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How It All Began: The Belgrade Embassy Bombing
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When I was in Beijing during the protests in 1989, a middle-aged man came up to me and asked, “Couldn’t America send some B-52s here and…” and he made a swooping motion with his hand.

Ten years later, on May 7, 1999, the American bombers did show up.

Instead of showering freedom ordnance on China’s dictators, however, they dropped five bombs on the Chinese embassy in Belgrade.

As to why this happened, the United States has always declared it was an accident.

A lot of people in China believe otherwise and there is a good amount of evidence to support their view.

The bombing of the embassy was a wake-up call for the PRC leadership, which decided it urgently needed a doctrine and capabilities beyond its strategic nuclear deterrent to handle disagreements with the United States that might acquire a military dimension.

It was also a propaganda godsend for the regime.

Chinese demonstrators were back on the streets, but protesting against the United States instead of against the PRC regime’s deficiencies in Western democratic values.

Americans and the U.S. media had a hard time getting used to this unfavorable turn in some popular Chinese attitudes away from 1989 democracy-love, blaming the ill-feeling on the suppression of news of President Clinton’s apology.

In the July 2001 China Journal, Peter Hays Gries of Ohio State University analyzed letters and submissions to China’s Guangming Daily and characterized the protests as “genuine and understandable” and largely unrelated to unawareness of the presidential apology.

On the ten-year anniversary of the bombing, China Digital Times linked to an interview with a student who identified the bombing as the trigger for a sea-change in the worldview of at least some Chinese:

What do you believe has changed now in the attitude of young Chinese (like those who protested 10 years ago against the USA) towards America?

Over the past decade, I think the young Chinese have gradually dropped their illusion of the U.S. and begun to view it more objectively.

After reform and opening-up, to be more specific in the 1980s and 1990s, the Chinese people began to know more about the outside world. The prosperity of the west attracted the young people so much that all of a sudden everybody wanted to go abroad. At that time, we had a popular saying, “Moon of the west is even more beautiful than that of China.” Experiencing the sharp contrast between China and the west, many Chinese people became critical of China, perhaps in a cynical way.

However, when the Chinese embassy was bombed, many people began to think: is this the kind of democracy and human rights that we want to pursue?

Post Iraq-war, it is difficult to remember the years when the United States effortlessly claimed the moral high ground. But in 1999, I remember that I also discounted Chinese whinging about the Belgrade embassy accident.

Writing in 2001, Gries provides a reminder:

The demonstrations shocked the US media, which quickly pointed blame at the Chinese government for inflaming the protests. A brief review of major US newspaper editorials of 11 May reveals a consensus view: the Chinese people were not genuinely angry with (innocent) America; they were, rather, manipulated by Communist propaganda that the bombing was intentional…The Washington Post declared: “The Big Lie is alive and well in Beijing”…Such “state-supervised anger”, the Boston Globe declared, was neither genuine nor popular. The “brutes in Beijing” were responsible for the Chinese people’s mistaken belief that the bombing was intentional.

A contentious interview conducted by Jim Lehrer with the Chinese ambassador to the US, Li Zhaoxing, immediately subsequent to the attack, is enlightening for the cognitive dissonance provoked by Li’s refusal to share Lehrer’s confidence that the US would publicly and honestly sort out what was obviously just a regrettable goof. Looking back at the interview through the perspective provided by the shameless mendacity of the Bush administration over the Iraq War, it is Lehrer and not Li who looks delusional and out of touch.

LI ZHAOXING: I’m saying that the Chinese people and the Chinese government are requesting a thorough investigation of the NATO missile attack on our embassy in Yugoslavia.

JIM LEHRER: Yes, sir. But my question is: why would you think that it would not be an accident or a mistake? In other words, why would you think– to repeat my question, why would you think that the United States would intentionally kill Chinese citizens in downtown Belgrade?

LI ZHAOXING: Ask your own people. Ask your own officials. Ask your own experts. If they ask themselves, seriously, honestly, do they really believe that this is simply a kind of mistake?

JIM LEHRER: Are you suggesting that that is not the intention of the United States, to do exactly what you– in other words, to conduct a full investigation and hold the people responsible for this?

LI ZHAOXING: We attach more to facts, rather than words. No matter how eloquent one could be.

In addition to his encounter with Jim Lehrer, Li Zhaoxing received further instruction on American attitudes from another, less courtly source.

Gries passes on a report in the Washington Post in which Tom DeLay, the Republican whip in the House of Representatives, revealed to Li his own formula for managing US-PRC relations, one that did not depend on apologies:

I was on Meet the Press…right after the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Kosovo [he meant Belgrade], and the [Chinese] ambassador was on before me. And if you remember, he’s kind of an obnoxious fellow and he’s screaming and yelling about how bad the Americans were, and I had had it up to about here. So he’s coming off the stage and I’m going onto the stage and I intentionally walked up to him and blocked his way…I grabbed [his] hand and squeezed it as hard as I could and pulled him a kind of little jerk like this and I said: “Don’t take the weakness of this president as the weakness of the American people”. And he looked at me kind of funny, so I pulled him real close, nose to nose, and I repeated it very slowly, and said, “Do-not-take-the-weakness-of this president as the weakness of the American people”.

I expect Li Zhaoxing recalled Mr. DeLay’s solicitude as well as Jim Lehrer’s amazed disbelief when he returned to Beijing to become China’s Minister of Foreign Affairs.

A tentative answer to Jim Lehrer’s query as to why the United States might take the dastardly step of bombing the Chinese embassy can be found in my articles from early 2007 on the Belgrade incident: the persistent rumor that attack was conducted to destroy wreckage of a US stealth fighter shot down over Serbia, which the Milosevic government had delivered to the PRC in gratitude for services rendered (or perhaps traded to the PRC in return for presumably safe and secure radio retransmission facilities from inside the Belgrade embassy for the Serbian military, whose communications network was a focus of NATO strikes).

The story that China might have acquired key Stealth technology from the crash in Yugoslavia acquired a lot of legs after China test-flew its first stealth fighter, the J20, in January 2011, as I wrote in Asia Times.

During the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) campaign against Serbia in 1999, an American F-117A stealth fighter was shot down. Some wreckage undoubtedly made it into Chinese hands. Slobodan Lekic and Dusan Stojanovic of the Associated Press (AP) reported on January 23:

“At the time, our intelligence reports told of Chinese agents crisscrossing the region where the F-117 disintegrated, buying up parts of the plane from local farmers,” says Admiral Davor Domazet-Loso, Croatia’s military chief of staff during the Kosovo war.

“We believe the Chinese used those materials to gain an insight into secret stealth technologies … and to reverse-engineer them,” Domazet-Loso said in a telephone interview.

A senior Serbian military official confirmed that pieces of the wreckage were removed by souvenir collectors, and that some ended up “in the hands of foreign military attaches”.[2]

The idea that the United States had not taken adequate steps to secure the F-117A wreckage and useful technology may have thereby found its way into enemy hands is apparently rather irksome to the Pentagon.

Elizabeth Bumiller transmitted the US official pushback in the January 26 New York Times article titled “US Doubts ’99 Jet Debris Gave China Stealth Edge”:

[I]t’s hard to imagine that a great deal of applicable and useful information could have been culled from the site,” said an Air Force official, who asked for anonymity because he was not authorized to speak publicly about military intelligence.[3]

Interestingly and perhaps not surprisingly, even as this narrative of PRC military espionage cum trashpicking was advanced, I didn’t see anybody pursue the logical corollary: that acknowledgment that China had possessed Stealth wreckage buttressed the allegation that the US government might have bombed the Chinese embassy in Belgrade in order to destroy the sensitive technology.

In reading my dissection of the Belgrade bombing, its myths and legends, the reader can draw his own conclusions about the context it provides for subsequent US-PRC confrontations and strategies and the attendant media hoopla.

A final prefatory note:

One element that contemporary readers might find hard to swallow is my assertion that the mission that destroyed the Chinese embassy was the only target selected by the CIA.

Well, that’s what George Tenet, Director of the CIA, said. It is a mystery to me why he considered this revelation in any way exculpatory.

From the July 23, 1999 New York Times:

“It was the only target we nominated,” the director, George Tenet, said at a rare public hearing of the House Intelligence Committee.

After the strike on May 7, which killed three Chinese and wounded at least 20 others, the CIA decided it better go back to its usual business of spying, a U.S. official said Thursday. Reeling from its error, the agency almost immediately suspended other preparations it was making to forward additional targets to help NATO.

 

The Bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade in 1999

China’s first direct experience with satellite-guided munitions occurred on the night of May 7, 1999, when at least five GPS-guided JDAM bombs slammed into the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, killing three Chinese nationals and wounding 20.


The JDAM used in the attack is a very successful and relatively inexpensive concept in ordnance by which dumb bombs are, as it were, sent to college, and equipped with a GPS-corrected guidance system that generates corrective adjustments to movable vanes after the bomb is dropped from a plane, enabling reported accuracies of within 13 meters.

The conventional, though implausible, narrative at the time of the embassy bombing was The Bomb was Smart… But We Goofed!

In testimony before Congress in July 1999, George Tenet explained how they meant to bomb some logistics office of the Yugoslavian army, they used an outdated map, somebody did catch the error but the message didn’t get through, the system broke down, sooooooo sorry.

On October 17, 1999, the Sunday Observer, in cooperation with a Danish paper, Politiken, came out with what would seem to be a blockbuster report: that the United States had deliberately targeted the embassy in order to remove a key rebroadcast station directing the military activities of Slobodan Milosevic’s forces in their struggle to resist NATO forces.

I am embarrassed to admit that my Googling skills haven’t turned up a direct link to the article, but the Observer’s sister publication, the Guardian, ran a story summarizing the article’s conclusions.

As to why the Chinese government dared to take the provocative step of hosting a Yugoslavian military radio facility, the article speculates that Beijing cooperated with Belgrade in order to acquire data on U.S. military capabilities:

Why the Chinese were prepared to help Milosevic is a more murky question. One possible explanation is that the Chinese lack Stealth technology, and the Yugoslavs, having shot down a Stealth fighter in the early days of the air campaign, were in a good position to trade. The Chinese may have calculated that Nato would not dare strike its embassy, but the five-storey building was emptied every night of personnel. Only three people died in the attack, two of whom were, reportedly, not journalists – the official Chinese version – but intelligence officers.

The Chinese military attache, Ven Bo Koy, who was seriously wounded in the attack and is now in hospital in China, told Dusan Janjic, the respected president of Forum for Ethnic Relations in Belgrade, only hours before the attack, that the embassy was monitoring incoming cruise missiles in order to develop counter-measures.

According to the Observer, the behind the scenes U.S. attitude to the embassy bombing was: Mission Accomplished.

British, Canadian and French air targeteers rounded on an American colonel on the morning of May 8. Angrily they denounced the “cock-up”. The US colonel was relaxed. “Bullshit,” he replied to the complaints. “That was great targeting … we put three JDAMs down into the (military] attache’s office and took out the exact room we wanted …

This story died the death in the U.S. media (I only saw references to it in the English papers at the time) and, to its everlasting credit, FAIR (Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting) took the matter up.

In an October 22, 1999 article, FAIR wrote:

So far, the reaction in the mainstream U.S. media has been a deafening silence. To date, none of America’s three major network evening news programs has mentioned the Observer’s findings. Neither has the New York Times or USA Today, even though the story was covered by AP, Reuters and other major wires. The Washington Post relegated the story to a 90-word news brief in its “World Briefing” (10/18/99), under the headline “NATO Denies Story on Embassy Bombing.”By contrast, the story appeared in England not only in the Observer and its sister paper, the Guardian (10/17/99), but also in their leading rival, the Times of London, which ran a follow-up article on the official reaction the next day (10/18/99). The Globe and Mail, Canada’s most prestigious paper, ran the full Reuters account prominently in its international section (10/18/99). So did the Times of India, the Sydney Morning Herald and the Irish Times (all 10/18/99). The prominent Danish daily Politiken, which collaborated with the Observer on the investigation, was on strike, but ran the story on its website.

FAIR and its supporters rattled a few media cages, and got dismissive replies from the New York Times and USA Today.

The Times’ Andrew Rosenthal characterized the Observer article as “not terribly well sourced”.

In its rebuttal, FAIR stated:

FAIR contacted journalists at both the Observer and Politiken. According to the Observer’s U.S. correspondent, Ed Vulliamy, its foreign editor, Peter Beaumont, and Politiken reporter Jens Holsoe, their sources included the following:

–A European NATO military officer serving in an operational capacity at the four-star level – a source at the highest possible level within NATO–confirmed three things: (1) That NATO targeted the Chinese embassy deliberately; (2) That the embassy was emitting Yugoslav military radio signals; and (3) That the target was not approved through the normal NATO channels but through a second, “American-only” track.

–A European NATO staff officer at the two-star level in the Defense Intelligence office confirmed the same story.–

Two U.S. sources: A very high-ranking former senior American intelligence official connected to the Balkans – “about as high as you can get,” according to one reporter — confirmed that the embassy was deliberately targeted. A mid-ranking current U.S. military official, also connected to the Balkans, confirmed elements of the story and pointedly refused to deny that the embassy had been bombed deliberately.

–A NATO flight controller based in Naples and a NATO intelligence officer monitoring Yugoslav radio broadcasts from Macedonia each confirmed that NATO’s signals intelligence located Yugoslav military radio signals coming from the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. When they informed their superiors, they were told that the matter would be handled further up in the chain of command. Two weeks later, the embassy was bombed.

–An official at the U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency told the reporters that NATO’s official explanation, which involves a faulty map of Belgrade, is a “damned lie.”

Finally, the Times, still coasting on its Pentagon Papers reputation in those halcyon, pre-Judy Miller days, replied to one correspondent:

“There is nothing in the distinguished history of the Times — where reporters have risked their lives, been threatened with jail and indeed gone to jail to protect the public’s right to know things the government does not want to get out — to suggest that we would withhold such a story.”

Hmmm.


When weighing the credibility of the Observer report, it is also worth recalling that, by CIA Director Tenet’s own admission, of the 900 targets struck during the Kosovo war, the CIA was responsible for only one targeting package—the bombing that was ostensibly meant to take out an insignificant Yugoslavian paper-shuffling operation and ended up destroying the Chinese embassy’s intelligence directorate instead.

Another investigative report confirmed that, not only was the target selected by the CIA, the entire mission was flown by the United States outside of standard NATO channels (NATO, of course, was the vehicle for European and American intervention in the Kosovo conflict; it was not a U.S.-directed war).

This is not my day for coming up with direct links to original reporting, but I found a posting on Venik’s Aviation of what looks like an accurate transcription of a May 2000 article from Air Forces Monthly, a European publication, detailing the mission.

It delivers the goods on what actually struck the Chinese embassy (not “guided missiles” or “laser guided munitions” as other outlets reported):

In the early hours of May 7, 1999, a USAF B-2 Spirit bomber, escorted by EA-6B defence suppression aircraft and F-15C fighters, dropped three GPS-guided Joint Defence Air Munition (JDAM) bombs on the Chinese Embassy in the Novi Beograd district of Belgrade.

As to how the targeting “error” slipped by NATO:

It should be noted that, in an interview with the author, NATO spokesman Lee McClenny confirmed that the targeting information did not go through JTF NOBLE ANVIL, or any other NATO structure, in contrast to Tennet’s [sic] official public statements. Instead, the co-ordinates were passed directly from the CIA to Whiteman Air Force Base, the home of the 509th Bomb Wing, where it was programmed into the JDAMs. Mr McClenny asserted that the entire process had remained ‘Stateside’, hence the failure of NATO staff to ‘scrub’ the target to check its accuracy, authenticity and location.

When asked, the CIA again asserted that the story given by Tennet [sic] to the House Committee was true, but claimed that the targeting information went from the CIA to the Pentagon to be processed. The Pentagon was only prepared to say that “some of the F-117 and B-2 missions were used as ‘national assets’ and therefore did not pass through NATO command structures”, despite the requirement under the NATO charter to clear all missions carried out under NATO auspices with the NATO general council…

We can now bring some more recent, first-hand information to the mix.

China’s Ambassador to Yugoslavia at the time, Pan Zhanlin, has written a Chinese-language memoir entitled My Encounter with War .…

Living in Belgrade during the NATO bombing campaign, Ambassador Pan became something of an expert on precision-bombing tactics, and he reports on the effect of the five bombs in detail:

The first bomb entered the side of the building at an angle near the roof and tore through to the first floor and detonated at a bottom corner at the dormitory, tearing a pit several meters deep. One of the fatalities and many of the injuries occurred here. The second bomb hit the middle of the roof and went through to the first floor auditorium, causing no fatalities but giving Ambassador Zhan food for thought by incinerating his office and melting the frame of his day bed. The third bomb hit the northwest corner and blasted through several floors, killing two people. The fourth bomb came in a window of the half basement, exploded, destroyed the embassy clubhouse and shattered the building’s structural members. The fifth bomb crashed through the roof of the ambassador’s villa. Fortunately for Ambassador Zhan, who was there at the time, it didn’t explode. Since B2s drop their bombs in even numbers to keep the plane balanced, there was speculation that perhaps a sixth bomb had also entered the basement; but it was never found.


I leave it to structural engineers and ordnance enthusiasts to assess whether this damage is consistent with an assault of five JDAMs meant to destroy the entire embassy; a surgical strike to take out the military attache’s office; or the aftermath of a dud-studded fiasco.


Ambassador Pan is anxious to characterize the American attack as intentional and motivated by pure cussedness: to break the back of the Milosevic regime by demonstrating to its allies that diplomatic support was not only useless but positively dangerous.

He carefully if awkwardly debunks the scenarios that the embassy was bombed because Milosevic was sheltering or visiting there, or that it was rebroadcastingYugoslav military communications.

No reference is made to any electronic intelligence activities by China that might have provoked the strike.

Concerning the shootdown of the F117, Pan reports that the scuttlebutt in diplomatic circles was that the plane was located using the Czech Tamara anti-stealth system. His informants told him it couldn’t detect the Stealth aircraft, but that the passage of the plane through sensor coverage left a distinctive “hole” in the CRT display. The Yugoslavs noticed this anomaly and used it to unleash a barrage of 30 SAM missiles at the place where they guessed that the fighter would be, bringing it down.


There is a third possibility, in addition to the rebroadcast and Elint scenarios: the F-117 wreckage story.

And it has a radically different outcome.

The Chinese Internet is rife with urban legends concerning the Belgrade strike. Nobody regards it as accidental, and many Chinese seem willing to ascribe all sorts of shenanigans to the Chinese embassy that provoked the attack.

The most interesting scenario is one that the poster attributes to “a private encounter with a Chinese naval officer who was slightly tipsy”.

According to this informant, the Yugoslavian government had recovered the wreckage of the shot-down F-117 and sold key pieces of it to China. The navigation system, fuselage fragments with the Stealth coating, and high temperature nozzle components of the engine were spirited into the basement of the Chinese embassy. Unfortunately, there was a locator beacon inside the INU powered by a battery and, before the Chinese could discover and disable it, the U.S. military was alerted to the location of the F-117 fragments.

In this version of the story, at least, there is a happy ending for the Chinese. The U.S. attacked the embassy with a laser-guided bomb meant to penetrate to the basement and destroy the embassy and the F-117 prize, but it didn’t explode!

The wreckage made it to China (in the special plane Beijing dispatched to carry home the survivors and the bodies of the victims of the attack, according to other accounts).

In the reported words of the officer (“who spoke with tears in his eyes”):

“Although some of our people sacrificed their lives, we gained no less than ten years in the development of our Stealth materials. We purchased this progress with our blood and international mortification.”

“虽然我们有人牺牲了,但是我们隐型材料的研制进度一下提高了十年都不止,这种进步,是以血和国际上的屈辱换来的”–他流泪

This is an interesting story.

In certain respects—the laser-guided part and the basement stash—it conflicts with more credible reports.

The embassy’s sub-basement, which served as an all purpose cafeteria, recreation center, and bomb shelter—an unlikely hidey hole for F-117 parts–was hit once, possibly twice, and it seems unlikely that anything could have been recovered from there.

But conspiracy theorists can draw solace from Ambassador Pan’s description of the four cases of “important state materials” that two brave embassy workers ran up to the fifth floor of the burning embassy to extract. Pan stated:

他们知道,这东西比生命更重要

“They knew these materials were more important than life.”

Standard-issue cypher equipment and secret files?

Special Elint monitoring equipment?

Or the crown jewels of America’s Stealth program?

I lean toward the third explanation, because glomming onto some secret airplane parts and then sneaking them out of a burning building is the kind of low tech triumph that fits in with my sense of China’s capabilities and interests inside Yugoslavia at the time.

The United States may have felt that by purchasing the wreckage, China had crossed the line from diplomatic support for Milosevic and conventional military-attache espionage to a more overt intelligence alliance with Yugoslavia in a deeply sensitive area of U.S. military technology, and needed to be taught a lesson.

I also wish to explore a pyschological element, which perhaps affects China’s outlook to this day.

You can see hints of it in the F 117 in the basement story. It has a touching, almost child-like wish-fulfillment element: the evil empire destroyed our embassy but we escaped with the plans to the Death Star!

The embassy bombing was quite traumatic to China.

However, when the attack occured, triggering official and popular anger within China, the West was disbelieving, dismissive—and defensive.

It was considered rather churlish of the Chinese to intrude their crude and manufactured nationalistic outrage into our “good war” narrative of the Kosovo conflict by trying to make political capital out of our honest mistake.

Today, with further information on the attack and the benefit of perspective, it is difficult to dismiss the shock the Belgrade bombing inflicted on the Chinese.

Post 9/11, Ambassador Pan’s description of the attack is depressing familiar, and more difficult to disregard.

Pan’s plodding prose reawakens dark memories of our own as he conveys the shock and fear as the embassy explodes into flames, “the loudest sound I ever heard”. Survivors found the stairwells blocked by rubble and fire and desperately improvised escapes down the exterior of the building using knotted drapes. Pan saw his friends and colleagues stagger from the ruins of the embassy dazed and bloody, crying out for help.

Amid the chaos everybody ducked in fear of a follow-up attack as NATO bombers thundered overhead (May 7 was one of the busiest nights for aerial bombing). Then came the frantic ad hoc attempts to rally the survivors, account for the living, and search for the missing.

First responders were at first unable to enter the compound because the electric gate was disabled when the bombing cut the power; ambulances race up to the shattered structure with sirens howling to rush away the injured willy-nilly; embassy staffers mounted a frantic search through the local hospitals for the injured.

Finally, there was the extraction of the dead, consoling of the wounded; the grieving; and the defiant patriotic oration.

Again viewed through a post-9/11 lens, Pan’s account also paints a picture of a privileged elite that has been stripped of the illusion that it is immune to attack, and realizing with anger, shame, and disgust that at that moment it is helpless, vulnerable, and unable to retaliate.

Regardless of U.S. motives for bombing the Belgrade embassy or what treasures of military intelligence the Chinese were able to save from the wreckage, if anything was needed to focus Chinese attention on its vulnerability to US attack, getting its embassy, intelligence directorate, and military attache blown up in Belgrade probably did it.

/plee/why-china-hates-satellite-guided-munitions-part-1-the-bombing-of-the-chinese-embassy-in-belgrade-in-1999/

Wednesday, January 31, 2007

The Belgrade Bombing, the F-117 Cake, and the Tears of Premier Zhu Rongji

In a previous post I explored the possibility that the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade in 1999 was intentional, with at least the partial objective of destroying wreckage of an F-117A Night Hawk Stealth fighter that Yugoslavia had shot down a few weeks previously.

I am indebted to Dr. Jeffrey Lewis for forwarding some news reports in which the fate of the wreck is discussed.

In 2001 (Fulghum & Wall, Russia Admits Testing F-117 Lost in Yugoslavia, Aviation Week & Space Technology, October 8, 2001), the Russian government acknowledged they had obtained access to F 117A wreckage and stated they used it primarily to improve the anti-Stealth performance of their anti-aircraft missiles.

In the hearsay department, an article in the September 27, 1999 issue of Aviation Week and Space Technology (ed. Bruce D. Nordwall, Earthly Remains) reported, “a Russian official said that some parts had made their way to Moscow, but that the bulk of the airframe was shipped to China.”, a claim that “Pentagon analysts” dismissed “because “China…doesn’t have the industrial capability to benefit from either the design or the systems.”

Contra the Pentagon analysts, simply because China’s Stealth programs were in their infancy at the time doesn’t mean that in 1999 China would not yearn for such a cool and potentially useful trophy as fragments of an American Stealth fighter.

As is now known, Yugoslavians did not turn the entire wreck over to the Russians.

Portions are on display in the Yugoslav Museum of Aviation today and I came across an unconfirmed traveler’s tale that tourists can even purchase souvenir fragments at the museum.

As to what could have been divied up with the Chinese, the advanced targeting, sensor, and communications systems that the Russians were purportedly interested in neatly dovetail with the reported Chinese take of INU, engine nozzle, and fuselage chunks.

It certainly is plausible that the Yugoslavian government would seek to extract as much propaganda, financial, military, and geopolitical advantage as possible from the F-117A carcass, selling the biggest piece to the Russian Federation but also sharing a few juicy scraps with the PRC, the junior partner in the de facto anti-NATO alliance.

As to whether or not the United States would deem it necessary or desirable to bomb the Chinese embassy to flinders in order to destroy the F-117A wreckage, the Clinton administration suffered a certain amount of criticism for not bombing the wreckage in the wheat field where the plane had fallen order to deny it to other unfriendly parties.

Analyzing the experiences of the Kosovo conflict, RAND opined:

Heated arguments arose in Washington and elsewhere in the immediate aftermath of the shootdown over whether USEUCOM had erred in not aggressively having sought to destroy the wreckage of the downed F 117 in order to keep its valuable stealth technology out of unfriendly hands and eliminate its propaganda value…Said a former commander of Tactical Air Command…”I’m surprised we didn’t bomb it because the standard operating procedure has always been that when you lose something of real or perceived value—in this case, real technology, stealth—you destroy it.”…Reports indicated that military officials had at first considered destroying the wreckage but opted in the end not to follow through with the attempt because they could not have located it quickly enough to attack it before it was surrounded by civilians and the media.

It’s also interesting to note that the stated reason for not ordering an attack on the crash site was that it was overrun not only with Yugoslavian military types but also local rubberneckers and international journalists.

Instead of obliterating a white, Western audience the Clinton administration might have turned to a measure it had employed in the past, after the USS Cole bombing, when it faced criticism for being insufficiently martial and excessively dilatory: knocking down a Third World asset, in this case the Chinese embassy instead of a Sudanese pharmaceutical plant.

Maybe the U.S. honestly believed that there was some top secret stuff in the Chinese embassy, or maybe the Clinton administration was eager to forestall G.O.P. criticism of its handling of the F-117A shootdown and decided to respond with a showy if meaningless foray against an adversary that was proving somewhat nettlesome, but was chosen because it was vulnerable and unlikely to retaliate.

As an object lesson in the perils of military and geopolitical weakness, the Chinese probably paid some attention to the fact that somehow it was their embassy, and not that of Serbian ally Numero Uno and Most Plausible and Afterwards Officially Certified F-117 Wreckage Holder, a.k.a. the Russian Federation, that got bombed.

For whatever reason—scientific countermeasures, espionage, or design flaws–it transpired that the F-117 was not as stealthy as the United States had consistently professed. In the aftermath of the Kosovo conflict, the Yugoslavians contended that its radar signature was only reduced by 50%. Chinese scuttlebutt claimed that the United States withdrew F-117s from South Korea because it was believed they could not effectively evade Chinese detection measures.

In any case, the Air Force is doing its best to consign the F-117 to the boneyard before the service life it originally promised to the U.S. Congress for this aircraft has expired, and replace it with the F22A Raptor.

My intention is not to evangelize the idea that there was F-117 wreckage in the basement of the Chinese embassy. Somebody in China knows what was really in the embassy, and I suppose one of these days they’ll go public and we’ll find out.

As the F-117 and its secrets fade into oblivion, what is worthy of further mulling over is the role that the Belgrade bombing seems to play as the creation myth of the birth of the 21st Chinese strategic military doctrine, founded on the assumption that the U.S. will unscrupulously use its military, diplomatic, and propaganda advantages not only to contain China but even to attack it when need, desire, and circumstances permit.

In this context, the Belgrade embassy is holy ground, and there are as many versions of the Truth as there are books in the Bible.

The recollections of China’s ambassador Pan Zhanlin, imbue a certain incident after the bombing with a heroic and close to mythic character.

The two comrades in charge of the embassy’s important assets were Little Wang and Little Zheng. One slept in the duty office on the fifth floor, one slept in the dormitory on the fourth floor. Little Wang pierced through the dust and smoke and by the light of the flames dsecended from the fifth floor to the fourth floor. At this time, Little Zheng emerged from the bedroom. Little Wang grabbed hold of Little Zheng and ran back upstairs. Little Zheng had already been injured and his face was flecked with blood. People who ran into them urgently asked: “Why are you going back up?” Little Wang replied: “There is something that needs doing. This is our job.” They picked up four cases of national important assets and battled through smoke and pierced through flames to get downstairs. The stairwell was cut off, they stumbled down to the third floor. Ahead of time, the embassy had made various preparations for an emergency, so these four cases of important things had already been prepared. If any untoward event had occurred, they could be picked up and moved immediately. They knew, these things were more important than life.

负责使馆重要资财的两位同志,小王和小郑,一个睡在五层的值班室,一个睡在四层的宿舍。小王透过烟尘,借助火光,从 五楼下到四楼。这时,小郑正从寝室出来。小王一把拉住小郑往楼上跑。小郑已经受伤,脸上淌着血。有人这时遇到他们,急忙问:“你们为什么还往上跑?”小王 回答说:“有事,咱们是干这一行的。”他们从五层拿起四箱国家重要资财,冒烟突火往下走。楼梯被阻断,他们跌跌撞撞地来到三楼。使馆事先做了各种应急准 备,这四箱重要的东西事先已准备好。一旦发生意外情况,可以拿起来立即转移。他们知道,这东西比生命更重要。


The active imagination of the reader is left to fill in the blanks.

On the Chinese Internet, there has been considerable speculation as to the nature of the intelligence coup that could have provoked the U.S. bombing.

In addition to F-117A parts, there are assertions that the Chinese embassy also had a Tomahawk cruise missile in the basement.

Some posters claim that the only piece of U.S. hardware that China was able to extract and ship back to Beijing was a dud JDAM dropped during the attack—a scenario that Pan contemptuously dismisses, and which seems completely unlikely given the wartime chaos surrounding the attack.

There was a dud JDAM, but it took a lengthy, delicate, and expensive excavation process in 2004 to extract it from where it had buried itself deep beneath the Chinese embassy.

There are darker versions, which imply the only harvest China reaped from the Yugoslavian war was a planeful of corpses.

The story is that at the onset of the Kosovo conflict, a thirty or so Chinese radar and materials specialists boarded an unmarked 737 plane to assist the Yugoslavian government in using multi-location radar to detect Stealth aircraft. After the F-117A was shot down, the U.S. government learned that China was supposed to receive F-117A wreckage for study and ordered the attack. After the embassy bombing a similar, unmarked plane returned to China and discharged its cargo of coffins. Depending on the poster, the airport at which this melancholy scene was acted out was either at Lanzhou or at Beijing’s Nanyuan military airport.
….

Global Views, a Chinese magazine, posted an interesting article (Global Views website hopeless; article posted on a Chinese bulletin board; written in 2006 according to internal evidence) containing interviews with several of the Yugoslavian officers involved in the shootdown, which confirms and amplifies the story that NATO Commander Wesley Clark was told.

1960s tube amplifier enthusiasts will be thrilled to learn that the Yugoslavian air force attributes the shootdown of the F117A to P-12 type vacuum tube-technology Russian radars so old the U.S. considered them obsolete.

According to their account, the F117A Stealth fighter was detectable by antique radar operating at wavelengths of 2 meters—a detail that had supposedly escaped the Stealth designers, who operated on the assumption that the plane would only have to be invisible to modern centimeter and millimeter wavelength radars.

On the evening of March 27, Yugoslavia’s anti-aircraft defenses detected an aircraft entering Yugoslavian airspace at a distance of 80 km. The radar was immediately shut off, since U.S. planes were armed with radar seeking missiles that would fire automatically within 20 seconds and track the signal to its source and destroy it. The Yugoslavian anti-aircraft crews had been rigorously trained to either acquire and fire on a target or turn off their radio within this 20-second window. The radar was switched on when the target was about 15 km away and a barrage of SA-2 SAM missiles were fired manually. The F117A fell to earth. Witnesses said, “It looked like a sparrow shot from the sky.”

The shootdown raised an important tactical and strategic issue for NATO. Bad weather had limited helicopter operations and the U.S. was relying on high-altitude bombing to advance its war objectives. Therefore, a great deal of attention was paid to identifying and disabling Yugoslavia’s anti-aircraft facilities.

The Global Vision article reports that the headquarters of the 126 Mid-Air Detection and Anti-Aircraft Battalion—which had detected the plane—was attacked 11 times, each time with 5 JDAM bombs. The 250th Battalion—which fired the offending SAMs–was attacked 22 times.

The Yugoslav asserts that the 3rd Brigade of the 250th Battalion, whose missiles actually brought down the plane, suffered no fatalities or casualties during the war, leading them to brag: “We’re the real Stealth”.

The F-117A shootdown provided a psychological boost to the Yugoslavs which lives on to this day.

Every year on March 27 the 250th Battalion, now part of the Serbian Air Force, holds a raucous party. The main event occurs when a large cake bedecked with candles is rolled out. On the top is a rendering of an F-117A Nighthawk in chocolate. At precisely 8:42 pm, the exact time of the shootdown, the first slice is cut—through the port wing, which is the one severed by the SAM barrage.


On the other hand, the U.S. was dismayed by the loss of its aircraft.

The RAND report states:

[The downing] meant not merely the loss of a key U.S. combat aircraft but the dimming of the F-117’s former aura of invincibility, which for years had been of incalculable psychological value to the United States.

For psychologists, anthropologists, and sociologists as well as political scientists, I think a fruitful field would be the study of compensatory psychological mechanisms of weaker countries that have endured American military attack.

As I’ve noted above, we don’t know if the Chinese were able to extract any intelligence treasures from the embassy, or even if the embassy was actually attacked on purpose, for that matter.

What we do know is that the embassy attack excited fears of anger and impotence within the Chinese elite, because they could not prevent or deter the attack, defend against the attack, or retaliate after the attack.

On the psychological level, the Chinese coped with the bombing both by venting their outrage and by fixating on theories that China was able to claim a victory by extracting something of enormous value—F 117-A parts, a Tomahawk missile, a JDAM—that mitigated the blow and “saved China ten years” in its military development.

The Shenyang poster writes:

Upon learning the this genuine picture, I believe that the U.S. attack on our embassy came from the fact that China’s accurate reporting of the Yugoslavia war provoked America to anger and retribution. At the very least we can say that China’s strength really was incapable of hindering America’s risky move. Now we know, and it causes us to appreciate even more profoundly that a nation, when it is poor and weak, is without recourse and pitiful (How helpless and evoking bitterness in people’s hearts were the tears of Premier Zhu Rongji as he wept at the airfield when the remains of the martyrs were transported back to China).

在 知道这个真相之前我只是认为美国轰炸我们使馆是处于中国对南战的真实报道激怒了美国而招致其报复,那至少说明了我们中国实力真的没到可以阻击美国冒险的地 步,现在知道了,然而使我更深刻的领会到一个国家在批贫弱时的命运是多么的无奈与悲哀(株容基总理在烈士遗体运回国内的机场上的眼泪是多么的无奈与令人心 酸)!

I might add that Zhu Rongji, while not a hard-case sociopath like some members of the CCP leadership, is no cupcake. As Premier he projected a tough git’er done persona that would make an emotional expression like crying at the airport a memorable and significant image.

On a more practical level…well, I’ll let the Shenyang poster describe the consequences for military planners—and military contractors—both in China and the United States.

Detailing a litany of high-tech armaments from fighters to cruisers to nuclear submarines funded with a RMB 50 billion allocation, he concludes:

Afterwards we learned that after the bombing China engaged in deep reflection and understood reality more clearly…all of these [developments] transmit this single message to the world—China yearns to be strong and great!

后来我知道了在那次事件之后中国从心底进行了反思,对现实的认识更清楚了……,都象世界传达了这样一个消息--中国渴望强大!

/plee/the-belgrade-bombing-the-f-117-cake-and-the-tears-of-premier-zhu-rongji/

(Republished from China Matters by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Foreign Policy, History • Tags: Belgrade embassy bombing, China 
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  1. J Yan says:

    …China’s accurate reporting of the Yugoslavia war provoked America to anger and retribution.

    This is not an isolated incident. From Wikipedia: “On 13 November 2001 a U.S. missile hit Al Jazeera’s office in Kabul, Afghanistan” and “On 8 April 2003 a U.S. missile hit an electricity generator at Al Jazeera’s office in Baghdad.”

    • Replies: @AndrewR
  2. Kiza says:

    Peter, you and I have discussed this topic before.

    In the briefest possible, the bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade was a truly historical event which will reverberate several centuries into the future. There is no doubt that it was a deliberate act.

    Strategically, Serbia (not Yugoslavia) was meant to be a spring-board for China into Europe. I happened to visit China in the year 2000, less than a year after the bombing of the Embassy and many Chinese were dreaming of getting into Europe through Serbia. Serbians were not too keen on the Chinese, but had no other “friend” in 1999, since Yeltsin’s Russia belonged to the US-Russian Jew Mafia and was working against Serbia. Thus, they invited the Chinese to help them and the Chinese jumped at the opportunity.

    But the US had a different view – now that Russia was out of Europe, it would never let China get a piece of the Euro-action. The bombing of the Embassy was, therefore, a clear message: go-home Chinamen, there is only death for you here, the US owns Europe. And they do to this day, there is no PM or president in the whole of Europe who can be elected without US approval.

    The reaction in China was a shock at the severity of the US action. The “Democracy Movement” was dead, but the US never really cared much about the TianAnMen movement in China. Killing of an opportunity to destabilize China internally has to be taken against the immediate benefit that China lost any foothold in Europe and was sent home packing, blooded. When a pro-US regime was put in power in Serbia through a color-revolution later in 2001, this regime completely got rid of any ties with China.

    Most military developments in China since 1999 have been driven by the knowledge and materials acquired during NATOs attack on Serbia and the Chinese monitoring of it: anti-satellite weapons, stealth-fighters, radar technology, military tactics, etc. In only 16 years, China has advanced almost 100 years militarily and will soon catch up with NATO, just the same as it has caught up with the West economically.

    • Replies: @Flower
    , @Kiza
    , @Anonymous
  3. Priss Factor [AKA "The Priss Factory"] says:

    Maybe the Chinese forgot the eggrolls.

  4. Flower says:
    @Kiza

    ” There is no doubt that it was a deliberate act.” – Really? And how many bombs have you dropped from 40,000 feet? Just askin’.

  5. War for Blair Mountain [AKA "Battle for Blair Mountain"] says:

    Professor Lee

    I just want to add to your erudite commentary on the bombing of The Chinese Embassy in Belgrade that the first Black President of the United States ordered the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade…I am of course referring to Bill Clinton.

    Our second Black President is threatening Conservative Orthodox Christian European Russia with thermonuclear annihilation on a daily basis…I am of course referring to Dear Leader Barack The Magnificent!!!!

    Professor Lee

    Please tell your people to keep the Africans out of China!!!!!!

  6. War for Blair Mountain [AKA "Battle for Blair Mountain"] says:
    @Flower

    Let’s suppose that you are right…that it was accidental. Why did Clinton invade the Balkans in the first place?

    It is now well documented that the accusations made by the Clinton administration about Serbian atrocities were fabrications. It was an intervention based on lies that resulted in the accidental bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade that could have resulted in an open nuclear confrontation between the US and China.

    And don’t forget General Wesley Clark’s insane order to a famous pop singer to attack our ally during this time period…the Russians….thereby triggering nuclear war.. Thank God Blount disobeyed the order.

  7. One does not need to imagine the unforgiving reaction to a bombing of any of our own embassies.

    Unless it were by Israel, perhaps. Even reaction to that would not be as sanguine as we imagine others ought to be about our own plausibly deniable mistakes.

  8. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    I’ve talked to several US intelligence officers about this. The story I got was that of course it was on purpose — like the guy in the story, they bragged about all 3 JDAMS went right through the same small window — but they all said it had nothing to do with aircraft wreckage. They said that Chinese intelligence was helping the Serbs, with sigint on our air operations and thus endangering US planes and pilots. They got hit to punish them for trying to help the Serbs to kill Americans, and to destroy the electronics equipment they were using.

    Whether or not this was a smart idea in the long term, in the short term the Chinese stopped helping the Serbs.

    • Replies: @Realist
  9. Realist says:

    “As to why this happened, the United States has always declared it was an accident.”

    The United States never kills anyone by accident.

  10. Realist says:
    @Flower

    “Really? And how many bombs have you dropped from 40,000 feet? Just askin’.”

    Only a chickenshit would drop bombs from 40,000 ft. Just say’n.

  11. Realist says:
    @Anonymous

    “They said that Chinese intelligence was helping the Serbs, with sigint on our air operations and thus endangering US planes and pilots.”

    Why were American planes in Serbia….where they don’t belong?

  12. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    Lol at Delay squeezing the ambassadors hand. Let’s send Delay to meet the Taliban where he can intimidate a sheik by placing the death grip on him.

    You have to wonder how much of our foreign policy is run in the same ham handed manner.

  13. Classic case of the Imperialist States of Amerikastan ruining its own long term interests for short term benefits – as it was doing in the same period by aiding and abetting the Chechens and before that the Mujahideen and Al Qaeda, as it is doing now by arming, training and funding Al Qaeda and ISIS. Making an enemy of China wasn’t a great idea. Forcing it to upgrade its military to international standards was an obvious sequel that anyone but an Amerikastani could have predicted.

  14. As the F-117 and its secrets fade into oblivion, what is worthy of further mulling over is the role that the Belgrade bombing seems to play as the creation myth of the birth of the 21st Chinese strategic military doctrine, founded on the assumption that the U.S. will unscrupulously use its military, diplomatic, and propaganda advantages not only to contain China but even to attack it when need, desire, and circumstances permit.

    Assumption? That’s official US doctrine: full-spectrum dominance, baby!

    Now, finally, comes the ‘Asia pivot’. We’ll see what happens…

  15. Kiza says:
    @Kiza

    One little thing I wonder about, which is relevant to US-China relations of today, is who really ordered the bombing of the Chinese Embassy – obviously it was Billy, but Hillary is known to have been the spiritus movens behind the US interventions in the Balkans. She even claimed many times the credit for the bombing of the Serbs. Whilst Billy was chasing interns throughout the White House and had his pants around the ankles, were the real pants in the house worn by Hillary? In other words, is it possible that the POTUS Candidate Hillary, who called Putin to be the new Hitler, also ordered the bombing of the Chinese embassy (a double score)?

  16. Priss Factor [AKA "The Priss Factory"] says:

    Peter Lee, you talk too much.

    You go for detail, detail, but all you have to know is mind and heart and balls of American. And then, you figure it out.

    First, I say you Chinese no good. Why Chinese treat dog and cat bad? Dog good pet and cat very nice. So long as Chinese treat dog and cat cruel way, they not fully human, and I no trust Chinese. If Chinese come here in big number, they eat all dog and cat.

    Now, what you need to know about America.
    There two kind of white American. There East Coast Wasp elite. They very sneaky but they have some principle. If not exactly fair play, they into appearance of fair play, so they afraid to lose face when caught doing bad thing.

    But there another kind of white American, the Texan, like Tom Delay. They more gruff and manly. They act like guy in American Sniper who see world as ‘good people’, who mostly Americans, OR ‘savages’ that could be Arabs or Chinese or whatever.

    In America and around world, Negro most savage. But because of American worship MLK, it ‘racist’ to say funny no good stuff about Negro. So, Texan hatred seek something safe to hate. Since Jew and Negro(and now Homo) no can be hated no more by Texans, Texans likey to push around China, Iran, Russia, and Palestinian. It only way they feel like man. Delay know he must sucky sucky to Jew. So, only way he feel manhood is acting tough on yellow Chinese. And McCain no feel like man because he sucky sucky on Jew. So, he find his manhood by talk tough about Russian as if cold war still on.

    As Texan white people, year after year, lose out to negro, Mexicano(who come big numbers), , Jew(who run everything) and even homo who boof butt, the only outlet for rage and pride is talk tough about China, Russia, Iran, and some other nation hated by Jew. If Jew hate a country, it green light for Texans to get much excited.
    It politically allowed.

    Most white American people good people whether East Coast elite or Texan. But they likey being #1. So, they not personally anti-Chinese. Back when China poor and when dwarf Deng come to Texas and wear ten gallon hat, white American find him funny and okay. There no ill will against China. Back in 80s, white Americans more worry about Japan Inc that make car and computer and stuff.

    White American no like Japan after Pearl Harbor and smash it good. But after defeat and Japan sucky sucky uncle sam, American like Japan as geisha and shoeshine boy. White American like those they beat up. But when Japan in 80s challenge US economy, white American no like Japan.
    Now, Japan weak again, so white American like. But China is growing, so white American no like. Big change since 80s.
    White American funny this way. They kill many American Indian and Filipinos. They call them ‘injun’ and ‘gook’. But once Indian lose, white American like Indian and give free bacon and even casino later on. And once Philippines and US make peace, white American look at Philippines as nice country with easy women who put out good to American. What not to like if girl who looky like Michelle Malkin say ‘take me, big boy?’

    In nutshell or eggroll, white American love people whose ass they kick. White American kick American Indian ass and then love them. No longer call ‘Injun’ but ‘native American’. White American kick Japan and then love them. No longer call ‘Jap’ but ‘Japanese’; but then Japanese ‘Jap’ once again in 80s, but with big recession and rise of China, Japanese no longer ‘Jap’ but Japanese once again. But Chinese now ‘chink’.
    America never truly kick Chinese butt. So, American can never love China like it love Indians and Japanese whose butt kicked real good.

    Anyway, today America no longer ruled by White American. It ruled by Jew. What kind of people the Jew? They very very very sneaky. If Wasp sneaky, Jew very very very sneaky. See Wolf of Wall Street and you know how Jew act.
    See how Jew act in Russia in 1990s and you learn essence of Jew. They very very very sneaky. They talk nice talk about human right, democracy, and liberty, but they really into more Jewish power and money and influence. Russia trust Jew and get in big trouble in 90s.
    Looky what happen to Wasp in America after they trust Jew. They no longer run country made by ancestors. They now sucky sucky to Jew. They just running dog.

    To understand Jewish way, you need see some movie.

    Jew Suss by Veit Harlan good place to start. Harlan no good guy who work for bad Nazi Germany. I no likey Hitler. He bad stuff and do bad thing. But Jew Suss was Wolf of Wall Street before Wolf of Wall Street. It show how Jews pull dirty stuff to get ahead and make big dough.
    You no have to like Nazi or think Jew Suss a great movie to learn how Jew operate. It so much like Wolf of Wall Street that scare me so bad.

    It not hard for Chinese to understand Jew because Chinese also sneaky. If Wasp sneaky and if Jew very very very sneaky, Chinese very very sneaky. Why China so corrupt and so many Chinese do bad stuff?
    Chinese very very sneaky. They no good people who also eat dog and cat.

    Anyway, there is Chinese version of Jew Suss or Chew Soong. It Zhang Yimou movie TO LIVE. Movie begin with Chinese guy who act so nice and kind. He act so courteous and friendly. He act like he respect other guy he gamble with. Other guy think the nice friendly guy really really nice.
    But seemingly nice guy only act nice to fool the other guy into gambling all fortune away. It much like what Jew do to Russia in 90s. Act like friendly advisers while work with Russian Jew to rob all Russia. Chinese know how this work because they very very sneaky. Russia should know China not to trust. Of course, Russian also sneaky but too much vodka make them sloppy.

    Anyway, see this video:

    What the ‘nice guy’ do? He act like friend. He act so respectful. But when other guy lose all money and shirt and and have no more to offer, the ‘nice guy’ no longer nice guy and take all wealth. He only pretend be ‘nice’ to fool other guy and take all money.

    This how Jew see Russia and China. See Jew Suss and Wolf of Wall Street if you no believe me.

    And it should no come surprise to Chinese since Chinese also pull dirty trick like Jew do though not as good because Jew smarter than Chinese.

    And Jew Suss and Wolf of Wall Street here:

    You trust Jew, you beached whale.

    But then, you trust Chinese, you shark in Chinese soup.

    • Replies: @Realist
  17. guest says:

    “perspective provided by the shameless mendacity of the Bush administration”

    There’s been enough shameless mendacity in U.S. history. Look at pretty much ever war we ever started/got into: the Mexican war and the bloody spot, the kabuki theater of Ft. Sumter, the Maine, the Lusitania, Pearl Harbor, Tonkin Gulf, etc. I can see contrasting Clinton with Bush, since Clinton didn’t start any big wars, though he did jump into Kosovo, for instance, on a wave of falsehood about the Serbs. But did we really need Bush to remind us? Were we all innocent babes back in the 90s, unaware of how anyone could possibly mistrust our motives? No, or not anymore than now.

    Remember who was in charge back then: the Vietnam generation. That easily soured more people on the virtue, if not sanity, of the ruling class than any Middle Eastern war ever will.

  18. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:
    @Kiza

    You overstate things a bit, even if the accidental/”accidental” bombing did everything you say. We fought a war against communist China, though I don’t think many Americans are aware of that fact. And we’ve gone intermittently crazy over the Yellow Peril in the decades since Korea, for instance when Mao occupied the symbolic role that Iran now plays, and we seriously considered (or pretended to) fighting him all out lest a madman’s finger be allowed near a nuclear button. The Belgrade bombing wasn’t out of the blue.

    The public face has been rapprochement since Nixon, but come on, you know the Pentagon’s number one doomsday scenario is world war with China. Every single bump in the road, we’re back to daggers drawn. Remember the plane crash back in 2001, Bush the Younger’s first Big Foreign Policy Thingee before 9/11 sent it down the memory hole? I remember people treating it like it was the damn Cuban Missile Crisis.

  19. Kiza says:

    I am not sure I get your point – how did I overstate things? Did I write that China and the US were friends until a couple of JDAMs fell into the first attache’s lap? I tried to complement Peter’s article with strategic information, which he may have only broached. I have a fairly strong case for a claim that this was deliberate, not because of what happened back in 1999, not even because a few low-level secret service agents may have said so (as Sgt. Hammerstein writes above). I gave you a clear strategic reason why it was in the US interest to send China a clear message: 1) that China was out of its depth in Europe, and 2) that the US will use absolutely any means to keep China out. You have to be deaf, dumb and blind not to see this message in this incident.

    One may as well believe all US Government conspiracy theories, such as that Osama Bin Laden did 911 and so on, as much as the theory that this was an accident. But to all those who do believe the USG one simple question: how come they made a “mistake” against the embassy of the only one country which was not helping US against Serbia? Belgrade had some 200 embassies, what were the odds of hitting the Chinese one? Remember also that the lot on which the Chinese Embassy was built was empty before; that it was a defense directorate before was a typical, blatant, bold-faced lie by the USG for domestic consumption.

    But, I am waiting to see a new old foreign policy under President Hillybillary who may have been involved in this bombing and who is opening up channels of communication with all strategic competitors and enemies by calling them names (Hitler).

  20. anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    The consensus of those who look into the matter is that they were deliberately targeted. Denials range from simply being evasive and the desire to believe we wouldn’t do such a thing all the way to something more sinister where a mafiosi explains that ‘accidents happen’ and that it’s wise to purchase an ‘insurance policy’ against such things happening in the future.
    The DeLay story is an obnoxious one but it’s clear he inverted things. The American public has no inherent hostility towards the Chinese except for that which is artificially stoked by the government via the mass media. That part of the public that reads and has any intellectual interest in things have interest in Chinese history, culture etc etc. They don’t perceive the Chinese as being naturally in conflict with us. It’s the political lineup that keeps promoting the idea that they are a potential threat.
    What was the US doing in what to most people was an obscure part of the world, thousands of miles away, bombing the people there and changing the borders? When did the US become the owner of the planet? They used their best weapons technology against a smaller country with hardly any defense against it much like the Germans are said to have used the Spanish Civil War as a laboratory to test their air power capabilities. The US and it’s fellow travelers who were involved with it in the Balkans are gussied up international bandits roving the highways of the world looking for victims that they can profitably waylay.

  21. Realist says:
    @Priss Factor

    “Peter Lee, you talk too much.”

    Then you write a brainless screed. Too funny.

  22. At this point, if you told me Washington DC was ruled by a Pack of Satan Worshiping Pedophiles, I’d probably believe it.

    The Media is as bad, if not worse.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  23. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:
    @si1ver1ock

    also a few gentiles

  24. AndrewR says:
    @J Yan

    Given how awful Al Jazeera’s US subsidiary, AJ+, is, it’s a shame the missiles did so little damage.

  25. Anonymous[169] • Disclaimer says:

    The timing of the bombing event seems related to the downing of the stealth fighter. Whether it’s stealth fighter parts scavenged by Chinese or sigint help, is kind of immaterial.

    Realistically, China has no more right to a presence in China than the US, and arguably a lot less. The US certainly have had a military presence there since WWII. That’s the lay of the land.

    If China is basically fighting a proxy war with the US, and the support they are providing is through the Belgrade embassy, then what do they think is going to happen? If their embassy is the conduit through which they are stealing US stealth technology or helping the Serbs shoot down US planes, then it is serving a military function, while pretending that it’s just a shiny building that processes visas and passports.

    So then the US responds militarily while saying publicly “Oops, I didn’t see you there, it’s just a total accident that 5 of our guided bombs impacted your perfectly kosher embassy.”

    To the layman, there was an honest mistake of bombing a legitimate embassy. To others with a more realpolitik understanding of the world, well, you play with fire you get burned.

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