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Russia harvested 133 million tons of grain in 2017, beating the all-time RSFSR record set in 1978. It has also been consistently harvesting more grain than in the Soviet years since the mid-2010s.

russia-grain-production

Here it is in a wider historical perspective.

Grain production in Russia from 1900-2012:

russia-grain-production-1900-2012

Graph via @burckina-faso, a pro-Soviet blogger, so can hardly be accused of bias.
Code: Red/blue lines = Total production (left scale; millions of tons); purple/green line = crop yields (right scale; centners per hectare)
Sources: Росстат, Симчера В.М. “Развитие экономики России за 100 лет: 1900-2000. Исторические ряды, вековые тренды, институциональные циклы”. – М.: Наука, 2006. и Растянников В.Г., Дерюгина И.В. “Урожайность хлебов в России. 1795-2007”. – М.: ИВ РАН, 2009

So we have approximately the following periods:

  • Pre-Emancipation Tsarism: No improvement (see below).
  • Late Tsarism: Slow improvement.
  • Early USSR: Zero gains in output or yields between the early 191os and the early 1950s. Massive collapse during the Civil War, contributing to the 1921-22 famine with 5-10 million deaths. Stagnation during collectivization, accompanied by the 1931-32 famine with 7 million deaths; testifying, in effect, to its engineered nature. Small uptick in the late 1930s, enabled by electrification and tractorification, ending in another collapse during WW2, during which there were 2-3 million deaths from dearth on the home front; another famine in 1947 with 1.5 million deaths, which was not accompanied by a food production collapse either.
  • Late USSR: Doubling in output and yield.
  • Russian Federation (1990s): Collapse in output, though not so much in yield, during the 1990s; considering the depth of the economic crisis, and the fact that people continued to leave agriculture, this was not as catastrophic as it seemed. Russian Federation (2000s+): Strong recovery in both output, which since the mid-2000s has exceeded peak RSFSR values (above graph only goes to 2012), and what must be massive further increases in yield, which should now be around 30

***

Here is another chart showing Grain Yields in 1795-2007 in Russian Empire/USSR:

grain-yields-russia-1795-2007

Source: В.Г. Растянников, И.В. Дерюгина (2009) – Урожайность хлебов в России.

This book was published under the aegis of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and is possibly the most comprehensive attempt to standardize the data on grain yields across the different accounting systems that have existed in Russia during this period.

This is an important detail, because as the economic history blogger @polit-ec notes:

It is known that the Tsarist statistics significantly understated the real volumes of production. This was caused by accounting, and the unwillingness of the peasants to disclose to the landowners the true state of their farms. To the contrary, the statistics of the Soviet era is known for large-scale exaggerations – and not only on account of individual directors who wanted to report on the successful implementation of the plan, but also at the state level to prove the advantages of socialism.

For example, in the Stalinist years, the crop was counted as the one that “could be gathered if there were absolutely no losses and theft of grain during the harvesting and threshing of bread. ” In the Khrushchev era, we went on to record the “barn harvest” – crops actually collected and deposited. But already in 1966, the category “collection” was introduced instead , which again led to “creeping falsification” of statistics. In the last pre-Gorbachev years, in the face of growing food difficulties, data on harvesting and grain yields disappeared altogether from the pages of statistical yearbooks of the Central Statistical Administration of the USSR. The ban on their publication was withdrawn only in 1985.

What leads to this disparity? Quite often we can see how one author cites data from pre-revolutionary publications; another cites the archival documents of the 1930s; the third relies on late Soviet statistical compendiums; and no one suspects how different the counting methods used in these sources are. It is clear that there can be no talk of any intelligible comparison. Therefore, the monograph under consideration, where information on yields, as they say, is “reduced to a common denominator,” is of great interest.

One can again make several observations from the yearly statistics given in the book’s statistical tables.

(1) Russia had an average crop yield of 7.2 centners/hectare in 1916, and 6.4 centners/hectare in 1917. This was bad relative to late Tsarist Russia’s largest ever harvest of 1913, when yields soared to 8.7 centners/hectare; its second largest ever harvest was during the war year of 1915, when it almost matched the previous record holder at 8.6 centners/hectare. But it was hardly any sort of catastrophic collapse. Russian soldiers were better fed in 1917 than their German counterparts. Even in 1918, when the country was already in full scale collapse, the harvest was still at 6.0 centners/hectare, which would make it higher than the average 5.9 centners/hectare during the crisis period of 1905-1907 – when there was no famine. So much for Soviet claims that Russia in 1917 was inevitably on its way to famine and collapse.

(2) On a macro level, crop yields were slowly rising ever since the Emancipation of 1861, all the way to World War I. Meanwhile all the early Soviet efforts at mechanizing agriculture through electrification and tractorification were completely nullified by collectivization, dekulakization, and Lysenkoism. The only year during the first three decades of the USSR’s existence when yields exceeded the Russian Empire’s 1913 figure was during the bumper harvest of 1937; the next year would be 1956. Only half a century later, from 1964, did the USSR start to consistently get higher crop yields than in 1913.

@polit_ec recounts a joke that the initials of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) could be decoded as “Second Serfdom (Bolsheviks). (Был такой старый анекдот: как расшифровать название партии ВКП(б)? Ответ: Второе крепостное право (большевиков).)

***

For comparison, here are historical American wheat yields:

us-wheat-yield-1866-2014

Michael Costolo: Feeding America: The Extraordinary Increase in US Farm Productivity. Figures are given in bushels per acre, so (if my calcs are correct) they should be increased by 50% to be comparable with the centners per hectare measure given for Russia. [Comment: Your math is off when comparing US data (bushels-per-acre) with USSR data (centner-per-hectare). The conversion factor is approx 0.67 for conversion from bushels-per-acre to centners-per-hectare. Instead, you multiply bushels-per-acre by a conversion factor of 1.5 – that’s an operation that should in fact be used for a conversion of units in opposite direction.]

If you would use the correct conversion, the yields from the two different regions would actually be actually much closer to each other.

In the US, there was no increase in crop yields from the 1860s until the 1930s. However, they started from a much higher base, suggesting that Russia had much more room to catch up – and which was indeed happening.

Meanwhile, from the early 1930s, American crop yields veritably exploded – quite an impressive feat, considering this was the age of the Dust Bowl – and wheat yields almost trebled to about 50 centners/hectare by 1990. In contrast, the RSFSR’s grain yields never came close to 20 centners/hectare.

Current figures would be around 75 centners/hectare for the US and 30 centners/hectare for Russia.

us-crop-yields-1866-2014

It is probably legitimate to compare US wheat yields to Soviet grain yields because wheat was the staple Soviet, and now Russian, crop.

However, it should be noted that the gains in overall US grain yields – which came from a higher base – would have been even sharper, since its staple crop is corn. Corn yields rose fivefold from the 1930s to 1990.

Now Russia is gaining rapidly in relative terms, but from what is still a significantly lower base (~40% of the US level in wheat).

TLDR: Russian crop yields were slowly going up in relative terms to the US from 1860-1915. They were then stagnant until 1955, while the US took off around 1935. The US massively increased its lead from 1935 to 2000. Russia has been catching up again since 2000.

 
• Category: Economics • Tags: Agriculture, Russia, Soviet Union 
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  1. Serrice says: • Website

    Agriculture really is an underappreciated sector. Having food supply autarky is incredibly important.

  2. I wonder how much Russia will be able to catch up, without using American Frankenfood-GMOs or pure, refreshing Round Up. I also wonder to what extent the wheat is comparable. I of course am more or less paleo and don’t eat the whiteman’s bread, but I am told US wheat is not as edible as French wheat, the US wheat being bred for yield, not for digestibility.

    • Replies: @WHAT
  3. Anonymous[384] • Disclaimer says:

    Khrushchev was interested in agricultural science and made a trip to Iowa to visit its farms and agricultural research facilities. This was in part due to the outreach of an American seed executive named Roswell Garst who developed hybrid corn strains and made several trips to the Soviet Union to spread the word about modern agricultural techniques that were then taking off in America.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roswell_Garst

  4. melanf says:

    @polit_ec recounts a joke that the initials of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) could be decoded as “Second Serfdom (Bolsheviks). (Был такой старый анекдот: как расшифровать название партии ВКП(б)? Ответ: Второе крепостное право (большевиков).)

    A curious example of how Karlin criticizes the Bolsheviks from the perspective of leftist mythology

  5. melanf says:

    Comparison with America is wrong, because America has a much more favorable climate. Where in Russia the climate is comparable to the American (Kaliningrad region, Krasnodar Krai) yield is quite comparable to the American. For example, in the Kaliningrad region ” the Average grain yield was 43.4 centners/hectare. At the same time, the yield of corn- 113 centners/hectare, in some fields the yield reached 200 centners/hectare. .”
    https://kaliningradfirst.ru/276152

    • Replies: @AP
    , @byrresheim
  6. AP says:
    @melanf

    In that case compare Russia to Canada.

    • Replies: @melanf
    , @Jim Bob Lassiter
  7. melanf says:
    @AP

    In that case compare Russia to Canada.

    Grain yield in Canada in 2016 amounted to 39 centners per hectare,”
    http://data.trendeconomy.ru/dataviewer/wb/wbd/wdi?ref_area=CAN&series=AG_YLD_CREL_KG

    In Russia ” according to Rosstat, the average grain yield (in 2017)… it was 44.6 centners per hectare, which is 15.9% more than the same period last year (38.5 centners per hectare).”
    https://www.vedomosti.ru/business/news/2017/08/14/729307-rosstat-urozhainost

    • Replies: @AP
  8. AP says:
    @melanf

    That’s Russia now. How about in Soviet times?

    • Replies: @melanf
  9. We would need to adjust for soil quality,average temperature and annual availability of fresh non frozen water.

    Also US yields are in large part due to GM technology which many think is the reason for an explosion of food related allergies.

    • Replies: @songbird
    , @EldnaYm
    , @gcochran
    , @PL
  10. melanf says:
    @AP

    That’s Russia now. How about in Soviet times?

    I don’t know. I just pointed out the obvious thing – Russia and the United States initially have completely different climatic conditions and because of this reasoning about the need for “catching up” makes no sense.

    In addition, it is necessary to take into account the number of employees involved. In the 19th century, yields (in centners per hectare) in the US were much lower than in Western Europe. However, American farmers cultivated vast tracts of land (the average American farmer cultivated 20 times more land than the Dutch farmer), and as a result produced much more commercial grain. If we take only the yield (in centners per hectare)-America in 1880 hopelessly inferior not only Holland, but also to China and Indian lands in the territory of modern Bangladesh

  11. anonymous[405] • Disclaimer says:

    China instead of wasting resources lending to African countries to build roads improving the agricultural economy in those countries should shift the resources to building transportation between the Chinese and Russian borders as part of a plan for increasing agricultural exports.

    • Replies: @Reuben Kaspate
  12. melanf says:

    China … should building transportation between the Chinese and Russian borders

    This is done

  13. 5371 says:

    AK refuses to read his own graphs, which clearly show that yield expansion in the US started in the 40s, not the 30s.

    • Agree: utu
    • Replies: @sean42
  14. sean42 says:
    @5371

    Sorry for the OT, but how long can Karlin continue to post these topics, yes the liberals are a sliver of the population in Russia now, but then 20 years ago gay marriage even in the US was just a delusion, and at the end of the Cold War years ago a majority of Americans were still against interracial marriage, and since Karlin is still pretty young, who knows ho2 long the conservative bastions in the East will last after Putin retires, given that Russians can speak and understand English pretty well and have access to Western media. I mean the prevailing culture has never been conservative, just anti-gay, and socially conservative blogs do have a point that gay marriage and tranny domination of pop culture is just the logical end of of the sexual revolution, which Russians fully buy into, even in they are presently anti LGBT, but then the US and Sweden was 90 percent anti LGBT and the entire movement was basically a fringe group back during the early 90s.

  15. neutral says:

    I am curious if there is a correlation with this graph and fatness rates. I am pretty sure that in America this is the case.

    • Replies: @AP
  16. @sean42

    The difference between Russians and Western Europeans is that Russians are pretty backward people, which makes them “natural conservatives” so to speak. Parts of Russian elite embrace LGBT in a form of cargo cult, but these attutudes do not filter to the general population. Russian society would need to change in a very fundamental way, before LGBT can become mainstream here.

    Now, speaking of agriculture, the big issue with Soviet grain was that too much of it was used to support inefficient livestock sector. Soviet Union was importing grain from North America, because its own grain was used to feed farm animals.

    Soviet livestock industry promptly imploded following the end of communism. This freed up a lot of domestic grain, allowing Russia to quickly become a major exporter again.

    • Replies: @sean42
    , @Will Jones
  17. anon. says:

    A different perspective is the extent to which Russia dominates grain exports after the US sanctions and 2014-2016 oil price crash reduced the exchange value of the ruble.

    Struggling U.S. Farmers Worry About a Resurgent Russia
    Russian wheat exports are booming despite a crushing price slump, as the country’s farmers finally emerge from decades of neglect

    https://www.wsj.com/articles/grain-is-our-oil-russia-is-besting-the-u-s-as-a-wheat-powerhouse-1537719747?mod=searchresults&page=1&pos=6

    Amid a multiyear, brutal slump in grain prices, Russian agriculture is thriving. The country exported more than 40 million tons of wheat in the year ending June, around 50% more than the previous year, and the highest level for any country in the past quarter-century. Russia overtook the U.S. as the world’s biggest exporter of wheat in 2016, and again beat the U.S. in 2018.

    For now, “it’s not the trade war, it’s economics” that is helping Russian wheat compete, even in places close to the U.S. such as Mexico, Mr. Still said. Russian “quality got better, and it’s cheaper.”

    Russian farmers come out ahead when export earnings are converted into rubles. Since the Russian currency has depreciated, a dollar now converts to twice as many rubles as it did in 2014. Russia has a similar advantage against the euro and other currencies. Russian farmers can cover their costs at home to keep planting, and also undercut Western competitors on price.

    Russia’s surge of agriculture exports, including grains, fish and meat, is part of an effort to diversify the economy away from crude oil. Oil and natural gas were once the source of half of federal budget revenues. With oil prices still down 30% from their high in 2014—recovering from a swoon of about 77%—exports now account for around 40% of budget revenues.

    Agriculture will never be a large % of GDP in developed economies. In the US, it is an important industry in red states, and with the electoral system, politically important.

    The technology has been more or less perfected. Both Russia and the US have relatively low cost fertilizer. Russia is clearly competitive in world markets and yields are likely comparable to the US considering climate and inputs.

  18. @sean42

    I mean the prevailing culture has never been conservative

    Yes, because ‘conservatism’ is just leftism with a 20 year lag. Russians are reactionary traditionalists, not ‘conservative’.

    given that Russians can speak and understand English pretty well and have access to Western media

    People in Russia, en masse, don’t give a shit about what’s popular in ‘the West’ at this moment; same as Americans, who, generally speaking, don’t care about what’s popular right now in Japan.

    the sexual revolution, which Russians fully buy into

    No, because a) not everyone in Russia is a sexual degenerate, and b) sexual degeneracy in Russia is not the fruit of a ‘sexual revolution’, it is a relic of a degenerate, pre-Christian pagan (peasant) lifestyle in a modern urban setting.

  19. sean42 says:
    @Felix Keverich

    Wouldnt you say the same of Northeast Asians and countries like SK, Taiwan, Japan, and Hong Kong? Have you seen what Russian women under look like in VK, does not exactly remind me of the Bob Jones University dress code.

    • Replies: @Felix Keverich
  20. OT

    The interesting piece of information about this hate crime is not that someone is investigated by the police for it (besides losing both his job and his ticket), but that none of my Hungarian colleagues found any fault with this severe punishment for a speech crime.

    https://www.telegraph.co.uk/football/2018/12/11/chelsea-fan-accused-racially-abusing-raheem-sterling-claims/

  21. @sean42

    You mean they look slutty? But this is part of their backwardness! Russian women recognise that their purpose in life is to look attractive for men, you don’t see them being morbidly obese and with blue hair.

    • Replies: @AP
  22. sean42 says:

    OT. Not to get all philosophical, but is this the authoritarianism that is the problem , or is it just the screwed up metaphysics perpetrated by that authoritarianism that is truly abominable? I mean czarist Russia may be an autocracy, but it was not really so bad because its metaphysics was in the right place, ditto for Confucianism or for authoritarians like Lee Kuan Yew. I mean it is funny to see a defender of free speech like Karlin defend czarist Russia, I mean imagine that Karlin is living in 1830 and publicly calls for Nicholas I’s to be turned into a lamppost ornament in the middle of the Field of Mars.

  23. AP says:
    @neutral

    Wrong as usual. American obesity rates started taking off in the late 1970s:

    Ever see, say, an old yearbook prior to 1980? People were about as thin as modern Russians. And, like many Russian girls, they weren’t thin by going to a gym and getting muscular.

  24. AP says:
    @Felix Keverich

    You mean they look slutty?

    I would not describe it that way.

    But this is part of their backwardness! Russian women recognise that their purpose in life is to look attractive for men,

    Weird interpretation of “backwardness.”

    Are men who are being masculine, recognizing that their purpose in life is to be attractive to women?

    In women’s case, “backwardness” means celebration and recognition of femininity rather than its unnatural denial. Being attractive to men is a natural secondary effect. Women keep track of each others’ appearances no less than men do and would dress like that even if men weren’t around.

  25. @AP


    To the contemporary eye, the two gals below seem anorexic. But their builds were, as AP suggests, the norm in the 1960’s and 70’s.

    • Replies: @AaronB
    , @Philip Owen
  26. @AP

    It was in 1977 that the US and Canadian governments made low fat dogma official government policy.

    • Replies: @Wizard of Oz
  27. AaronB says:
    @ThreeCranes

    Right, in the 1970s the culture of “big” took off. Just compare 1950s cars with 1970s cars – by the 1970s they are behemoths.

    This culture of “big” led to food portions getting bigger and people eating more. By the 80s, the ideal male was beginning to be seen as bulky and big rather than trim and neat in a suit.

    Economically, the 80s saw the rejection of all balance and restraint and infinite growth and expansion was seen as the economic goal.

    People became overweight and obese and even normal people became “bigger” framed – notions of harmony, balance, restraint, elegance, etc, were no longer understood. On men, grotesquely big muscles replaced an athletic and well defined physique as the ideal.

    That’s what happened in America and Anglo countries in general – following the inner logic of the ideal of unfettered growth which was developed in England as a metaphysic in previous centuries.

    The Continent was less affected and retained notions of harmony and balance, and EE was even less affected.

    Of course Asia was less affected as well, and most Japanese today still have the physique of Americans in the 1960s as in those pictures.

    Of course, the ideal of unfettered growth as developed in England is the ideal of a cancer, if a cancer could do metaphysics.

  28. Dmitry says:
    @AP

    If these comments are arguing about sexual morality? I’m finding it difficult to see how it is different Russia than anywhere in Western Europe.

    Perhaps in Western Europe, media reaction to the topic, is slightly less trashy, to the extent Diana Shurygina could still be a famous celebrity, but in the afternoon television instead of the evening television.

    Or you just mean appear slutty from clothes? I would say this is even more in some countries – look at the women in a city of UK/Ireland, on Saturday nights.

    • Replies: @Philip Owen
  29. songbird says:
    @Vishnugupta

    Probably the Hygiene Hypothesis explains it.

    • Replies: @Vishnugupta
  30. Yevardian says:

    Just gloss over that the early USSR was isolated by the whole world, the little bump of WWII, or that the late USSR yields were steadily improving, then decimated by the Post-Soviet collapse? Nice try coqroach.

    • Replies: @Anon
  31. @AaronB

    “On men, grotesquely big muscles replaced an athletic and well defined physique as the ideal.”

    Which of these guys could put in a 10 hour, 6 day week of dangerous, productive, hard labor? And which is just a pretty poster boy?

    • Agree: AaronB
    • Disagree: Lowe
    • Replies: @Svigor
    , @Lowe
    , @Thorfinnsson
  32. OT, looks as if the Religion Of Peace has manifested in Strasbourg, home of the European Parliament. 2 dead, 11 seriously wounded at the Christmas Market.

    At this rate Budapest and Krakow will need a lot more hotel rooms. If I were choosing to travel to a Christmas Market, I wouldn’t go to one in Germany or France.

    • Replies: @byrresheim
  33. Haber & Bosch invented their process to produce ammonia before WW1. It didn’t really reach Russia until the 1930’s. That is probably what reduced the disasters of dekulakization and collectivization to what were, roughly, management proportions. However, it wasn’t until the monster plant was built in Samara post WW2 that the SU really had the means to make as much fertilizer as it needed.

    • Replies: @anon
  34. @ThreeCranes

    I seem to remember skateboards from the 1990’s.

    • Replies: @ThreeCranes
  35. @Dmitry

    They are not as brazen as they were 5 years ago. Bad as things are, the trend is to a little more dignity. I stress the “little”.

  36. Anonymous[328] • Disclaimer says:
    @AP

    It’s not weird to recognize that “backwardsness” has both its positive and negative aspects. In the positive we can list respect for traditional gender roles and ideals, a certain kind of naive honesty and trustingness, perhaps more physical and psychological resiliency etc. In the negative there is unfortunately quite a lot of ignorance, superstition, and often times a lack of personal discipline as well. In the US our rural proles have many virtues I admire and wish the ruling class would emulate and adopt; they are also almost uniformly ignorant, enthusiasts for the every braindead pseudo-spirituality from astrology to Pentecostalism, always prefer the vulgar to the beautiful, and are far more likely to be morbidly obese chain-smoking opioid addicts who have their first child out of wedlock at age 19. As I said, there are positive and negative aspects.

  37. how much of that was due to lysenko? the crop outputs almost exactly match his arrival and departure. rose to prominence in the 20s, declined in prominence in the 50s after stalin, was finally completely discredited in the 60s and out of there.

    how far behind was russia on all the modern agricultural improvements coming out of the west. slow to adopt, fast to adopt, never adopted? haber bosch fertilizer, diesel powered vehicles like tractors and harvesters, borlaug and grain cultivars, glyphosate and pesticides, GMO crops.

    i would think moderate global warming should increase russian agriculture output. note i do not necessarily subscribe to any current version of global warming or climate change. i’m not convinced much is happening.

    related discussion – what is the daily calorie intake of russians over time, and is there still room for flynn effect nutrition effects on their bones, height, size of their skulls and hence brains, and performance on intelligence tests.

  38. @Philip Owen

    A friend returned from visiting his cousins in CA in 1964. He brought back this new-fangled thing called a “sidewalk surfer”. Course after trying it out I had to have one of my own so like many others I disassembled a pair of those old-fashioned metal roller skates and screwed them to a plank. We bombed around together and had a great time. His was clearly superior as mine couldn’t turn worth a hang. His board had trucks that could articulate because of a flexible piece of rubber down there. All very sophisticated and mysterious and expensive for my meager childhood budget.

    Jan and Dean. August 22, 1964

    Just the song:

    Includes a demo:

    A photo from Bing images

    • Replies: @Mr. Hack
    , @Philip Owen
  39. @AP

    In general, the U.S. government has been screwing things up by subsidizing the wrong food.

    FDR and his ilk, the architects of modern imperial America, started by attempting to “liberalize” our agriculture. They expanded federal intervention into agriculture until it was all-pervasive and entrenched, a perfect system of “crony capitalism.” Policy-makers made the choice to heavily subsidize grain. At the time, this seemed to make sense, since Americans were hungry, not obese.

    But this became an economic and social fact of life, and grain production – especially corn and soy – became ubiquitous to the point that even critters meant to eat grass – cows – instead eat lots of corn and soy.

    It is the FDRites who turned our food system into the overly sweet, overly grainy monster that Europeans see when they visit our food dealers for the common people.

    But I cannot specifically comment on what changed in the late 1970s.

    I recommend reading Wendell Berry for a dose of American farmer sanity.

    • Replies: @SteveK9
  40. Mr. Hack says:
    @ThreeCranes

    Brings back good memories. We traded in our marbles for these new surfboards on wheels, and made the local corner our skating playground. The playgrounds today are actual parks and the tricks are way ‘sick’. Jan & Dean were onto something, but I don’t thing they could have imagined that their new passtime would evolve into an Olympic sport. ‘California Dreamin’again and again:

    • Replies: @AP
    , @ThreeCranes
  41. @Anonymous

    I was raised by rural quasi-Pentecostal proles and I agree with you.

    One great attribute of American proles is their/our tendency to give credence to the role of conspiracy in American politics. This was once much more common in our country; historian Bernard Bailyn, in the work ‘The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution,’ spent a whole chapter recounting the colonial American belief that conspirators were a normal problem in politics. Going back to the New Deal elites and their water-carrying called the Warren Commission, the “mainstream” is that conspiracies are just “theories” made up by people in basements. American proles have a gut instinct that makes them reject that idea.

    One big weakness of American proles is simply that they accept the “anything goes” mentality of what the 19th century counter-revolutionary Catholics called “the heresy of Americanism.” Their Protestant acceptance of complete religious liberty eventually led them to accept Jews and others as brothers in Americanism. Their new “brothers,” together with the selfish white Protestant elites, proceeded to sell out the proles, some of whom were pissed off, but most of whom were too ignorant to know anything about what had happened.

    However, I will defend proles insofar as I think that a lot of their contemporary problems are only their fault insofar as, in their ignorance or lack of opportunity, they were unable to choose to not partake in bad things, like opioids. But those problems were brought upon them to some degree by their nation’s leaders, who, in that particular case, sold out to drug-peddlers known as “medical professionals” and “multinational corporations.”

    As for Pentecostalism, that reference made me smile. I was raised that way, but rejected it in favor of sacramental and systematic Christian religion.

    • Replies: @EldnaYm
  42. with regard to wheat exports and russia passing the US, could that also be because soybeans are the cash crop in the US in 2018, and land is being converted from wheat to soybeans? only an idea, i have no data on this. US soybean exports are like 30 billion dollars a year, a crazy amount for a crop. russia’s total agriculture exports are like 20 billion.

    “Agriculture will never be a large % of GDP in developed economies. In the US, it is an important industry in red states, and with the electoral system, politically important.”

    in the US it’s important in all states. california, minnesota, and wisconsin would decline a lot if you deleted their AG industries. also, the US exports like 150 billion a year in crops. that’s a lot. in fact, that was america’s biggest single export in 2017. more than oil, more than aircraft, more than cars, more than semiconductors. oil and gasoline and diesel exports might, possibly, pass that this year. i’m not sure. that stuff is exclusively thanks to republicans though, yeah. the previous president was ludicrously, hilariously hostile to it all, as are the democrat leaders of many states today.

    in the netherlands AG is over 90 billion. that’s about 15% of the exports. in germany it’s 85 billion a year. it’s true in general AG is not a key industry. but in a few specific cases it is. the US feeds a lot of the world.

    “Wrong as usual. American obesity rates started taking off in the late 1970s”

    i’m old, and remember when nobody was fat in the 70s. in the 80s, you’d occasionally see a fat person in mcdonalds, and stare. we made fun of fat people to their face. there was even a rap group, the fat boys, who made fun of themselves. by the 90s, more people were getting fat. today, so many people are fat, that BMI has plateaued. they can’t get much fatter.

    it’s possible this coincided with the proliferation of fast food as well as americans getting access to lots of cheap carbs from coke and other sugar sources. but today, it’s simply another culture war thing, where they want us to accept fat people as normal.

    “Right, in the 1970s the culture of “big” took off. Just compare 1950s cars with 1970s cars – by the 1970s they are behemoths.”

    uh, cars were giant land yacht v8s all the way back into the 50s. the US had super cheap gasoline until 1973 or so. some of those cars from the 50s to the 70s were preposterously huge and inefficient. despite being so big, they were actually less safe too. cars are one of the few things that’s better today. although i note, as with cars, almost all of the things that are better today than in the past, are technology or medicine, mainly due to the efforts of now older europeans who are heading towards retirement. culturally, almost everything is worse.

  43. “Which of these guys could put in a 10 hour, 6 day week of dangerous, productive, hard labor? And which is just a pretty poster boy?”

    ha. kinda true about the older generations. but arnold was an old schooler himself, who actually did literally crush those year 1900 Jedidiah Smith type guys even in terms of sheer work output and work ethic, let alone strength. you should read about how insanely hard arnold worked, up until about age 30. and i mean physically, not just on his career. when arnold was in the austrian army, after the rest of the troops had put in a 16 hour day, ran 20 miles, did all their calisthenics, rifle training, and tank driving, all the other guys would crash into bed, exhausted. this is when arnold STARTED his 3 to 4 hour strength training workout. without even having any protein or meat to eat. he had to steal potatoes from the mess hall. he was putting in 20 hour days, every day, for years.

    when asked about this later, arnold used to say things like “Sleep faster” and called lesser guys “Girly men”. that stuff was very real, and he was only partly joking around about it. he thought sleeping was something that got in your way, and that you should get up at 6am, and work an 18 hour day, or you were a do-nothing loser who was falling behind. he wanted to become the number 1 movie star in the world, and did it. he wanted to marry a kennedy, and did it. he wanted to be governor of california, and did it. he would have been president, if the constitution allowed for it. his reputation as a genuine legend is well earned. there was nothing fake about him at all, during his prime.

    of course today arnold is an annoying asshole, so that kind of undoes all of the hard work he put in decades ago.

    agree in general about modern bodybuilders, of course. also, they don’t even look good today. who wants to look like them.

    • Agree: reiner Tor
  44. AP says:
    @Mr. Hack

    Speaking of nostalgia. This California is a vanished world:

    • Replies: @Mr. Hack
  45. EldnaYm says:
    @Vishnugupta

    “Also US yields are in large part due to GM technology ”

    No they’re not. No “genetically modified” crop has made such a large impact on grain yields across the board. If there were such a breakthrough, you can bet your bottom dollar that all of these European countries banning GM crops would immediately change course. Probably the last big breakthrough in wheat agriculture was work on dwarfing. That was decades ago using traditional breeding techniques.

    GM has made big increases in yields for certain crops locally, sugarbeets in some areas of North America say, but any claim for huge breakthroughs is a lie. This is normal by the way, progress in agriculture is slow, most improvements are local and do not transfer to other climates, and you cannot scale up the same way as in industry.

    “which many think is the reason for an explosion of food related allergies.”

    They have no evidence.

  46. EldnaYm says:
    @John Burns, Gettysburg Partisan

    “One big weakness of American proles is simply that they accept the “anything goes” mentality of what the 19th century counter-revolutionary Catholics called “the heresy of Americanism.” Their Protestant acceptance of complete religious liberty eventually led them to accept Jews and others as brothers in Americanism. Their new “brothers,” together with the selfish white Protestant elites, proceeded to sell out the proles, some of whom were pissed off, but most of whom were too ignorant to know anything about what had happened.”

    The 1924 Immigration Act was passed partly due to the organization of the Ku Klux Klan, a group of Protestant Whites who were not only against ethnic minorities, but were also anti-Jewish and anti-Catholic. The act was replaced in 1965 thanks to the efforts of the Irish Catholic Kennedys. The Catholic Church have been the biggest supporter of mass immigration into the U.S., and Irish Catholics and Catholic Italians were the backbone of the Kennedy era Democrats. Today the Supreme Court and much of mainstream political debate is between Catholic Conservatives, Jewish Neoconservatives, and Jewish liberals. Considering the Republican Party is also highly responsible for mass immigration into the United States, I would say the complicated reality is closer to the opposite of your description. Developments within Protestantism are only part of the story. A small part.

  47. @Mr. Hack

    Outstanding display of talent. How many hours of sweat and bruises it took to get to that level. Humans are truly amazing creatures.

    • Agree: Mr. Hack
  48. neutral says:
    @AP

    That does not really prove your point, if the lines of obesity and food production go in opposite directions then perhaps. If however the lines are going together that could imply that there is a certain threshold where the amount of food produced will start producing fatties.

  49. Mr. Hack says:
    @AP

    Thanks for the memories. If you’re a T0m Petty fan, if you haven’t already, check out his work with the super group ‘the Traveling Wilburys’. The segment with the young skateboarders ties in nicely. Here’s another video clip along these same lines:

    Really nice guitar solo starting around 4:27….

  50. Mr. Hack says:
    @Mr. Hack

    Racial Politics in America and in California

    ttps://www.unz.com/runz/racial-politics-in-america-and-in-california/

    Ron does a good job at dispelling some myths about the Latino/White populations in California. I’ve lived in a Latino/White community in Arizona for a long time and sleep perfectly well at nights.

  51. OT

    China to replace “Made in China 2025” initiative. Is it just a cosmetic change? We’re missing the Chinese commenter battalion here, for example Daniel Chieh.

    https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-12-12/giant-trade-war-concession-china-prepares-replace-made-china-2025

    • Replies: @Swarthy Greek
    , @anon
  52. WHAT says:
    @Boswald Bollocksworth

    Monsanto is explicitly prohibited, IIRC.

    John Deere, on the other hand, is not.

  53. @songbird

    There does not seem to be any significant increase in excessive cleanliness of the sort that impairs normal immune system development among middle class white Americans between the 1960s and 1990s..there is however a geometric increase of food allergies which coincides with a lag of about half a generation between widespread adoption of GM crops. Also white Europeans seem to have a much lower instances of such allergies..

    • Replies: @songbird
  54. @reiner Tor

    The Chinese will probably make a few accounting and administrative tweaks here and there, but anyone that believes that China will stop investing 2% of its GDP in R&D is delusional.

  55. songbird says:
    @Vishnugupta

    You bring up a good point, which is why has it still increased relatively recently. Well, the answer to that could still be hygiene in the sense of further limitation of exposure. Smaller families, more time spent indoors. I mean, just think of how video games and the internet changed kids’ habits. Not to mention how many parents fear their kids being nabbed, or have otherwise wussified them.

    I don’t think it is likely to be GMO food because if were simply a case of new proteins in the diet – there would antibodies to those proteins, so they would be easily identifiable.

    • Replies: @Vishnugupta
  56. Will Jones [AKA "Jim Douglas"] says:
    @Felix Keverich

    “The difference between Russians and Western Europeans is that Russians are pretty backward people, which makes them “natural conservatives” so to speak.”

    I think you need to put pretty backward people in quotation marks. I think the literally backward ones are us in the west, with our pathological ways, which are inevitably going to result in our destruction.

    • Replies: @RadicalCenter
  57. Will Jones [AKA "Jim Douglas"] says:
    @AaronB

    I don’t think that the people in the US got fatter in the 1970’s because of cars getting larger. I think it’s more to do with the emergence of Aspartame as an artificial sweetener and High Fructose Corn syrup being used in a multitude of products. These two products, have played havoc with our Endocrine systems causing the body to crave and store fat and causing an outbreak of Type 2 Diabetes like we have never seen before.

  58. @EldnaYm

    Frankly, your whole paragraph of text is incorrect, and the Kennedy family is a good example of why.

    To get ahead in America, the Kennedy family and people like them, over the course of several decades, made a compromise with Americanism. Their acceptance of the Jews as brother has nothing to do with traditional Catholicism and everything to do with a rejection of traditional Catholicism in favor of Americanism. You are right to criticize American Catholics, but their failure was in abandoning the social duty of their faith in preference to following the mistaken siren song of “religious liberty” and “economic liberty” (the promotion of “free market capitalism” at the expense of traditional Catholic social teaching was the purpose of those like Michael Novak and Robert Sirico).

    Also, it is indisputable that the nexus of government and financial elites, beginning with World War Two, intentionally socially engineered the American public, including Catholics, to reject common sense and/or traditional religion in favor of becoming “consumers.”

    You should read the authors E. Michael Jones and Phillip F. Lawler for interesting and and important takes on American Catholicism from a traditional perspective.

    • Replies: @EldnaYm
  59. @Mr. Hack

    This might be a retarded question, but how to you insert videos/images into the comments?

    • Replies: @Mr. Hack
  60. Mr. Hack says:
    @ImmortalRationalist

    there are no stupid questions, only stupid answers

    It’s quite easy. Find a video that you want to include in your comment. While the video is in view take your mouse and place the cursor over the video and then right click on it and then left click on ‘copy video URL’. Then place the cursor within the comment in the area that you’d like it to appear and then right click on it again and then left click on ‘paste’. It’ll first show up as an address to the video, and then, once you exit the comments section and then go back in, it’ll appear as a video.

    Now, if anybody reads this comment and knows how to copy past in a photo, please teach me this trick. Thanks!

    • Replies: @AP
  61. @songbird

    I am no agro Tech expert but I am sort of speaking from personal experience.

    I had a fairly Indian middle class upbringing in the 1980s no air-conditioning,lots of outdoor games since TV had one state run channel etc. I’ve never had any allergies but suddenly I seem to have developed one for wheat.

    I consulted a reputed doctor here and he stated that the GM wheat as a percentage of total available wheat has increased from zero to about 30% and that is why even he thinks there is such an increase in adults with allergies. I mean some of the things these agro companies do like inserting snake DNA into crops to increase inherent pest resistance sounds extremely reckless even if ‘there is no evidence’ of this being harmful to humans.

  62. AP says:
    @Mr. Hack

    Right click image, select open image in new tab. If the file ends in jpeg or png, cope and paste the link.

  63. Anon[395] • Disclaimer says:

    USSR gf in wheat field

  64. songbird says:

    Intolerance to wheat is something really curious. I know a few people with Celiac disease. One was diagnosed with it before GMO drops were invented.

    You would think that people who have probably had some ancestors who farmed wheat for some 6,000 years or more would not suffer from such a malady, but perhaps it is not that simple. Maybe, they never developed it in the more distant past. Lack of vaccines. Differences in age of weaning/breastfeeding.

  65. anon[426] • Disclaimer says:
    @reiner Tor

    It was always aspirational. They just change the dates to make it less ‘in your face’.

  66. anon[426] • Disclaimer says:
    @Philip Owen

    Fertilizer and the ability to effectively use it is huge. In the US, corn growers factor selling price into nitrogen fertilizer quantities used. At lower prices, they buy less.

    Without fertilizer, maintaining, much less increasing yields is challenging.

    • Replies: @songbird
  67. @songbird

    You would think that people who have probably had some ancestors who farmed wheat for some 6,000 years or more would not suffer from such a malady, but perhaps it is not that simple.

    My nephew is allergic to birch pollen even though his ancestors always lived around birches. It’s a lottery. Something can break in the genome without a reason.

    Maybe, they never developed it in the more distant past.

    When childhood mortality was up to 50% and many diseases were not diagnosed like today, I suppose severely allergic children would just die and nobody bothered why exactly they died. Failure to thrive. The same way, autists existed in the past but the diagnosis didn’t exist, so they were called eccentrics or village idiots.
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Defense by Nabokov – a book about a man with many signs of what would be called autism, in early 20th century.

    • Replies: @songbird
    , @Philip Owen
  68. Mr. Hack says:
    @AP

    When I right click on an image, I do not get the option to ”open image in new tab’?…

  69. Mr. Hack says:
    @AP


    I copy pasted image address and joila! Thanks!

  70. songbird says:
    @Toronto Russian

    Childhood mortality is an interesting phenomenon. I think lack of it paired with cousin marriage is causing problems in the Muslim world. and there are probably other implications that we don’t fully understand.

    As far as the growth of allergies and autoimmune diseases go, I don’t know if it is a good explanation though. I don’t think there was a big difference between Western and Eastern Europe in childhood mortality, but there was one in allergies, etc.

    A greater genetic proclivity to inflammation was probably useful at certain times. It may have been selected for, especially if the immune system was being downregulated by parasites.

    I just think of the example of American blacks. Many have a variety of adaptations to Malaria, the relationship is so clear, you can put it on a map, but they are missing the Malaria. Not to mention Africa is a hotbed of parasites and disease. It probably explains why they are more prone to Lupus.

  71. songbird says:
    @anon

    I do wonder what the population of Africa would be without the Haber process.

    Germany gets a lot of heat for the world wars, but maybe the real damage it did was helping to make the pop of Africa explode. But I suppose all the major countries of Europe and Europeans made their contributions, as China is arguably doing now. Not to mention, Japanese aid.

  72. @reiner Tor

    Butina admits to being a Kremlin agent.

    Either she has truly “turned”, in which case she won’t be going back to Russia after she is released; or she will be kept in jail for some time yet, because the prosecutors can’t afford the risk that she will go back to Russia and deny everything.

    • Replies: @reiner Tor
    , @Anonymous
  73. @for-the-record

    She was kept in solitary confinement for months, unable to talk to relatives or even visitors other than her lawyer. Her lawyer said she didn’t receive some medical treatments she needed.

    Probably she just realized she might have broken some American laws by just trying to influence some politicians, so that she was going to spend several years behind bars anyway. Facing such prospects, a young girl just broke. I don’t think she is planning anything beyond surviving her present horrible situation.

  74. PRODUCTIVITY in AGRICULTURE Is historically a RELATIVE THING and Agricultural Productivity has steadily increased over time especially with technological Knowledge and Advance …. Especially after WW 2
    I find the narrative of Productivity during CZAR TIME … MISLEADING
    The Czars had initiated a privatization and distribution of arable land in Russia starting with Czar Alexander II who in 1861 abolished serfdom.
    The Stolypin Reforms advanced the Issue dramatically
    By 1914 pre the Japanese Russian War approximately 80 % of all arable land in Czar Russia was in the hands of small scale FREE peasants .. due to generous Land distribution and cheap State loans initiated by the enlightened politics of the Czars
    These Farmers produced more Cereals than their American , Canadian and Argentine counterparts COMBINED … in excess of 25 % .
    At that time and with the available agricultural methods Czar Russia produced 31,2 % of the Worlds Wheat , 67% of the Worlds Rye , 30.3 % of the Oats and 42.3 % of the Worlds Barley . Russia also provided more than 50 % of the Worlds egg imports as well as 80 % of its Flax .
    I call that an ASTONISHING ACHIEVEMENT … to establish Russia as the WORLDS BREAD BASKET … a productivity and a FACT which has been hidden from World attention by Bolshevik Propaganda both in the Sovjet as well by their ZIO ANGLOSAXON Collaborators in Western Media .
    I would like to see comparative statistics on these Agricultural products …TODAY
    That would make Sense when comparing Times , Technology , Productivity and Market share !
    I am convinced the Czar Russian Share of World Production of Cereals still by a wide margen exceeds what has been achieved today … even if the developments are positive and a reason for satisfaction to which I congratulate Re Born Russia !
    Not only in the area of Agriculture did Czar Russia make tremendous Progress … During the last 20 Years of Prewar Czar Russia from 1879 – 1914 Industrial Output grew with 3.5 % / Year on average compared to 1 % in the UK , and 2.75 % in the USA
    The Volume of Goods transported on Russias Railways exceeded the Volume of Goods transported by the British Merchant Fleet
    In the 20 Years 1895 – 1914 Gross Domestic Product GDP in Czar Russia rose with 10 % / annum on average
    Taxation per Citicen in CZAR Russia was MINISCULE compared to its Western Counterparts .. approximately 8.5 % in total Taxation ( Direct + Indirect ) compared to for ex 40 % in the UK , 38 % in France , 22 % in Austria , and 22 % in Germany .
    Czar Russia had the smallest Debt of Major Countries in the World and had GOLD reserves which exceeded the total Circulating Money by more than 100 % … because Czar Russia was NOT in the Clutches of the ROTSCHILD CENTRAL BANK USURY SCHEEME….
    Labour Laws were among the most advanced in the World at its Times , far better than in Great Britain and the USA and Education of Good Quality was available to everyone more or less for FREE !

    • Replies: @Philip Owen
  75. @reiner Tor

    I don’t think she is planning anything beyond surviving her present horrible situation.

    I agree, in which case my second “prediction” holds — she will be in jail for some time yet.

  76. O/T: Russia can’t into high speed rail.

    https://realnoevremya.com/articles/3105-moscow-kazan-high-speed-railway-project-remains-debatable

    Apparently the Moscow Kazan HSR might be cancelled. Putin has mentioned that the project must be profitable (despite the fact that HSRs usually become profitable only a long time after entering service.). Apparently the siloviks want RZD to build a cheaper Moscow St Petersburg HSR despite the fact that there is already the quasi-HSR (250km/h) SAPSAN service. The cancellation of the Kazan HSR threatens RZD’s entire HSR development plan . According to RZD a Saint Pete- Moscow line was to be built between 2027-2031 after Moscow Kazan and Kazan Ekaterinburg connections were achieved. It seems that putin’s statements about infrastructure development and domestic investment will not be fulllfilled and MinFin will keep hoarding boatloads of cash for rainier days.

  77. @Vishnugupta

    In the UK, we do not at present have GM crops or food (but may after Brexit). I have however developed some kind of wheat intolerance. It is less bad with white bread. It is least bad with the most factory produced sorts. I wonder whether it is an additive. I don’t get it in Russia. However, since te ’90’s Russian bread has become more like British bread. It keeps longer.

  78. @songbird

    I think it could be different varieties of wheat and modern additives. Probably additives. I get less Wheat Belly in Russia. I get some from oats and none from rice so it isn’t a carbs thing.

  79. @Toronto Russian

    Not to mention deaf-mutes. Who has heard of them thee days. When I was very young, one of the many things we were told to be grateful for was not being deaf-mute.

  80. @Ole C G Olesen

    I don’t have the exact figures but Russia was also the world’s largest exporter of beef. As a producer it was #2 to the USA. The US consumed a lot internally. Argentina always had a big internal market for beef too.

  81. @Swarthy Greek

    Moscow-Kazan has a murky history. The Chinese were going to build it until someone outside RZhD noticed that there was a clause allowing only Chinese made locomotives on that section. It was all wrapped up in the corruption scandal that resulted in the sacking of the then Director. Siemens returned as a supplier after that. Sistema is aiming for big bucks out of it too.

    • Replies: @Swarthy Greek
  82. Anonymous[396] • Disclaimer says:
    @for-the-record

    Commenter Dmitry has had some good posts on the topic of Butina. She was clearly an “agent” of the Russian Federation in the sense that she sought to advance Torshin’s interests with US politicians; but she is not in any sense a trained official operative working on behalf of Russian intelligence (cf. Anna Chapman). She never tried to conceal her relationship with Torshin; they communicated on Twitter! She’s just a goofball who got used by an older guy who doesn’t understand how things in the US work. The whole “strategy” was so hamfisted and absurd that it sounds like the plot to a Coen Brothers film.

    For the US media to portray her as some kind of cunning, Mata Hari-esque arch villain is ridiculous. There are thousands (at least!) of Butinas all over the DC area working on behalf of Israel and China and many, many other countries, all of whom the FBI knows about and none of whom they care about. She is a scapegoat, nothing more. Deportation is reasonable (she clearly broke the law) but imprisonment is a travesty.

    • Agree: reiner Tor
    • Replies: @AP
  83. Cyrano says:

    To me it’s quite clear that Russia is still inferior to the west. I guess as a consequence of the long totalitarian rule, Russia to this day has Agree-Culture – which means that they agree with their autocratic leaders – as Pompeo calls them. While in the west they have Multi-Culture – obviously this is an improvement over the Agree-Culture. This means that you have multitude of cultures, which implies choice and democracy – something that you don’t have in an Agree –Culture. We all know how dynamic democracies can really be. You vote for a president who is a democrat, he screws up, and then you pay him back in the next election by voting Republican. I don’t know how they can ever recover from such emotional traumas.

    • Agree: Mr. Hack
  84. @Thorfinnsson

    Are you suggesting that it was a resulting increase in carbohydrate intake which caused the rise in obesity?

    • Replies: @Thorfinnsson
  85. Anon[436] • Disclaimer says:
    @Yevardian

    What would the early USSR isolation have to do with it?

    (Actually you do your own glossing over by overlooking the way in which the early USSR was not isolated but received relief for its 1921-22 famine thanks to Fridjof Nansen).

  86. @reiner Tor

    How can she, unconvicted, have been kept in solitary confinement without access to anyone but her lawyer? What about habeas corpus?

    • Replies: @Alfred
  87. @Swarthy Greek

    Apparently the Moscow Kazan HSR might be cancelled.

    Good. Nobody wants that boondoggle. There’s no market demand for it. Spending that money on something nobody will use is insane.

    Apparently the siloviks want RZD to build a cheaper Moscow St Petersburg HSR despite the fact that there is already the quasi-HSR (250km/h) SAPSAN service.

    Makes sense, because the very niche and expensive Sapsan is taking up track space that should be used by normal trains.

  88. Alfred says:

    I have a small quibble with the language used here.

    Yield is usually output per acre (or hectare). A more correct usage of English is “Soviet Output” and so on.

    I think this supports my contention:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crop_yield

  89. mcohen says:

    If climate change affects the permafrost in such a way as to directly impact on agricultural production then russia will have a problem.Long term planning would be needed to counter losses in agricultural production.Countries that lie south of russia such as the ukraine and crimea might have to replace russian food supply in the future of the future.

    • Replies: @melanf
    , @Alfred
  90. AP says:
    @Anonymous

    That’s my take. Although they say they found documents in her apartment indicating she was trying to join the FSB so her intent may have been malicious. She should be given time served and deported.

    My wife is in Moscow and says the media there are emphasizing how she is a totally innocent victim and has been tortured through solitary confinement. This also seems like a skewed portrayal of the situation.

    • Replies: @reiner Tor
  91. melanf says:
    @mcohen

    If climate change affects the permafrost in such a way as to directly impact on agricultural production then russia will have a problem.Long term planning would be needed to counter losses in agricultural production.Countries that lie south of russia such as the ukraine and crimea might have to replace russian food supply in the future of the future.

    What??? Warming and melting of permafrost are huge benefits for Russian agriculture.

    • Replies: @mcohen
  92. Alfred says:
    @mcohen

    “If climate change affects the permafrost in such a way as to directly impact on agricultural production then Russia will have a problem”

    By “climate change”, I assume you mean so-called “global warming”

    I fail to understand how permafrost and agricultural production overlap. Russia is a big place. They grow grain in a small part of the country – where there is no permafrost. If it warms up – which it won’t – the area where they can grow grain will increase dramatically.

    In the real world, “climate change” is really “global cooling” for the foreseeable future. This will indeed damage cereal production worldwide. Do expect a blow out in food prices in around 5 years. The cooling is due to the sun entering an inactive period. We might be facing a repeat of the Maunder Minimum. That will lead to war and pestilence – as is usual. The Roman Empire fell apart when the climate cooled. The Chinese Empire fell apart at the same time.

    “Approaching ‘grand solar minimum’ could cause global cooling”

    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/03/18/approaching-grand-solar-minimum-could-cause-global-cooling/

    • Replies: @melanf
  93. melanf says:
    @Alfred

    Since about October 2005, when the sun’s magnetic activity went into a sharp fall, solar activity has been markedly lower, with solar cycle 24 being the lowest in over 100 years.

    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/03/18/approaching-grand-solar-minimum-could-cause-global-cooling/

    Since October 2005, there has been a clear warming (at least in St. Petersburg where I live). This year’s warm season was the warmest I can remember.

    • Replies: @Philip Owen
    , @Alfred
  94. Usual nonsense by Anatoly.

    No wonder almost all his audience is English speaking.
    ok.
    Here form real expert:
    Russian:
    https://oper.ru/video/view.php?t=2114

    English Google translation:
    https://translate.google.ca/translate?hl=en&sl=ru&u=https://oper.ru/video/view.php%3Ft%3D2114&prev=search

    • Replies: @melanf
  95. melanf says:
    @Sergey Krieger

    Here form real expert:
    Russian:

    https://oper.ru/video/view.php?t=2114

    English Google translation:

    https://translate.google.ca/translate?hl=en&sl=ru&u=https://oper.ru/video/view.php%3Ft%3D2114&prev=search

    Opens for us “truth” about agriculture “real expert” Elena Prudnikova writer and journalist, in YouTube – freak – show. In Russian such freak show called “гребанный стыд”. You offer people to translate using Google into English the nonsense of a madwoman?

    • Replies: @Sergey Krieger
  96. @AP

    Although they say they found documents in her apartment indicating she was trying to join the FSB

    Unnamed sources, speculation, or is it official? Also, when did this happen? I once applied for the Hungarian counter-intelligence (seriously; I didn’t get the job), it doesn’t make me a Hungarian operative, or any of my political activity (mostly confined to commenting here and some comments on Facebook) part of some nefarious plot.

    I’d say she looks far more innocent than not: basically, she was politically active in the US, and was mostly just representing herself, trying to use her relatestablish contact between the US and Russia (which she believed was in the interests of both). I’ve known an American guy (a businessman) who was financing a political party in Hungary (again, as far as I know, totally innocently), and I’m sure he never thought about having to register as some kind of foreign agent anywhere. It’s just normal for people to come to free countries (maybe the PRC or Syria are different, with Russia somewhere in between) and expect to be able to engage in politics without much bureaucracy. You certainly wouldn’t expect to be put behind bars for several years (and solitary confinement for at least six months) for such activities.

    • Replies: @AP
  97. @melanf

    Considering you are reading what Karlin writing, lol….Makes you freak show reader. Prudnikova on the other hand is a real deal.Considering crowd posting here I think you are liberal batyushka.

  98. melanf says:

    Prudnikova on the other hand is a real deal

    I do not like Wikipedia, but in a normal encyclopedia about this madwoman do not write

    “Elena A. Prudnikova (b. September 27, 1958, Leningrad, USSR) — Russian writer and journalist, author of publications on historical themes, which expresses Stalinist beliefs[1].

    Born in Leningrad. Graduated from the physics and mechanics faculty of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, Department of solid state physics.

    Working as a journalist
    She started her journalistic work in the newspaper of the plant “electric appliance”. Then she worked in the newspaper Association “Union”, first Deputy editor-in-chief of the newspaper “good Day” Frunze district, his own correspondent of the newspaper “Solidarity”.

    As an expert she starred in documentary cycles of films on NTV “Kremlin children” [3],”Kremlin funeral “[4],”Soviet biographies “[5] and several films on TV channel”Mir”.

    Literary creation
    Author of biographies of I. V. Stalin and L. P. Beria, as well as books “Stalin. The second murder”, ” Beria. The last knight of Stalin”, ” Double conspiracy. Mystery of Stalin’s”

    • LOL: AP
  99. Agriculture is making great strides under the Zionist U.S. sanctions on Russia, as Russia is becoming almost totally self sufficient in agriculture products, Russia is becoming the bread basket of the world!

    To see the progress of agriculture in Russia , just go to youtube and enter in the search , farming in Russia and watch the dozens of videos!

    God bless Russia and the Russia people!

    • Agree: bluedog
  100. EldnaYm says:
    @John Burns, Gettysburg Partisan

    My contention is not that the Kennedy’s are traditional Catholics(although many of their supporters were) or that elites have not harmed the general man. My contention is the following:

    1. The U.S. at founding and for long after was primarily a Protestant, Northwest European(primarily English and Scottish) country
    2. The impact of immigration from non-Protestant and non-Northwestern European far exceeds any impact from Protestant liberalism owing to “complete religious liberty”
    3. Therefore, Catholic immigration and Catholic ideas has done more harm to the U.S. than flaws that come from within Protestantism. The Kennedy’s and their voter base, which consisted of numerous Catholic Irish and Italians, are an example of this.

    I will look more into the authors you suggested.

  101. @anonymous

    And with the exports of grain on newly built transportation to China will also bring in imports of the unwashed masses of China. And as to the so called investment in Africa, the chinaman don’t do jack out of pity or out of sense of noblesse oblige, it’s all returns on investment. Don’t kid yourself!

  102. @AP

    I bet Argentina has kick-ass wheat yields w/o GMOs or Round Up.

  103. @anonymous coward

    Makes sense, because the very niche and expensive Sapsan is taking up track space that should be used by normal trains.
    R

    I thought that Sapsan used a dedicated line?

    Good. Nobody wants that boondoggle. There’s no market demand for it. Spending that money on something nobody will use is insane.

    When the chinese started building HS railways and rolling stock in the 90s people said the same thing. plenty of Russians use inter regional flights and HS rail has proved to be competitive against domestic flights in China. Russia is an upper middle income country who needs infrastrucutre and R&D investment to keep growing. Failing to build a modern high speed rail network now that the technology has been harnessed doesn’t give much hope for Russia’s future.

    • Replies: @anonymous coward
  104. Svigor says:
    @ThreeCranes

    Wasn’t Arnie a bricklayer or something, before he made it big in Hollyweird?

    • Replies: @Thorfinnsson
  105. @Wizard of Oz

    Yes, along with the suggestion to replace saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats, which appear to be obesogenic unlike saturated and monounsaturated fats.

    Another major factor is the tremendous increase in the convenience of food, for which we can thank capitalism. There’s packaged food, drivethrough food, delivery food, takeout food, energy dense beverages, etc. everywhere now. And they’re cheap and often quite delicious.

    Bad advice like promoting “five small meals a day” (?!) or “grazing” has made this even more dangerous.

    The beverages thing is particularly interesting. When I was a kid the only energy dense beverages available were soda pop, milk, and fruit juice. Bad enough of course. But compare today what’s available at any gas station or convenience store. Or how coffee has changed. Most people at Starbucks aren’t ordering black coffee.

  106. @Svigor

    He was already a successful bodybuilder and power lifter before he came to America, but yes. He and Franco Columbu started a bricklaying business in ’68, and then plowed their profits into a mail order fitness/bodybuilding business.

    Schwarzenegger took the journalist Michael Lewis by a brick wall he and Franco built for an article Lewis wrote about California’s fiscal problems in 2011: https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2011/11/michael-lewis-201111

    He stops beside a tall brick wall. It surrounds what might once have been an impressive stone house that now just looks old and bleak and empty. The wall is what interests him, because he built it 43 years ago, right after he had arrived and started to train on Muscle Beach. “Franco [Columbu, like Schwarzenegger a former Mr. Olympia] and I made money this way. In bodybuilding there was no money. Here we were, world champions of this little subculture, and we did this to eat. Franco ran the business. I mixed the cement and knocked things down with the sledgehammer.”
    […]
    They had a routine. Franco would play the unreliable Italian, Arnold the sober German. Before they cut any deal they’d scream at each other in German in front of the customer until the customer would finally ask what was going on. Arnold would turn to the customer and explain, Oh, he’s Italian, and you know how they are. He wants to charge you more, but I think we can do it cheaply. Schwarzenegger would then name a not so cheap price. “And the customer,” he says now, laughing, “he would always say, ‘Arnold, you’re such a nice guy! So honest!’ It was selling, you know.”

    He surveys his handiwork. “It’ll be here for a thousand years,” he says, then points out some erosion on the top. “I said to Franco we ought to come back and fix the top. You know, to show it was guaranteed for life.”

    • Replies: @songbird
  107. Agent76 says:

    April 22nd, 2016 US losing out to Russian wheat exports

    The United States was once the world’s leading wheat exporter, but is losing its position to Russia and Canada due a stronger dollar, stagnant yields, rising competition and climate change. Nearly forty percent of the US crop goes for export, according to the Department of Agriculture. The acreage for winter wheat fell to its second-lowest since 1913. Russia is now the world’s leading wheat exporter and is monopolizing Middle East markets.

    https://www.rt.com/business/340621-russia-tops-us-wheat/

    February 11, 2016 Russia: American Corn And Soybeans Unfit For Human Consumption

    Russia’s safety watchdog Rosselkhoznadzor has officially announced on Wednesday that American producers have failed to meet Russian biological standards, and that their corn and soybeans are “unfit for human consumption”.

    http://yournewswire.com/russia-american-corn-and-soybeans-unfit-for-human-consumption/

  108. songbird says:
    @Thorfinnsson

    Arnold had a good work ethic and was a good self-promoter. Arguably two qualities that he shares with Trump, whatever the flaws of either man.

    I think Arnold’s movie career is unduplicable. Partly that is the times, but partly the man – having those two qualities together. Of course, his star has faded by now, as it must since he symbolized strength and masculinity and old age melts us all.

    It is probably a sign of the decline of civilization that we don’t have action superstars or much in the way of martial artist stars in the West anymore. I wonder if that holds true of China. Jackie Chan is too old now. Of course, there is that Indonesian guy.

  109. PL says:
    @Vishnugupta

    There is no GM wheat in US or Canada. No mater the class Spring or winter, hard or soft, red or white. GM corn and soy yes but not wheat.

  110. @AP

    There could be a generation’s delay between food surpluses and obesity. I.e., there is enough social inertia it takes a generation for people to lose their inhibition amidst abundance.

    The interesting thing about this graph to my eye is that Anglosphere countries (except Canada) have steeper slopes than Conti Europe and Korea.

    So what are US, UK & Oz doing proportionally more than other countries? High yield breeds? Chem fertilizer? Processed food diet? Importing diabetic immigrants?

    Canada’s shallower slope is mitigated by their high obesity starting position.

  111. Hu Mi Yu says:
    @Vishnugupta

    I had a fairly Indian middle class upbringing in the 1980s no air-conditioning,lots of outdoor games since TV had one state run channel etc. I’ve never had any allergies but suddenly I seem to have developed one for wheat.

    A German biological relative said that the American bread they were given after WWII made him ill. I have a similar problem, and I have puzzled over this for years. I tried gluten-free, but that didn’t work for me. I was suspicious of all the additives. Eventually I found that American wheat flour nearly always has some barley added to it. It isn’t the wheat, nor the enrichment, but the barley that causes problems for me. I have no trouble with expensive specialty flour in America, or inexpensive flour from Mexico that does not have any barley mixed into it.

  112. @Swarthy Greek

    Failing to build a modern high speed rail network now that the technology has been harnessed doesn’t give much hope for Russia’s future.

    Russia is not the USA. Russia already has a modern, efficient and profitable rail network that gets continuously upgraded. Russians didn’t ask for a ‘high speed rail’ porkbarrel project, we just want the existing and well-managed rail to continue.

    HS rail has proved to be competitive against domestic flights in China

    Spending billions to make domestic airlines suffer is stupid. Russia already has a successful and growing market segment for railroads, no need to cannibalize other segments just to look ‘modern’.

  113. Z-man says:

    I would have thought that those low figures for Russian agriculture would have been the worst in the early 1990’s instead of the late 1990’s. Evidently the collapse of the Soviet Union affected the farmers later than the urbanites. Go Russia now!! Putin Da!!

    • Replies: @Philip Owen
  114. @anonymous coward

    The Sapsan, a rather normal European train can’t reach its design speed because the track maintenance is not adequate.

  115. @melanf

    In the UK we have been told to expect the coldest Christmas in living memory.

    • Replies: @melanf
  116. @Philip Owen

    From what I have read Sapsan’s issue is not track maintenance but the fact that the line wasn’t built initially for high speed rail. The line has been upgraded several times:first in 2009 when the Siemens trainsets were purchased,then incrementally over the last few years improvements were made. Overall the Russian Rail network is well maintained, but seems to be mainly geared for freight (though improvements in rolling stock and infrastructure for passengers have definitely been made).

    • Replies: @Philip Owen
  117. melanf says:
    @Philip Owen

    Here’s the temperature in Moscow and Novosibirsk for years. In St. Petersburg something similar

    • Replies: @anonymous coward
  118. @Vishnugupta

    If it make you sick it is good for you.
    Here is what you do:
    Decrease the consumption of products made from wheat. Increase intake of potatoes and rice for prolonged time (Two years minimum.)
    Than gradually increase wheat to the level when until you will feel discomfort.
    At that moment you have discovered your level of tolerance.

  119. Alfred says:
    @melanf

    I am not sure which Saint Petersburg you mean – Russia or Florida.

    Plenty of records are being broken to the downside worldwide – but the mainstream media does not want you to know that. They want to increase taxes on fuel – which makes everything else more expensive as well.

    “Coldest December on Record in China”

    https://www.armstrongeconomics.com/world-news/climate/coldest-december-on-record-in-china/

    “September Coldest Month in a Decade (USA)”

    https://www.armstrongeconomics.com/world-news/climate/september-the-coldest-month-in-a-decade-must-be-global-warming/

    “Yes it is cold in Tampa Bay – but it did not snow (Florida last January)”

    http://www.tampabay.com/weather/Yes-it-s-cold-in-Tampa-Bay-but-no-it-did-not-snow_164118549

    “Europe Cooling…Weather Service Data Show Falling January Mean Temperatures Over Past 30 Years”

    http://notrickszone.com/2018/02/09/europe-cooling-weather-service-data-show-falling-january-mean-temperatures-over-past-30-years/

    The inescapable fact is that the January temperature in middle of Europe – at the highest mountain in Germany (Zugspitze) – has been falling for 30 years. This is close to Austria, Switzerland and Italy. All the city data is suspect due to sprawl and human activity.

    Why do you think the French are protesting violently. And the mainstream media is pretending it is about a tiny tax on diesel?

    Offering the temperature of the cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg merely reinforces my point. They hardly had any cars in Russia 30 years ago.

    • Agree: Agent76
  120. AP says:
    @reiner Tor

    She was solitary confinement for 67 days, not 6 months. And those 67 days were split up into two times. The second time was IIRC about 25 days.

    My impression is that she she was clearly not a spy but went beyond being merely an enthusiastic patriot who made important friends, and innocently shared with them how good Russia was and how great it would be for the USA and Russia to cooperate. As I mentioned, according to American media they found documents in her apartment indicating she was herself trying to join FSB. They also found an extensive list she had made of influential people she would wanted to meet, in order to try to influence. She was also photographed having a meal with a Russian diplomat who has been identified as a spy. So she was most likely not a spy, but she may have been a wannabe spy.

    In such a case incarceration would be too harsh, but deportation makes sense. She wasn’t just an innocent student or activist speaking her mind.

    As for your examples:

    I once applied for the Hungarian counter-intelligence (seriously; I didn’t get the job), it doesn’t make me a Hungarian operative, or any of my political activity (mostly confined to commenting here and some comments on Facebook) part of some nefarious plot

    To make your case like hers, you would be living in a rival country at the time, and would have been deliberately meeting and charming influential people in the country for the purpose of helping your country, while applying for the job in intelligence. During this process you even managed to meet some spy in your embassy. You would have been a total amateur and had gotten caught before your efforts amounted to anything. And you may have sincerely believed what you were doing was good for both countries, your goal wasn’t to harm your host country.

  121. mcohen says:
    @melanf

    I am no expert.what about release of methane gases

  122. SteveK9 says:
    @John Burns, Gettysburg Partisan

    I think someone made a comment about ‘fat’ above. What changed was the idiotic ‘nutrition’ experts (they were/are NOT in any way Scientists) getting on a big anti-fat campaign. There are three types of food, protein, fat, and carbohydrate. If you cut out fat, you eat more carbohydrates. How do you get fat? Eat carbohydrates, especially sugar.

    • Agree: Alfred
  123. @AaronB

    You can see this on the far left, which reflects the pathologies of white society. Antifa in Europe is Marxist, lower-middle class and primarily opposed to the rich. In America Antifa is anarchist, upper-middle class and opposed to white “racists.”

    Successful whites in Britain and America have a guilty conscience driven by their ill-gotten gains in the neoliberal era. Hence, they feel they to have to atone for their sins by embracing anti-white identity politics.

    A healthier path would be to reject neoliberalism and go back to making a more honest living.

    • Replies: @AaronB
    , @Thorfinnsson
  124. AaronB says:
    @unpc downunder

    Neoliberal economics and even liberal economics are definitely a part of it – they feel guilty because they invented an immoral way of life.

    It’s not surprising.

  125. @unpc downunder

    Comments like these are why the term “neoliberal” ought to be prohibited by law.

    Can anyone actually define what neoliberalism is?

    What makes the gains of successful whites ill-gotten?

    Do these successful whites actually feel guilty at all?

  126. @melanf

    Fake news and fake graph. You can download the data and see for yourself that no such curve really exists.

    • Replies: @melanf
  127. Agent76 says:

    November 19, 2018 Coldest Thanksgiving in decades possible in Washington from Arctic blast

    A brief but powerful cold snap will hit Washington right in time for Thanksgiving, resulting in some of the lowest temperatures during the holiday in years, if not decades.

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/amphtml/weather/2018/11/19/coldest-thanksgiving-decades-possible-washington-arctic-blast/

    June 24, 2014 The Scandal Of Fiddled Global Warming Data

    But now another damning example has been uncovered by Steven Goddard’s US blog Real Science, showing how shamelessly manipulated has been one of the world’s most influential climate records, the graph of US surface temperature records published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

    https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/environment/10916086/The-scandal-of-fiddled-global-warming-data.html

  128. @Swarthy Greek

    No Sistema. It has fingers in all sorts of pies.

  129. @Swarthy Greek

    The track is well maintained for 80 km/h. It is not so well maintained for 200 km/h.

  130. @Z-man

    The fall of the SU was devastating for agriculture. The failure of credit led to a break in food supply to livestock farms. “Commercial” pig and chicken rearing practically died. Local breeds of cattle disappeared in any meaningful way.

  131. KatakanBR says:

    This year Russia will produce atleast 109 million tons of grain, which is lower than the extraordinary year or 2017, but the exports of agricultural products will increase by 5.5 billion USD (from 20,5 billion in 2017 to 26 in 2018). Good to see Russian agriculture picking up

    • Agree: RadicalCenter
  132. Lowe says:
    @ThreeCranes

    It takes an immense amount of work and discipline to make your body that muscular. Just because you don’t like it doesn’t automatically make it less than.

  133. @Philip Owen

    A different track is needed for 200 km/h. Which is why high-speed trains are expensive; it’s not the trains, it’s the requirement to build new tracks from scratch.

  134. @Lowe

    It takes an immense amount of work and discipline to make your body that muscular.

    It also takes an immense amount of work and discipline to speedrun Super Mario Brothers or to win a national hot dog eating contest.

    So what?

    • Replies: @Lowe
  135. melanf says:
    @anonymous coward

    Fake news and fake graph. You can download the data and see for yourself that no such curve really exists.

    n St. Petersburg (where I live) a certain warming is noticeable without graphs.

    • Replies: @anonymous coward
  136. @melanf

    In St. Petersburg (where I live) a certain warming is noticeable without graphs.

    That’s normal for two reasons: a) urban areas are warmer, and urbanization in Russia has certainly been increasing for the last few decades, b) the media circus about the so-called “global warming” from the (((usual suspects))) means your perceptions are biased.

    Like I said: download the data and see for yourself.

    • Replies: @melanf
  137. @Philip Owen

    You seem to know nothing about how railways work,do you? the Sapsan already runs at 250km/h. The St Petersburg Moscow line’s problem is not that it’ s not well maintained, it’s that it just wasn’t built for 300km/h trains.

  138. melanf says:
    @anonymous coward

    a) urban areas are warmer, and urbanization in Russia has certainly been increasing for the last few decades

    Here Kurortny district of Saint-Petersburg where I live .

    Continuous forest stretches from this place for 10 000 kilometers to the Pacific Ocean

    b) the media circus about the so-called “global warming” from the (((usual suspects))) means your perceptions are biased

    I doubt that this factor could affect the duration of the swimming season

    • Replies: @Dmitry
  139. @Philip Owen

    Sapsan is a derivative of Siemens ICE 3 which can hit 320 kmph. The reason it can’t travel at that speed in Russia is the same reason the TGV derived Acela can’t travel at its top speed in the US. The line and overhead electrical infrastructure cannot handle very high speeds as it was never designed for such and relaying the entire line with long continuously welded high strength steel rails is weepingly expensive and complicated for a busy line like NYC-Washington DC or Moscow-St Petersburg..

    Also Russia like America is a country of vast distances and low population densities so true high speed rail doesn’t make economic sense in most cases.

    Even on purpose built lines an ICE 3 at 320 kmph consumes more than twice the electricity than it does at 250 kmph due to dramatic increase in aerodynamic drag..

  140. The Scalpel says: • Website
    @Lowe

    It takes an immense amount of work and discipline to make your body that muscular. Just because you don’t like it doesn’t automatically make it less than.

    …and steroids. don’t forget the truckloads of steroids

  141. @ThreeCranes

    Who would you rather be?

    A proletarian logger?

    Or Mr. Europe, seven-time Mr. Olympia, the biggest movie star in the world, and the Governor of California?

    I don’t see a lot of posters of loggers in serious gyms.

    What an incredibly stupid comment.

    And bodybuilders have been facing idiotic comments like this since day one. Supposedly, people who look incredibly strong aren’t actually strong. Because reasons.

    Arnold specifically entered power lifting competitions to disprove this allegation, winning both the German and international power lifting competitions.

    And then there’s the fact that he and Franco ran a bricklaying business. This involved a lot of productive, hard labor (never mind that real value is never in grunt work).

  142. Dmitry says:
    @melanf

    istrict of Saint-Petersburg where I live

    I will guess – your town?

    • Replies: @melanf
  143. melanf says:
    @Dmitry

    Yes, but this town is part of St. Petersburg

    • Replies: @Dmitry
  144. Dmitry says:
    @melanf

    Lol sorry
    if I lived there, my childish dream would be to buy one of these: winter drive into the city without traffic jams…anywhere to park it though?

    • Replies: @melanf
  145. melanf says:
    @Dmitry

    Lol sorry

    Sorry for what? I just said that Zelenogorsk part of St. Petersburg

    if I lived there, my childish dream would be to buy one of these:

    Then you must have a house near the sea. Then Yes-such a thing would be very cool.
    Gulf of Finland today:

    • Replies: @Dmitry
  146. Dmitry says:
    @melanf

    Then you must have a house near the sea. Then Yes-such a thing would be very cool.

    And (in summer)… a hydrocycle

  147. Lowe says:
    @anonymous coward

    Get stuffed into too many lockers growing up, to see any value in athleticism?

    How about aesthetics? Maybe the art students stuffed you in lockers too.

  148. @Will Jones

    European peoples in both the USA and Russia refuse to reproduce themselves and perpetuate their own families, so they’re both doomed (absent big changes) no matter who is more quote backwards.

  149. A magnificent piece of choral music is presented when the diva takes
    the section. Featured of the album are 11 sound. A
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