not being the number one thing selected for, but rather a penis that is very chemically addictive to the receiver? That chemical arms race is very natural in the world of beatles and in the world of mice, and so I see no reason why it will be any different in Man.

  54. JMW says:
    @PhilMuhCrevis

    Those “hard leftists” have done little for labor for 50 years and seem to be most adept at handing out money to large corporations, in particular arms industries. Yes there is a certain faction that is as you describe, but the actual results of Congress are much different.

  55. No secular, i.e., non-religious opinion or theory and the rational mind divorced from the supernatural has ever nor can they ever explain human nature and the way the human mind works.

    The really only rational explanation for wars, discrimination, racism, murder, corruption, theft, acting in irrational and destructive ways that harm ourselves and others-doing that which is wrong and evil- is based on God’s revelation that man is a fallen creature, infected with the original sin committed by Adam and Eve and therefore, prone to do that which is evil. The only way to eradicate this tendency is through sanctifying grace which is given through the Son of God, Jesus Christ who taught the way to happiness in this temporary life is to believe in Him and follow His commands and will. God taught that humankind was created in His image and likeness and specifically to love and serve Him which in turn, gives us the ability to love our neighbors as ourselves and even love our enemies. With these two types of love, we cannot harm ourselves or others. We want only their good and our good.

  56. bwuce wee says:

    thanks stephen sanderson- for letting us know you are a racist! and you are able to make a buck out of being a racist! congrats- the american dream. unfortunately for you, the sciences of biology, zoology, and anthropoligy DO NOT CONCUR that blacks, whites, asians, etc., are separate and distinct races (not to mention, if they were- how many people would be considered raciallty pure! just ask ancestor.com). just like domestic dog breeds come in all imaginable shapes and sizes but they are all the exact same species, there is only one species of human living on earth: homo sapiens sapiens. there are no other subspecies(scientifically, a race is a subspecies). so no matter what color of skin, what land area you were born in, what size you are- humans are all the same race. even if everyone on earth had dark skin- let’s call this imaginary place ‘black world’, there would still exist many different cultures and ethnicities among black world, exactly as there currently exist many cutltures and ethnicities among black people. there will always be differences and there will always be persons who think they are superior because they are stronger, smarter, better-looking, etc.,. but you did manage to sell a few books, and you did manage to totally discredit yourself in the history of the 21st century. a simple google search of human subspecies:

    “Currently, the only human species is Homo sapiens. Despite differences in appearance, modern humans share over 99% of the same DNA and are therefore not further divided into different subspecies.”

    so stephen sanderson, you just got your ass kicked.

    • LOL: Corrupt
  57. @WingsofADove

    Herodotus never visited Egypt. Among his contemporaries, that is scholars, Herodotus was known as “The Father Of Lies”. There was no SubSaharan African DNA in the Egyptian population before 700AD, the result of the muzzie slave trade with East Africa. Today that introgression is about 7%. Black Ancient Egypt is a slimy lie.

    • Replies: @WingsofADove
  58. bwuce wee says:
    @Anon

    hate to rain on your parade, but there were a tribe of white people who traveled by wheeled wagons across northern china and other places in ancient times before the chinese ‘invented’ the wheel. they left burial mounds with treasures and white-skinned red-haired mummy princess’ for modern archeologists to find and marvel over. these people wore tartan woven fabric and knew metalurgy. they were very far advanced technologically over the indigenous chinese agriculturalists. these people were called the TOKHARIANS. look it up. this knowledge has been around for over 30 years. the chinese knew about it, but kept it secret from western science. you see, they are really good at stealing other people’s ideas and claiming them as their own. hence the term ‘KNOCK-OFF’.

  59. @RJ Macready

    China is doing well at space exploration, notably on the far side of the moon. The US return to the moon is prompted by China’s plans for manned lunar exploration, and its primary goal is to select astronauts who are not white men. This is the sign of a country that has lost its way.

  60. @Levtraro

    I didn’t choose my words very well, did I!

  61. CSFurious says:

    “I am a rather old-fashioned, no-nonsense professor who expects his students to put forth a strong
    effort. For me, the most important purpose of education is to expand the powers of the mind and
    increase the amount of knowledge at your command. Becoming an educated person is hard
    work, but it is a terrific accomplishment. It is one of the most important things a person can do.
    Education is not simply about learning things you will need on a job. In fact, very little of what
    you learn in college has any direct relevance for that. Education is for life, not just for a job.” This is from his website. This is a very intelligent man who has likely suffered for his views.

  62. @Godfree Roberts

    Comment on the occidental observer:

    Studies continue to suggest that NE Asians do better on intelligence tests, but that Asians lack creativity. This is because these Asians are prepping for the tests, in a sense. Also, millions of Congoid-like, non-academic Chinese peasants are not given IQ tests.

    Creativity, which Asians are generally incapable of, is the true hallmark of genius; but this is not being credited as intelligence, for Whites. Creativity is not being tested for on standard IQ tests. Therefore, NE Asians are not more intelligent than Whites. Furthermore, if creativity and nobility are the ultimate human traits, then non-White races are fundamentally less human; relative to racial realism and honesty. Humanity itself is the victim of the ongoing racial holocaust globally threatening the White, human population with extinction.

    This ongoing racial holocaust poses a threat to all life on Earth. White creativity is the source of all advanced science and technology. This is the planet’s only hope of deflecting inevitable extinction level events, such as a comet or asteroid impact, or many other apocalyptic scenarios requiring genius creativity and an advanced, free, White society.

    Evidently, only Whites are capable of understanding this, or caring. This is the most important issue since life began. The existence of life itself is at stake.

    This comment overstates the gap of INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY, which are different concepts. Before this topic, I had reviewed academic opinions on this subject and incorporated my extensive experience living, working and interacting with several Asian societies on different levels.

    The rest to the comment proposes that only creativity of thought will save the planet, its species, etc, etc. This is specious, to say the least. While thinking “out of the box”, breaking convention, and extreme individualization and individuation are related to overall advancement, one without the other is a subtraction from total potential benefit.

    The entrepreneurial spirit, associated with invention, was much higher in the West, than now-where it continues to decline, as does almost using any marker or statistic of quality of life and societal/cultural health in the West.

    There simply are more factors that must be included. There are few more truth table crucibles than managing marine power plants of modern ships upon oceans. Creative solutions are necessary to develop and implement. Cohesion of a team, internal synchronicity and effective leadership are essential. The management and control of individual ego, the collective mindset and group identity are important. Durability, reliance, predictability and in toto, CHARACTER AND INTEGRITY are make or break. North East Asians have more of this than Whites.

    Asians have a slightly different Collective Consciousness. If one knows Jung then this statement is self evident. They are able to work and function in a more integral and independent milieu than Whites, who require “social maintenance” in excess. This is similar to person that needs to have some sort of noise wrap around him, either conversation or music, etc. This greater ability to concentrate and exclude “noise” or exterior stimulus has hard wire characteristics, and I believe a genetic basis. This provided the development of their societies, from the construct and characteristic begets the reality and existence.

    Asian emotions are slower to manifestation and take a longer path through rational thinking and cognition, compared to White spontaneous emotional manifestations. This is a spectrum where Asians occupy one pole and the more easily excitable and volatile Negroes occupy the other. Whites are in the middle.

    There is no denying that Asians have a higher IQ that is correlated with the physical sciences, mathematics, and abstract thinking. Their superior ability to concentrate more fully over greater time produces many products that display exceptional craftsmanship and excellence.

    Now, being a practical person, I look for results, manifestations and confirmations. This is inductive, the field and loci of evidence, data, facts, etc. It is indisputable that Asian societies are more inherently stable, being that parts and components add up in summation to a whole phenomenon, concretely. Harmony as a construct and ideal is more more important and valued than the Western societies. This can be seen in the greater integrity and stability of the family unit.

    A more traditional society will be less of an innovation than a more “creative” society, in grossly simplified terms. The degree of difference may be small, and the valence of this one factor or attribute may be outweighed by the aforementioned components.

    Rather than this defensive “pat on the back” theme, what REALLY counts is SURVIVABILITY and LONGEVITY. Should one care to open that theme for discussion I would oblige to be included.

    I have said, based on experience in extremis situations that I prefer the worker that shows up on time, does his best, is consistent, prudent and reliable, rather than the individual that is erratic, high and low, inspired, more ability, etc. It’s all about Ultimate Outcomes.

    https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6002&context=lkcsb_research

    The above links have common themes. A power plant is composed of many components and systems. So are societies. Machinery in general does not care about your whims or fancies, your problems, explanations, etc. It operates on a straightforward, ineluctable, inescapable principle in a rational and empirical universe. It performs as well as you maintain it, operate it, and repair it. There is no cheating, shortcuts, abstract escapes, and cognitive clogs of fluff and the immaterial.

    “A sailor without his own ship was like a hermit crab without a shell.”
    ― Richard McKenna, The Sand Pebbles

    “Machinery only cared about what a man knew and what he could do with his hands,”
    ― Richard McKenna, The Sand Pebbles

    “Jake Holman loved machinery in the way some other men loved God, women and their country.”
    ― Richard McKenna, The Sand Pebbles

    My comment was not posted. It has become common for TOO not to publish comments that do not shed the Indo-European in a favorable basking of lot. Foolishly, there persists a bias and pitiable serial attempts to glorify “Aryan Man”, with many commenters having no idea of the origin of the term (Northern India). The idea that all human progress had its origin and “before the “Nordics” there was nothing”, has a persistent and stultifying effect on broader discourse.

    I hope the moderator is not the estimable Dr. MacDonald.

    • Agree: Occasional lurker
    • Replies: @Anonymous
    , @Biff
  63. Yet the Whites continue to kill each other,…so superior.

    • Replies: @PhilMuhCrevis
  64. @Franklin Ryckaert

    Ancient Egypt had a mixed population.

    There were for the most part black people in the South. Not a long time before Herodotus there had been a war against the Kingdom of Kush, which was lost and then the Nubians ruled Egypt for some period of time.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Kush

  65. Agent76 says:

    Apr 20 , 2020 The ‘Self Made’ story of American millionaire Madam C.J. Walker

    America’s first self-made female millionaire was Madam C.J. Walker, an African American who rose from domestic labor to her own beauty empire in the early 1900s. Now, Walker is the inspiration for a Netflix limited series, “Self Made,” starring Octavia Spencer and Blair Underwood. Hari Sreenivasan talks to the actors and Walker descendant A’Lelia Bundles, off of whose book the show is based.

    • Replies: @CelestiaQuesta
  66. Anonymous[223] • Disclaimer says:
    @Priss Factor

    Wokeness is a power play.

  67. @Gaylord of the German Gaylands

    Minus the good things, of course: Giraffes, elephants, stunning landscapes…

    Yep, proof that they can screw up anything they have close proximity to, including nearly an entire continent.

  68. @jsm

    They did.

    The Chinese invented paper and printing on paper, and color printing; gunpowder and firearms, the first bomb and the first rocket and rocket launchers, the first cannon and hand grenades, a compass, paper currency and printed paper banknotes, natural gas lighting, matches, oil refining and petroleum, pontoon bridge and suspension bridges and the first seismometer, and a lot more.

    They had it all at a time when the Europeans were using bows, arrows and catapults. They discovered a lot in the field of metallurgy and medicine, as well as chemistry.

    Just like the Indians they were a lot more advanced in terms of technologies and science than the Europeans at the time, except for perhaps the ancient Greeks. But the Europeans learned most of the science later from the Arabs, and the foundation of all modern science was for the most part borrowed from the East.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chinese_inventions

    • Replies: @Poupon Marx
    , @Bookish1
    , @ad21
  69. @Nat X

    Come the day of the rope

    Lmao!!

  70. I was hoping Mr. Sanderson would address the biological and hereditary differences between black primates and the white human species. I find it hard to believe blacks and whites are of the same genetic makeup. Watching burn loot murder and rape blacks destroy towns and cities over one of their own who refuse’s to obey police orders and is killed in the process, or the newest craze of Smash-Snatch-Loot stores across America, and endless other patterns of violent savagery, shows that the average black primate have still not evolved, even when allowed access to opportunities their sub Saharan African clans never had, yet to this day still build mud huts with no running water walk on sewage filled roads, and where they kill off whites who created civilized order and farming that is now run by white hating black nationalists blaming whites for their dysfunction paralysis as they depend on foreign aid for food, education and civil services.

    How in the hell did we get to now taking orders from talking apes who hates us?

    • Replies: @Mefobills
    , @Truth
  71. @Reverend Goody

    Yet the Whites continue to kill each other,…so superior.

    Yep, people of all stripes kill. But when it comes to the sheer magnitude of meaningless (don’t need a reason just a place) killings, nothing compares to the carnage of the African male munt. For god’s sake reverend, put the crack pipe down.

  72. @Agent76

    There’s big money in selling weaves, wigs and hair straighteners to blacks.

    Imma start my own line of weaves and nappy hair straighteners called ‘Nigga Pleez’.

    • Replies: @Agent76
  73. BluEidDvl says:
    @Priss Factor

    Spot on. There was once a time when I really cared.. cared DEEPLY, not anymore. If anything, these times have shown the world what we’re really made of & we’ve been found extraordinarily “wanting”.

    Are a people who have ZERO survival instinct even fit to survive?. France just voted to finish itself off. Our young men are cucked cowards. Our young women are wanton whores. Look at those BLM/Antifa riots that went on for months. A sea of White faces.

    I’m not just disgusted by what we’ve become.. I’m horrified.

  74. @Here Be Dragon

    But can the West now learn from the East, like they did so openly and assiduously from us? Not likely, with the over compensated tawdry nostalgia of sits like The Occidental Observer. This site does a great job of reporting history and beating its chest of all “wonderful things we Whites have done”. “All by ourselves without any precedent or borrowing at all. Why, before Northern Europe there was nothing in the World except darkness.”

    Any thinking outside of the box, more inclusive and expansion of Collective Consciousness is blocked.
    The zeit is one of a modified more refined, “We Wuz Kangz”.

    It’s a good site for those who observe and take in evidence, but lack a framework and history to sort it and decode what they perceive. It could be more.

    https://archive.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu01se/uu01se0u.htm

    • Agree: Here Be Dragon
  75. @Priss Factor

    From all the Hollywood remakes of SciFi classics (((Isaac Asimov’s Foundation Series, Star Trek, Star Wars, bla bla bla))), you can only come to the conclusion that Magik Negroz are the saviors of civilizations throughout earth and the universe.

    Which brings up this theory of ‘Black Holes’, I mean, seriously, did these space fairing niggaz rap their way through space/time portals using Wakandian energy Vibranium, only to discover whites, Asians and Indians (Dots/ no dots) living in mud huts and breeding like ants?

    All this negro idolization is painting a bleak future for us non black subspecies.
    What’s next black God?

  76. @Godfree Roberts

    It’s easy for Chinese and other east Asians to advance at science and at the expense of whites who basically founded the whole concept, because whites are engaging in an orgy of self-hatred and nihilism. Whites are offering no resistance and allow themselves to be discriminated against in the very institutions that their ancestors founded. A destroyed public educational system and higher education that pretends that all races have the same ability keeps the high-achieving whites that normally would’ve risen to the top of any hierarchy, from achieving their potential. Few Chinese believe in the nonsense of racial equivalence and are simply taking advantage of the void left by anti-white discrimination in the universities and research labs. It’s like an invading army taking advantage of a society that’s put down it’s arms and offering no resistance.

  77. Agent76 says:
    @CelestiaQuesta

    “Racism is the lowest, most crudely primitive form of collectivism” Ayn Rand.

  78. Anymike says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    But the great difference is the number of articles published on engineering topics, which supports the argument of Sanderson and many other people. Also, China has more people by far than the United States. The United States government also has been busy for a long suppressing the development of the largest population group, one with the proven ability to produce capable engineers. Race and ethnic replacement gets the support and priority.

    • Agree: bispora, JackOH
  79. FKA Max says: • Website
    @Godfree Roberts

    We’ll never keep their best and brightest, the IQ 140+ crowd. China offers them unique opportunities.

    Officials in China are held in much higher regard than dukes in the UK, and similarly descendents’ marriage prospects for generations.

    That is actually the problem.

    Unless, one is a descendent and a part of the early Chinese Communist Party (CCP) elite bloodlines, the so-called the Red Aristocracy https://www.simonandschuster.com/books/Red-Roulette/Desmond-Shum/9781982156152 one is easily expendable and “disapperable”, and that’s why many talented Chinese leave the country if they have the opportunity to do so. Remember, for example, when the first Chinese chief of Interpol https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meng_Hongwei just got disappeared/secretly detained a few years back?

    “We have to remember not to mistake who is the real benefiter and real master for corruption, aristocrats … descended by bloodline, the early founders of Communist Party, or the generals of the early days of Communist Party.

    “The other thing I demonstrate in the book with anecdotes, this anti-corruption drive is more about taking out political rivals than anti-corruption.

    https://www.rnz.co.nz/national/programmes/ninetonoon/audio/2018813185/an-insider-s-story-of-china-s-communist-party-elite

    There is even historically, as Ron Unz documented https://www.unz.com/runz/how-social-darwinism-made-modern-china-248/ , very little predictability and certainty to the stability and sustainability of one’s status and property/wealth in Chinese society, and this Chinese Social Darwinism is even more pronounced within and got intensified under the CCP system, and that’s why smarter Chinese leave China for greener pastures once they have accumulated some wealth or valuable skills/education, even if it means having to sacrifice lots of clout, etc. in the process.

    I just recently had a lengthy and detailed discussion/debate with another pro-China/Chinese Aussie in another UR comments thread on that very topic:

    This Social Darwinism selection pressure/priority resulted in a more Patrilineal/Fraternal structure and organization of society in China and most of the rest of the world, than in Europe (which is very unique, not the global/human norm, and WEIRD as already https://www.unz.com/article/the-aryan-ideal-from-ben-franklin-to-national-socialism/?showcomments#comment-5303818 pointed out)

    https://www.unz.com/mhudson/the-dollar-devours-the-euro/?showcomments#comment-5317837

    The Chinese business tycoon revealing the secrets of Beijing’s elite | 60 Minutes Australia
    Sep 26, 2021

    • Replies: @Godfree Roberts
  80. pseudosyn says:
    @Anon

    Funny that. Culture flows from genes.

  81. Anonymous[273] • Disclaimer says:
    @Poupon Marx

    Creativity is not being tested for on standard IQ tests

    This sounds like the whining of blacks who claim IQ tests don’t account for their special genius.

    Of course, no test can capture everything. But let’s be careful what we accuse others of and what we complain about.

    Creativity, which Asians are generally incapable of

    And with this, the original author completely and totally invalidates his objectivity.

    Asians have a slightly different Collective Consciousness. If one knows Jung then this statement is self evident.

    True. When you gain something, you often lose something else. When you lose something, you might gain something else.

    Generally, Europe has been an arena of endless wars. And in E. Asia, almost the converse opposite.

    It’s plausible that the penchant for conflict gives genesis to some form of creativity (in addition to destruction/subtraction). Harmony has its price. Peace has a cost. But W. Europe was only more creative the past 500 years. It’s not a long time.

    They are able to work and function in a more integral and independent milieu than Whites, who require “social maintenance” in excess.

    Good point.

    • Replies: @FKA Max
  82. Anonymous[273] • Disclaimer says:
    @Realist

    its vast history has been conformist.

    Says who?

    Conformity vs individualism. East and West. Except conformity is a pejorative and individualism is praise. Why the unfair diss in the guise of objectivity?

    If E. Asians are conformist, then Europeans are narcissistic, selfish and rapacious.

    Let’s be fair with the words we use.

    The truth is that there was a time when the West valued harmony and getting-along almost as much as the East. They were hospitable, charitable, altruistic, cooperative and valued amity with neighbors.

    Is there something wrong with that? I don’t think so.

    Being an Ayn Rand nut has its downsides.

    • Agree: Occasional lurker
    • Replies: @Realist
  83. @jsm

    Read Science and Civilisation in China, by Needham.

    Its 26,000 pages detail China’s unparalleled inventiveness.

  84. @Agent76

    Since we are gifted divine inalienable rights from God our creator(s) (whoever that may be), freedoms (speech, association, thy shall not kill, bla bla bla), it’s also the reverse when you forfeit those rights by taking away another life or denying one’s pursuit of happiness and prosperity either by abuse or from burn loot murder and rape.
    And since American blacks commit 75% or more of all violent crimes, they have forfeited any rights to exist among us.
    BTW, I’m not racist, I hate everyone.

  85. @Etruscan Film Star

    The Chinese have known that for 2200 years, and take it seriously.

    That’s why there are more hungry children, drug addicts, suicides and executions, more homeless, poor, illiterate, and imprisoned citizens in America than in China.

    BTW, China’s infant mortality, 5.4 per thousand births is lower than America’s 5.69 and Chinese children’s healthy life expectancy is longer than American kids’, and those kids will graduate high school STEM subjects three years ahead of ours.

  86. @FKA Max

    Yada yada yada.

    There are more hungry children, drug addicts, suicides and executions, more homeless, poor, illiterate, and imprisoned citizens in America than in China.

    China’s infant mortality, 5.4 per thousand births is lower than America’s 5.69 and Chinese children’s healthy life expectancy is longer than American kids’, and those kids will graduate high school three years ahead of ours.

    • Replies: @FKA Max
    , @James N. Kennett
  87. FKA Max says: • Website
    @Anonymous

    True. When you gain something, you often lose something else. When you lose something, you might gain something else.
    […]
    It’s plausible that the penchant for conflict gives genesis to some form of creativity (in addition to destruction/subtraction). Harmony has its price. Peace has a cost.

    Very true points! It’s about selection pressures, priorities and preferences. Arguably and tragically (see video below), rarely anything else produces more innovations and scientific and societal “progress” and evolution (for the victorious survivors) than Wars (hot or cold ones)…

    The Irony of High Tech
    Much of the technology we now consider peaceful was designed to allow the United States to wage global thermonuclear war.
    https://geopoliticalfutures.com/irony-high-tech/ or https://archive.ph/FPgx1

    The Mongols built an empire with one technological breakthrough
    The humble stirrup was a game-changing invention that altered history.
    https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/05/the-mongols-built-an-empire-with-one-technological-breakthrough/ or https://archive.ph/krX7h

    Another case in point, which I just discussed in another UR comments thread:

    The period of greatest change came between 1972 and 1977, on the heels of the US involvement in the Vietnam war, which triggered big advances in trauma care.

    “Without this technology, we estimate there would be no less than 50 000 and as many as 115000 homicides annually instead of an actual 15 000 to 20000,” they say in a report of the study in the journal Homicide Studies (2002;6:128-66).

    https://www.unz.com/isteve/did-abortion-cut-crime/?showcomments#comment-5324424

    The Tragedy of War
    by Lindybeige
    What is the greatest tragedy of war? Perhaps it isn’t the death and destruction, but that we need it to know ourselves.

    When It Comes to Waging War, Ants and Humans Have a Lot in Common
    https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/when-it-comes-waging-war-ants-humans-have-lot-common-180972169/ or https://archive.ph/LMNrA

    One likely reason for the possibility of warfare in large societies, among both ants and humans, is simple economics. Big communities are more productive per capita: fewer resources are required to feed and house each individual. The outcome is a reserve labor force that can be quickly deployed as needed —in ants, typically as soldiers. Fortunately, our nations can make choices not open to insects by investing excess labor not just in armies but in a host of other areas, among them entertainment, the arts, and sciences.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  88. FKA Max says: • Website
    @Godfree Roberts

    Yada yada yada.

    Ditto.

    You are one of those people I referred to in my first comment in this comments thread:

    But unfortunately, even intelligent people like, for example, Charlie Munger https://archive.ph/BAGUz#selection-1929.0-1929.86 believe this “race realist” myth, and have mistakenly invested their money *and in your case also a lot of your time* based on this “junk/pseudo-science.” This is the reality

    https://www.unz.com/article/recent-research-on-race-realism/?showcomments#comment-5322690

    China is currently ranked 85 out of 189 countries https://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/CHN on the Human Development Index (HDI) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index

    HDI has a correlation of 0.96 with proper IQ proxies (excluding African countries is even higher at 0.98).

    Even Richard Lynn’s https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Lynn IQ estimates have a correlation of 0.87 with the HDI (excluding African countries, it falls to only 0.74):Source: https://notpoliticallycorrect.me/2017/09/05/worldwide-iq-estimates-based-on-education-data/ or https://archive.ph/YXjjf

    • Replies: @Godfree Roberts
  89. Bookish1 says:
    @Here Be Dragon

    Who in China invented all those things you named? There were whites in China as a previous post explained. Don’t give credit when you don’t know where it came from.

    • Replies: @Deep Thought
  90. Anon[130] • Disclaimer says:
    @Nat X

    Come the day of the rope us dindoos have one hell of a “struggle session” planned for yt authors of drivel such as this.

    I am a Black Man like you and fought in Africa in the 70’s. I now live in America and consider myself very lucky. The White Man has refined war to perfection somewhere between a science and an art. What he has forgotten about warfare we have not even begun to learn.

    On your ‘day of the rope’ there will be no struggle session. The White Man will wipe us out. If there are any dindoos left the Hispanics, even the Afro Hispanics, will clean them out. With all due respect from one Dindoo to another, your statement is more a reflection of fantasy rather than reality.

    The Hutu/ Tutsi massacre of 500,000 people does not even come close to what the White Man is capable of. It is a low score. What you think about you bring about but it may be to our detriment and extinction here in America.

    • Replies: @Truth
    , @Nat X
  91. @FKA Max

    China is currently ranked 85 out of 189 countries.. HDI has a correlation of 0.96 with proper IQ proxies.

    Odd, considering that there are more hungry children, drug addicts, suicides and executions, more homeless, poor, illiterate, and imprisoned Americans than Chinese.

    Odd, considering that China’s infant mortality, 5.4/K births, is lower our 5.69. Odd that Chinese life expectancy is longer than ours, and Chinese kids graduate high school three years ahead of ours in STEM subjects.

    The US is failing by many social indicators. Falling life expectancy, falling height (proxy for the quality of children’s diets), education, teen births, crime…

    The HDI figures date from 2019, but I doubt that China drew so far ahead in just 36 months.

    Could there be another explanation? Like this?

  92. @Bookish1

    Who in China invented all those things you named? There were whites in China as a previous post explained.

    A very interesting and valid point! Who were those whites in China? How do you know that they (these whites in China) alone were responsible for all the inventions credited to the Chinese?

    By the way, there are Africans in everyone of us– including all whites!!!

  93. “At one time anti-Semitism was rife in America, but it has largely
    disappeared, at least overtly, and most white gentiles accept that
    Jews are the most competitive and successful people on earth,
    which is why they are overrepresented in the top occupational,
    income, and leadership echelons of modern life. (Ashkenazi Jews
    have average IQ’s of about 112, the highest anywhere. They are
    also the most ambitious—the sky’s the limit.)”

    From page 19 of the introduction to Sanderson’s book, linked below.

    http://www.stephenksanderson.com/documents/RaceandEvolution-TOCandPreface.pdf

    Absurdity.

  94. Truth says:
    @Anon

    Most of the Honkees took the lethal injection, their lives ain’t (As we used to say in NY) worth a wet food stamp.

    And I say that with no joy whatsoever.

    • Replies: @Anon
  95. Biff says:
    @Poupon Marx

    The rest to the comment proposes that only creativity of thought will save the planet

    The planet is doing fine, and doesn’t need one single human to “save” it.

  96. Mefobills says:
    @CelestiaQuesta

    I find it hard to believe blacks and whites are of the same genetic makeup.

    • Thanks: CelestiaQuesta
  97. @Bombercommand

    Cicero, a Roman statesman and scholar, named Herodotus Father of History. Thucydides, a younger contemporary of Herodotus, and a competitor, perhaps is who you reference for the negative epitaph. He never claimed Herodotus did not visit Egypt and if you took the time to read Herodotus you would see your assertion concerning Egypt has no basis.

    ‘Father of Lies’ gained currency because Herodotus was willing to relay various stories, some seemingly fantasy, based on what people told him, but he generally makes clear that he doesn’t know if the stories are true or not, he’s simply repeating what other people believed to be true, which is in my opinion fair game and is quite interesting in its own right and we should be thankful he told us clearly what other people at the time believed.

    A modern historian for example might tell about the beliefs of the Mormons or Christians, without claiming they are true, and two thousand five hundred years from now people would find that interesting.

    • Replies: @Bombercommand
  98. Truth says:
    @CelestiaQuesta

    I find it hard to believe blacks and whites are of the same genetic makeup.

    Not from the same genetic makeup…but have no problem producing, and in fact, have the same chance of producing offspring, as couples of the same genetic makeup. Brilliant, Charles Darwin!

  99. The Peul says:
    @Priss Factor

    The actual races evolved for eons with most if them being totally ignorant of the existence of other races. Blacks in Africa only knew blacks and gorillas. Eskimos only knew Eskimos and seals. Hindus knew only Hindus and elephants. For most of European history, whites knew little of the nonwhite world.

    The paragraph is symmetric, until the last sentence.

  100. The Peul says:

    Why are children of African immigrants more educationally accomplished per capita than the children of the native black population (Americans that are descendants of slaves – ADOS).

    Shouldn’t ADOS have an advantage in that they have white genes? Shouldn’t children of successful African immigrants regress drastically towards the mean, like children of ADOS do? In fact, shouldn’t the children of African immigrants regress so drastically to the mean (~65 IQ points) as to be mentally retarded? Shouldn’t a white teenager be orders of magnitude smarter than the average adult child of an African immigrant to the U.S?

    • Replies: @Corrupt
  101. @WingsofADove

    “Black Ancient Egypt” is a slimy lie.

  102. @Realist

    After decades of dominance by the United States, a new measure suggests that China edged the U.S. in 2019 on one important measurement of national research success.

    Findings showed Chinese research ranked as high as or higher than U.S. work in the top 1% of scientific studies in 2019. This work is considered the most notable published science.

    The new analysis, published recently in the journal Scientometrics, was done by three researchers: one from the United States, one from Europe and one from China. The measurement method used by the trio is different from what has traditionally been used — and they say it is more appropriate to the task.

    “We feel strongly that we have a better way to measure the impact of research when comparing nation-to-nation output,” said study co-author Caroline Wagner, an expert on science policy and R&D investment and faculty member in the John Glenn College of Public Affairs at The Ohio State University.

    “Using our measurement, China now has a slight lead over the U.S. in terms of scientific impact.”

    Wagner conducted the study with Lin Zhang of Wuhan University in China and Loet Leydesdorff of the University of Amsterdam in The Netherlands.

    While there is no objective way of measuring the quality of research studies, scientists have traditionally used a proxy called citations. The more a study is mentioned (or “cited,” as it is called) by other researchers in subsequent papers, the more impact it is seen as having on the field and the more it is assumed to be of high quality.

    The gold standard is reaching the top 1% — those scientific papers that are cited more often than 99% of others.

    [MORE]

    “These are the works that are seen as being in the class of Nobel Prize winners, the very leading edge of science,” Wagner said. “The U.S. has tended to rank China’s work as lower quality. This appears to have changed.”

    The issue is that papers in some scientific fields are generally cited much more frequently than papers in other fields. For example, the top papers in virology are cited more often than the top papers in sociology.

    So what researchers have traditionally done is “field normalization,” in which citation data are averaged in such a way as to allow the two fields to be compared side-by-side, taking into account statistically the differences in how citations are used in each of the fields.

    When this method of measurement is used, the United States remains in the lead of producing top 1% papers.

    But Wagner and her colleagues say weighting papers differently by scientific field makes no sense when you’re comparing the research output of nations.

    “When you’re comparing one scientific field with another, then weighting by field makes sense. But it doesn’t make sense when you’re measuring the overall impact of one nation’s science versus another, and it in fact produces erroneous results,” Wagner said.

    Instead of weighting citation results differently for papers in separate fields, Wagner and her colleagues simply combined papers in all fields and then calculated how nations compared using the raw citation data.

    The researchers used the Web of Science database, which provides comprehensive citation data for studies in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. Using their measurement method, they found that China passed the United States for the top position in 2019, after passing the European Union in 2015.

    In 2019, 1.67% of scientific articles with Chinese authors were in the top 1% of the most highly cited articles, compared to 1.62% of articles with U.S. authors. The U.S. was slightly ahead in 2018.

    Even measurements using field normalizations have shown China to be improving rapidly in quality, even if they don’t show China ahead of the United States. For example, in 2000, 1.77% of U.S articles were in the top 1%, compared to only 0.37% of Chinese articles, according to a report by the National Science Board.

    But by 2016, that gap had closed considerably according to the field-normalized statistics: In that year, 1.88% of U.S. articles were in the top 1% and China was closing in with 1.12% in the highest ranks.

    Overall, it has been widely recognized that China’s total research output has been growing quickly in the past decade or more, Wagner said.

    “But many experts had been saying that China was still lagging in quality, so there was no need for Western countries to worry. We don’t think that gap exists anymore,” she said.

    “In an incredibly short time, China has advanced from far behind to producing research at the leading edge of science in some fields.”

    These new results showing China in the lead should help inform decisions on how the United States funds science, Wagner said.

    “In the United States, we rely on science and technology for our national security, for our economy and for our health care,” she said. “Being the world leader has been critically important to our economic success. A change in this position needs scrutiny.”

    Story Source:

    Materials provided by Ohio State University. Original written by Jeff Grabmeier. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

    Journal Reference:

    Caroline S. Wagner, Lin Zhang, Loet Leydesdorff. A discussion of measuring the top-1% most-highly cited publications: quality and impact of Chinese papers. Scientometrics, 2022; DOI: 10.1007/s11192-022-04291-z

    • Replies: @Realist
    , @anon
  103. @Godfree Roberts

    What are China’s greatest problems that cannot be blamed on anybody else?

    • Replies: @Godfree Roberts
  104. Spholley says:

    Read The book titled Detroit. It exemplifies what happens when blacks come into power and run the city. It turned into a Cesspool of corruption in the city went bankrupt with the black rule. Betsy DeVos donated millions for the school system in Detroit. The administrators all ended up with chauffeur driven cars for a while.

  105. Nat X says:
    @Anon

    You sound like a white mans nigra; a coon. When RaHoWa hits your ilk will be shown no mercy kunta!

    • Replies: @Anon
  106. Anon[174] • Disclaimer says:
    @Truth

    Too much race hate in America. Too many races and they all dislike each other. Back home the tribal differences tore my community apart. There, I only had to deal with members of one opposite group. Here, the black man must adapt to hundreds of other cultures all with their own quirks.

    Even here, when I meet members of the other tribal group from my country the animosity is something real that you can feel even though we don’t even know each other. It suffocated me in the old country and I was glad to leave only to find it is far worse here.

    Although we only deal with a few whites on a personal basis, we dislike them all. Although whites deal with a few blacks on a personal basis the whole group gets painted with the same brush. The good suffer with the bad. The same thing with other ethnic groups here.

    I try to stay away from those emotions as it eats a person out inside. When I hear some Afro Americans talk I feel fearful because I know from experience that these racial confrontations spring from the inconsequential. My feeling is the White Man wants conflict with us, a one time final showdown and is only waiting for an excuse. If that ever comes about we are done for and what I fled from is what I fled to.

    • Replies: @littlereddot
  107. supriya says:
    @Realist

    these days science rewards conformism. Out of the box and out of the narrative thinking is not rewarded. my brother is a scientist in taiwan right now and you just do and turn out papers.

    • Replies: @Realist
  108. Anon[275] • Disclaimer says:
    @Nat X

    You are full of irrational hate and it is going to destroy you if not at your own hands then at the hands of others. I am missing 3 fingers on my right hand and I had to have a vein removed from my leg and transplanted to the same arm compliments of an FN FL I have a two inch wide scar running from my elbow to my armpit.

    What about you ? Do you have anything to show for your fight against the white man ? Other than empty rhetoric that is ? In the bush we “Nigras” have a proverb that goes “lions are unconcerned when the dog barks”.

    You are a scared dog. You bark a lot and dogs that bark don’t bite !

    Kunta the Koon

    • Replies: @Nat X
  109. Corrupt says:
    @The Peul

    “Why are children of African immigrants more educationally accomplished per capita than the children of the native black population”

    Because African immigrants at least try to do well for themselves. They don’t buy into a victim culture that denigrates all worthwhile accomplishments.

  110. Realist says:
    @Anonymous

    Conformity vs individualism. East and West. Except conformity is a pejorative and individualism is praise.

    Both have their value, depending on the situation. I do not consider one more pejorative than the other.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  111. Realist says:
    @supriya

    these days science rewards conformism. Out of the box and out of the narrative thinking is not rewarded.

    That is true, more so, in some countries than others. That is sad for science…it should always be open-minded.

  112. Realist says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    My original comment that made you psychotic was:

    Your rebuttal is overstated. While it is true that China is most recently evolving from a conformist culture… its vast history has been conformist. Going forward it appears that the scientific future favors China.

    Nowhere did I dispute anything you mentioned in your overwrought diatribe. My final sentence agrees with your verbose comments.

    Are you a paid troll?

  113. @James N. Kennett

    If China has blamed others in the past, could you provide links to their claims (not to our allegations)?

    • Replies: @James N. Kennett
  114. anon[274] • Disclaimer says:
    @Franklin Ryckaert

    I don’t know where Herodotus got his info (ancient historians were often just telling stories they’d heard; what else did they have to go on?) The Egyptians themselves made a clear distinction between the black nubians and themselves, the Egyptians, who I guess would be called brown, although they varied from white to dark brown, as they do today. There are many representations of ancient Egyptians carved and painted, and we know what they looked like, more or less. The features of most of the statues were more like Berbers or Arabs maybe., or some mixture. In the later kingdom especially some representations did show Nubian mixture. But by and large, they weren’t “black skinned” unless they came from a black skinned group, generally to the south of Egypt. There was more mixing in the later part of the pre-Christian era (1000 b.c.e. and on) than in the earlier eras, and that shows in the genetics. Which is what you want to study if you really want the truth about them. Fantasies are all very well when you don’t have enough information, but when you’ve got the info, and then ignore it, well. I call that disinfo.

  115. anon[274] • Disclaimer says:
    @Godfree Roberts

    If Chinese research ranked so high, why were they over here stealing so much? They’re famous for it, and everybody knows. Well, to be fair, the Clintons and their allies gave it to them. So let’s say they “acquired” the information. The acquisition was so massive I just laugh at the thought of China being superior. They are not. What they are is more disciplined and cohesive, and as they themselves have observered, do not have huge populations of people who want all the rights and blessings of a modern society, and yet produce nothing to improve or even support it. Indeed, large elements who are destroying the very hands that feed them.

    • Replies: @Godfree Roberts
  116. @Godfree Roberts

    Sorry, I’ll try to be clearer.

    What are the greatest problems that China faces? You may omit any problems that have been created by hostile countries.

  117. @anon

    Iraq was even more famous for possessing weapons of mass destruction.

    Our media’s China propaganda is even worse than its Iraq propaganda.

    Wise up.

  118. The greatest problem China faces is the Euro-American aggression, and has been for 80 years.

  119. @Godfree Roberts

    And what is China’s greatest weakness?

    • Replies: @littlereddot
  120. Anonymous[266] • Disclaimer says:
    @Realist

    When was “conformity” or “conformist” ever seen as a virtue in the West? Never. And it’s not, anywhere.

    • Replies: @littlereddot
    , @Realist
  121. @Franklin Ryckaert

    But how well did Mao Zedong perform and why was he never overthrown?

    Mao, performed the first step for the new China….to throw out the marauding and meddling foreigners.

    And why are those oh so intelligent Chinese still worshipping him:

    They are intelligent enough to realise that nobody is perfect. One should acknowledge the contributions, just as to acknowledge the failures.

    Your absolutist mindset is however akin to the BLM folks who believe that Jefferson should be erased from your history because he too owned slaves.

    The world does not exist in white and black my dear.

  122. @American Bulwark

    Now not only the Blacks but the Indians and the Chinese are going to hate us too. Oh, well!

    You use the wrong tense.

    The USA is already detested around the world.

    • Replies: @Philmuhcrevis
    , @JackOH
  123. @Agent76

    I have a pet theory: Those who reduce everything down to race have an inability to handle the complexity of the world around them, and seek simplistic boxes to put all events and ideas into.

    It is a survival mechanism for their ego. It goes something like this….

    1. I am unhappy with my life.
    2. I refuse to take any responsibility for it, so it must be somebody else’s fault.
    3. It cannot be the fault of my race, because then I would be partly responsible for it. Therefore it must the the fault of another race.

  124. @Anonymous

    sometimes other things are misinterpreted as conformity.

    When the Pandemic first started, people were busy laughing at Chinese / Asians for universally wearing masks, attributing it to “conformity” to government pressure.

    Little do they know that the habit formed years ago in Japan when people who were down with a minor ailment would wear masks so that they would not spread it to others.

    The habit caught on in Korea and China especially in winter time when they noticed it made them feel warmer.

    So when Covid struck, it was a combination of already common habit, as well thoughtfulness/regard towards others.

    But in USA, people just put it to “conformity” and laughed at them.

    • Agree: Godfree Roberts
    • Replies: @Lee
  125. @Anon

    I feel you. Come to Singapore, my brother.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  126. @James N. Kennett

    And what is China’s greatest weakness?

    China’s greatest weakness is the same as the USA…..propensity for hubris.

    Though the Chinese do not suffer it now, it was hubris during the Qing dynasty the led to their stagnation in the face of European advancement in science/technology and military matters. This all resulted in the Century of Humiliation, which thanks to CCP is now finally behind them.

    The curious thing is that the USA is now suffering the same effects of hubris that leads to its delusions of itself and the world around it that is causing its downward spiral. Americans would be loathe to admit it, but they are basically 200 years behind China in the civilisational cycle. The real question is…will the USA rise up again after a century of collapse like the Chinese did?

  127. @littlereddot

    The USA is already detested around the world.

    That’ll happen when a civilization becomes wildly successful. The hatred from even those that are American citizens against their own nation is palpable everywhere now, most unclear for why exactly they feel that way. And when you ask these idiots why they hate their country the rambling nonsensical answers are usually comedy gold. It’s no different than the irrational hatred that nig-grows have for white’s and Asians, (many of whom would perish within months without them) and how that created a cottage industry of the left dolling out scraps to keep the dumbest of the dumb blindly voting in their favor for the basics of survival. And for the record, stupid assed white’s that have bought into the burn America progressive ideology based on their lies are worse than munts in my opinion as they’re clearly too stupid to see around the next bend in the road. If Nat X is correct and there is a RaHoWa coming, these white fucks need to be the first on the list to go.

    • Replies: @littlereddot
  128. Nat X says:
    @Anon

    No wounds at all because I know how to duck you worthless Oreo.

  129. JackOH says:
    @littlereddot

    The USA is already detested around the world.

    I traveled to Europe from the 1960s through the 1990s. My foreign language skill was strong enough then that I was regarded as European, If my memory and judgment are okay, much of America was admired, but the admiration was pretty shallow. The resentment of America was real, deep (in my opinion), but only weakly voiced.

    The average European I listened to detested American political rhetoric infiltrating their own national politics, and American commercial culture displacing their own traditional economic rhythms. Among many Germans, there was the expected resentment of having to “play” a people defeated by American “mass” (in the Clausewitzian sense) against the Germans’ virtuosity and valor.

    • Replies: @littlereddot
  130. Anonymous[208] • Disclaimer says:
    @FKA Max

    Very true about “The Tragedy of War.” But this is the way of life. Only in great suffering can there be great compassion. Only with deep loss can there be great triumph. Only in the face of great fear can there be great courage. Only with great necessity can there be great solution.

    The greatest virtues arise from the soil of greatest vice.

    But despite the paradox, we cannot artificially create pain and suffering in order to sow its collateral benefits. Life itself will inevitably provide it in spades without the asking.

    I think there are also healthier and less destructive ways we can channel and sublimate some of these energies and attain similar benefits, eg, through sports, intellectual contests, and free-market competition.

    • Agree: FKA Max
    • Replies: @FKA Max
  131. Anonymous[208] • Disclaimer says:
    @littlereddot

    They shouldn’t be encouraged. They should be encouraged to take personal and collective responsibility, create their own “living space”, improve their own communities, not demand that others accommodate them with all the baggage and insecurities (that no one but they know about or care about), and become lords of their own Wakanda.

    • Replies: @littlereddot
  132. Realist says:
    @Anonymous

    When was “conformity” or “conformist” ever seen as a virtue in the West? Never. And it’s not, anywhere.

    You’re kidding…right?

    As I said to your comment

    Conformity vs individualism. East and West. Except conformity is a pejorative and individualism is praise.

    Both have their value, depending on the situation. I do not consider one more pejorative than the other.

    Even science has a place for conformity…in the scientific method. Scientists that do not conform to the scientific method are outcasts.

    Religious people love conformity.

    People that do not conform to the law are called criminals.

    • Troll: GKWillie
  133. FKA Max says: • Website
    @Anonymous

    I think there are also healthier and less destructive ways we can channel and sublimate some of these energies and attain similar benefits, eg, through sports, intellectual contests, and free-market competition.

    Very much agreed!

    I suggested this as well a few years back:

    My point is mostly, that we can, and, most importantly, probably should, voluntarily, evolve/adapt into and adopt more peaceful, caring, and maybe more humorous ways of competing for mates; instead of bashing each other’s heads in. This would probably also help to select for higher intelligence, instead of selecting for high testosterone/aggression and/or the “warrior gene” ( i.e. anti-social/psychopathic behavior), which would be very eugenic and generally terrific, in my opinion.

    – April 13, 2017 at 9:11 pm GMT • 5.1 years ago • 500 Words https://www.unz.com/jthompson/iq-does-not-exist-lead-poisoning-aside/?showcomments#comment-1836234

    The English have been the most successful in doing just that:

    Conformity and Cousin Marriage
    Steve Sailer • April 12, 2017
    https://www.unz.com/isteve/conformity-and-cousin-marriage/
    Leaving aside plain IQ, I suspect that love marriages select for a wider variety of personality types and other traits in offspring than do arranged marriages, with the historic English predilection for young lovers selecting their own mates (e.g., in the 1590s, Shakespeare didn’t have any doubt whom his paying customers would sympathize with when he put on Romeo and Juliet) perhaps leading to the famous English appreciation for individualism and eccentricity.

    My comments in that comments thread start here:

    The English seem to have best recognized the importance and power of humor as an easily testable proxy for identifying intelligence. Giving young women more say in the selection of their mate is likely highly eugenic. No other culture that I know of has a more subtle, sophisticated, i.e., highly developed/advanced sense of humor and humor culture than the English

    – April 12, 2017 at 6:00 pm GMT • 5.1 years ago • 500 Words https://www.unz.com/isteve/conformity-and-cousin-marriage/?showcomments#comment-1834845

  134. @Philmuhcrevis

    That’ll happen when a civilization becomes wildly successful.

    When the US was at its peak of success up till the 80s, it was widely admired.
    Even in the early 1900s, the Chinese were so impressed by the US that they considered naming their new republic The United States of China.

    But sadly this is no longer the case. My opinion is that it is not success that creates loathing. Rather it is desperate bullying of a hegemon that is anxious about its decline that breeds it, and ensures its downfall.

    And when you ask these idiots why they hate their country the rambling nonsensical answers are usually comedy gold

    You bring up a fascinating question. I have my own pet theories. In a nutshell I would say that the root cause is a corruption of the idea of “free speech”.

    When your founders expounded the virtues of free speech, it was also assumed that such freedom would be accompanied by a responsibility to inform oneself of truth and fairness before adopting any ideas and speech that expressed such ideas.

    Unfortunately the “free speech” has come to mean that anybody is entitled to have any cockamamie opinion/belief never mind how little time or effort he has put into investigating its validity.

    Modern technology has only compounded this phenomenon by means of social media and search engines that only feed back content that the individual wants to see, thereby reinforcing their little thought tribes.

  135. @JackOH

    I will tell you my experience.

    When the lead up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq happened, it really opened my eyes to the rapaciousness of US foreign policy. In my own research I found the harm that US foreign policy had caused went back decades. But I could not reconcile the evil of the US foreign policy actions with what I thought was the decency ordinary Americans. If the USA was really a democracy, then the will of the people decide the actions of the government. If they actions of the government are evil, does this not require the citizens to be evil also?

    I began a series of trips to the USA, where I must have stayed an aggregate of a year or two. I traveled both coasts, and inland areas. The question I wanted to know was “are Americans evil”.

    What I found was that generally Americans are a kind hearted, decent people. But, I also found that they were totally misinformed about the outside world and their place in it. It was apparent to me that constant drumming into their ears that they were “the richest”, most developed, most advanced, most moral, most free, …… Americans truly believe that if any country were to be lucky enough to advance and progress enough, they would end up like America…..in one word, hubris.

    So I did get my answer, no they are not evil. But they are terribly indoctrinated and misdirected. The powers-that-be have used a combination economic anxiety and sweet nothings whispered into the ear of the people to keep them distracted from the real issues. They are as sheep kept to be fleeced over and over again by their elites, and they do not realise it.

    Why are they arguing about abortion, third genders, black crime etc etc,

    When the very root problem of the system is “how do we select the very best leaders of our country to solve our manifold problems?”. Surely when Americans have selected the best leaders their country can provide, these leaders will solve all the other trivial problems given as example above.

    Two hundred and fifty years ago you had many more of such superior men, chosen from a much smaller population base. The likes of Washington and Jefferson. Today, out of a population of 350 million, is a Biden or Trump really the best that USA can do?

    Getting off my soapbox now.

    • Agree: JackOH
  136. @Anonymous

    What you say is true, the ultimate responsibility for anyone’s state is himself.

    But sometimes people need to heal their trauma before they can take positive actions to improve their lives.

    The question then is …. “is black trauma real”? Or is it something they have imagined?

    Somewhere in the interview, the lady said something that struck me, and I paraphrase from memory “when I was chatting with colleagues here in Singapore, they referred to me as American. I was surprised….never before had I thought of myself as American. In the USA, I was always African American. Only if I were white would I be referred to as American”

    I encourage you to watch that video, it is quite eye opening. It is part of a series on Africans in Singapore/Asia.

  137. Lee says:
    @littlereddot

    LR said:

    When the Pandemic first started, people were busy laughing at Chinese / Asians for universally wearing masks, attributing it to “conformity” to government pressure.

    Little do they know that the habit formed years ago in Japan when people who were down with a minor ailment would wear masks so that they would not spread it to others.

    Would have thought that after the two year Covid debacle that he has become understood that masks don’t stop the spread of a virus. Fauci stated this several times when he wasn’t stating the complete opposite whenever it suited the Libs for him to do so.

    • Replies: @littlereddot
  138. @Realist

    “What the hell does that mean?”

    I assume the poster wants to say that sociological selection effects that differ between subgroups of populations can produce differences in intelligence between the subgroups even though both may be very close or virtually indistinguishable in, say, a PCA plot of people with varying geographically defined ancestry.
    Dysgenic sociological selection effects were clearly at work in Western societies during the past decades, with highly intelligent women having much fewer offspring and a longer generation span than middling to low intelligence women.

  139. @bwuce wee

    Red hair in mummies is usually the effect of pigmental decay, it doesn’t mean they were originally red haired, and recent genetic study on some of these mummies shows them to be mainly of local east asian extraction (with some western steppe intermixed, IIRC)

    • Replies: @Deep Thought
    , @bwuce wee
  140. @Lee

    masks don’t stop the spread of a virus.

    On this point, I would disagree with you. In both on a personal level, and on a level of national response to the pandemic. Let me explain why:

    On a personal level, I have observed not only in myself but my siblings with their own families, that once symptoms show up, and if all precautions immediately taken such as mask wearing, self isolation etc were highly effective in stopping the spread to other family members. We have a sick mother in her late 80s, so we were especially careful.

    On a national level, it can also be effective. What is crucial is the discipline which the population adheres to mask wearing and safe distancing rules. In Singapore, wide public support and cooperation led to keeping infection rates and deaths extremely low, until enough people were vaccinated and so the country was able to voluntarily open up and live with it as an endemic virus.

    Once mask wearing and safe distancing rules were relaxed, the infection rates skyrocketed. Fortunately over 90% of the population were already vaccinated and the death toll was very low. Even then the death toll was disproprotionately large in those that were unvaccinated.

    One personal observation is that even in Singapore, as opposed to the asians ethnicities, white people appear less likely to adhere to mask wearing rules. I put this to cultural attitudes. Extrapolating this observation to Western countries, I am therefore not surprised that the mask wearing rules in Western countries were not effective.

  141. @bwuce wee

    TOKHARIANS

    It is western China, in the region of Central Asia. Far from where the Chinese civilisation sprung.

    this knowledge has been around for over 30 years. the chinese knew about it, but kept it secret from western science.

    WTF? And you didn’t get a bonus last year because the devil stole it from you?

    you see, they are really good at stealing other people’s ideas and claiming them as their own

    You add 1 + 1 but you get 3?
    The Chinese have been absorbing foreign ideas for millenia, and make no bones about. What they do however, is to morph it into something uniquely Chinese. Like Nepalese Buddhism became Zen/Chan.

    The root issue is not who is inspired by whose idea. This has gone one from the dawn of time.
    The root issue is how white racialists denigrate the Chinese for using their ideas, when they forget that their alphabet came from the Semites (Phoenicians), their religion from West Asia, their counting system and thus the basis of their modern mathematics form the Indians, the gunpowder weapons which they used to grab 4 continents from the natives came from China.

    White racialists are like last runner of a relay race who claims that he won because it was all his effort only, forgetting that the other runners before also contributed to the team effort.

    The irony is that this race is not yet over. While the white racialist is loudly boasting about his feats, others are overtaking him.

    • Replies: @bwuce wee
  142. ad21 says:
    @Here Be Dragon

    >The Chinese invented paper and printing on paper

    The compass and the printing press of the Chinese are not comparable to the European Compass or European Mechanized printing press. Let’s not compare them. The latter outclasses the former in every way.

    Also, these two technologies were not widespread in China like they were in Europe.

    Your interpretation of Chinese history leads to overstatement of the widespread use of many technologies in Chinese society. and how comparable they were to European technologies. At least for those two.

    I will have to check the other techs you listed to see if there is an overly positive interpretation of their use in Chinese society, and how comparable they are to our modern conceptions of what the labels of those technologies mean.

    I doubt anyone for instance thinks – wide flat wooden board with carvings and a ladel of mercury- when thinking of the Chinese compass. They more likely think the Chinese compass is like the handheld European compass when the two couldn’t be further apart than the person’s imagination would permit when using such common labels.

  143. @Godfree Roberts

    It is interesting to read different perspectives – that is why we are all here – and this includes views of China that we do not find anywhere else (and thank you for this).

    However, if all the news about China is good, and the country has no weaknesses or self-inflicted problems worth mentioning, then we know we are not getting a full picture. There is a deal of ruin in a nation – and that means any nation, including China; it would be valuable to have an insight into the bad aspects as well as the good. I would bet that our MSM are equally clueless about both.

  144. if all the news about China is good, and the country has no weaknesses or self-inflicted problems worth mentioning, then we know we are not getting a full picture.

    No country pays more attention to its weaknesses than China. Surely you remember PM Wen’s warning, on national television, that China faced “mounting social problems and unbalanced, unco-ordinated and unsustainable growth”.

    Not a month passes without Xi addressing problems. Last month he discussed the five kinds of risk inherent in every policy–historical, political, etc.

    Every five years all leaders meet to publicly address the ‘leading contradictions’ in their political and economic system: its potentially system-destroying artifacts, and to seek Gödelian solutions.

    The country revises its constitution every 20-30 years, to account for or anticipate being trapped by unanticipated changes.

    Remember that China is still run by engineers, the most respected secular professionals (after officials, whose function is semi-sacred), and engineers are problem solvers. They keep the country on a steady democratic course, come hell or high water.

  145. @ad21

    Read the 26,000 pages of Needham’s Science and Civilisation in China before passing judgement on Chinese technical capabilities. Their breadth, depth, and sophistication are astonishing (and, btw, they were using fiat currency with fractional reserves in the 12th. century.)

    While you’re reading, recall that it has taken them just 70 years to go from rubble to leading the world’s scientific research, including the top 1% of cited papers.

  146. @Godfree Roberts

    The World Intellectual Property Organization, WIPO, ranked 167 universities and public research universities for the top 500 patent applications.

    How?
    What defines “Top”?

  147. For WIPO’s methodology, see Appendix III in its 2021 Annual Rankings and, in future, do your own validation.

  148. bwuce wee says:
    @littlereddot

    i said many of the supposed inventions atributed to the chinese were actually stolen from a “white ethnic culture”- which was located in the tarim basin. you have not disproved that fact. you have merely taken a tangential aside to try and defend the FACT that the chinese are not actually very creative at all. that is also a fact. knockoff says it all- chinese industry is mostly concerned with stealing copyrighted patents and making them avalilable om the world market without having to pay royalities, and apparently that is what you think is so clever about them. stealing is clever?!?!?! and chinese espionage- it is mostly concerned with stealing new ideas and inventions- again so they can produce KNOCKOFFs. and chinese stealth planes- stolen from the US. and chinese misslies tech- stolen from the US. looks like to me the chinese are mere pirates and bandits pretending to be communists (so they can steal everyone’s property) all the while in realit they are capitalists. always have been, always will be. merchants who sell stolen mechandise- that’s all they are AND HOW LOW IS THAT? really low.

    • Replies: @littlereddot
  149. bwuce wee says:
    @Occasional lurker

    1. you have not proven that they were not redhaired. you merely suggested that some mummies somewhere might maybe have changed hair color. you might as well have said they got dyejobs. mongolian history mentions red haired mongols. they mummies have red hair. i invite you to prove otherwise. you cannot.
    2. the mummies hav no oriental features. they have long straight noses. they are caucasian in facial features- get over it. why did the chinese archeologists keep it secret for so longt? they dodn’t want it known that white culture was appropriated by ancient chinese. they know they are thieves and they are ashamed of it- as they should be.
    3. here is the DNA results you claim prove they were people who originated in that area: THEY DID NOT and the dna proves it. HOWEVER, we cannot prove what language they spoke, but we can prove they originated in areas that are now known as russia and mongolia- NOT CHINA.

    excerpted from:

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-04052-7

    Recent archaeogenomic research has shown that Bronze Age Afanasievo of southern Siberia and IAMC/BMAC populations of Central Asia have distinguishable genetic profiles15,26, and that these profiles are likewise also distinct from those of pre-agropastoralist hunter-gatherer populations in Inner Asia2,5,7,27,28,29,30. As such, an archaeogenomic investigation of Bronze Age Xinjiang populations presents a powerful approach for reconstructing the population histories of the Dzungarian and Tarim basins and the origins of the Bronze Age Xiaohe horizon. Examining the skeletal material of 33 Bronze Age individuals from sites in the Dzungarian (Nileke, Ayituohan and Songshugou) and Tarim (Xiaohe, Gumugou and Beifang) basins, we successfully retrieved ancient genome sequences from 5 EBA Dzungarian individuals (3000–2800 bc) culturally assigned as Afanasievo, and genome-wide data from 13 Early–Middle Bronze Age (EMBA) Tarim individuals (2100–1700 bc) belonging to the Xiaohe horizon (Extended Data Table 1 and Supplementary Data 1A). We additionally report dental calculus proteomes of seven individuals from basal layers at the site of Xiaohe in the Tarim Basin (Extended Data Table 2). To the best of our knowledge, these individuals represent the earliest human remains excavated to date in the region.

    Genetic diversity of the Bronze Age Xinjiang

    We obtained genome-wide data for 18 of 33 attempted individuals by either whole-genome sequencing or DNA enrichment for a panel of about 1.2 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (1,240k panel SNPs) (Supplementary Data 1A). Overall, endogenous DNA was well preserved with minimal levels of contamination (Extended Data Table 1 and Supplementary Data 1A). To explore the genetic profiles of ancient Xinjiang populations, we first calculated the principal components of present-day Eurasian and Native American populations onto which we projected those of ancient individuals. Ancient Xinjiang individuals form several distinct clusters distributed along principal component 1 (PC1) (Fig. 2), the main principal component that separates eastern and western Eurasian populations. EBA Dzungarian individuals from the sites of Ayituohan and Songshugou near the Altai Mountains (Dzungaria_EBA1) fall close to EBA Afanasievo steppe herders from the Altai–Sayan mountains to the north. Genetic clustering with ADMIXTURE further supports this observation (Extended Data Fig. 3). The contemporaneous individuals from the Nileke site near the Tianshan mountains (Dzungaria_EBA2) are slightly shifted along PC1 towards the later Tarim individuals. In contrast to the EBA Dzungarian individuals, the EMBA individuals from the eastern Tarim sites of Xiaohe and Gumugou (Tarim_EMBA1) form a tight cluster close to pre-Bronze Age central steppe and Siberian individuals who share a high level of ancient North Eurasian (ANE) ancestry (for example, Botai_CA). A contemporaneous individual from the Beifang site (Tarim_EMBA2) in the southern Tarim Basin is slightly displaced from the Tarim_EMBA1 towards EBA individuals from the Baikal region.”

    altai(russia), siberia(russia), baikal(mongolia) regions are NOT in china. so they did not originate in china, nor did they originate in the tarim basin, where their burials are located. they had caucasian features, and lived off of herding cows and other animals for dairy. much like the indo-europeans in many other locales. tocharian, an indo-european language is established as being spoken by them in later earas.

  150. @ad21

    If you want to be fair, then you have the technology of the the two different places at the same time.

    It is not useful to talk about a Chinese invention in 1000AD, then describe how much more advanced the European version was in 1400AD.

    But if your intention is to minimise the Chinese contribution to the world, then by all means go ahead.

  151. @bwuce wee

    So the Chinese stole the invention of the compass from the Tocharians?
    Gunpowder? Steerable rudder? Paper money? Movable type? Water clock? Water tight ship compartments? etc etc.

    LOL.

    Maybe the Chinese adopted the wheel from the central asians….now you accuse the Chinese of stealing EVERYTHING?

    the FACT that the chinese are not actually very creative at all.

    Okay, if you say so.

    Let us live another 20 years longer, and the truth will be apparent to you then.

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