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Dutton’s Rule—Women Across the World Marry Up, Which Shows That “Gender” Is Not A “Social Construct’”
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A British person living in Finland quickly gets to know lots of other people in the same situation: Britons and other native English-speakers, such as Americans, who have married or are otherwise partnered with Finns and moved to Finland. If you ignore the War On Noticing, then something is likely to strike you. The woman in the pair is almost always Finnish. Yet if you see an intercultural relationship in which the man is Finnish, the woman will almost always be East Asian or East European. The reason: Hypergamy. Women want to marry or partner with men of higher social status and earning power. But the phenomenon goes deeper than that. They also disprove the fashionable nonsense that “gender is a social construct.”

I was so fascinated by hypergamy in Finland that I decided to test whether my eyes deceived me. Psychology professor Guy Madison, at Sweden’s University of Umeå, joined me to look at every marriage in Finland between a Finn and a foreigner during 2013. We coded every country in the world for national status, such as Gross Domestic Product, national average income, and other markers.

We were not surprised by our results. They were precisely as we expected and predicted. Even controlling for geographic closeness and other important factors, Finnish women disproportionately married men from countries that were wealthier than Finland. Finnish men disproportionately married women from countries that were poorer than Finland. We published our findings in the journal Evolutionary Psychological Science [Why do Finnish men marry Thai women but Finnish women marry British men? Cross-National Marriages in a Modern Industrialized society exhibit sex-dimorphic sexual selection according to primordial selection pressures, by Edward Dutton and Guy Madison, Evolutionary Psychological Science, 2017].

What we learned, at bottom, is that nationality is a kind of status. Men from high-status countries have access, on average, to greater resources than men from low-status countries. If you are from a high-status country, something is highly adaptive about “your people,” and as one of them, you may somehow share in the qualities that breed success.

The Evolutionary Psychology view: Generally speaking, men have nothing to lose from a sexual encounter. Indeed, it is in their interest to have sex with as many fertile women as possible, investing nothing in the females or any offspring and instead looking for the next “pump and dump.” Men tend to select for youth, a proxy for fertility, and beauty, which implies genetic health. By extension, those qualities suggest the woman will give birth to healthy children who survive to adulthood.

In contrast, women generally have a great deal to lose from a sexual encounter because they can become pregnant. That will leave them unable to do much physical work for some time, and they will now have a baby needing continuing care. Because mother and child are more likely to survive if the father invests resources in them, it makes sense for a woman to pick a man who has high socioeconomic status and resources to invest. So she marries hypergamously or “upward.” The man’s high status bespeaks intelligence and perhaps physical strength, signs of genetic health that the child will inherit. Even if the man pumps and dumps, it still makes sense for women to sexually select for status. Thus, the title of my encyclopedia article on the subject, Women Marry Up [Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science, 2018].

The only outliers in our study were places like Japan. Japan is richer than Finland, but Japanese women marry Finnish men. The likely reason is that Finns are white and reasonably wealthy. For Japanese women, a white, wealthy Finn accords high status and outweighs Japan’s greater wealth.

More recently, Prof. A.J. Figueredo and his colleagues at the University of Arizona have replicated what they call “Dutton’s Rule” by exploring genetic data from Latin America and from the Caribbean [Exchanging fluids: The sociocultural implications of microbial, cultural, and ethnic admixture in Latin America, by Tomas Cabeza de Baca et al., Politics and the Life Sciences, 2020]. In the female line these people are black or Mesoamerican, the authors found, but in the male line they are white.

From an evolutionary psychological perspective—and following our analysis of Finns—this makes perfect sense. The whites were the invaders or the otherwise high-status men in Latin America. They had conquered the black and Mesoamerican men and, manifestly, had greater access to resources. Conquering men are attractive; hypergamous relationships with them make evolutionary sense.

Another example: Occupied France during World War II. Contrary to what people might think because of post-war Germanophobic propaganda, German soldiers didn’t need to rape women to enjoy their companionship. French women willingly had sex with the successful invaders—collaboration horizontale. As far as young French women were concerned, German soldiers were the high status, Alpha males; French men were Beta losers, defeated by these Alpha males and so unworthy of the women’s gametes. After D-Day, Frenchmen vented their fury against the women collaborators by shaving their heads and exiling them and any children born of those dalliances.

One of the conclusions one can draw from our work: “gender” is not a “social construct,” as we are led to believe by the Woke Guardians of Science like, for example, the University of New Haven’s Felicia McSweeney. They argue, essentially, that men are big women and women are little men, but that other than a few physical differences, the “genders” are the same [Gender is a social construct and there are not just two, by Felicia McSweeney, CT Mirror, April 29, 2021].

Well, our work suggests that “gender” is certainly not a “social construct” because our findings fit perfectly with the predictions evolutionary psychologists would make; i.e., even in industrialized countries, where women can and do become lawyers and doctors, women marry up.

Bottom line: Sex differences are deeply hardwired, biological reality. It’s a fact, and it doesn’t care about Felicia McSweeney’s feelings.

Edward Dutton (email him | Tweet him) is Professor of Evolutionary Psychology at Asbiro University, Łódź, Poland. You can see him on his Jolly Heretic video channels on YouTube and Bitchute. His books are available on his home page here.

(Republished from VDare by permission of author or representative)
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  1. Wokechoke says:

    visiting Copenhagen or Stockholm is a lot of fun for a Briton. Yes.

  2. it’s much simpler than that. Men prefer docile women to cherish and provide for, and women prefer docile men to provide for them, and to use as they see fit.

    • Disagree: Colin Wright
  3. Nope. The Japanese women kiboshes your “rule.”

    • Replies: @Thrallman
  4. Faroe Islands:
    Male lineage = Scandinavian; Female lineage = British.


    No wonder modern-day English people are sooo ugly: All their few pretty lasses got taken by the manly Vikings! 😛

    Why do (tons of) rich Blacks (that got rich from sports, music, acting etc.) want White women – and who are blonde and blue-eyed, preferably?
    Evolutionary-informed answers are welcome!

    • Replies: @Vergissmeinnicht
  5. @Vergissmeinnicht

    Apparently, what happens in the Faroe Islands, likewise happens in Iceland – which, to me, is surprising!

    This discrepancy is even more marked for Icelanders, whose effective founding population appears to have consisted largely of female subjects with a British/Irish ancestry and male subjects with a Scandinavian ancestry.


    BTW… Is Edward “Ed” Dutton related to the Dutton Baronets?

    • Replies: @YetAnotherAnon
  6. Sexual reproduction commenced hundreds of millions of years ago-I suspect it may be hard-wired by now. ‘Gender fluidity’ is either a psychological condition, or a lunatic, nihilistic, life-denying ideology. Whence it came is the pertinent question.

    • Replies: @researchskoptsi
  7. anonymous[205] • Disclaimer says:

    Also to be noted here, is how elite-induced forced migration of, e.g., Africans and Muslims into Europe … leads European women to find Africans and Muslims much ‘sexier’ and ‘attractive’, as they are in fact conquering invaders

    This is further accelerated by how migrants and ‘people of colour’ are treated leniently even for serious crimes of violent rape etc, whilst native whites are slammed mercilessly for even minor trivial matters of allegedly ‘racist talk’. The man who can break the law with near-impunity is ‘sexier’, the good white boy who cowers for the ‘rules’ seems a disposable cuck … this is classic ‘ladies love outlaws’, e.g., psychopathic killers in prison get all sorts of love-mail from women

    Women are drawn to power … white-country media and legal systems are giving power to men of colour, taking it away from whites … white women instinctively smell this and their sexual preferences shift accordingly

    Luckily tho for white boys, at least in current generation, whitness still has some sticky ongoing value in much of the world … many whites are marrying happily with Asians or Latinas

  8. “Finnish women disproportionately married men from countries that were wealthier than Finland.”

    Is the UK wealthier per capita than Finland? That wasn’t my impression on my only visit. Finland’s a relative paradise, whether in the capital or out in the sticks.

    But I could well imagine that British men in Finland are wealthier on average than the average Finnish man – because they’ve come to take up jobs like say university academic!

  9. @Vergissmeinnicht

    When the first settlers came around 800 AD (and killed or enslaved the few Irish monks who got there first), not that many Scandinavian women initially wanted to come with them to a literal “Ice-land”, given that Scandinavian winters were dark and cold enough.

    So the Vikings raided Ireland and the West Coast of Scotland for “wives”.

  10. @mulga mumblebrain

    Christian Puritans -> Quakers -> Shakers -> Skoptics

    In the mid 1700s a Shaker preacher was dispatched to take advantage of a schism in Russian Orthodoxy.

    He created a mutual aid society of Russian military bureaucrats kept in line with zeal and blackmail. A man could explain being suckered into a sect to his boss but what’s he going to tell his Russian Orthodox inlaws about the mutilation of their daughter?

    By the end of it in Russia several were found amongst the Admiralty, the equivalent of our Strategic Air Command, etc.

    What we see today has nothing to do with loose “gender roles” or androgyny in the 80’s, it is only about eliminating the possibility of heterosexual activity.

  11. Gender is a grammatical construct and there are just three. Sex is a biological construct and there are just two.

  12. Michelle says:

    I think that you might be attracted to members of other races in a biologically impelled effort to avoid inbreeding. My brother was always attracted to Asian women, from the time he was very young. My mother dated a Chinese man and had a long relationship with a Vietnamese man. I have always been attracted to short, Latino and Middle Eastern men. We are very tall and blonde. Opposites attract. We are part Finnish, by the way.

  13. ‘…”Collaboration horizontale” is believed to have produced 200,000 French babies with German fathers.[6]…’

    That figure has long fascinated me. First off, it’s not like Germans are naturally wanton lovers.

    To cite one example, my mother spend the war years as a school girl, working on farms in the summer. She commented that while the Italian P.O.W.’s were always chasing the English girls around, the Germans diligently worked.

    Second, most Germans who did form liaisons with French women presumably weren’t consciously trying to father a child. Ditto for most of the French women. Pregnancy couldn’t have been the desired outcome, as a rule. Furthermore, note that abortion wasn’t unheard of.

    Third, a lot of French women must have had husbands who were still around, were hopelessly ugly, were scrupulously chaste, or whatever. How many were effectively attractive and available?

    Fourth, the German occupation lasted for only four years — and for less than two, for much of France. So figure a total population actually exposed to Germans that would normally have had about two million births, absent any Germans. This assumes Germans in every forgotten inland village, etc.

    And finally, how many births were passed off as being to French fathers? After all, saying, ‘yes, the father was a German and you can suck it!’ wouldn’t necessarily have been the way to domestic peace and social approval.

    And yet 10% of the fathers in occupied territory — if not more — were German soldiers. It’s an astonishing figure.

    One suspects that in coastal villages and major communication centers, having a German soldier for a boyfriend in 1941-43 must have been a rather ordinary thing.

  14. Holy moley!

    Apparently, there is evidence Asians regard Whites as ‘superior’:

  15. Alrenous says: • Website

    Japan is richer than Finland, but Japanese women marry Finnish men.

    Haven’t yet ruled out the possibility your wealth measure isn’t accurate. Everyone is lying as much as possible about it, after all, for the same kind of reason you can’t trust phone surveys of notch or body counts.

    But assuming the measure is fine, it’s the testosterone. Most folk don’t like to miscegenate. However, if you’re already in the market for some foreign impregnation, you’ll notice that Finnish men are distinctly more masculine than Japanese men. Symmetrically, Japanese women are distinctly more feminine than Finnish women.

  16. Japanese women marry less rich Finnish men in the same way that Asian women born in the west marry less rich white men over richer Asian men in the west.

    Money means nothing when the man who has all that money does not have the socio-political power and status to match that wealth. And everyone knows that Japan, ever since it lost WW2, turned into a (rich) colony of the white west, hence their men are considered conquered beta males and their women are willing to marry economically downwards when that means marrying socially upwards.

    As for Asian men in the west, no matter how rich they become, we all know that they have zero socio-political power. 90% of the time they’re bullied beta males, bowing down to their white counterparts. Unless an Asian man goes back to Asia, he will never be an alpha, because he is living in hostile territory.

    The only way for Asian men to truly regain their status as alphas on a worldwide scale is when China decisively wins against American hegemony and starts dominating over the west in these next coming 50 years. But not before that.

  17. Thrallman says:

    Dutton identified one factor that explains most of the cases. So what that Japan does not fit the pattern? Hypergamy is one factor, just not the only factor. His theory doesn’t even take beauty into account. Incompleteness is not proof of defect.

  18. – When Thebes vanquished Sparta in the Battle of Leuktra (using a company of homos)
    they were somewhat taken aback on arrival (Sparta famously eschewed walls because
    they make you pussy) that the Spartan women demanded their right to
    be inseminated by the victors 😀
    Few societies have ever been that Nietzschean, but I think the author
    overlooks a thing or two.
    Women being the limiting factor in reproduction have to be more discerning –
    taken to the logical conclusion 90% of males would not reproduce at all.
    For certain reasons – lengtened brain growth and need for brood care plus social peace –
    this was found untenable -> Neolithic Revolution -> civilization sive patriarchy.
    Outmarriage is a consequence of globalization, but the doods with the Thai and
    Moldovan catalogue brides tend not to be premier choix.
    Both sexes aspire as high as it goes, meaning smarts (male) and looks (female)
    diffuse up the totem pole, melanin and social pathology down so the end result
    of total Brazilianization is Germanic X and Jewish Y chromosomes ruling over
    a miasma of gargoyles (bad news for yiddishe mames 😛 ).

    (the Japanese probably regard outmarriage as down either way)

  19. FKA Max says: • Website

    The only outliers in our study were places like Japan. Japan is richer than Finland, but Japanese women marry Finnish men. The likely reason is that Finns are white and reasonably wealthy. For Japanese women, a white, wealthy Finn accords high status and outweighs Japan’s greater wealth.

    Most women literally “marry up” in the sense that they prefer taller men. This might also be the explanation for the Finnish-Japanese outlier example. Finnish males (average height 18o cm) are on average 4 inches (or 10 cm) taller than Japanese males (average height 170 cm):

    This specific 4 inch (or 10 cm) differential in height translates to a nearly $150,000 income advantage in terms of attractiveness in favor of the Finnish males versus the Japanese males. This is also why this field of study is often referred to as “black pill science” by the Men’s Rights Movement because it so brutally illustrates how “off the charts” females’ “Heightism” really is: Image Source: Short kings, rise and grind: Study says 5’6″ men need to earn $175,000 more a year to be as desirable as 6’ men or
    I can speak from personal experiences on this issue. Since I’m fairly tall (190 cm), when I went to boarding school, I had three, really short Japanese girls in my art class and they were constantly fawning over me and wanted to take pictures with me, like I was some sort of celebrity. I had no clue why that was at the time, because I always thought I was just normal height, i.e. I have a cousin who is 202 cm tall and all my other family and friends are also tall or even taller than me, and I didn’t understand, at the time, how advantaged/privileged — due to my above-average height — I was/am in the dating market/game. Sometimes, I even feel guilty about it, because it’s almost like hitting a jackpot in the dating and mating “ovarian lottery” as Warren Buffett calls it.
    The Most Depressing Graph EVER!

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