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scrabble-aargh

Chanda Chisala and I post about each other so often that we should be employing the same agent. Properly managed, I might finally get onto a lecture tour circuit somewhere. The Shetlands, perhaps.

Below is the post to which I am referring.

http://www.unz.com/article/will-scrabble-have-the-last-word-on-the-iq-debate/

My reply to Chisala’s post has hardly been prompt: one source of delay, among others, was posting about a massive new study by Hur et al. (2017) on Nigerian children in public schools which has shown early male advantage in intelligence scores, and an overall result which is unchanged from previous estimates, but is far stronger in terms of sample size and representativeness.

http://www.unz.com/jthompson/sex-differences-in-intelligence-in-nigeria/

Whilst one can always wish for better coverage, particularly of private schools, the current picture is that on Raven’s matrices the new Nigerian generation has an IQ of 70. This is relevant to the calculation of the internationally judged smart fraction in Nigeria, in that it reduces its size and, if the test results are true, makes exceptional intellectual performance less likely in that country, and thus makes demonstrated Nigerian achievement even more of an exceptional case, thus potentially challenging the predictive value of intelligence testing. For the avoidance of doubt: a confirmed low score on intelligence tests placed against good performance in international competitions involving intelligence calls the intelligence test results into question.

Chisala is testing the veracity of African country-level intelligence test results by finding excess African performance on international Scrabble competitions. I am in favour of the general approach of looking at intellectual competitions, because real life achievements are the real test of ability, and intelligence tests are merely predictive instruments. Curious as it may seem, we are in agreement on that matter. I would prefer that the real-life tests of achievement were studied across a broader range than Scrabble, including Chess, Maths competitions, numbers of patents, innovations in science and technology and so on, but I am sure that Scrabble at competition level requires high intelligence.

I am also sure that general relationships are just that: general. There will be outliers and exceptions, positive and negative residuals on the overall trend line, but if there are too many then there will not be a general relationship. So, although the argument largely centres on Nigerian examples, the overall assessment between intelligence tests and actual achievements should cover all countries.

Chisala believes that evidence of exceptional performance is more damaging to the hereditarian than the environmentalist position. He says:

My argument is therefore not against the low IQ score estimates for African nations (by Richard Lynn, et al), but whether this reflects some restrictive racially linked genetic cause. If it is indeed basically genetic, it should practically be impossible to find any area of relative cognitive performance of Africans that is inconsistent with this large IQ deficit with whites and other groups.
If, on the other hand, the cause is basically environmental (specifically, learning resource deficiencies), then some exceptions are bound to exist and these will predictably only be found in areas in which the cognitive challenges are high but the learning resource requirements (books, well-trained teachers etc) are extremely minimal. Performance on such cognitively demanding but bookless contests will far exceed even academic areas that are light on cognitive demands but heavy on book learning (eg soft subjects like sociology etc, where you still find no Africans at the top). The genetic Racial Hypothesis predicts that the gap should be even bigger in favor of whites as you go to the more naturally complex contests like Scrabble (see Spearman’s Hypothesis.) In short, if there was to be any exception to inferior African intellectual performance, it should have been in the softer fields where there are less of the gifted math types to contend with.

I can see his general argument, though geneticists argue that the degree of heritability does not equal the norm of reaction, and a high heritability does not mean that a trait is unaffected by its environment. I see this discussion in a simpler light: if many countries show abilities which are higher than predicted by intelligence testing, then the validity of those test results are called into question. To be clear, I agree that is a valid argument against intelligence assessments at the country level if actual achievements are generally poorly predicted.

Now, performance above prediction could be from genetic causes if there were sub-groups within Nigeria (or any other country) with exceptional abilities. They need not be particularly numerous within Nigeria, any more than Jews need be numerous to be clearly above average in Europe, but they can have disproportionate success in intellectual competitions. This is the observed pattern in Nobel prizes and so on which confirm Jewish superiority in intellect compared to other Europeans. However, the genetic interpretation of exceptional performance could only be argued if it could be shown that Nigerian Scrabble or Chess or Maths competition winners were disproportionately drawn from some especially talented minority group. As far as I know that hasn’t been established, or not yet anyway.

I agree with Chisala’s other points about “softer” fields not being the best measure of national ability, though they require ability which I would probably rate higher than Scrabble, and we already have evidence of that. For example, Nigerian Wole Soyinka won the Nobel for literature in 1986.

However, I do not agree with his dismissal of the chess results as being due to a lack of training in Africa, particularly when Chisala then goes on to make a point about Kenny Solomon of South Africa being a Chess Grand Master. FIDE does not say that, because he has not reached their threshold requirement of 2500 points. Wikipedia says: “Although Solomon has never reached the required rating of 2500, he earned the Grandmaster title by winning the African Chess Championship in December 2014, thereby becoming the first chess grandmaster from South Africa[5] and the second one from sub-Saharian Africa after Amon Simutowe.” This could have made clearer, and it shows how important it is to set thresholds to begin with, or one mixes local rankings with the ones that matter most, the international open competitions. That Africans can be excellent chess players is not in question, simply that determining Grand Masters depends on using standard ranking procedures.

The big advantage of using chess to look at the general cognitive ability of countries is that it is non-verbal competition with a clear win-lose-draw scoring system, and very wide representation across the world. FIDE has 188 member federations, WESPA (English language Scrabble) seems to have 23 nations. This makes Scrabble a slenderer basis for international comparisons.

The top 100 Chess grand master FIDE list does not appear to include an African, but I have not gone through all the names in detail, so please do so for me.

https://ratings.fide.com/top.phtml?list=men

I have looked at the FIDE total scores for the top 10 players in each country, which gives a broader sample of capability. It is worth looking at this list, which allows both genetic and cultural interpretations.

https://ratings.fide.com/topfed.phtml

Russia is No 1, followed by USA, China and then Ukraine. With a mere 3.3 million person Uruguay manages to slip in at No 75, but Faroe Islands achieves No 81 with a mere 48,199 hardy islanders, and that is despite mercury in their whale meat (traces of, but I will post about that later).

On the African continent, the first countries to come in are: Egypt 49th, Algeria 68th, Morocco 70th, Tunisia 74, South Africa 77, Zambia 88, Nigeria 91. Gabon with 1.8 million inhabitants is there at No 157, a ranking similar to Sierra Leone, Guernsey (population 63,000), Mozambique and Somalia. There is lots to discuss here, and showing all these countries by IQ and population would give a general test of the country intelligence/chess success link.

Here are the South African top players

https://ratings.fide.com/topfed.phtml?ina=1&country=RSA

Here are the Nigerian top players

https://ratings.fide.com/topfed.phtml?ina=1&country=NGR

In sum, I think that chess is a valid indicator worth studying, and Nigerian chess performance is not disproportionately good, given population size.

Back to Scrabble. Here is some background on the intellectual characteristics of Scrabble players: Toma, Halpern and Berger (2014) found that top scrabble experts have “extraordinarily high levels of visuospatial and verbal working memory capacities” and score 1.23d higher than elite college students who scored at the 93th percentile of the quantitative SAT.” We are agreed that top level Scrabble players are very bright.

My approach in testing the claims of out-of-the-ordinary Scrabble achievement was to make minimal assumptions: assume that the country intelligence estimates from Lynn or Rindermann were what needed to be tested (but now see the Becker edition updates); set the standard deviations to a common 15 points; take the UN estimates of total population; then calculate how many citizens of that country were above a certain criterion, which I placed at IQ 130. I also looked at IQ 140, but the IQ 130 figures are sufficient to illustrate the general point. I could have spelled this out in more detail, but I repeat the general principles of this approach as set out in my previous post:

http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com/ashkenaz.htm

1) A threshold of performance must be found that depends purely on cognitive ability.
2) The threshold must be unequivocally defined.
3) The rates at which the target group and the control group cross the threshold must be established.
4) Opportunity must exist for both groups to cross the threshold. That is, the target group cannot be restricted by political considerations from fair competition.
5) An overriding motive to cross the threshold must exist, being sufficiently strong that virtually all those capable of crossing the threshold do.

For a really productive discussion, we need to answer those points.

1) We need to agree what the threshold is. It could be getting to the finals or winning the most prestigious and representative Scrabble prize. We should find a threshold which could also be applied to other competitions and achievements.
2) The unequivocal threshold must be defined. Perhaps it should be the top 20, 30, 50 or 100 players in the world each year. I would favour the top 100 to make it easier for Africans to enter the lists. In the case of Scrabble, we might have to decide whether the competition should be in English or French, since this could influence African country totals. We need to agree a figure and a method. Top 100 players in each competition? If most countries do not participate in Scrabble competitions this limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the competitions.
3) The rates at which the target group (Nigeria or Gabon or all of Sub-saharan African countries) cross the threshold and the control group (Europe; US/Canada; Asia; rest of world?) cross the threshold need to be agreed. This should be easier, because there are lists of competition winners.
4) Are there restrictions which impede competition? Such restrictions are probably mostly experienced in Africa, but national training programs may be a contrary factor. Overall, they might predict African under-performance because of resource restrictions. Africans who move abroad could be an exception.
5) Are people motivated to play the game in question? The motivation is very probably not as uniformly strong as playing Chess in the USSR, so this is a tricky one to resolve. We would need to study the numbers of people playing competition Scrabble and Chess and other games in each country. It might be possible to estimate this. It would appear that chess is far more widely played than Scrabble.

The best form of comparison is to look at country achievement levels in the most important competition, and to work back the calculations from there. Here are the Scrabble national winning teams from the World Championship History 1991-2016: United States 7, England 6, Canada 5, Thailand 5, New Zealand 4, Australia 1, Malaysia 1, Nigeria 1. The first thing which springs to mind is that this is hardly a globally represented game, as measured by the winning teams. However, these give us threshold scores for a scattering of participating countries, and a basis for doing some calculations.

First of all, the correlation between county IQs and number of national wins is r= 0.498 which is indicative, but moderate in size. The correlation between population size and wins is r= .336 which is lower. The correlation between wins and smart fraction (Greenwich IQ 130+) is r=.794 which is strong and unlikely to be a fluke. I think it safe to say that there is a general relationship between national intelligence and national wins on Scrabble competitions when one takes population size into account. Nigeria is punching above its weight, in that it draws its Scrabble champions from a much smaller group of smart people, but it is not an impossibly small group. It is a separate question as to whether they should be spending their time on this game, but as you know, “I do not do policy”.

A few points about calculating the numbers of IQ 130+ people in each country. The simplest technique is to work out those figures for the whole population, since the numbers can then be applied to all intellectual endeavours: Maths, science, technology, Chess and Scrabble and all else. Of course, each country will have different age structures (some like Nigeria will have younger populations than others) but the same calculations should be applied to all countries.

By the way, I think it a mistake in reasoning to say that if Scrabble winners turn out to be mostly men we should not include women in our calculations. I think it is better to calculate the number of bright persons regardless of sex, and then see how they employ their talents. Women may start winning more of these competitions, and it is easier to apply the same calculations to all countries then to argue backwards from the particular characteristics of the winners of each game.

Chisala suggests that my estimate of the number of bright Nigerians be reduced in the following ways: cut my estimate in half to account for toddlers; further cut by more than half to exclude women; and further cut by half to account for half of Africa’s intellectuals having moved away from Africa. I think these reductions are excessive, and in excluding women from the general calculation of the smart fraction (because they are not in the top ranks of Scrabble players) mistaken, but I am following his line of argument just to do the figures. If Scrabble requires IQ 130+ then those three cuttings-in-half bring the smart fraction down from 5764 to 720 persons. If IQ 140 is required, then dividing by half three times brings the smart fraction down from 1336 Nigerians to 167. Chisala gets the number down to 33 so he must have used a higher discounting. I do not accuse him of “reverse engineering his concealed steps” which he levelled at me when I set all standard deviations to a standard 15 points. He has discounted in a different way, and can explain the precise reductions in our later exchanges, which may be the basis of a major movie someday, if our afore-mentioned agent earns his keep.

Chisala also asks me to do this calculation for Gabon, which has a much smaller population than Nigeria.

I don’t know why Dr. Thompson neglected to show us how his calculations would work on Gabon (the country that was most prominent in my own rough statistical argument), which has less than 2 million people and an IQ of 64 but regularly produces top world championship Scrabble players. As a defender of your hypothesis, you should normally tackle the hardest cases to show how they happily survive the biggest hits from the opposition. The math fails miserably for Gabon, even without a single correction to his assumptions.

It Gabon IQ were 64 the smart fraction would be as follows: Taking Gabon’s population as 1.8 million the IQ 130 smart fraction (standard deviation 15) would be 428 persons. Above IQ 140 would be 95 persons. However, there is a problem with calculating the IQ of Gabon. In previous publications the IQ has been given as 64, and in other places at 69, but on the Becker edition of the Lynn database we no longer have an entry for that country, because we do not have a reference which comes up to standard. It is time for a researcher to test mental ability on a large sample in Gabon.

In order to discuss all these matters (exceptional performance by individual countries) we need to carry out the same calculation for all countries, which is to work out the smart fraction for every country, and use that as the base rate for all intellectual prizes, including those achieved by women.

On the question of standard deviations, although I set them all to a common figure, I agree with Chisala that my uniform use of 15 points can be questioned, and I like his argument on this matter. A smaller standard deviation of 12, as found in African Americans by Arthur Jensen in his 1998 “The g factor” summary would give much lower figures for the Nigerian and other African estimates of numbers of smart fraction. This is a good test of whether the narrower spread of ability found in African Americans is also, as one might expect, found in Africans in Africa.

However, it was worth waiting for the new massive sample of Nigerian school children on the Standard Progressive Matrices Plus test, which finds an IQ of 70. With a raw score average of 21 and standard deviation 8.9 points, there is clearly a very wide dispersion of scores in Nigerian teenagers. The low mean score creates a slight problem, in that there will be restriction of range at the lower end. David Becker, who is in charge of the new database (see previous posts) shows that for 15 year olds (the older ages show a similar picture) the 8.9 points standard deviation of the raw scores translates to an IQ standard deviation of about 16 points below the mean, and 25 points above the mean for males; and 16 points below the mean and 20 points above the mean for females. David Becker adds: “It is always a problem in the case of nations with low scores that in this part of the scale, one raw score difference can cause 5 to 7 IQ scores difference. So even the rounding rules have a relatively huge impact.” In the case of Nigeria this massive study shows that a standard deviation of at least 15 IQ points seems appropriate. It would also be good to check all other African data, and to get more up to date figures for African Americans.

In discussions with other researchers I am trying to encourage more attention being paid to the distributions of scores, and the standard deviations. It will be good to gather new data on the standard deviations found currently in African Americans. Standard deviations are informative, and raw score distributions even more so.

Chisala also raises other matters. He points out that high African performers in the US often come from Africa itself, not local African Americans, and if the latter are brighter because they are about 20% white, that should not be the case. I think the answer lies in the selective migration of the brightest Africans. If Chisala really wants to cut my estimate of bright Africans in half, accepting The Economist’s calculation that half of them leave Africa (though some return to high posts in Africa), he cannot both do that and then be surprise when many of them end up in the US or UK.

To summarise: if we agree what constitutes good performance on a broad range of intellectual competitions, and if we measure every country in the same way to calculate their smart fractions, we seem to find a general correlation between intelligence and achievement. There are outliers, both positive and negative above and below the trend line, as with all demonstrated correlations.

https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3c4TxciNeJZZzZueHR2cjgtd2c

I cannot show that there are African intellectual elites who have developed higher intelligence than all other Africans, though this is a perfectly plausible hypothesis, particularly for those like me who believe that there is a genetic component in ability differences. It might be the case that there are such elites, and it would be good to search for them. For example, the new Hur et al. (2017) study should be able to detect them in Nigeria, using the background data on the children. The authors should be encouraged to take a look at this.

Above all, no predictor variable can triumph over a demonstrated reality: if the general relationship between ability measures and demonstrated achievement does not hold, then the ability measures are poor predictors. At the moment, they appear to be reasonable predictors, and are the best available at the moment. They might be able to be replaced by better ones, but that remains to be demonstrated.

 
• Category: Race/Ethnicity, Science • Tags: Africans, IQ, Race/IQ 
The Race/IQ Series
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  1. res says:

    Thanks for covering this! I need to read it again and think some more before commenting further. But it is worth mentioning that your selective immigration point has supporting data. Thanks to Emil for recommending the Brain Drain dataset in this comment: http://www.unz.com/jthompson/immigration-is-it-the-people/#comment-1893308

    Also see my response. I think this gives a good overview of what we see for Nigeria:

    Their emigration rate data is perfect for seeing how selective emigration is. For example, in 2010 Nigeria had emigration rates of 0.61% 0.11% 0.56% 12.04% for Total/Low/Medium/High categories (from their methodology note that is primary/secondary/tertiary education). That is such a large difference (~20x H/M and ~100x H/L relative rates!)

    Their brain-drain data link shows total immigrant stock by country (which is perfect for showing how selective immigration is). For example, for Nigerian men in the UK in 2010 we have 54838 9326 3406 42106 for Total/Low/Medium/High categories. Does the Brain Drain data have the source country populations by category and year easily available? (presumably they use it to calculate rates?) The raw data makes it obvious there is selective immigration of Nigerians to the UK, but the Nigerian source population data would help quantify it.

    The magnitude of this brain drain raises a question about how immigrants are counted in the per-country data. Possibly lowering the measured Nigerian (etc.) IQ while still being counted in the Scrabble championships (etc.).

    Do you have a citation for “The Economist’s calculation that half of them leave Africa (though some return to high posts in Africa)”?

    Searching for “The Economist calculation that half of them leave Africa intelligence brain drain” gives a number of hits, but I was unable to extract your statement from them.

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  2. The brain drain figures are extraordinary. It is wholesale Black Flight. I had previously done a post on Africans in UK, saying that the distribution of ability was bimodal. Found it:

    http://www.unz.com/jthompson/chanda-chisala-african-hereditarian/?highlight=bimodal

    The Economist quote comes from my very fallible memory. It was probably something I read over 5 years ago, when there was a move of highly skilled (I think Nigerian) banking people back to Africa, including a woman who became Minister of Finance, I think. I could not swear to it under oath, but I simply recall it. There were high hopes of an improvement in government quality.

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  3. Chuck says:

    Looks somewhat like an own-goal scores to me… Chanda’s argument — or at least a strongman-ing of it — is:

    Grant:
    P1. the quantitative genetic variance for trait X is not substantially different in the two groups (e.g., similar assortative mating, similar CovGE, no relevant population structure )
    Grant:
    P2. while it is easy to environmentally depress trait x relative to genotype, it is not easy to raise trait x relative to the same (e.g., the threshold hypothesis)

    Then:
    Sub-conclusion 1: if two groups, which differ on average in trait X, have proportionate high fractions, it can reasonably be inferred that they have equal genetic means, with unequal phenotypes owing to environmental factors, as there is no good explanation for why the smart fractions would be equivalent.

    Now:
    P3. Expert performance at Scrabble is a good indicators or superior IQ, while expert performance at other completions, such as chess, is more ambiguous

    P5. The number of expert Scrabble players who are African is commensurate with that who are European

    Sub-conclusion 2: Africans have a similar number of individuals with superior IQs as Europeans
    MajorC1: African IQ is not genetically depressed relative to European
    MajorC2: Measured mean IQ is not really a good indicator of mean African genetic IQ


    You valiantly try to undermine SC2, by calling into question P3 and P4. You also spiritedly attempt to undermine MC1, by arguing that P5, granting P3-P4, is mathematically consistent with the measured Nigerian IQ means and SDs… But in doing the latter, in pointing out the extremely skewed distribution, especially for Nigerian males, the whole counter point is undermined…

    “the 8.9 points standard deviation of the raw scores translates to an IQ standard deviation of about 16 points below the mean, and 25 points above the mean for males; and 16 points below the mean and 20 points above the mean for females.”

    By these numbers, the % of European adolescent males (mean 100, SD 15) > 130 = 2.28% and the % of Nigerian adolescent males (mean 72, SD 25) > 130 = 1.02%, implying a moderate d (smart fraction) = ~ 0.3. It would, of course, be informative to know what the actual Raven’s distribution looked like – e.g., what percent of Nigerian males/females reached Raven’s upper 2.28 (UK norms)? It seems — and please correct me if I am substantially wrong — that you have managed to explain away the bothersome expert Scrabble anomaly in part by showing greatly reduced upper end differences on “as good a test of intelligence” as possible!

    CC, of course, will simply take this as evidence of genetic parity (or African superiority), granting his 2 not unreasonable presuppositions (P1, P2).

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    • Replies: @James Thompson
    I explained that chess is a better basis for international comparisons because it is non-verbal, has a simple scoring system, and is widely played internationally. Scrabble is verbal, has a more idiosyncratic scoring system, and is not widely played internationally, though there are different language based competitions.

    Comparing standard deviations of tests requires standard scaling. The best estimate of the standard deviation of Nigerian IQ as measured by Ravens is about 15 IQ points, with the caution that because the mean is so low there may be restriction of range. It could be higher.
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  4. AaronB says:

    Above all, no predictor variable can triumph over a demonstrated reality: if the general relationship between ability measures and demonstrated achievement does not hold, then the ability measures are poor predictors.

    If you applied this consistently, the strength of IQ would be vastly undermined.

    Countries with the same IQs have wildly different “demonstrated achievement”. The races with the highest IQs do not have the highest “demonstrated achievement”. Etc.

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    • Replies: @Stephen R. Diamond
    Dr. Thompson also wrote, "real life achievements are the real test of ability, and intelligence tests are merely predictive instruments."

    It's obviously not true that you can best measure intelligence by looking at real life achievements. But this objection is probably too literal.
    , @James Thompson
    Need sources for your claims.
    , @Santoculto
    What I said: because Iq even measure creativity skills, just correlates because it's a broader cognitive measurement tool. Accidentally IQ correlates in some way with creativity. Where we are talking about achievements we are talking about IQ.

    Seems he want to say east Asians and Ashkenazis don't produced the remarkable achievements, Europeans does. The fundamental difference is not exactly on "intelligence"/ cognitive levels but creative and combined with higher intelligence + monomaniacal personality. Ashkenazis become considerably more prominent recently because they increased their creative levels or highly creative people become more common among them. I bet that endogamic relaxation may have a important role to make "ashkenazis" more creative. Seems most of endogamic communities tend to have lower preponderance or expression of traits that predict creative potential. The personality profiles that are selected in endogamic societies (unimaginative + very conformist/passive) + reduction of some balanced genetic diversity seems opposite to overall creative profiles specially on arts and philosophy but also likely on sciences.

    Amishness and creativity don't fit even its doesn't mean they "are" incapable to be innovative in your activities. Seems the big creativity that tend to be counter selected here.

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  5. When we speak of “achievements,” whether to create or to maintain, we are actually talking about two central features of human intelligence, perhaps universal: creativity and rationality. In the real world, these two are not only very important but central figures for the development of a civilization or at least for the success of a tribe in terms of organization [although it has abused creativity rather than rationality , Especially in the organization of society at a macro-level].

    Because psychometric research is always over-saturated in IQ, which is erroneously determined as “intelligence,” purely and simply, just as the concept of intelligence symbolized in a numerical result, the most important part that separates a modern society ” And pulsating in innovations of a society ” stopped in time ”, precisely the creativity, is not even mentioned.

    That is, in addition to believing that IQ = intelligence, they also believe that intelligence = creativity.

    IQ = intelligence = creativity.

    On the day that Chisala

    Not to fall in contradictions [accuse others of being hereditarians, but to do the same,;)]

    And is more objective and honest in exposing his hypothesis,

    At least we’ll know what he really means, because until now he was extremely obtuse, languid, in my opinion.

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  6. @AaronB

    Above all, no predictor variable can triumph over a demonstrated reality: if the general relationship between ability measures and demonstrated achievement does not hold, then the ability measures are poor predictors.
     
    If you applied this consistently, the strength of IQ would be vastly undermined.

    Countries with the same IQs have wildly different "demonstrated achievement". The races with the highest IQs do not have the highest "demonstrated achievement". Etc.

    Dr. Thompson also wrote, “real life achievements are the real test of ability, and intelligence tests are merely predictive instruments.”

    It’s obviously not true that you can best measure intelligence by looking at real life achievements. But this objection is probably too literal.

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  7. Realist says:

    “Chisala is testing the veracity of African country-level intelligence test results by finding excess African performance on international Scrabble competitions. I am in favour of the general approach of looking at intellectual competitions, because real life achievements are the real test of ability, and intelligence tests are merely predictive instruments. Curious as it may seem, we are in agreement on that matter. I would prefer that the real-life tests of achievement were studied across a broader range than Scrabble, including Chess, Maths competitions, numbers of patents, innovations in science and technology and so on, but I am sure that Scrabble at competition level requires high intelligence.”

    It would be very interesting to research competition level Scrabble players in relation to IQ tests and life achievements.

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  8. FKA Max says:

    I came across a curious case of a high-functioning African-derived population:

    Barbados has an average IQ of 78, so how has it managed to become a such a highly developed country?

    https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090617121032AAjCM0U

    In 2014, Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index ranked Barbados joint second in the Americas (after Canada, equal with the United States) and joint 17th globally (after Belgium and Japan, equal with the US, Hong Kong and Ireland).

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbados

    Interestingly, Barbados shares a unique distinction with Japan: both countries have the highest per capita occurrences of centenarians on earth.

    http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/barbados-population/

    Now a leading Canadian newspaper, the National Post, has come up with some possible answers.

    “A good start might be Bajan water,” suggested the Post in an article headlined: Many Rivers To Cross, Why So Many Barbadians Live For More Than 100 years?

    The paper stated, “the only volcanic island in the Caribbean, Barbados’ coral limestone filters water to a healthy state of ‘hard’ calcium rich drinking water similar to that of Okinawa.”

    https://web.archive.org/web/20071211110656/http://www.nationnews.com/story/284159291378094.php

    IQ-wise, the Caribbean doesn’t seem to make much sense, but there are a number of instances in this region that are impossible to explain by hard HBD theory.

    https://robertlindsay.wordpress.com/2015/08/18/caribbean-iq-scores/

    “Here we used a panel of 28 AIMs to examine the genetic ancestry of 298 individuals of African descent from the Caribbean islands of Jamaica, St. Thomas and Barbados. Differences in global admixture were observed, with Barbados having the highest level of West African ancestry (89.6%+/- 2.0) and the lowest levels of European (10.2%+/- 2.2) and Native American ancestry (0.2%+/- 2.0), while Jamaica possessed the highest levels of European (12.4%+/- 3.5) and Native American ancestry (3.2%+/- 3.1). St. Thomas, USVI had ancestry levels quite similar to African Americans in continental U.S. (86.8%+/- 2.2 West African, 10.6%+/- 2.3 European, and 2.6%+/- 2.1 Native American).”

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17908263

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    • Replies: @James Thompson
    A tax exempt anomaly.
    , @gda
    Remember that Barbados was the jewel in the crown of the British colonies, and was a colony until it was granted independence in 1966. Contrary to contemporary opinion, colonialism, especially the English variety, was (compared to the governments ruling in former colonies today), a very effective and successful system of government.

    By the time of the transfer of power in 1966, the country was most fortunate to have a most extraordinary and far-sighted leader in the person of Errol Barrow:

    “Barrow was very adept at drawing on the talents and experience of those White business leaders. He knew that these men, despite their colour, would help him build a new Barbados. He asked them to serve and they did.”

    “Errol Barrow wanted to build a more equitable society but not by fire. What many people don’t appreciate is that, in the social hierarchy of Barbados – at least the Black hierarchy – he was an aristocrat. And aristocrats tend to value rather than despise order and stability.

    He was an international thinker, extremely well educated and with a world view honed by participation in a world war. And on November 30, 1966, he knew EXACTLY how precarious his country’s future was.”
    https://barbadosunderground.wordpress.com/2016/01/17/errol-barrow-refused-to-be-joshua/comment-page-1/

    Other brilliant contemporaneous leaders included Sir Grantley Adams and his son, JMG (Tom) Adams (who became Prime Minister after Barrow).

    The Adams family had a heavy admixture of European ancestry and Barrow would certainly have had some as well, likely more than the 10.2 % mentioned above for the average Barbadian black.
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  9. Only whites can engage in this useless excecise. I am pretty much sure Chinese and Japanese do not care about black IQ levels but spend time on more productive activities also not allowing those Africans into their societies.

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  10. @Chuck
    Looks somewhat like an own-goal scores to me… Chanda’s argument -- or at least a strongman-ing of it -- is:

    Grant:
    P1. the quantitative genetic variance for trait X is not substantially different in the two groups (e.g., similar assortative mating, similar CovGE, no relevant population structure )
    Grant:
    P2. while it is easy to environmentally depress trait x relative to genotype, it is not easy to raise trait x relative to the same (e.g., the threshold hypothesis)

    Then:
    Sub-conclusion 1: if two groups, which differ on average in trait X, have proportionate high fractions, it can reasonably be inferred that they have equal genetic means, with unequal phenotypes owing to environmental factors, as there is no good explanation for why the smart fractions would be equivalent.

    Now:
    P3. Expert performance at Scrabble is a good indicators or superior IQ, while expert performance at other completions, such as chess, is more ambiguous

    P5. The number of expert Scrabble players who are African is commensurate with that who are European

    Sub-conclusion 2: Africans have a similar number of individuals with superior IQs as Europeans
    MajorC1: African IQ is not genetically depressed relative to European
    MajorC2: Measured mean IQ is not really a good indicator of mean African genetic IQ


    You valiantly try to undermine SC2, by calling into question P3 and P4. You also spiritedly attempt to undermine MC1, by arguing that P5, granting P3-P4, is mathematically consistent with the measured Nigerian IQ means and SDs... But in doing the latter, in pointing out the extremely skewed distribution, especially for Nigerian males, the whole counter point is undermined…

    “the 8.9 points standard deviation of the raw scores translates to an IQ standard deviation of about 16 points below the mean, and 25 points above the mean for males; and 16 points below the mean and 20 points above the mean for females.”

    By these numbers, the % of European adolescent males (mean 100, SD 15) > 130 = 2.28% and the % of Nigerian adolescent males (mean 72, SD 25) > 130 = 1.02%, implying a moderate d (smart fraction) = ~ 0.3. It would, of course, be informative to know what the actual Raven's distribution looked like – e.g., what percent of Nigerian males/females reached Raven’s upper 2.28 (UK norms)? It seems -- and please correct me if I am substantially wrong -- that you have managed to explain away the bothersome expert Scrabble anomaly in part by showing greatly reduced upper end differences on “as good a test of intelligence” as possible!

    CC, of course, will simply take this as evidence of genetic parity (or African superiority), granting his 2 not unreasonable presuppositions (P1, P2).

    I explained that chess is a better basis for international comparisons because it is non-verbal, has a simple scoring system, and is widely played internationally. Scrabble is verbal, has a more idiosyncratic scoring system, and is not widely played internationally, though there are different language based competitions.

    Comparing standard deviations of tests requires standard scaling. The best estimate of the standard deviation of Nigerian IQ as measured by Ravens is about 15 IQ points, with the caution that because the mean is so low there may be restriction of range. It could be higher.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Chuck
    James,

    "The best estimate of the standard deviation of Nigerian IQ as measured by Ravens is about 15 IQ points...."

    From what I recall, in the UK SPM+ standardization sample the SD was about 7, suggesting that the Nigerian Raven's SD, despite a possible substantial floor effect, is inflated by 30%. So I am not seeing how you are now deriving a Raven's SD of about 15. Whatever the case, it would be informative to compare the distributions to see what percent of Nigerians solved as many puzzles as by the UK smart fraction, no?

    For Chanda's point, the distinction between IQ as predictor and real-world-outcomes as criterion is not particularly important. If it turned out that a large chunk of Nigerians were able to solve a lot of Raven's matrices but did not exhibit great scrabble ability, I am sure he would not scrap his argument, but rather retune it : matrix solving is a better index of functional capacity; for cultural reasons Nigerians just don't put much effort into scrabble or chess playing.

    Generally, from your discussion it is not clear that the Raven's results are inconsistent with Chanda's argument -- that the Nigerian smart fraction is much larger than a (simple) genetic model for the mean differences would anticipate. Thus it might be worthwile to look at the distribution in detail. Can you ask for a density plot?

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  11. @AaronB

    Above all, no predictor variable can triumph over a demonstrated reality: if the general relationship between ability measures and demonstrated achievement does not hold, then the ability measures are poor predictors.
     
    If you applied this consistently, the strength of IQ would be vastly undermined.

    Countries with the same IQs have wildly different "demonstrated achievement". The races with the highest IQs do not have the highest "demonstrated achievement". Etc.

    Need sources for your claims.

    Read More
    • Replies: @FKA Max
    I think, Charles Murray's Human Accomplishment could serve as a credible source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Accomplishment

    We previously briefly discussed the connection between Northern European/Protestant peoples and innovativeness (and science in general) with each other, and this is basically what it all boils down to for me:

    The less Protestant/Northern European and more Catholic, Jewish, Muslim, Atheist, etc. the U.S. becomes, the less industrious and rich it will be
    [...]
    Merton thesis

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merton_thesis
    [...]
    Instead, modern (white) Protestants and Jews had a high degree of “intellectual autonomy” that facilitated scientific and technical advance.[10] By contrast, Lenski pointed out, Catholics developed an intellectual orientation which valued “obedience” to the teachings of their church above intellectual autonomy, which made them less inclined to enter scientific careers. Catholic sociologists[11][12] had come to the same conclusions.[13]
     
    - http://www.unz.com/isteve/reforming-stuyvesant-hs-admissions-should-blacks-whites-team-up-against-asian-grinds/#comment-1812370

    In a paper written in 2009 for the Quarterly Journal of Economics, entitled Was Weber Wrong?, Becker and Woessmann argue that Protestants were more successful because they had the advantage of a better and longer education. Further research has led them to conclude that the educational advantage began soon after Martin Luther broke away from the established Church in the 16th century and has continued to play its part in creating economic success throughout Europe.

    Luther wanted women as well as men to be able to read the Bible, he points out. Not only did his followers set out to establish church schools in every parish, but girls went there as well as boys, he says. “We looked into the records of school building in the German federal state of Brandenburg in the 16th century, and discovered that there were disproportionately more girls in school than boys. Protestantism, it seems, was an early driver of emancipation. At that time, remember, Catholic areas didn’t even have any boys’ schools.

    – https://www.theguardian.com/education/2011/oct/31/economics-religion-research
     
    - http://www.unz.com/isteve/vox-demonizing-charles-murray-is-really-about-protecting-jews/#comment-1905923

    Jewish philosopher Michael Levin in his paper “Is There a Superior Race?” in G. McDonald (ed), “A Race Against Time”, (New century books, Oakton, 2003), pp.272-280, says that Whites are superior to Asians given Whites’ cultural achievements, because a world without Asians would be recognizable, but a world without Whites would not be.
     
    - https://thecross-roads.org/race-culture-nation/25-the-myth-of-east-asian-intellectual-supremacy

    Caucasians are responsible for 90 percent of scientific accomplishments (800 BC to 1950)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qUZcw0Z-28k

    Phillipe Rushton thought, that East Asians historically have been ahead of Europeans and the recent European accomplishments are just ``blips'' in the larger context of human accomplishment throughout history, i.e., a rare exceptions to the rule, which can be explained by events like the ``Black Death,'' etc.

    Whites vs East-Asians: Why are Whites more Creative? "Fascinating Question"

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo090s1y9TE

    However, in terms of straight-up IQ, baby blues are your best bet for being brilliant.
    [...]
    Intelligence and Pigmentation of Hair and Eyes in Elementary School Children
    G. H. Estabrooks
    The American Journal of Psychology
    Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 1929), pp. 106-108
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/1415114?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
     
    - http://www.unz.com/jthompson/genetics-of-racial-differences-in-intelligence-updated/#comment-1900725

    But why do blue eyes seem to correlate more strongly in men, than in women, with a more gracile facial structure? It may be that pre-natal exposure to estrogen is over-determined in women, i.e., all women are fully exposed to estrogen before birth regardless of their eye color. In men, the increase in pre-natal exposure would be confined to blue-eyed individuals.
     
    - http://www.unz.com/jthompson/genetics-of-racial-differences-in-intelligence-updated/#comment-1900903

    I have argued before, that this creativity and genius (and also pathological altruism/idealism) common in Whites (Faustian Spirit) is attributable to light eye pigmentation (which suppresses the secretion of melatonin, and is not very common in Asians, thus their lack of creativity/gen[iu]ses) plus a high IQ
     
    - http://www.unz.com/jthompson/the-secret-in-your-eyes/#comment-1817068

    This could be the reason for the decline in human accomplishment; a lower number, per capita, of blue-eyed persons living on planet Earth:

    Blue eyes are common in northern and eastern Europe, particularly around the Baltic Sea. Blue eyes are also found in southern Europe, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa and West Asia.[42][43][44] In West Asia, a proportion of Israelis are of Ashkenazi origin, among whom the trait is relatively elevated (a study taken in 1911 found that 53.7% of Ukrainian Jews had blue eyes).[45][46]
    [...]
    A 2002 study found that the prevalence of blue eye color among the white population in the United States to be 33.8% for those born from 1936 through 1951 compared with 57.4 percent for those born from 1899 through 1905.[14] As of 2006, one out of every six people, or 16.6% of the total population, and 22.3% of whites, has blue eyes. Blue eyes are continuing to become less common among American children.[39]
     
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eye_color#Blue

    About half of Americans born at the turn of the 20th century had blue eyes, according to a 2002 Loyola University study in Chicago. By mid-century that number had dropped to a third. Today only about one 1 of every 6 Americans has blue eyes, said Mark Grant, the epidemiologist who conducted the study.
    [...]
    What kind of effect does and will this have on the pioneering and ”New Frontier” spirit of the United States of America?
     
    - http://www.unz.com/jthompson/isteve-metrics/#comment-1823832
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  12. Greg Bacon says: • Website

    IQ of 70 in Nigerian kids?

    A feat which should be replicated shortly in the USA, after a generation or so of mandatory classes on changing genders, how to handle hurty words, multiculturalism, hating Whitey and the endless staring at our smart phone screens, finding out the latest on Kim K or who won last night’s ‘Big Game.’

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  13. “We would need to study the numbers of people playing competition Scrabble and Chess and other games in each country. “ Spot on.
    The only people who play Scrabble round here also give their kids wooden toys and order organic zucchini from the grower in recyclable boxes. It gets dragged out en masse at Christmas, mainly to stop inebriated in-laws getting into fist-fights. Chess gets played in schools, possibly to try and socialise the odder, more “intelligent” pupils. Nobody likes it.
    The Nigerians, Russians etc. would wipe the floor with us. I imagine Andaman Islanders could, too. Old West Indian blokes can thrash us at dominos, or draughts, in the pub.

    What about holding all-nighters on the X-Box 360? Call of Duty or something? (I’m not up on computer games). Even phone games, like Candy Crush, or Sudoku. All children know about those (round here). Chess? They’d probably assume the pieces were used as missiles.
    There are plenty of strategy-type games for assessing chess-type thought, from Civ to say, Medieval Total War (best of series IMO).

    The really smart kids aren’t even playing those. Their sport is being le haxx0rz. There’s a lot of them, and they’re awfully good at it.

    Read More
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  14. @AaronB

    Above all, no predictor variable can triumph over a demonstrated reality: if the general relationship between ability measures and demonstrated achievement does not hold, then the ability measures are poor predictors.
     
    If you applied this consistently, the strength of IQ would be vastly undermined.

    Countries with the same IQs have wildly different "demonstrated achievement". The races with the highest IQs do not have the highest "demonstrated achievement". Etc.

    What I said: because Iq even measure creativity skills, just correlates because it’s a broader cognitive measurement tool. Accidentally IQ correlates in some way with creativity. Where we are talking about achievements we are talking about IQ.

    Seems he want to say east Asians and Ashkenazis don’t produced the remarkable achievements, Europeans does. The fundamental difference is not exactly on “intelligence”/ cognitive levels but creative and combined with higher intelligence + monomaniacal personality. Ashkenazis become considerably more prominent recently because they increased their creative levels or highly creative people become more common among them. I bet that endogamic relaxation may have a important role to make “ashkenazis” more creative. Seems most of endogamic communities tend to have lower preponderance or expression of traits that predict creative potential. The personality profiles that are selected in endogamic societies (unimaginative + very conformist/passive) + reduction of some balanced genetic diversity seems opposite to overall creative profiles specially on arts and philosophy but also likely on sciences.

    Amishness and creativity don’t fit even its doesn’t mean they “are” incapable to be innovative in your activities. Seems the big creativity that tend to be counter selected here.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Santoculto
    Where we are talking about achievements we are talking about IQ.

    LOL

    I want to say

    ''WHEN we are talking about achievements we are really talking about CREATIVITY''
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  15. jb says:

    The list of the top 100 Nigerian players is interesting. The rating numbers drop off pretty fast! My freshman roommate in college was higher rated than about half of those players.

    (Most of the guys who dropped into my dorm room to play chess could have beaten this patzer — in fact on a really good day even I might have).

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  16. @Santoculto
    What I said: because Iq even measure creativity skills, just correlates because it's a broader cognitive measurement tool. Accidentally IQ correlates in some way with creativity. Where we are talking about achievements we are talking about IQ.

    Seems he want to say east Asians and Ashkenazis don't produced the remarkable achievements, Europeans does. The fundamental difference is not exactly on "intelligence"/ cognitive levels but creative and combined with higher intelligence + monomaniacal personality. Ashkenazis become considerably more prominent recently because they increased their creative levels or highly creative people become more common among them. I bet that endogamic relaxation may have a important role to make "ashkenazis" more creative. Seems most of endogamic communities tend to have lower preponderance or expression of traits that predict creative potential. The personality profiles that are selected in endogamic societies (unimaginative + very conformist/passive) + reduction of some balanced genetic diversity seems opposite to overall creative profiles specially on arts and philosophy but also likely on sciences.

    Amishness and creativity don't fit even its doesn't mean they "are" incapable to be innovative in your activities. Seems the big creativity that tend to be counter selected here.

    Where we are talking about achievements we are talking about IQ.

    LOL

    I want to say

    ”WHEN we are talking about achievements we are really talking about CREATIVITY”

    Read More
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  17. real-life tests of achievement … Scrabble, including Chess, Maths competitions, numbers of patents, innovations in science and technology

    Sesame Street had a segment titled “one of these things is not like the other” where they showed four objects, three of which were similar, and one one that was different. You could play this game here:

    1. innovations in science
    2. innovations in technology
    3. numbers of patents
    4. Scrabble

    I am sure that Scrabble at competition level requires high intelligence

    “I am sure” isn’t very scientific. Can you prove that individuals of merely average intelligence are incapable of being good at scrabble?

    won the Nobel for literature

    So did Bob Dylan.

    If Scrabble requires IQ 130+

    This is the “assume a can opener” part of this whole enterprise. Can you be sure of this?

    Gabon’s … IQ 130 smart fraction … would be 428 persons.

    It is possible that in such a poor, isolated country, Scrabble is literally the only game they play, and all of those 428 play Scrabble.

    I think the answer lies in the selective migration of the brightest Africans.

    “Brightest” is a relative term:

    Nigeria Doctor ‘Lawal Haruna’ Loses Licence After Removing An Ovary Instead Of Appendix
    The incident in March 2015 occurred during a series of bungled operations carried out by Haruna which were so poorly executed, colleagues described them as “never events.”

    … patient who had acute appendicitis … Haruna removed a pad of fat instead and he had to undergo a further operation a month later.

    … Haruna botched a third operation on a woman who had been admitted with a cyst-only for him to remove a skin tag instead.

    Haruna who claims to have a 25 years experience later dismissed the incidents as “trifling errors” and said the appendix and Fallopian tubes were similar “worm-like structures which lie in a similar area.”

    Haruna who represented himself, told the Manchester hearing he had “poor vision” at the time he carried out the surgery and claimed it would be “harsh” to strike him off.

    Nigerian diplomat’s son jailed for rape, murder
    … Mr. Chinda approached Ms. McGraa, a 37-year-old mother of one and commercial sex worker, for her service the night before the incident …

    A violent rage broke out between the two when Mr. Chinda could not pay for Ms. McGraa’s service the next day, which led to her death after being beaten and suffocated, according to court proceedings.

    Read More
    • Replies: @res


    If Scrabble requires IQ 130+
     
    This is the “assume a can opener” part of this whole enterprise. Can you be sure of this?
     
    Chisala provided a reference to this paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.3059/abstract

    The sample of Scrabble experts looked to average in the top few hundred 2011 National Scrabble competitors in the US. As described in the paper:

    The average rating for SCRABBLE experts was 1755, equivalent to the 98th percentile of all national SCRABBLE competitors (N = 26, highest rating = 2052, lowest rating = 1520, SD = 168) (Figure 4).

     

    They had average SATs as follows (there is some question as to whether the scores are pre or post 1995 given the subject ages, I assume post which likely understates their IQ):

    Tukey’s honest significant difference analyses showed that self-reported verbal SAT scores for crossword experts (M = 724, SD = 56.50) were significantly higher than for SCRABBLE experts (M = 657, SD = 89.59), p = .005
    ...
    Differences between the novice undergraduates (M = 692, SD = 63.38) and both crossword experts and SCRABBLE experts failed to achieve statistical significance. No significant differences existed for quantitative SAT scores between SCRABBLE experts (M = 751, SD = 53.58), crossword experts (M = 737, SD = 81.41), or novice players (M = 736, SD = 62.45).
     
    This gives an average combined SAT for the Scrabble experts of 1408. Per this site that corresponds to an IQ of 138 (post-1995 SAT): http://www.iqcomparisonsite.com/SATIQ.aspx
    (as an aside, I think the lower SDs for crossword/Scrabble verbal/quantitative score add support to the conclusion drawn from the means about relative quantitative/verbal importance)

    I don't think there is a hard IQ threshold of 130 for Scrabble excellence based on this, but the importance of high IQ seems clear. Especially when remembering how few people there are out at the tails. It seems reasonable to speculate that the IQ numbers for the top 100 in the world would be similar or even higher.

    I agree with the idea that other forms of achievement are more important societally, and I think Dr. Thompson does a good job of making the case that chess may be a better example to use.

    However, I think it is hard to argue with the overall idea behind this Scrabble methodology as a test of IQ numbers. IMHO there is something interesting going on with the African Scrabble success relative to the quoted country IQs. For more detail see some of my 38 (!) comments on the linked Chisala post.
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  18. res says:
    @Hippopotamusdrome


    real-life tests of achievement ... Scrabble, including Chess, Maths competitions, numbers of patents, innovations in science and technology

     

    Sesame Street had a segment titled "one of these things is not like the other" where they showed four objects, three of which were similar, and one one that was different. You could play this game here:

    1. innovations in science
    2. innovations in technology
    3. numbers of patents
    4. Scrabble


    I am sure that Scrabble at competition level requires high intelligence

     

    "I am sure" isn't very scientific. Can you prove that individuals of merely average intelligence are incapable of being good at scrabble?


    won the Nobel for literature

     

    So did Bob Dylan.


    If Scrabble requires IQ 130+

     

    This is the "assume a can opener" part of this whole enterprise. Can you be sure of this?


    Gabon’s ... IQ 130 smart fraction ... would be 428 persons.

     

    It is possible that in such a poor, isolated country, Scrabble is literally the only game they play, and all of those 428 play Scrabble.


    I think the answer lies in the selective migration of the brightest Africans.

     

    "Brightest" is a relative term:


    Nigeria Doctor ‘Lawal Haruna’ Loses Licence After Removing An Ovary Instead Of Appendix
    The incident in March 2015 occurred during a series of bungled operations carried out by Haruna which were so poorly executed, colleagues described them as “never events.”

    ... patient who had acute appendicitis ... Haruna removed a pad of fat instead and he had to undergo a further operation a month later.

    ... Haruna botched a third operation on a woman who had been admitted with a cyst-only for him to remove a skin tag instead.

    Haruna who claims to have a 25 years experience later dismissed the incidents as “trifling errors” and said the appendix and Fallopian tubes were similar “worm-like structures which lie in a similar area.”
    ...
    Haruna who represented himself, told the Manchester hearing he had “poor vision” at the time he carried out the surgery and claimed it would be “harsh” to strike him off.

     



    Nigerian diplomat’s son jailed for rape, murder
    ... Mr. Chinda approached Ms. McGraa, a 37-year-old mother of one and commercial sex worker, for her service the night before the incident ...

    A violent rage broke out between the two when Mr. Chinda could not pay for Ms. McGraa’s service the next day, which led to her death after being beaten and suffocated, according to court proceedings.

     

    If Scrabble requires IQ 130+

    This is the “assume a can opener” part of this whole enterprise. Can you be sure of this?

    Chisala provided a reference to this paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.3059/abstract

    The sample of Scrabble experts looked to average in the top few hundred 2011 National Scrabble competitors in the US. As described in the paper:

    The average rating for SCRABBLE experts was 1755, equivalent to the 98th percentile of all national SCRABBLE competitors (N = 26, highest rating = 2052, lowest rating = 1520, SD = 168) (Figure 4).

    They had average SATs as follows (there is some question as to whether the scores are pre or post 1995 given the subject ages, I assume post which likely understates their IQ):

    Tukey’s honest significant difference analyses showed that self-reported verbal SAT scores for crossword experts (M = 724, SD = 56.50) were significantly higher than for SCRABBLE experts (M = 657, SD = 89.59), p = .005

    Differences between the novice undergraduates (M = 692, SD = 63.38) and both crossword experts and SCRABBLE experts failed to achieve statistical significance. No significant differences existed for quantitative SAT scores between SCRABBLE experts (M = 751, SD = 53.58), crossword experts (M = 737, SD = 81.41), or novice players (M = 736, SD = 62.45).

    This gives an average combined SAT for the Scrabble experts of 1408. Per this site that corresponds to an IQ of 138 (post-1995 SAT): http://www.iqcomparisonsite.com/SATIQ.aspx
    (as an aside, I think the lower SDs for crossword/Scrabble verbal/quantitative score add support to the conclusion drawn from the means about relative quantitative/verbal importance)

    I don’t think there is a hard IQ threshold of 130 for Scrabble excellence based on this, but the importance of high IQ seems clear. Especially when remembering how few people there are out at the tails. It seems reasonable to speculate that the IQ numbers for the top 100 in the world would be similar or even higher.

    I agree with the idea that other forms of achievement are more important societally, and I think Dr. Thompson does a good job of making the case that chess may be a better example to use.

    However, I think it is hard to argue with the overall idea behind this Scrabble methodology as a test of IQ numbers. IMHO there is something interesting going on with the African Scrabble success relative to the quoted country IQs. For more detail see some of my 38 (!) comments on the linked Chisala post.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Chuck
    "I don’t think there is a hard IQ threshold of 130 for Scrabble excellence based on this, but the importance of high IQ seems clear. Especially when remembering how few people there are out at the tails...
    However, I think it is hard to argue with the overall idea behind this Scrabble methodology as a test of IQ numbers. IMHO there is something interesting going on with the African Scrabble success relative to the quoted country IQs."

    Res,

    You must admit, though, that the issue is not straightforward for the following reasons:

    (1) While some studies show that self-selected North American scrabble experts -- these are, mind you, people who respond to requests for interviews, not random samples -- typically have high IQs, this mean effect doesn't establish:
    (a) That the mean of the general North American population of experts is high. (Though based on career profiles this seems to be the case.)
    (b) That the mean of the global population of experts is high. (This is at least less certain than the point above.)
    (c) That general intelligence is an important -- let alone necessary -- determinant of expert scrabble ability, as it could just be that high general intelligence people happen to have extra time on their hands to play scrabble or that high general intelligence people happen to have higher specific abilities that are important. (To note, though, I did find two studies that noted non-trivial correlations between IQ and scrabble wins among experts.)

    (2) It is not clear how fat the tail is for general intelligence and yet all these computations are based on the assumption of perfect normality. In contrast, look at figure 1 in La Griffe's "Assessing the Ashkenazi" ("Griffe's function").

    Consider the relevance: if we assume an African mean of 70 with SDs of 15, then we are talking about 4+ SDs above the mean, if we also assume scrabbles experts require a IQ of > 130. If the number of high IQ members is inflated > 50x, relative to what a guassian curve would predict, at 4+ SD as argued by La Griffe, the numbers computed by Thompson and Chanda will be more than a little bit off. How much? 5x, 10x, 50x?

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  19. FKA Max says:
    @James Thompson
    Need sources for your claims.

    I think, Charles Murray’s Human Accomplishment could serve as a credible source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Accomplishment

    We previously briefly discussed the connection between Northern European/Protestant peoples and innovativeness (and science in general) with each other, and this is basically what it all boils down to for me:

    The less Protestant/Northern European and more Catholic, Jewish, Muslim, Atheist, etc. the U.S. becomes, the less industrious and rich it will be
    [...]
    Merton thesis

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merton_thesis

    [...]
    Instead, modern (white) Protestants and Jews had a high degree of “intellectual autonomy” that facilitated scientific and technical advance.[10] By contrast, Lenski pointed out, Catholics developed an intellectual orientation which valued “obedience” to the teachings of their church above intellectual autonomy, which made them less inclined to enter scientific careers. Catholic sociologists[11][12] had come to the same conclusions.[13]

    http://www.unz.com/isteve/reforming-stuyvesant-hs-admissions-should-blacks-whites-team-up-against-asian-grinds/#comment-1812370

    In a paper written in 2009 for the Quarterly Journal of Economics, entitled Was Weber Wrong?, Becker and Woessmann argue that Protestants were more successful because they had the advantage of a better and longer education. Further research has led them to conclude that the educational advantage began soon after Martin Luther broke away from the established Church in the 16th century and has continued to play its part in creating economic success throughout Europe.

    Luther wanted women as well as men to be able to read the Bible, he points out. Not only did his followers set out to establish church schools in every parish, but girls went there as well as boys, he says. “We looked into the records of school building in the German federal state of Brandenburg in the 16th century, and discovered that there were disproportionately more girls in school than boys. Protestantism, it seems, was an early driver of emancipation. At that time, remember, Catholic areas didn’t even have any boys’ schools.

    https://www.theguardian.com/education/2011/oct/31/economics-religion-research

    http://www.unz.com/isteve/vox-demonizing-charles-murray-is-really-about-protecting-jews/#comment-1905923

    Jewish philosopher Michael Levin in his paper “Is There a Superior Race?” in G. McDonald (ed), “A Race Against Time”, (New century books, Oakton, 2003), pp.272-280, says that Whites are superior to Asians given Whites’ cultural achievements, because a world without Asians would be recognizable, but a world without Whites would not be.

    https://thecross-roads.org/race-culture-nation/25-the-myth-of-east-asian-intellectual-supremacy

    Caucasians are responsible for 90 percent of scientific accomplishments (800 BC to 1950)

    Phillipe Rushton thought, that East Asians historically have been ahead of Europeans and the recent European accomplishments are just “blips” in the larger context of human accomplishment throughout history, i.e., a rare exceptions to the rule, which can be explained by events like the “Black Death,” etc.

    Whites vs East-Asians: Why are Whites more Creative? “Fascinating Question”

    However, in terms of straight-up IQ, baby blues are your best bet for being brilliant.
    [...]
    Intelligence and Pigmentation of Hair and Eyes in Elementary School Children
    G. H. Estabrooks
    The American Journal of Psychology
    Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 1929), pp. 106-108
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/1415114?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

    http://www.unz.com/jthompson/genetics-of-racial-differences-in-intelligence-updated/#comment-1900725

    But why do blue eyes seem to correlate more strongly in men, than in women, with a more gracile facial structure? It may be that pre-natal exposure to estrogen is over-determined in women, i.e., all women are fully exposed to estrogen before birth regardless of their eye color. In men, the increase in pre-natal exposure would be confined to blue-eyed individuals.

    http://www.unz.com/jthompson/genetics-of-racial-differences-in-intelligence-updated/#comment-1900903

    I have argued before, that this creativity and genius (and also pathological altruism/idealism) common in Whites (Faustian Spirit) is attributable to light eye pigmentation (which suppresses the secretion of melatonin, and is not very common in Asians, thus their lack of creativity/gen[iu]ses) plus a high IQ

    http://www.unz.com/jthompson/the-secret-in-your-eyes/#comment-1817068

    This could be the reason for the decline in human accomplishment; a lower number, per capita, of blue-eyed persons living on planet Earth:

    Blue eyes are common in northern and eastern Europe, particularly around the Baltic Sea. Blue eyes are also found in southern Europe, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa and West Asia.[42][43][44] In West Asia, a proportion of Israelis are of Ashkenazi origin, among whom the trait is relatively elevated (a study taken in 1911 found that 53.7% of Ukrainian Jews had blue eyes).[45][46]
    [...]
    A 2002 study found that the prevalence of blue eye color among the white population in the United States to be 33.8% for those born from 1936 through 1951 compared with 57.4 percent for those born from 1899 through 1905.[14] As of 2006, one out of every six people, or 16.6% of the total population, and 22.3% of whites, has blue eyes. Blue eyes are continuing to become less common among American children.[39]

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eye_color#Blue

    About half of Americans born at the turn of the 20th century had blue eyes, according to a 2002 Loyola University study in Chicago. By mid-century that number had dropped to a third. Today only about one 1 of every 6 Americans has blue eyes, said Mark Grant, the epidemiologist who conducted the study.
    [...]
    What kind of effect does and will this have on the pioneering and ”New Frontier” spirit of the United States of America?

    http://www.unz.com/jthompson/isteve-metrics/#comment-1823832

    Read More
    • Replies: @Santoculto
    How you could prove that blue eyes CAUSE genius?

    But "catholic France, Italy, Austria, Poland and half of Germany" also have gave remarkable achievements.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
  20. CanSpeccy says: • Website

    We know that American and European IQs increased from around 70 to around 100 between 1900 and 2000. We know that even more rapid increases in IQ have been observed in Africa over recent decades. We can be fairly sure, therefore, that most of the differences observed in cross-societal IQ test comparisons are attributable not to hereditary differences in intellectual potential, but in whatever environmental factors account for the Flynn effect.

    However, a question that has not been thoroughly addressed, if it has been addressed with any seriousness at all, is the extent to which those of low-IQ societies excel in abilities unrelated to IQ. Yes, those of low IQ score low on the range of tests comprising the Raven Matrices, or whatever. But there seems to have been little interest in determining in what, if anything, those of low-IQ societies excel. For example are Australian aboriginals better than the average American at finding their way in the bush? Or are Amazonian head-shrinking Indians better able than the average American to distinguish among the sights, the sounds and the smells of the forest? Or how does the social intelligence — the reading and manipulation of the moods and intentions of others — of a Nigerian villager of marginal literacy compare with that of a social media-obsessed American?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Santoculto
    Exactly. Psychology is a inductive science par excellence. People fall in love for conjectures firstly, secondly they try to see if reality fit with their general rules or worse, neglect all this details and often even note they are neglecting.

    Psychologists et all must need understand that it's important start from the beginning before jump to inconsistent big pictures as "Flynn Effect". There are so many things we don't know about it that seems too much obvious to advice people to be cautious but before be a science psychology is pop, and we know how damaging pop culture can be to factual understanding.

    Maybe psychology is so important and so basal that everyone want eat its cake regardless the reasons.

    To Flynn Effect be credited it must be empirically proven or at least without this so vague or broader, mutually disconnected evidences.

    About increase of height (and weight) we know environmental interventions seems have a role specially because height seems a not so fixed traits in most human populations. We don't know or at least I don't know how better nutrition can organically/mechanically increase individual heights. Some people may argue early physical activity can help to develop the body and increase height but we are more sedentary than our grandparents so...
    , @europeasant
    "For example are Australian aboriginals better than the average American at finding their way in the bush? Or are Amazonian head-shrinking Indians better able than the average American to distinguish among the sights, the sounds and the smells of the forest? "

    I have a cat who can find his way home every night. He can also see and smell way better than any human can.
    , @James Thompson
    The field is open, and many abilities have been suggested. One study showed that African children had better understanding of profit and loss trading than did British 11 year olds. All that is required is a bit more research to test the proposed skills.
    , @James Thompson
    Also, we do not "know" that American and European intelligence increased from 70 to 100 over the last century. It is hard to map cross-sectional scores onto longitudinal trends, though there have been trends.

    http://www.unz.com/jthompson/what-do-iq-researchers-really-think-about-the-flynn-effect/

    My own view in that post was:

    My own view at the moment is that the closer a mental task approaches the requirements of a ratio scale, with a non-arbitrary zero point, as explained by SS Stevens, the less it is affected by IQ inflation. There is no overall Flynn Effect on digit span and little on maths, though Digit Span forwards may have increased a little, and digit span backwards decreased a bit.
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  21. szopen says:

    Your calculations for Gabon are wrong, because Gabon has a very young population; Whole one third of Gabon’s population is below 15 years old and 4.3% is above 65. 9.7% is 15 to 20 years old. Masters of scrabble won’t be drawn from that people.

    Therefore, you should exclude about half of 428 people. 224 people, 7 of them became winners of French Scrabble.

    Read More
    • Replies: @James Thompson
    We do not have reliable estimates for Gabon.
    Age corrections can of course be applied in all countries, but that introduces greater variability, whereas total population estimates for all countries gives us a common benchmark.
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  22. @FKA Max
    I think, Charles Murray's Human Accomplishment could serve as a credible source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Accomplishment

    We previously briefly discussed the connection between Northern European/Protestant peoples and innovativeness (and science in general) with each other, and this is basically what it all boils down to for me:

    The less Protestant/Northern European and more Catholic, Jewish, Muslim, Atheist, etc. the U.S. becomes, the less industrious and rich it will be
    [...]
    Merton thesis

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merton_thesis
    [...]
    Instead, modern (white) Protestants and Jews had a high degree of “intellectual autonomy” that facilitated scientific and technical advance.[10] By contrast, Lenski pointed out, Catholics developed an intellectual orientation which valued “obedience” to the teachings of their church above intellectual autonomy, which made them less inclined to enter scientific careers. Catholic sociologists[11][12] had come to the same conclusions.[13]
     
    - http://www.unz.com/isteve/reforming-stuyvesant-hs-admissions-should-blacks-whites-team-up-against-asian-grinds/#comment-1812370

    In a paper written in 2009 for the Quarterly Journal of Economics, entitled Was Weber Wrong?, Becker and Woessmann argue that Protestants were more successful because they had the advantage of a better and longer education. Further research has led them to conclude that the educational advantage began soon after Martin Luther broke away from the established Church in the 16th century and has continued to play its part in creating economic success throughout Europe.

    Luther wanted women as well as men to be able to read the Bible, he points out. Not only did his followers set out to establish church schools in every parish, but girls went there as well as boys, he says. “We looked into the records of school building in the German federal state of Brandenburg in the 16th century, and discovered that there were disproportionately more girls in school than boys. Protestantism, it seems, was an early driver of emancipation. At that time, remember, Catholic areas didn’t even have any boys’ schools.

    – https://www.theguardian.com/education/2011/oct/31/economics-religion-research
     
    - http://www.unz.com/isteve/vox-demonizing-charles-murray-is-really-about-protecting-jews/#comment-1905923

    Jewish philosopher Michael Levin in his paper “Is There a Superior Race?” in G. McDonald (ed), “A Race Against Time”, (New century books, Oakton, 2003), pp.272-280, says that Whites are superior to Asians given Whites’ cultural achievements, because a world without Asians would be recognizable, but a world without Whites would not be.
     
    - https://thecross-roads.org/race-culture-nation/25-the-myth-of-east-asian-intellectual-supremacy

    Caucasians are responsible for 90 percent of scientific accomplishments (800 BC to 1950)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qUZcw0Z-28k

    Phillipe Rushton thought, that East Asians historically have been ahead of Europeans and the recent European accomplishments are just ``blips'' in the larger context of human accomplishment throughout history, i.e., a rare exceptions to the rule, which can be explained by events like the ``Black Death,'' etc.

    Whites vs East-Asians: Why are Whites more Creative? "Fascinating Question"

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo090s1y9TE

    However, in terms of straight-up IQ, baby blues are your best bet for being brilliant.
    [...]
    Intelligence and Pigmentation of Hair and Eyes in Elementary School Children
    G. H. Estabrooks
    The American Journal of Psychology
    Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 1929), pp. 106-108
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/1415114?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
     
    - http://www.unz.com/jthompson/genetics-of-racial-differences-in-intelligence-updated/#comment-1900725

    But why do blue eyes seem to correlate more strongly in men, than in women, with a more gracile facial structure? It may be that pre-natal exposure to estrogen is over-determined in women, i.e., all women are fully exposed to estrogen before birth regardless of their eye color. In men, the increase in pre-natal exposure would be confined to blue-eyed individuals.
     
    - http://www.unz.com/jthompson/genetics-of-racial-differences-in-intelligence-updated/#comment-1900903

    I have argued before, that this creativity and genius (and also pathological altruism/idealism) common in Whites (Faustian Spirit) is attributable to light eye pigmentation (which suppresses the secretion of melatonin, and is not very common in Asians, thus their lack of creativity/gen[iu]ses) plus a high IQ
     
    - http://www.unz.com/jthompson/the-secret-in-your-eyes/#comment-1817068

    This could be the reason for the decline in human accomplishment; a lower number, per capita, of blue-eyed persons living on planet Earth:

    Blue eyes are common in northern and eastern Europe, particularly around the Baltic Sea. Blue eyes are also found in southern Europe, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa and West Asia.[42][43][44] In West Asia, a proportion of Israelis are of Ashkenazi origin, among whom the trait is relatively elevated (a study taken in 1911 found that 53.7% of Ukrainian Jews had blue eyes).[45][46]
    [...]
    A 2002 study found that the prevalence of blue eye color among the white population in the United States to be 33.8% for those born from 1936 through 1951 compared with 57.4 percent for those born from 1899 through 1905.[14] As of 2006, one out of every six people, or 16.6% of the total population, and 22.3% of whites, has blue eyes. Blue eyes are continuing to become less common among American children.[39]
     
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eye_color#Blue

    About half of Americans born at the turn of the 20th century had blue eyes, according to a 2002 Loyola University study in Chicago. By mid-century that number had dropped to a third. Today only about one 1 of every 6 Americans has blue eyes, said Mark Grant, the epidemiologist who conducted the study.
    [...]
    What kind of effect does and will this have on the pioneering and ”New Frontier” spirit of the United States of America?
     
    - http://www.unz.com/jthompson/isteve-metrics/#comment-1823832

    How you could prove that blue eyes CAUSE genius?

    But “catholic France, Italy, Austria, Poland and half of Germany” also have gave remarkable achievements.

    Read More
    • Replies: @FKA Max
    Typo: ... i.e., a rare *exception* to the rule ...

    Take a look at/survey Silicon Valley, etc., for example, to see how many of the movers and shakers, innovators, etc. are blue-eyed -- e.g. Don Valentine (who is Catholic, but was born in and found success in a majority-Protestant nation, the U.S.), Peter Thiel, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Tim Cook, etc. pp. -- could be one of the ways to potentially approach the subject.

    Important caveats:


    After all, if high national IQ scores are correlated with economic success, perhaps the high IQs cause the success, but it seems just as possible that the success might be driving the high IQs, or that both might be due to some third factor. Correlation does not imply causality, let alone the particular direction of the causal arrow. A traditional liberal model positing that socio-economic factors strongly influence performance on academic ability tests would predict exactly the same distribution of international results found by Lynn and Vanhanen.
     
    - http://www.unz.com/runz/race-iq-and-wealth/

    I agree with Mr. Sailer on nurture vs. nature:

    Sailer summed up his view on nature and nurture in October 2012 as:

    If you analyze a host of real world outcomes using adoption studies, fraternal v. identical twin studies, twins-raised-apart studies, the history of early childhood intervention research, naturally occurring experiments, differences between societies, changes over history, and so forth, you tend to come up with nature and nurture as being about equally important: maybe fifty-fifty. The glass is roughly half-full and half-empty.
    [30]
     

    - http://www.unz.com/jpetras/judeo-centrism-myths-and-mania/#comment-1846994

    The following is my general position on the subject as well (my emphasis). We should at least take a look into how eye pigmentation potentially might influence behavior generally and how it could cause variation in cognitive and creative ability and outcomes. Maybe there is nothing to it, but we should at least have a look at it, in my opinion. I think we might be able to identify more authentic geniuses this way, if we were to combine the knowledge about eye pigmentation with IQ testing. This might in fact be the missing link. Of course, this is highly controversial territory to wade into, obviously:

    Why blue-eyed boys (and girls) are so brilliant
    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-476244/Why-blue-eyed-boys-girls-brilliant.html


    The discovery might help explain the success of such disparate individuals as Stephen Hawking, Alexander Fleming, Marie Curie, Stephen Fry and Lily Cole.
    [...]
    "It is just observed, rather than explained," she said. "There's no scientific answer yet." Dr Tony Fallone, senior psychology lecturer at the University of Bedfordshire, who has also studied eye colour, believes it should be taken more seriously as an indicator of personality and ability.
     
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  23. @CanSpeccy
    We know that American and European IQs increased from around 70 to around 100 between 1900 and 2000. We know that even more rapid increases in IQ have been observed in Africa over recent decades. We can be fairly sure, therefore, that most of the differences observed in cross-societal IQ test comparisons are attributable not to hereditary differences in intellectual potential, but in whatever environmental factors account for the Flynn effect.

    However, a question that has not been thoroughly addressed, if it has been addressed with any seriousness at all, is the extent to which those of low-IQ societies excel in abilities unrelated to IQ. Yes, those of low IQ score low on the range of tests comprising the Raven Matrices, or whatever. But there seems to have been little interest in determining in what, if anything, those of low-IQ societies excel. For example are Australian aboriginals better than the average American at finding their way in the bush? Or are Amazonian head-shrinking Indians better able than the average American to distinguish among the sights, the sounds and the smells of the forest? Or how does the social intelligence — the reading and manipulation of the moods and intentions of others — of a Nigerian villager of marginal literacy compare with that of a social media-obsessed American?

    Exactly. Psychology is a inductive science par excellence. People fall in love for conjectures firstly, secondly they try to see if reality fit with their general rules or worse, neglect all this details and often even note they are neglecting.

    Psychologists et all must need understand that it’s important start from the beginning before jump to inconsistent big pictures as “Flynn Effect”. There are so many things we don’t know about it that seems too much obvious to advice people to be cautious but before be a science psychology is pop, and we know how damaging pop culture can be to factual understanding.

    Maybe psychology is so important and so basal that everyone want eat its cake regardless the reasons.

    To Flynn Effect be credited it must be empirically proven or at least without this so vague or broader, mutually disconnected evidences.

    About increase of height (and weight) we know environmental interventions seems have a role specially because height seems a not so fixed traits in most human populations. We don’t know or at least I don’t know how better nutrition can organically/mechanically increase individual heights. Some people may argue early physical activity can help to develop the body and increase height but we are more sedentary than our grandparents so…

    Read More
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
  24. http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/will-american-childhood-create-an-authoritarian-society/

    Rise of Political Correctness has led to parents raising their kids with ‘correct’ ideas, which basically amounts to worshiping Magic Negroes, Holy Homos, and Forever-Holocaust-Jews.
    Political Correctness is the new religion of the West. People are naturally ‘spiritual’ and when they lose old religion, they worship new gods. And Jews, blacks, and homos are the new gods to worship.

    Also, growing diversity made competition much fiercer in the West, especially from Asian immigrant students who study, study, study but can’t think independently and originally.
    So, all parents must make an effort to make their kids study, study, study like robots and grinds if they are to enter elite academia.

    Also, the shrinking middle class means the West is turning into a society of winners and losers with little in between. So, you either win or lose. It’s turning into a zero/sum game, and it’s the same everywhere affected by globalism: US, EU, and Japan too. Globalism destroys the middle class everywhere except in China and India.

    Also, PC will destroy anyone associated with so-called ‘racism’, ‘antisemitism’, ‘homophobia’, ‘transphobia’, ‘misogyny’, or whatever they cook up next. So, parents have to instill their kids with ‘correct’ thinking because one ‘wrong’ expression can mean blacklisting for life.
    It’s like anyone who said anything untoward about Marx or Lenin in communist nations had zero chance of success and promotion.

    In the globalized West, the sacraments are Jews, blacks, homos(and increasingly trannies too). Say anything ‘insensitive’ about them(no matter how true), and you are finished.

    In a way, the West is becoming ‘asianized’. Asian societies are conformist and obsessed with status. Parents in Asia make their kids obey institutional norms and toe the party line to move up the ladder. Obsession with status trumps all over there.
    No individuality, no independence, no principle. Instead, there is just the culture of conformism to win position and accolades. (With more slavish and servile Asians in the academia and media — who are incapable of any independent thought and doggedly follow Western PC on every issue — , the Western hierarchy will be about Jewish & Homo elites ruling over a docile and obedient managerial class made up of Asians and dog-like ‘Asianized’ whites.)

    Read More
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  25. Chuck says:
    @James Thompson
    I explained that chess is a better basis for international comparisons because it is non-verbal, has a simple scoring system, and is widely played internationally. Scrabble is verbal, has a more idiosyncratic scoring system, and is not widely played internationally, though there are different language based competitions.

    Comparing standard deviations of tests requires standard scaling. The best estimate of the standard deviation of Nigerian IQ as measured by Ravens is about 15 IQ points, with the caution that because the mean is so low there may be restriction of range. It could be higher.

    James,

    “The best estimate of the standard deviation of Nigerian IQ as measured by Ravens is about 15 IQ points….”

    From what I recall, in the UK SPM+ standardization sample the SD was about 7, suggesting that the Nigerian Raven’s SD, despite a possible substantial floor effect, is inflated by 30%. So I am not seeing how you are now deriving a Raven’s SD of about 15. Whatever the case, it would be informative to compare the distributions to see what percent of Nigerians solved as many puzzles as by the UK smart fraction, no?

    For Chanda’s point, the distinction between IQ as predictor and real-world-outcomes as criterion is not particularly important. If it turned out that a large chunk of Nigerians were able to solve a lot of Raven’s matrices but did not exhibit great scrabble ability, I am sure he would not scrap his argument, but rather retune it : matrix solving is a better index of functional capacity; for cultural reasons Nigerians just don’t put much effort into scrabble or chess playing.

    Generally, from your discussion it is not clear that the Raven’s results are inconsistent with Chanda’s argument — that the Nigerian smart fraction is much larger than a (simple) genetic model for the mean differences would anticipate. Thus it might be worthwile to look at the distribution in detail. Can you ask for a density plot?

    Read More
    • Replies: @res

    Thus it might be worthwile to look at the distribution in detail. Can you ask for a density plot?
     
    Agreed. Although not equivalent, I found the graphic in http://www.unz.com/jthompson/the-dna-of-genius-n2/
    which shows a strong right skew for Yoruba polygenic scores suggestive. I would very much like to see density plots for the African IQ studies.
    , @James Thompson
    I think that the authors want to work through their own data at their own pace, but I will certainly try to post comments on their further publications, and a distribution of scores would be very interesting. Also, if they can look at the backgrounds (cultural and ethnic) of the top scorers, that would also be fascinating.
    , @David Becker
    Dear Chuck,

    in the SPM+(GBR)2007 standardization, 6 to 7 raw scores were equated to 15 IQ scores equivalent to 1SD in IQ scores. In the Nigerian sample, a SD in raw scores of around 8.41 (+/-0.85) was estimated. Deviations depent on age-group and weightig for N. Theoretically, 8.41 (or roundet to 8) is equivalent to 20 IQ scores at the British norms, if you set the mean to 100. But Nigeria has a mean of 70 IQ scores. According to the norm tables, 8 to 9 raw scores distance to the equivalent raw score of 70 IQ scores is between 13 and 18 IQ scores difference, in mean +/-15 = 1SD in IQ scores.

    Best, David.
    , @David Becker
    Additional: I made a quick calculation. Paying attention to differences in sample size and mean IQ of Nigerian age groups, the standard deviations in raw scores were on average equivalent to a IQ-difference of ~16.38 from the mean score. Therefore very close to James' 15.

    best, david.
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  26. FKA Max says:
    @Santoculto
    How you could prove that blue eyes CAUSE genius?

    But "catholic France, Italy, Austria, Poland and half of Germany" also have gave remarkable achievements.

    Typo: … i.e., a rare *exception* to the rule …

    Take a look at/survey Silicon Valley, etc., for example, to see how many of the movers and shakers, innovators, etc. are blue-eyed — e.g. Don Valentine (who is Catholic, but was born in and found success in a majority-Protestant nation, the U.S.), Peter Thiel, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Tim Cook, etc. pp. — could be one of the ways to potentially approach the subject.

    Important caveats:

    After all, if high national IQ scores are correlated with economic success, perhaps the high IQs cause the success, but it seems just as possible that the success might be driving the high IQs, or that both might be due to some third factor. Correlation does not imply causality, let alone the particular direction of the causal arrow. A traditional liberal model positing that socio-economic factors strongly influence performance on academic ability tests would predict exactly the same distribution of international results found by Lynn and Vanhanen.

    http://www.unz.com/runz/race-iq-and-wealth/

    I agree with Mr. Sailer on nurture vs. nature:

    Sailer summed up his view on nature and nurture in October 2012 as:

    If you analyze a host of real world outcomes using adoption studies, fraternal v. identical twin studies, twins-raised-apart studies, the history of early childhood intervention research, naturally occurring experiments, differences between societies, changes over history, and so forth, you tend to come up with nature and nurture as being about equally important: maybe fifty-fifty. The glass is roughly half-full and half-empty.
    [30]

    http://www.unz.com/jpetras/judeo-centrism-myths-and-mania/#comment-1846994

    The following is my general position on the subject as well (my emphasis). We should at least take a look into how eye pigmentation potentially might influence behavior generally and how it could cause variation in cognitive and creative ability and outcomes. Maybe there is nothing to it, but we should at least have a look at it, in my opinion. I think we might be able to identify more authentic geniuses this way, if we were to combine the knowledge about eye pigmentation with IQ testing. This might in fact be the missing link. Of course, this is highly controversial territory to wade into, obviously:

    Why blue-eyed boys (and girls) are so brilliant

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-476244/Why-blue-eyed-boys-girls-brilliant.html

    The discovery might help explain the success of such disparate individuals as Stephen Hawking, Alexander Fleming, Marie Curie, Stephen Fry and Lily Cole.
    [...]
    “It is just observed, rather than explained,” she said. “There’s no scientific answer yet.” Dr Tony Fallone, senior psychology lecturer at the University of Bedfordshire, who has also studied eye colour, believes it should be taken more seriously as an indicator of personality and ability.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Santoculto

    The following is my general position on the subject as well (my emphasis). We should at least take a look into how eye pigmentation potentially might influence behavior generally and how it could cause variation in cognitive and creative ability and outcomes. Maybe there is nothing to it, but we should at least have a look at it, in my opinion. I think we might be able to identify more authentic geniuses this way, if we were to combine the knowledge about eye pigmentation with IQ testing.
     
    Traits that have been selected in parallel within a population or sub-population and become inter-common. I find it very unlikely that pigmentation of the eyes will have any effect on people's cognition or psychology. One possibility is that if the lighter pigmentation of the skin is a universally more common attribute in women, and if first, they were '' sexually selected '' in them, and then the trait became generalized within a population, so it would be good To think if certain female psychological and cognitive attributes have not been mixed either, for example, women are said to be more intuitive than men, although we have no proof of this, at least I have never seen it.

    Take the case of the "black race" in which we clearly have a psychological bias towards the masculine, where black men are more hyper-masculine [not in all facets of masculinity] than those of other races, and realize that Black women also tend to be [also in physiological aspects like increased apparent physical strength and tone of voice]. If there is a greater selection for a certain phenotype and in relation to one of the sexes then, this greater selection could influence all the population involved/other sex.

    Still, it is possible to conclude for the moment that only pigmentation could not be causal to changes in behavior, if its function is to regulate itself, that is, pigmentation, and '' nothing else ''.

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  27. Chuck says:
    @res


    If Scrabble requires IQ 130+
     
    This is the “assume a can opener” part of this whole enterprise. Can you be sure of this?
     
    Chisala provided a reference to this paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.3059/abstract

    The sample of Scrabble experts looked to average in the top few hundred 2011 National Scrabble competitors in the US. As described in the paper:

    The average rating for SCRABBLE experts was 1755, equivalent to the 98th percentile of all national SCRABBLE competitors (N = 26, highest rating = 2052, lowest rating = 1520, SD = 168) (Figure 4).

     

    They had average SATs as follows (there is some question as to whether the scores are pre or post 1995 given the subject ages, I assume post which likely understates their IQ):

    Tukey’s honest significant difference analyses showed that self-reported verbal SAT scores for crossword experts (M = 724, SD = 56.50) were significantly higher than for SCRABBLE experts (M = 657, SD = 89.59), p = .005
    ...
    Differences between the novice undergraduates (M = 692, SD = 63.38) and both crossword experts and SCRABBLE experts failed to achieve statistical significance. No significant differences existed for quantitative SAT scores between SCRABBLE experts (M = 751, SD = 53.58), crossword experts (M = 737, SD = 81.41), or novice players (M = 736, SD = 62.45).
     
    This gives an average combined SAT for the Scrabble experts of 1408. Per this site that corresponds to an IQ of 138 (post-1995 SAT): http://www.iqcomparisonsite.com/SATIQ.aspx
    (as an aside, I think the lower SDs for crossword/Scrabble verbal/quantitative score add support to the conclusion drawn from the means about relative quantitative/verbal importance)

    I don't think there is a hard IQ threshold of 130 for Scrabble excellence based on this, but the importance of high IQ seems clear. Especially when remembering how few people there are out at the tails. It seems reasonable to speculate that the IQ numbers for the top 100 in the world would be similar or even higher.

    I agree with the idea that other forms of achievement are more important societally, and I think Dr. Thompson does a good job of making the case that chess may be a better example to use.

    However, I think it is hard to argue with the overall idea behind this Scrabble methodology as a test of IQ numbers. IMHO there is something interesting going on with the African Scrabble success relative to the quoted country IQs. For more detail see some of my 38 (!) comments on the linked Chisala post.

    “I don’t think there is a hard IQ threshold of 130 for Scrabble excellence based on this, but the importance of high IQ seems clear. Especially when remembering how few people there are out at the tails…
    However, I think it is hard to argue with the overall idea behind this Scrabble methodology as a test of IQ numbers. IMHO there is something interesting going on with the African Scrabble success relative to the quoted country IQs.”

    Res,

    You must admit, though, that the issue is not straightforward for the following reasons:

    (1) While some studies show that self-selected North American scrabble experts — these are, mind you, people who respond to requests for interviews, not random samples — typically have high IQs, this mean effect doesn’t establish:
    (a) That the mean of the general North American population of experts is high. (Though based on career profiles this seems to be the case.)
    (b) That the mean of the global population of experts is high. (This is at least less certain than the point above.)
    (c) That general intelligence is an important — let alone necessary — determinant of expert scrabble ability, as it could just be that high general intelligence people happen to have extra time on their hands to play scrabble or that high general intelligence people happen to have higher specific abilities that are important. (To note, though, I did find two studies that noted non-trivial correlations between IQ and scrabble wins among experts.)

    (2) It is not clear how fat the tail is for general intelligence and yet all these computations are based on the assumption of perfect normality. In contrast, look at figure 1 in La Griffe’s “Assessing the Ashkenazi” (“Griffe’s function”).

    Consider the relevance: if we assume an African mean of 70 with SDs of 15, then we are talking about 4+ SDs above the mean, if we also assume scrabbles experts require a IQ of > 130. If the number of high IQ members is inflated > 50x, relative to what a guassian curve would predict, at 4+ SD as argued by La Griffe, the numbers computed by Thompson and Chanda will be more than a little bit off. How much? 5x, 10x, 50x?

    Read More
    • Replies: @res
    Agreed about 2. I have gone at some length about fat tails in the comments to Chisala's articles (and here, I fear I am starting to sound like a broken record on the topic).

    Your points in 1 are good, but I think they only establish my statement as not proven. I still think based on the data at hand it represents the best working hypothesis we have. I welcome concrete alternative ideas though.

    Do you think 50x is a realistic estimate of the fat tail at 4 SD? That is more than I would expect. Do you consider the lognormal distribution appropriate or do you suggest something else?
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  28. @FKA Max
    Typo: ... i.e., a rare *exception* to the rule ...

    Take a look at/survey Silicon Valley, etc., for example, to see how many of the movers and shakers, innovators, etc. are blue-eyed -- e.g. Don Valentine (who is Catholic, but was born in and found success in a majority-Protestant nation, the U.S.), Peter Thiel, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Tim Cook, etc. pp. -- could be one of the ways to potentially approach the subject.

    Important caveats:


    After all, if high national IQ scores are correlated with economic success, perhaps the high IQs cause the success, but it seems just as possible that the success might be driving the high IQs, or that both might be due to some third factor. Correlation does not imply causality, let alone the particular direction of the causal arrow. A traditional liberal model positing that socio-economic factors strongly influence performance on academic ability tests would predict exactly the same distribution of international results found by Lynn and Vanhanen.
     
    - http://www.unz.com/runz/race-iq-and-wealth/

    I agree with Mr. Sailer on nurture vs. nature:

    Sailer summed up his view on nature and nurture in October 2012 as:

    If you analyze a host of real world outcomes using adoption studies, fraternal v. identical twin studies, twins-raised-apart studies, the history of early childhood intervention research, naturally occurring experiments, differences between societies, changes over history, and so forth, you tend to come up with nature and nurture as being about equally important: maybe fifty-fifty. The glass is roughly half-full and half-empty.
    [30]
     

    - http://www.unz.com/jpetras/judeo-centrism-myths-and-mania/#comment-1846994

    The following is my general position on the subject as well (my emphasis). We should at least take a look into how eye pigmentation potentially might influence behavior generally and how it could cause variation in cognitive and creative ability and outcomes. Maybe there is nothing to it, but we should at least have a look at it, in my opinion. I think we might be able to identify more authentic geniuses this way, if we were to combine the knowledge about eye pigmentation with IQ testing. This might in fact be the missing link. Of course, this is highly controversial territory to wade into, obviously:

    Why blue-eyed boys (and girls) are so brilliant
    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-476244/Why-blue-eyed-boys-girls-brilliant.html


    The discovery might help explain the success of such disparate individuals as Stephen Hawking, Alexander Fleming, Marie Curie, Stephen Fry and Lily Cole.
    [...]
    "It is just observed, rather than explained," she said. "There's no scientific answer yet." Dr Tony Fallone, senior psychology lecturer at the University of Bedfordshire, who has also studied eye colour, believes it should be taken more seriously as an indicator of personality and ability.
     

    The following is my general position on the subject as well (my emphasis). We should at least take a look into how eye pigmentation potentially might influence behavior generally and how it could cause variation in cognitive and creative ability and outcomes. Maybe there is nothing to it, but we should at least have a look at it, in my opinion. I think we might be able to identify more authentic geniuses this way, if we were to combine the knowledge about eye pigmentation with IQ testing.

    Traits that have been selected in parallel within a population or sub-population and become inter-common. I find it very unlikely that pigmentation of the eyes will have any effect on people’s cognition or psychology. One possibility is that if the lighter pigmentation of the skin is a universally more common attribute in women, and if first, they were ” sexually selected ” in them, and then the trait became generalized within a population, so it would be good To think if certain female psychological and cognitive attributes have not been mixed either, for example, women are said to be more intuitive than men, although we have no proof of this, at least I have never seen it.

    Take the case of the “black race” in which we clearly have a psychological bias towards the masculine, where black men are more hyper-masculine [not in all facets of masculinity] than those of other races, and realize that Black women also tend to be [also in physiological aspects like increased apparent physical strength and tone of voice]. If there is a greater selection for a certain phenotype and in relation to one of the sexes then, this greater selection could influence all the population involved/other sex.

    Still, it is possible to conclude for the moment that only pigmentation could not be causal to changes in behavior, if its function is to regulate itself, that is, pigmentation, and ” nothing else ”.

    Read More
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  29. Italian men are known to look great, and yet such fame is not so significant to the Italian women, of course I speak ” on average, ” because there are beautiful women on the peninsula too.

    Nordic women are known to be the most beautiful, although of course, we are talking about averages or a greater proportion, without necessarily consisting on averages. However such fame is not extended with the same intensity as the Nordic men.

    It seems that if the average man is more handsome then the woman in a given population will be more likely not to be as pretty as the opposite sex. At least this seems to be a pattern in some groups.

    A prominent nose may look good to the face of a Mediterranean man, but it does not have the same effect on your daughter.

    An ‘angelic’ face may look good on woman, but give an ‘effeminate’ impression to her brother and make him less attractive, at least to most women [especially if he is not famous or rich, ;)].

    These selective sexual biases seem to be reflected in behavior, not necessarily because the Italian man’s big nose can make him more behaviorally irresistible, I do not believe it, but that certain doses of male psychology have been more selected in old Italy, And correlated with these traits. Perhaps some external features of the face or head may have some causal relationship, for example, ” small forehead and propensity to crime, ” but as there are often not only exceptions but often a lack of rule, then it is unlikely that An external trait will be causal to a behavioral trait, even because there are comparatively small brains that are organized in a way that, at first, prevents their owners from committing crimes. You can have “big brains” and “little brains” with the same architecture that predisposes to criminal behavior.

    Read More
    • Replies: @reiner Tor
    That's a matter of taste, but Italian women do have a reputation for being pretty, at least from where I come from.
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  30. “Above all, no predictor variable can triumph over a demonstrated reality: if the general relationship between ability measures and demonstrated achievement does not hold, then the ability measures are poor predictors.”

    Bravo! So often if the real world does not conform to IQ expectations, the tendency to conclude that the real world must be in error.

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  31. I find the analysis here puzzling.

    I would certainly guess that memory, strictly speaking, is an important component in success in Scrabble. Here’s a description of the successful technique of the Nigerian national team:

    Ikolo, who’s also a university mathematician, came up with lists of five-letter words and distributed them to his players, including Jighere, the world champion, to train them how to block the board. The coach says that armed with these, the Nigerians could take on and beat competitors playing seven-, eight- or even nine-letter words.

    http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/08/27/491470531/and-the-no-1-scrabble-nation-in-the-world-is

    And it is also pretty well established that blacks in the US do relatively well on tests of memory, such as the Forward Digit Span test, where they lag whites by only .16 SD at age 11:

    http://humanvarieties.org/2013/12/21/racial-differences-on-digit-span-tests/

    If whites who excel at Scrabble are decidedly high in IQ, it may not be because their success depends much on g, but rather because excellent memory in whites correlates quite highly with g. To get a comparable high memory among blacks may not require anything like the same level of g as in whites.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Hippopotamusdrome


    ... The Nigerians' apparent collective strategy — short words ... five letter words
    ... choke the board
    ... the short words help you ... [by blocking longer words from opponents]
    ... Nigerians could take on and beat competitors playing seven-, eight- or even nine-letter words.

     

    LOL. They found a strategy to win by using shorter words than the opponent. You clutter the board with short words so the opponent doesn't have room to play long high scoring words.

    That reminds me of a game of Scrabble I played. I was ahead and thought I was sure to win, but near the end he played "zit" on the triple word score and won. I thought I was so clever coming up with all those long words, but lost to a three letter word played at the end.

    The scoring system can create some odd scenarios:
    antidisestablishmentarianism = 38
    zit on a triple word score = 36
    incomprehensibilities = 32
    jet on a triple word score = 30
    antitransubstantiationist = 29
    ax with x on a triple letter score = 25 points
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  32. res says:
    @Chuck
    James,

    "The best estimate of the standard deviation of Nigerian IQ as measured by Ravens is about 15 IQ points...."

    From what I recall, in the UK SPM+ standardization sample the SD was about 7, suggesting that the Nigerian Raven's SD, despite a possible substantial floor effect, is inflated by 30%. So I am not seeing how you are now deriving a Raven's SD of about 15. Whatever the case, it would be informative to compare the distributions to see what percent of Nigerians solved as many puzzles as by the UK smart fraction, no?

    For Chanda's point, the distinction between IQ as predictor and real-world-outcomes as criterion is not particularly important. If it turned out that a large chunk of Nigerians were able to solve a lot of Raven's matrices but did not exhibit great scrabble ability, I am sure he would not scrap his argument, but rather retune it : matrix solving is a better index of functional capacity; for cultural reasons Nigerians just don't put much effort into scrabble or chess playing.

    Generally, from your discussion it is not clear that the Raven's results are inconsistent with Chanda's argument -- that the Nigerian smart fraction is much larger than a (simple) genetic model for the mean differences would anticipate. Thus it might be worthwile to look at the distribution in detail. Can you ask for a density plot?

    Thus it might be worthwile to look at the distribution in detail. Can you ask for a density plot?

    Agreed. Although not equivalent, I found the graphic in http://www.unz.com/jthompson/the-dna-of-genius-n2/
    which shows a strong right skew for Yoruba polygenic scores suggestive. I would very much like to see density plots for the African IQ studies.

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  33. res says:
    @Chuck
    "I don’t think there is a hard IQ threshold of 130 for Scrabble excellence based on this, but the importance of high IQ seems clear. Especially when remembering how few people there are out at the tails...
    However, I think it is hard to argue with the overall idea behind this Scrabble methodology as a test of IQ numbers. IMHO there is something interesting going on with the African Scrabble success relative to the quoted country IQs."

    Res,

    You must admit, though, that the issue is not straightforward for the following reasons:

    (1) While some studies show that self-selected North American scrabble experts -- these are, mind you, people who respond to requests for interviews, not random samples -- typically have high IQs, this mean effect doesn't establish:
    (a) That the mean of the general North American population of experts is high. (Though based on career profiles this seems to be the case.)
    (b) That the mean of the global population of experts is high. (This is at least less certain than the point above.)
    (c) That general intelligence is an important -- let alone necessary -- determinant of expert scrabble ability, as it could just be that high general intelligence people happen to have extra time on their hands to play scrabble or that high general intelligence people happen to have higher specific abilities that are important. (To note, though, I did find two studies that noted non-trivial correlations between IQ and scrabble wins among experts.)

    (2) It is not clear how fat the tail is for general intelligence and yet all these computations are based on the assumption of perfect normality. In contrast, look at figure 1 in La Griffe's "Assessing the Ashkenazi" ("Griffe's function").

    Consider the relevance: if we assume an African mean of 70 with SDs of 15, then we are talking about 4+ SDs above the mean, if we also assume scrabbles experts require a IQ of > 130. If the number of high IQ members is inflated > 50x, relative to what a guassian curve would predict, at 4+ SD as argued by La Griffe, the numbers computed by Thompson and Chanda will be more than a little bit off. How much? 5x, 10x, 50x?

    Agreed about 2. I have gone at some length about fat tails in the comments to Chisala’s articles (and here, I fear I am starting to sound like a broken record on the topic).

    Your points in 1 are good, but I think they only establish my statement as not proven. I still think based on the data at hand it represents the best working hypothesis we have. I welcome concrete alternative ideas though.

    Do you think 50x is a realistic estimate of the fat tail at 4 SD? That is more than I would expect. Do you consider the lognormal distribution appropriate or do you suggest something else?

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  34. reiner Tor says: • Website
    @Santoculto
    Italian men are known to look great, and yet such fame is not so significant to the Italian women, of course I speak '' on average, '' because there are beautiful women on the peninsula too.

    Nordic women are known to be the most beautiful, although of course, we are talking about averages or a greater proportion, without necessarily consisting on averages. However such fame is not extended with the same intensity as the Nordic men.

    It seems that if the average man is more handsome then the woman in a given population will be more likely not to be as pretty as the opposite sex. At least this seems to be a pattern in some groups.

    A prominent nose may look good to the face of a Mediterranean man, but it does not have the same effect on your daughter.

    An 'angelic' face may look good on woman, but give an 'effeminate' impression to her brother and make him less attractive, at least to most women [especially if he is not famous or rich, ;)].

    These selective sexual biases seem to be reflected in behavior, not necessarily because the Italian man's big nose can make him more behaviorally irresistible, I do not believe it, but that certain doses of male psychology have been more selected in old Italy, And correlated with these traits. Perhaps some external features of the face or head may have some causal relationship, for example, '' small forehead and propensity to crime, '' but as there are often not only exceptions but often a lack of rule, then it is unlikely that An external trait will be causal to a behavioral trait, even because there are comparatively small brains that are organized in a way that, at first, prevents their owners from committing crimes. You can have "big brains" and "little brains" with the same architecture that predisposes to criminal behavior.

    That’s a matter of taste, but Italian women do have a reputation for being pretty, at least from where I come from.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Santoculto
    Because Italy is very diverse and what I said there are very pretty Italian women too. But on avg Italian women in my view tend to inherit traits that works for men but not for women, the example i used, a masculine/phallic big and well build nose it's expected will not work well for women faces. The same about black people. The muscled and masculine men and the...masculinized women. Yes it's a question of taste too. But in my view it's objective too, indeed almost everything that is subjective is also objective.
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  35. @reiner Tor
    That's a matter of taste, but Italian women do have a reputation for being pretty, at least from where I come from.

    Because Italy is very diverse and what I said there are very pretty Italian women too. But on avg Italian women in my view tend to inherit traits that works for men but not for women, the example i used, a masculine/phallic big and well build nose it’s expected will not work well for women faces. The same about black people. The muscled and masculine men and the…masculinized women. Yes it’s a question of taste too. But in my view it’s objective too, indeed almost everything that is subjective is also objective.

    Read More
    • Replies: @RaceRealist88
    "But on avg Italian women in my view tend to inherit traits that works for men but not for women, the example i used, a masculine/phallic big and well build nose it’s expected will not work well for women faces."

    You're talking out of your ass.
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  36. @candid_observer
    I find the analysis here puzzling.

    I would certainly guess that memory, strictly speaking, is an important component in success in Scrabble. Here's a description of the successful technique of the Nigerian national team:

    Ikolo, who's also a university mathematician, came up with lists of five-letter words and distributed them to his players, including Jighere, the world champion, to train them how to block the board. The coach says that armed with these, the Nigerians could take on and beat competitors playing seven-, eight- or even nine-letter words.
     
    http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/08/27/491470531/and-the-no-1-scrabble-nation-in-the-world-is

    And it is also pretty well established that blacks in the US do relatively well on tests of memory, such as the Forward Digit Span test, where they lag whites by only .16 SD at age 11:

    http://humanvarieties.org/2013/12/21/racial-differences-on-digit-span-tests/

    If whites who excel at Scrabble are decidedly high in IQ, it may not be because their success depends much on g, but rather because excellent memory in whites correlates quite highly with g. To get a comparable high memory among blacks may not require anything like the same level of g as in whites.

    … The Nigerians’ apparent collective strategy — short words … five letter words
    … choke the board
    … the short words help you … [by blocking longer words from opponents]
    … Nigerians could take on and beat competitors playing seven-, eight- or even nine-letter words.

    LOL. They found a strategy to win by using shorter words than the opponent. You clutter the board with short words so the opponent doesn’t have room to play long high scoring words.

    That reminds me of a game of Scrabble I played. I was ahead and thought I was sure to win, but near the end he played “zit” on the triple word score and won. I thought I was so clever coming up with all those long words, but lost to a three letter word played at the end.

    The scoring system can create some odd scenarios:
    antidisestablishmentarianism = 38
    zit on a triple word score = 36
    incomprehensibilities = 32
    jet on a triple word score = 30
    antitransubstantiationist = 29
    ax with x on a triple letter score = 25 points

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  37. Chuck says:

    Dear res,

    The scrabble results are, indeed, an interesting explanandum. That there is a very substantial West African smart fraction is one parsimonious explanans. Nonetheless, the data so far do not compel this explanation. That consideration is relevant when it comes to weighing the “totality of the evidence” with respect to the etiology of group differences.

    As for alternatives, there are many given the uncertainties — most generally some combination of the fact that (1) the gaussian assumption probably underestimates to some degree the number of very superior individuals, (2) there are more smart people than one would predict from a mean of 70 because the average West African CA level is, in fact, somewhat variably depressed owing to environmental factors (3) and scrabble ability is not a very good measure of g, being dependent on narrow and broad cognitive abilities with high specificity (e.g., controlled words association, anagram accuracy, name recognition, shape memory, visual perception, letter fluency, etc.) and so is somewhat trainable and it happens that West African train for this.

    As for fat tails, La Griffe’s coefficients seem implausible — and don’t match the proportions I get based on e.g., national merit scholarship data. Surprisingly, I was only able to find one paper on the topic and the results were equivocal, so I just don’t know. But, not knowing, I am skeptical about estimates of how many e.g., Gabonese would be expected to have an IQ 4+ SD up assuming typical Western distributions. What does that typical distribution look like after all?

    To be clear, I agree with Chanda that scholastic tests underestimate Nigerian functional IQ, probably because they are low stakes exams and schooling is bad. Based on 20 or so years of GMAT data, I get something closer to a mean IQ(GMAT) of 85. So Nigerian Nigerians seem to do better at high stakes tests than one would predict from in-school assessments — but not so better that I would infer no substantial differences between smart fractions.

    Read More
    • Replies: @James Thompson
    How does one establish the adequacy of continent of origin samples in this graduate test?
    , @res
    Dear Chuck,

    Thanks for your response and analysis! I largely agree with your conclusions (in the linked Chisala post's comments I argue for a similar multifactorial explanation).

    Could you share your estimates for the national merit scholarship fat tail estimates, say for thresholds of 3, 4, and 5 SDs? Is the data you are basing that on public? It seems like the TIP/SMPY studies would be a good dataset to try to answer this question since I don't think the current PSAT/SAT/ACT reach above 4SD (and are lucky if they resolve that).

    I think it is good to focus on the distributional issues since that is relatively easily measurable. My primary questions are whether the African distributions have fatter tails than those seen in the US/Europe (I think the answer is yes), and if so why (I think the primary answer is smart subpopulations)? How does this sound to you? Regarding La Griffe's coefficients, I believe he used the Terman data. My understanding (hopefully one of the experts here, perhaps you?, can validate/refute this) is that the Terman study used the older ratio IQs (rather than deviation IQs). IIRC the obviously fat tails in that study caused the change in IQ test methodology to make the observed values more closely approximate a Gaussian (thus La Griffe's coefficients don't reflect current IQ tests). I have never seen an analysis of how well that succeeded.

    I definitely agree with your 2. My primary question there is how well good environments match up with good potential. I think that is part of what skews the distributions. The follow on (possibly alternative since it is more measurable IMO) question is how closely that maps to identifiable subpopulations (e.g. the Igbo)? My guess (based on little to no data) is that African mean genotypic IQ potential is something like 80-85. Does that sound in the ballpark?

    I agree with your 3 as well. Elsewhere I have speculated (based on the stereotypical African extemporaneous verbal skills, possibly also classic hunter gatherer navigation/pattern recognition abilities) that Africans may have a relative advantage (both from genetics and environment) in these additional skills. What do you think of this idea? (I realize my idea overlaps with your statement, question concerns the differences)

    Regarding your final paragraph, I agree with the qualitative conclusion, but I am not sure how to interpret the 85 estimate. I would assume the group taking the GMAT is highly selected? Does your 85 estimate correct for that? Is your GMAT data public?

    Thanks again for your interesting comment!
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  38. @szopen
    Your calculations for Gabon are wrong, because Gabon has a very young population; Whole one third of Gabon's population is below 15 years old and 4.3% is above 65. 9.7% is 15 to 20 years old. Masters of scrabble won't be drawn from that people.

    Therefore, you should exclude about half of 428 people. 224 people, 7 of them became winners of French Scrabble.

    We do not have reliable estimates for Gabon.
    Age corrections can of course be applied in all countries, but that introduces greater variability, whereas total population estimates for all countries gives us a common benchmark.

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  39. @Chuck
    Dear res,

    The scrabble results are, indeed, an interesting explanandum. That there is a very substantial West African smart fraction is one parsimonious explanans. Nonetheless, the data so far do not compel this explanation. That consideration is relevant when it comes to weighing the "totality of the evidence" with respect to the etiology of group differences.

    As for alternatives, there are many given the uncertainties -- most generally some combination of the fact that (1) the gaussian assumption probably underestimates to some degree the number of very superior individuals, (2) there are more smart people than one would predict from a mean of 70 because the average West African CA level is, in fact, somewhat variably depressed owing to environmental factors (3) and scrabble ability is not a very good measure of g, being dependent on narrow and broad cognitive abilities with high specificity (e.g., controlled words association, anagram accuracy, name recognition, shape memory, visual perception, letter fluency, etc.) and so is somewhat trainable and it happens that West African train for this.

    As for fat tails, La Griffe's coefficients seem implausible -- and don't match the proportions I get based on e.g., national merit scholarship data. Surprisingly, I was only able to find one paper on the topic and the results were equivocal, so I just don't know. But, not knowing, I am skeptical about estimates of how many e.g., Gabonese would be expected to have an IQ 4+ SD up assuming typical Western distributions. What does that typical distribution look like after all?

    To be clear, I agree with Chanda that scholastic tests underestimate Nigerian functional IQ, probably because they are low stakes exams and schooling is bad. Based on 20 or so years of GMAT data, I get something closer to a mean IQ(GMAT) of 85. So Nigerian Nigerians seem to do better at high stakes tests than one would predict from in-school assessments -- but not so better that I would infer no substantial differences between smart fractions.

    How does one establish the adequacy of continent of origin samples in this graduate test?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Chuck
    James,

    I will have to write up and publish the analysis; after, you can judge if the results are suitable for your interests. The raw data files are here, though: https://osf.io/z66bk/
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  40. I am puzzled by absence of one necessary statement of the obvious. That is the fact that the average IQ of 70 in Africa cannot be used in sensible discussion as if it was comparable – as a measure – to the approx. 100 of Euroean countries. Anyone who doubts that clearly hasn’t considered the Flynn Effect or Ron Unz’s compelling demolition of many of the average IQ figures put forqard by Lynn and Vanhenen.

    Read More
    • Replies: @CanSpeccy

    I am puzzled by absence of one necessary statement of the obvious. That is the fact that the average IQ of 70 in Africa cannot be used in sensible discussion as if it was comparable – as a measure – to the approx. 100 of Euroean countries. Anyone who doubts that clearly hasn’t considered the Flynn Effect...
     
    I did actually mention that [see #20]:

    We can be fairly sure, therefore, that most of the differences observed in cross-societal IQ test comparisons are attributable not to hereditary differences in intellectual potential, but in whatever environmental factors account for the Flynn effect.
     
    I had thought of adding that my grandfather, born in the 19th Century and therefore someone with, presumably, a near idiot-level IQ, was actually a very smart person when it came to raising crops and cattle, things that today's smart-phone-addicted geniuses might not be so good at. But then I thought that was too obvious a point to mention.
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  41. res says:
    @Chuck
    Dear res,

    The scrabble results are, indeed, an interesting explanandum. That there is a very substantial West African smart fraction is one parsimonious explanans. Nonetheless, the data so far do not compel this explanation. That consideration is relevant when it comes to weighing the "totality of the evidence" with respect to the etiology of group differences.

    As for alternatives, there are many given the uncertainties -- most generally some combination of the fact that (1) the gaussian assumption probably underestimates to some degree the number of very superior individuals, (2) there are more smart people than one would predict from a mean of 70 because the average West African CA level is, in fact, somewhat variably depressed owing to environmental factors (3) and scrabble ability is not a very good measure of g, being dependent on narrow and broad cognitive abilities with high specificity (e.g., controlled words association, anagram accuracy, name recognition, shape memory, visual perception, letter fluency, etc.) and so is somewhat trainable and it happens that West African train for this.

    As for fat tails, La Griffe's coefficients seem implausible -- and don't match the proportions I get based on e.g., national merit scholarship data. Surprisingly, I was only able to find one paper on the topic and the results were equivocal, so I just don't know. But, not knowing, I am skeptical about estimates of how many e.g., Gabonese would be expected to have an IQ 4+ SD up assuming typical Western distributions. What does that typical distribution look like after all?

    To be clear, I agree with Chanda that scholastic tests underestimate Nigerian functional IQ, probably because they are low stakes exams and schooling is bad. Based on 20 or so years of GMAT data, I get something closer to a mean IQ(GMAT) of 85. So Nigerian Nigerians seem to do better at high stakes tests than one would predict from in-school assessments -- but not so better that I would infer no substantial differences between smart fractions.

    Dear Chuck,

    Thanks for your response and analysis! I largely agree with your conclusions (in the linked Chisala post’s comments I argue for a similar multifactorial explanation).

    Could you share your estimates for the national merit scholarship fat tail estimates, say for thresholds of 3, 4, and 5 SDs? Is the data you are basing that on public? It seems like the TIP/SMPY studies would be a good dataset to try to answer this question since I don’t think the current PSAT/SAT/ACT reach above 4SD (and are lucky if they resolve that).

    I think it is good to focus on the distributional issues since that is relatively easily measurable. My primary questions are whether the African distributions have fatter tails than those seen in the US/Europe (I think the answer is yes), and if so why (I think the primary answer is smart subpopulations)? How does this sound to you? Regarding La Griffe’s coefficients, I believe he used the Terman data. My understanding (hopefully one of the experts here, perhaps you?, can validate/refute this) is that the Terman study used the older ratio IQs (rather than deviation IQs). IIRC the obviously fat tails in that study caused the change in IQ test methodology to make the observed values more closely approximate a Gaussian (thus La Griffe’s coefficients don’t reflect current IQ tests). I have never seen an analysis of how well that succeeded.

    I definitely agree with your 2. My primary question there is how well good environments match up with good potential. I think that is part of what skews the distributions. The follow on (possibly alternative since it is more measurable IMO) question is how closely that maps to identifiable subpopulations (e.g. the Igbo)? My guess (based on little to no data) is that African mean genotypic IQ potential is something like 80-85. Does that sound in the ballpark?

    I agree with your 3 as well. Elsewhere I have speculated (based on the stereotypical African extemporaneous verbal skills, possibly also classic hunter gatherer navigation/pattern recognition abilities) that Africans may have a relative advantage (both from genetics and environment) in these additional skills. What do you think of this idea? (I realize my idea overlaps with your statement, question concerns the differences)

    Regarding your final paragraph, I agree with the qualitative conclusion, but I am not sure how to interpret the 85 estimate. I would assume the group taking the GMAT is highly selected? Does your 85 estimate correct for that? Is your GMAT data public?

    Thanks again for your interesting comment!

    Read More
    • Replies: @Chuck
    Dear res,

    If you wish, you can just shoot me an email.

    I don't comment on the Unz Review much because my "Chuck" handle always gets mixed up with that of another, snarky "Chuck" -- which is annoying. (I am many terrible things, but snarky is not one of them.)

    As for this:

    "My guess ... is that African mean genotypic IQ potential is something like 80-85. Does that sound in the ballpark?"

    It is, to me, clearer to speculate in terms of qualitative genetic differences and the phenotypic differences expected owing to these, given some measure with its trait-loading and specific within-group heritabilities, assuming environmental equality.

    Based on the 'totality of the evidence' -- e.g., Davide Piffer's stuff, published and unpublished adoption analyses, immigrant performance, etc. -- I would not anticipate differences, between the said groups, greater than d = 1, given a perfectly reliable index of g which also had within group heritabilities of unity, and also given equality or rearing environments.

    So, I really don't have a problem explaining the scrabble stuff -- as surely the heritability and g-loading of scrabble-playing must be lower than that of a math exam, no? As for explaining the very large national differences, I happen to agree with Wade. I noted so in my NofR book, years back:

    "This point was made by the prominent early 20th century psychologist William McDougall. In 1920, he noted, “The principle is that, though differences of racial mental qualities are relatively small, so small as to be indistinguishable with certainty in individuals, they are yet of great importance for the life of nations, because they exert throughout many generations a constant bias upon the development of their culture and their institutions” (Lamb, 1999). Ninety-four years later, after discussing a number of societal and civilizational differences in light of human biodiversity, Wade (2014) concluded much the same:“[T]hese minor differences, for the most part invisible in an individual, have major consequences at the level of a society.”

    Anyways, this is what seems to be the case to me. And has since 2012.

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  42. @CanSpeccy
    We know that American and European IQs increased from around 70 to around 100 between 1900 and 2000. We know that even more rapid increases in IQ have been observed in Africa over recent decades. We can be fairly sure, therefore, that most of the differences observed in cross-societal IQ test comparisons are attributable not to hereditary differences in intellectual potential, but in whatever environmental factors account for the Flynn effect.

    However, a question that has not been thoroughly addressed, if it has been addressed with any seriousness at all, is the extent to which those of low-IQ societies excel in abilities unrelated to IQ. Yes, those of low IQ score low on the range of tests comprising the Raven Matrices, or whatever. But there seems to have been little interest in determining in what, if anything, those of low-IQ societies excel. For example are Australian aboriginals better than the average American at finding their way in the bush? Or are Amazonian head-shrinking Indians better able than the average American to distinguish among the sights, the sounds and the smells of the forest? Or how does the social intelligence — the reading and manipulation of the moods and intentions of others — of a Nigerian villager of marginal literacy compare with that of a social media-obsessed American?

    “For example are Australian aboriginals better than the average American at finding their way in the bush? Or are Amazonian head-shrinking Indians better able than the average American to distinguish among the sights, the sounds and the smells of the forest? ”

    I have a cat who can find his way home every night. He can also see and smell way better than any human can.

    Read More
    • Replies: @CanSpeccy

    I have a cat who can find his way home every night. He can also see and smell way better than any human can.
     
    I wonder. As the British Psychological Society reports, the idea that humans have a poor sense of smell is a myth.

    Probably, on a SmellQ test, your cat would beat me, but that's because I lived in a non-smell -oriented society. The difference, I'm suggesting, in IQ between Nigerians and Americans is likewise due to a difference in environment, both cultural, economic and physical.
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  43. CanSpeccy says: • Website
    @Wizard of Oz
    I am puzzled by absence of one necessary statement of the obvious. That is the fact that the average IQ of 70 in Africa cannot be used in sensible discussion as if it was comparable - as a measure - to the approx. 100 of Euroean countries. Anyone who doubts that clearly hasn't considered the Flynn Effect or Ron Unz's compelling demolition of many of the average IQ figures put forqard by Lynn and Vanhenen.

    I am puzzled by absence of one necessary statement of the obvious. That is the fact that the average IQ of 70 in Africa cannot be used in sensible discussion as if it was comparable – as a measure – to the approx. 100 of Euroean countries. Anyone who doubts that clearly hasn’t considered the Flynn Effect…

    I did actually mention that [see #20]:

    We can be fairly sure, therefore, that most of the differences observed in cross-societal IQ test comparisons are attributable not to hereditary differences in intellectual potential, but in whatever environmental factors account for the Flynn effect.

    I had thought of adding that my grandfather, born in the 19th Century and therefore someone with, presumably, a near idiot-level IQ, was actually a very smart person when it came to raising crops and cattle, things that today’s smart-phone-addicted geniuses might not be so good at. But then I thought that was too obvious a point to mention.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Santoculto
    I thought first IQ tests, what i already read, was easier than current IQ tests thanks for ''actualizations''. So this increasing on scores can be more artificial than real.

    People seems are comparing current IQ tests with older IQ tests, so while in the first you may score ~100, on the late you would score ON AVG [not necessarily 100, but just avg] for population who did it, but if it is compared with the current/modern test you would score ~70.

    It's just like compare artistic gymnastics in 70's with current artistic gymnastics in difficult levels. The top 5 routines on 70's on floor, on beam and on vault, would be super lower scores if they are compared with the last Olympic finals.

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  44. I don’t get the idea behind “fat tails” when it comes to IQ.

    Sure, if you develop an IQ test, you can score it so that the tails are “fat” compared to a normal distribution. But why not instead take it as a constraint on proper scoring that it result in a normal curve at all points? What is the hard, independent meaning of IQ so that conforming to it must result in “fat tails”?

    Read More
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  45. utu says:

    But why not instead take it as a constraint on proper scoring that it result in a normal curve at all points?

    Interesting idea but undoable in practice, I think. Think how big your sample would have to be to calibrate the tail at ±3SD with, say 1% precision.

    Read More
    • Replies: @candid_observer
    The basic issue isn't whether our measurements of IQ can, given our current data, be reliably calibrated at these tails to conform to a normal curve. It's whether the existence of "fat tails" in our measurements of IQ is telling us anything interesting about the world, or is simply an artifact of our measurement procedure.

    Again, I don't know of any hard, independent meaning for IQ that would support the existence of "fat tails" in any important sense.
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  46. @FKA Max
    I came across a curious case of a high-functioning African-derived population:

    Barbados has an average IQ of 78, so how has it managed to become a such a highly developed country?
     
    - https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090617121032AAjCM0U

    In 2014, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index ranked Barbados joint second in the Americas (after Canada, equal with the United States) and joint 17th globally (after Belgium and Japan, equal with the US, Hong Kong and Ireland).
     
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbados

    Interestingly, Barbados shares a unique distinction with Japan: both countries have the highest per capita occurrences of centenarians on earth.
     
    - http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/barbados-population/

    Now a leading Canadian newspaper, the National Post, has come up with some possible answers.

    "A good start might be Bajan water," suggested the Post in an article headlined: Many Rivers To Cross, Why So Many Barbadians Live For More Than 100 years?

    The paper stated, "the only volcanic island in the Caribbean, Barbados' coral limestone filters water to a healthy state of 'hard' calcium rich drinking water similar to that of Okinawa."
     
    - https://web.archive.org/web/20071211110656/http://www.nationnews.com/story/284159291378094.php

    IQ-wise, the Caribbean doesn’t seem to make much sense, but there are a number of instances in this region that are impossible to explain by hard HBD theory.
     
    - https://robertlindsay.wordpress.com/2015/08/18/caribbean-iq-scores/

    “Here we used a panel of 28 AIMs to examine the genetic ancestry of 298 individuals of African descent from the Caribbean islands of Jamaica, St. Thomas and Barbados. Differences in global admixture were observed, with Barbados having the highest level of West African ancestry (89.6%+/- 2.0) and the lowest levels of European (10.2%+/- 2.2) and Native American ancestry (0.2%+/- 2.0), while Jamaica possessed the highest levels of European (12.4%+/- 3.5) and Native American ancestry (3.2%+/- 3.1). St. Thomas, USVI had ancestry levels quite similar to African Americans in continental U.S. (86.8%+/- 2.2 West African, 10.6%+/- 2.3 European, and 2.6%+/- 2.1 Native American).”
     
    - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17908263

    A tax exempt anomaly.

    Read More
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  47. @CanSpeccy

    I am puzzled by absence of one necessary statement of the obvious. That is the fact that the average IQ of 70 in Africa cannot be used in sensible discussion as if it was comparable – as a measure – to the approx. 100 of Euroean countries. Anyone who doubts that clearly hasn’t considered the Flynn Effect...
     
    I did actually mention that [see #20]:

    We can be fairly sure, therefore, that most of the differences observed in cross-societal IQ test comparisons are attributable not to hereditary differences in intellectual potential, but in whatever environmental factors account for the Flynn effect.
     
    I had thought of adding that my grandfather, born in the 19th Century and therefore someone with, presumably, a near idiot-level IQ, was actually a very smart person when it came to raising crops and cattle, things that today's smart-phone-addicted geniuses might not be so good at. But then I thought that was too obvious a point to mention.

    I thought first IQ tests, what i already read, was easier than current IQ tests thanks for ”actualizations”. So this increasing on scores can be more artificial than real.

    People seems are comparing current IQ tests with older IQ tests, so while in the first you may score ~100, on the late you would score ON AVG [not necessarily 100, but just avg] for population who did it, but if it is compared with the current/modern test you would score ~70.

    It’s just like compare artistic gymnastics in 70′s with current artistic gymnastics in difficult levels. The top 5 routines on 70′s on floor, on beam and on vault, would be super lower scores if they are compared with the last Olympic finals.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Santoculto
    would be super lower scores if they are compared with the last Olympic finals.

    would have super lower scores.
    , @CanSpeccy
    So you're saying that as the modern world advances we achieve increasing IQ test "sophistication." The paper I link to at #20 mentions, for example, suggests that even such a seemingly trivial factors such as exposure to illustrations on cereal cartons could raise IQ test performance.

    In addition, in the more technologically advanced societies, the technology of education is constantly being transformed with results that must affect IQ test performance, and as you note, gymnastic performance.

    Interestingly, the world's greatest female gymnast is of African descent, but was raised in America, her performance reflecting a combination of exceptional physical heredity with superior training technology — And wow, what is her KaenestheticQ, 200? 300?

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  48. @utu
    But why not instead take it as a constraint on proper scoring that it result in a normal curve at all points?

    Interesting idea but undoable in practice, I think. Think how big your sample would have to be to calibrate the tail at ±3SD with, say 1% precision.

    The basic issue isn’t whether our measurements of IQ can, given our current data, be reliably calibrated at these tails to conform to a normal curve. It’s whether the existence of “fat tails” in our measurements of IQ is telling us anything interesting about the world, or is simply an artifact of our measurement procedure.

    Again, I don’t know of any hard, independent meaning for IQ that would support the existence of “fat tails” in any important sense.

    Read More
    • Replies: @utu
    It’s whether the existence of “fat tails” in our measurements of IQ

    I do not think there are accurate enough measurements (N must be very large) to know whether the tails adhere to Gaussian distribution or not. Talking about fat or not fat tails is purely speculative.
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  49. Chuck says:
    @James Thompson
    How does one establish the adequacy of continent of origin samples in this graduate test?

    James,

    I will have to write up and publish the analysis; after, you can judge if the results are suitable for your interests. The raw data files are here, though: https://osf.io/z66bk/

    Read More
    • Replies: @James Thompson
    Thanks. Let me know how it goes, and when you get published.
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  50. @Santoculto
    I thought first IQ tests, what i already read, was easier than current IQ tests thanks for ''actualizations''. So this increasing on scores can be more artificial than real.

    People seems are comparing current IQ tests with older IQ tests, so while in the first you may score ~100, on the late you would score ON AVG [not necessarily 100, but just avg] for population who did it, but if it is compared with the current/modern test you would score ~70.

    It's just like compare artistic gymnastics in 70's with current artistic gymnastics in difficult levels. The top 5 routines on 70's on floor, on beam and on vault, would be super lower scores if they are compared with the last Olympic finals.

    would be super lower scores if they are compared with the last Olympic finals.

    would have super lower scores.

    Read More
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  51. @CanSpeccy
    We know that American and European IQs increased from around 70 to around 100 between 1900 and 2000. We know that even more rapid increases in IQ have been observed in Africa over recent decades. We can be fairly sure, therefore, that most of the differences observed in cross-societal IQ test comparisons are attributable not to hereditary differences in intellectual potential, but in whatever environmental factors account for the Flynn effect.

    However, a question that has not been thoroughly addressed, if it has been addressed with any seriousness at all, is the extent to which those of low-IQ societies excel in abilities unrelated to IQ. Yes, those of low IQ score low on the range of tests comprising the Raven Matrices, or whatever. But there seems to have been little interest in determining in what, if anything, those of low-IQ societies excel. For example are Australian aboriginals better than the average American at finding their way in the bush? Or are Amazonian head-shrinking Indians better able than the average American to distinguish among the sights, the sounds and the smells of the forest? Or how does the social intelligence — the reading and manipulation of the moods and intentions of others — of a Nigerian villager of marginal literacy compare with that of a social media-obsessed American?

    The field is open, and many abilities have been suggested. One study showed that African children had better understanding of profit and loss trading than did British 11 year olds. All that is required is a bit more research to test the proposed skills.

    Read More
    • Replies: @CanSpeccy

    The field is open, and many abilities have been suggested.
     
    Yes, it will be fascinating to see comparative performance data between Africans, Europeans, etc. on, say, SmellQ tests, or tests of visual acuity required to avoid being bitten in the forest by snakes, tarantulas or tigers, or being eaten in the Arctic Barrens by a polar bear.
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  52. @CanSpeccy
    We know that American and European IQs increased from around 70 to around 100 between 1900 and 2000. We know that even more rapid increases in IQ have been observed in Africa over recent decades. We can be fairly sure, therefore, that most of the differences observed in cross-societal IQ test comparisons are attributable not to hereditary differences in intellectual potential, but in whatever environmental factors account for the Flynn effect.

    However, a question that has not been thoroughly addressed, if it has been addressed with any seriousness at all, is the extent to which those of low-IQ societies excel in abilities unrelated to IQ. Yes, those of low IQ score low on the range of tests comprising the Raven Matrices, or whatever. But there seems to have been little interest in determining in what, if anything, those of low-IQ societies excel. For example are Australian aboriginals better than the average American at finding their way in the bush? Or are Amazonian head-shrinking Indians better able than the average American to distinguish among the sights, the sounds and the smells of the forest? Or how does the social intelligence — the reading and manipulation of the moods and intentions of others — of a Nigerian villager of marginal literacy compare with that of a social media-obsessed American?

    Also, we do not “know” that American and European intelligence increased from 70 to 100 over the last century. It is hard to map cross-sectional scores onto longitudinal trends, though there have been trends.

    http://www.unz.com/jthompson/what-do-iq-researchers-really-think-about-the-flynn-effect/

    My own view in that post was:

    My own view at the moment is that the closer a mental task approaches the requirements of a ratio scale, with a non-arbitrary zero point, as explained by SS Stevens, the less it is affected by IQ inflation. There is no overall Flynn Effect on digit span and little on maths, though Digit Span forwards may have increased a little, and digit span backwards decreased a bit.

    Read More
    • Replies: @CanSpeccy

    My own view at the moment is that the closer a mental task approaches the requirements of a ratio scale, with a non-arbitrary zero point, as explained by SS Stevens, the less it is affected by IQ inflation.
     
    It would be interesting to have some explication of "requirements of a ratio scale..." Also a synopsis of what has been found concerning international comparisons on tests unaffected by inflation.
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  53. @Chuck
    James,

    "The best estimate of the standard deviation of Nigerian IQ as measured by Ravens is about 15 IQ points...."

    From what I recall, in the UK SPM+ standardization sample the SD was about 7, suggesting that the Nigerian Raven's SD, despite a possible substantial floor effect, is inflated by 30%. So I am not seeing how you are now deriving a Raven's SD of about 15. Whatever the case, it would be informative to compare the distributions to see what percent of Nigerians solved as many puzzles as by the UK smart fraction, no?

    For Chanda's point, the distinction between IQ as predictor and real-world-outcomes as criterion is not particularly important. If it turned out that a large chunk of Nigerians were able to solve a lot of Raven's matrices but did not exhibit great scrabble ability, I am sure he would not scrap his argument, but rather retune it : matrix solving is a better index of functional capacity; for cultural reasons Nigerians just don't put much effort into scrabble or chess playing.

    Generally, from your discussion it is not clear that the Raven's results are inconsistent with Chanda's argument -- that the Nigerian smart fraction is much larger than a (simple) genetic model for the mean differences would anticipate. Thus it might be worthwile to look at the distribution in detail. Can you ask for a density plot?

    I think that the authors want to work through their own data at their own pace, but I will certainly try to post comments on their further publications, and a distribution of scores would be very interesting. Also, if they can look at the backgrounds (cultural and ethnic) of the top scorers, that would also be fascinating.

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  54. @Chuck
    James,

    I will have to write up and publish the analysis; after, you can judge if the results are suitable for your interests. The raw data files are here, though: https://osf.io/z66bk/

    Thanks. Let me know how it goes, and when you get published.

    Read More
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  55. CanSpeccy says: • Website
    @europeasant
    "For example are Australian aboriginals better than the average American at finding their way in the bush? Or are Amazonian head-shrinking Indians better able than the average American to distinguish among the sights, the sounds and the smells of the forest? "

    I have a cat who can find his way home every night. He can also see and smell way better than any human can.

    I have a cat who can find his way home every night. He can also see and smell way better than any human can.

    I wonder. As the British Psychological Society reports, the idea that humans have a poor sense of smell is a myth.

    Probably, on a SmellQ test, your cat would beat me, but that’s because I lived in a non-smell -oriented society. The difference, I’m suggesting, in IQ between Nigerians and Americans is likewise due to a difference in environment, both cultural, economic and physical.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Hippopotamusdrome


    on a SmellQ test, your cat would beat me, but that’s because I lived in a non-smell -oriented society

     

    ... how are you at catching mice?
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  56. CanSpeccy says: • Website
    @James Thompson
    The field is open, and many abilities have been suggested. One study showed that African children had better understanding of profit and loss trading than did British 11 year olds. All that is required is a bit more research to test the proposed skills.

    The field is open, and many abilities have been suggested.

    Yes, it will be fascinating to see comparative performance data between Africans, Europeans, etc. on, say, SmellQ tests, or tests of visual acuity required to avoid being bitten in the forest by snakes, tarantulas or tigers, or being eaten in the Arctic Barrens by a polar bear.

    Read More
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  57. CanSpeccy says: • Website
    @Santoculto
    I thought first IQ tests, what i already read, was easier than current IQ tests thanks for ''actualizations''. So this increasing on scores can be more artificial than real.

    People seems are comparing current IQ tests with older IQ tests, so while in the first you may score ~100, on the late you would score ON AVG [not necessarily 100, but just avg] for population who did it, but if it is compared with the current/modern test you would score ~70.

    It's just like compare artistic gymnastics in 70's with current artistic gymnastics in difficult levels. The top 5 routines on 70's on floor, on beam and on vault, would be super lower scores if they are compared with the last Olympic finals.

    So you’re saying that as the modern world advances we achieve increasing IQ test “sophistication.” The paper I link to at #20 mentions, for example, suggests that even such a seemingly trivial factors such as exposure to illustrations on cereal cartons could raise IQ test performance.

    In addition, in the more technologically advanced societies, the technology of education is constantly being transformed with results that must affect IQ test performance, and as you note, gymnastic performance.

    Interestingly, the world’s greatest female gymnast is of African descent, but was raised in America, her performance reflecting a combination of exceptional physical heredity with superior training technology — And wow, what is her KaenestheticQ, 200? 300?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Santoculto
    Basically I'm saying my grandparent wasn't delayed. If he had taken a IQ test and it had scored ~ 100 for the population he was compared and standardized, today he had scored ~ "70" because we are comparing older with current tests and actualizing the first to the current. My analogy with artistic gymnastics. If Comaneci routines on floor were actualized to current system scores she had scored very lower because her difficulty levels, lower if compared to current gymnastics. But she was one of the best in her times. AND if she had was born 15 years before and had become a gymnast, I think she had been a top gym as she really was in 70's.

    James Flynn seems said that if people today to do older tests they will score better than people on the past, why? Because this tests are easier. In the same way seems if people in not very very damaged environments, "on the past", did current tests they will score at similar levels to people today.

    About savage nano-environmental causations you are suggesting, it's likely most of them if not all them 'are' "genetic confound". "Smarter" children are more prone to have available cereals earlier in life than read cereal cartoon can have magical effects on cognition. It's must be proven empirically.

    Biles is one among many many great athletes on this sports. She's exceptional, it's indisputable, seems she's diagnosed with ADHD and came from a complicated family. But as I said this sports have so many great names and many them who never win bigger prizes. For gymnastics aficionados she's one among many big names.

    Also about technology. By now nothing of this was empirically proven. We have by now Amish people who score at standard levels and have minimal contact with technology and "minorities' on Brooklyn who was born in the technological era, use and abuse of technology but... this don't translate causally in general or specific improvement in cognitive nor psychological skills.
    , @Hippopotamusdrome


    even such a seemingly trivial factors such as exposure to illustrations on cereal cartons

     

    Nigeria has grocery stores that sells cereal boxes.
    Shoprite Nigeria: Store Tour
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  58. CanSpeccy says: • Website
    @James Thompson
    Also, we do not "know" that American and European intelligence increased from 70 to 100 over the last century. It is hard to map cross-sectional scores onto longitudinal trends, though there have been trends.

    http://www.unz.com/jthompson/what-do-iq-researchers-really-think-about-the-flynn-effect/

    My own view in that post was:

    My own view at the moment is that the closer a mental task approaches the requirements of a ratio scale, with a non-arbitrary zero point, as explained by SS Stevens, the less it is affected by IQ inflation. There is no overall Flynn Effect on digit span and little on maths, though Digit Span forwards may have increased a little, and digit span backwards decreased a bit.

    My own view at the moment is that the closer a mental task approaches the requirements of a ratio scale, with a non-arbitrary zero point, as explained by SS Stevens, the less it is affected by IQ inflation.

    It would be interesting to have some explication of “requirements of a ratio scale…” Also a synopsis of what has been found concerning international comparisons on tests unaffected by inflation.

    Read More
    • Replies: @James Thompson
    an explanation here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Level_of_measurement
    Jensen covered the advantages of real measures in The g factor.
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  59. utu says:
    @candid_observer
    The basic issue isn't whether our measurements of IQ can, given our current data, be reliably calibrated at these tails to conform to a normal curve. It's whether the existence of "fat tails" in our measurements of IQ is telling us anything interesting about the world, or is simply an artifact of our measurement procedure.

    Again, I don't know of any hard, independent meaning for IQ that would support the existence of "fat tails" in any important sense.

    It’s whether the existence of “fat tails” in our measurements of IQ

    I do not think there are accurate enough measurements (N must be very large) to know whether the tails adhere to Gaussian distribution or not. Talking about fat or not fat tails is purely speculative.

    Read More
    • Replies: @res
    There is some data out there. For example, the pre-1995 SAT generally yielded about 10 perfect 1600 scores per year. That's just (~4.27) over 4SD per http://www.iqcomparisonsite.com/oldSATIQ.aspx
    For a Gaussian, over 4SD is about 1 in 16,000 so knowing the number of people in the age cohort (not just test takers) would give a decent benchmark (may have to correct for inclusion of foreign students).

    I don't know if TIP/SMPY have looked into this. They should have a decent dataset for this purpose.

    La Griffe used the Terman data for his calculations, but see my comments above.

    Can anyone recommend other datasets?
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  60. @CanSpeccy
    So you're saying that as the modern world advances we achieve increasing IQ test "sophistication." The paper I link to at #20 mentions, for example, suggests that even such a seemingly trivial factors such as exposure to illustrations on cereal cartons could raise IQ test performance.

    In addition, in the more technologically advanced societies, the technology of education is constantly being transformed with results that must affect IQ test performance, and as you note, gymnastic performance.

    Interestingly, the world's greatest female gymnast is of African descent, but was raised in America, her performance reflecting a combination of exceptional physical heredity with superior training technology — And wow, what is her KaenestheticQ, 200? 300?

    Basically I’m saying my grandparent wasn’t delayed. If he had taken a IQ test and it had scored ~ 100 for the population he was compared and standardized, today he had scored ~ “70″ because we are comparing older with current tests and actualizing the first to the current. My analogy with artistic gymnastics. If Comaneci routines on floor were actualized to current system scores she had scored very lower because her difficulty levels, lower if compared to current gymnastics. But she was one of the best in her times. AND if she had was born 15 years before and had become a gymnast, I think she had been a top gym as she really was in 70′s.

    James Flynn seems said that if people today to do older tests they will score better than people on the past, why? Because this tests are easier. In the same way seems if people in not very very damaged environments, “on the past”, did current tests they will score at similar levels to people today.

    About savage nano-environmental causations you are suggesting, it’s likely most of them if not all them ‘are’ “genetic confound”. “Smarter” children are more prone to have available cereals earlier in life than read cereal cartoon can have magical effects on cognition. It’s must be proven empirically.

    Biles is one among many many great athletes on this sports. She’s exceptional, it’s indisputable, seems she’s diagnosed with ADHD and came from a complicated family. But as I said this sports have so many great names and many them who never win bigger prizes. For gymnastics aficionados she’s one among many big names.

    Also about technology. By now nothing of this was empirically proven. We have by now Amish people who score at standard levels and have minimal contact with technology and “minorities’ on Brooklyn who was born in the technological era, use and abuse of technology but… this don’t translate causally in general or specific improvement in cognitive nor psychological skills.

    Read More
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  61. res says:
    @utu
    It’s whether the existence of “fat tails” in our measurements of IQ

    I do not think there are accurate enough measurements (N must be very large) to know whether the tails adhere to Gaussian distribution or not. Talking about fat or not fat tails is purely speculative.

    There is some data out there. For example, the pre-1995 SAT generally yielded about 10 perfect 1600 scores per year. That’s just (~4.27) over 4SD per http://www.iqcomparisonsite.com/oldSATIQ.aspx
    For a Gaussian, over 4SD is about 1 in 16,000 so knowing the number of people in the age cohort (not just test takers) would give a decent benchmark (may have to correct for inclusion of foreign students).

    I don’t know if TIP/SMPY have looked into this. They should have a decent dataset for this purpose.

    La Griffe used the Terman data for his calculations, but see my comments above.

    Can anyone recommend other datasets?

    Read More
    • Replies: @utu
    From the empirical position the non-parametric approach is preferable where you do not even try to approximate your data with a Gaussian but use a histogram directly. This has its drawbacks because you can't do theorizing by going to next stages of abstractions, however you reduce chances of misstating your case.

    From the discussions here I conclude that no rigorous studies whether IQ has a normal distribution were performed and the answer how good is the approximation with a Gaussian several SD's away from the mean is not really known.

    For this reason to large extend the discussion here including the argument made by Chanda Chisala is purely academic.
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  62. @CanSpeccy

    I have a cat who can find his way home every night. He can also see and smell way better than any human can.
     
    I wonder. As the British Psychological Society reports, the idea that humans have a poor sense of smell is a myth.

    Probably, on a SmellQ test, your cat would beat me, but that's because I lived in a non-smell -oriented society. The difference, I'm suggesting, in IQ between Nigerians and Americans is likewise due to a difference in environment, both cultural, economic and physical.

    on a SmellQ test, your cat would beat me, but that’s because I lived in a non-smell -oriented society

    … how are you at catching mice?

    Read More
    • Replies: @CanSpeccy

    … how are you at catching mice?
     
    I just don't have the patience to sit by a mouse hole for hours on end. Also, I emit more carbon dioxide than a cat, which a mouse can smell, so that gives me away.
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  63. @CanSpeccy
    So you're saying that as the modern world advances we achieve increasing IQ test "sophistication." The paper I link to at #20 mentions, for example, suggests that even such a seemingly trivial factors such as exposure to illustrations on cereal cartons could raise IQ test performance.

    In addition, in the more technologically advanced societies, the technology of education is constantly being transformed with results that must affect IQ test performance, and as you note, gymnastic performance.

    Interestingly, the world's greatest female gymnast is of African descent, but was raised in America, her performance reflecting a combination of exceptional physical heredity with superior training technology — And wow, what is her KaenestheticQ, 200? 300?

    even such a seemingly trivial factors such as exposure to illustrations on cereal cartons

    Nigeria has grocery stores that sells cereal boxes.
    Shoprite Nigeria: Store Tour

    Read More
    • Replies: @Santoculto
    It's poisoned.
    , @CanSpeccy

    Nigeria has grocery stores that sells cereal boxes.
     
    When there's a cereal box on every breakfast table, the Nigerians will be fully up to speed, launching Mars probes* and doing quantum physics for a pastime.

    And assuming that IQ rises more or less in line with GDP per capita, the cereal box theory of Nigerian IQ seems certain to prove correct.

    ———
    *Actually, the Nigerians already have a space program and intend sending men into orbit by 2030.

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  64. @Hippopotamusdrome


    even such a seemingly trivial factors such as exposure to illustrations on cereal cartons

     

    Nigeria has grocery stores that sells cereal boxes.
    Shoprite Nigeria: Store Tour

    It’s poisoned.

    Read More
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  65. CanSpeccy says: • Website
    @Hippopotamusdrome


    on a SmellQ test, your cat would beat me, but that’s because I lived in a non-smell -oriented society

     

    ... how are you at catching mice?

    … how are you at catching mice?

    I just don’t have the patience to sit by a mouse hole for hours on end. Also, I emit more carbon dioxide than a cat, which a mouse can smell, so that gives me away.

    Read More
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  66. CanSpeccy says: • Website
    @Hippopotamusdrome


    even such a seemingly trivial factors such as exposure to illustrations on cereal cartons

     

    Nigeria has grocery stores that sells cereal boxes.
    Shoprite Nigeria: Store Tour

    Nigeria has grocery stores that sells cereal boxes.

    When there’s a cereal box on every breakfast table, the Nigerians will be fully up to speed, launching Mars probes* and doing quantum physics for a pastime.

    And assuming that IQ rises more or less in line with GDP per capita, the cereal box theory of Nigerian IQ seems certain to prove correct.

    ———
    *Actually, the Nigerians already have a space program and intend sending men into orbit by 2030.

    Read More
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  67. Anonymous says: • Disclaimer

    We all know that tall people excel at basketball. The fact that the Norway’s national basketball team sucks on the World stage doesn’t change that fact, at all.

    As it turns out, the population is relatively small and the sport is not very popular for a variety of reasons.

    Read More
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  68. rec1man says:

    https://ratings.fide.com/topfed.phtml

    Country rank by average rating of top 10 players

    Russia = 2742
    USA = 2708
    China = 2707
    Ukraine = 2688
    India = 2673
    Azerbaijan = 2659
    France = 2652
    Hungary = 2646
    Armenia = 2645
    Poland = 2643
    Israel = 2635
    England = 2635

    Read More
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  69. Chuck says:
    @res
    Dear Chuck,

    Thanks for your response and analysis! I largely agree with your conclusions (in the linked Chisala post's comments I argue for a similar multifactorial explanation).

    Could you share your estimates for the national merit scholarship fat tail estimates, say for thresholds of 3, 4, and 5 SDs? Is the data you are basing that on public? It seems like the TIP/SMPY studies would be a good dataset to try to answer this question since I don't think the current PSAT/SAT/ACT reach above 4SD (and are lucky if they resolve that).

    I think it is good to focus on the distributional issues since that is relatively easily measurable. My primary questions are whether the African distributions have fatter tails than those seen in the US/Europe (I think the answer is yes), and if so why (I think the primary answer is smart subpopulations)? How does this sound to you? Regarding La Griffe's coefficients, I believe he used the Terman data. My understanding (hopefully one of the experts here, perhaps you?, can validate/refute this) is that the Terman study used the older ratio IQs (rather than deviation IQs). IIRC the obviously fat tails in that study caused the change in IQ test methodology to make the observed values more closely approximate a Gaussian (thus La Griffe's coefficients don't reflect current IQ tests). I have never seen an analysis of how well that succeeded.

    I definitely agree with your 2. My primary question there is how well good environments match up with good potential. I think that is part of what skews the distributions. The follow on (possibly alternative since it is more measurable IMO) question is how closely that maps to identifiable subpopulations (e.g. the Igbo)? My guess (based on little to no data) is that African mean genotypic IQ potential is something like 80-85. Does that sound in the ballpark?

    I agree with your 3 as well. Elsewhere I have speculated (based on the stereotypical African extemporaneous verbal skills, possibly also classic hunter gatherer navigation/pattern recognition abilities) that Africans may have a relative advantage (both from genetics and environment) in these additional skills. What do you think of this idea? (I realize my idea overlaps with your statement, question concerns the differences)

    Regarding your final paragraph, I agree with the qualitative conclusion, but I am not sure how to interpret the 85 estimate. I would assume the group taking the GMAT is highly selected? Does your 85 estimate correct for that? Is your GMAT data public?

    Thanks again for your interesting comment!

    Dear res,

    If you wish, you can just shoot me an email.

    I don’t comment on the Unz Review much because my “Chuck” handle always gets mixed up with that of another, snarky “Chuck” — which is annoying. (I am many terrible things, but snarky is not one of them.)

    As for this:

    “My guess … is that African mean genotypic IQ potential is something like 80-85. Does that sound in the ballpark?”

    It is, to me, clearer to speculate in terms of qualitative genetic differences and the phenotypic differences expected owing to these, given some measure with its trait-loading and specific within-group heritabilities, assuming environmental equality.

    Based on the ‘totality of the evidence’ — e.g., Davide Piffer’s stuff, published and unpublished adoption analyses, immigrant performance, etc. — I would not anticipate differences, between the said groups, greater than d = 1, given a perfectly reliable index of g which also had within group heritabilities of unity, and also given equality or rearing environments.

    So, I really don’t have a problem explaining the scrabble stuff — as surely the heritability and g-loading of scrabble-playing must be lower than that of a math exam, no? As for explaining the very large national differences, I happen to agree with Wade. I noted so in my NofR book, years back:

    “This point was made by the prominent early 20th century psychologist William McDougall. In 1920, he noted, “The principle is that, though differences of racial mental qualities are relatively small, so small as to be indistinguishable with certainty in individuals, they are yet of great importance for the life of nations, because they exert throughout many generations a constant bias upon the development of their culture and their institutions” (Lamb, 1999). Ninety-four years later, after discussing a number of societal and civilizational differences in light of human biodiversity, Wade (2014) concluded much the same:“[T]hese minor differences, for the most part invisible in an individual, have major consequences at the level of a society.”

    Anyways, this is what seems to be the case to me. And has since 2012.

    Read More
    • Replies: @CanSpeccy
    Re: McDonald:

    “The principle is that, though differences of racial mental qualities are relatively small, so small as to be indistinguishable with certainty in individuals, they are yet of great importance for the life of nations, because they exert throughout many generations a constant bias upon the development of their culture and their institutions” (Lamb, 1999).
     
    Looking at the development of the culture and institutions of the high-IQ Western nations, which has resulted in an ongoing process of autogenocide by suppressed reproduction and mass replacement immigration, one sees the huge advantage that low IQ has proved to be for the African nations, whose populations are burgeoning not only in Africa but throughout the suicidal West.
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  70. http://danielgontijo.blogspot.com.br/2010/11/efeito-flynn-multiplicacao-social-da.html?m=1

    It’s in Portuguese but obviously can be translated. It’s not exactly insightful. Just a summarized post to explain Flynn effect. But in this text at least for me there is a discrete way to understand this possible (or not) differences on tests scores. Im terms of potential and without great selective pressure during this half time “our” ancestors were in the “same” levels to us. But in terms of “cognitive result” or reached potential we are, supposedly, better than them. I find this part interesting. This may explain why the average at retarded levels if compared with today can mean “nothing”. The phenotypical IQ may increase. The “genotypical IQ” not. Genotypical intelligence seems only can increase via directional selective pressures.

    Crystallized seems more instinctiveable because it’s the complementation of language acquisition. We learn to talk, we learn to write and to read. Of course if all Flynn Effect highlights was finally/empirically proven.

    Fluid/reasoning skills and specially for conformist people seems more dependent on environmental even in my view no have differences between fluid and chrystallized in terms of genetic basis. Today most Icelandic young people (who are mostly white natives isn’t?) are godless or non Christian. But older generations were overwhelming religious. This differences seems cannot be explained only by DIRECT genetic influence. Atheists and agnostics don’t conquered Iceland with babies. Belief and disbelief are hardware but as many if not most people are not very self aware so they tend to follow their instincts without major self criticisms. If their instinct tell them to become religious they will. This lack of capacity to be doubtful with self obvious things or that appears to be logically absurd, on my view only can be explained via dominant schizomorphic instinct. Seems cognitively easy to accept that humans differ (or not), accept that when we have many people in the same environment they react differently, that Jesus or Mohammed “love stories” seems near to indisputably absurd or that communism is a disaster even worse than capitalism, already a more than imperfect system.

    As I always said IQ try to reflect real intelligence but only via cognitive skills because it’s stated among psychometrics on the mechanicist spectrum that cognitive skills is the concept/is intelligence.

    Culture reflect collective intelligence that reflect individual intelligence at least for half of this individuals. How good people are to organize themselves, build “safe spaces” and to detect bulshitisms. Human reality hasn’t been impressive specially in the last criteria. In evolutionary aspect specially white people and its elites become mad.

    Selective patterns also must need analysed in its type. For example if still in pre first war world most marriages are arranged and people don’t married in assortative way. Geographical mobility??

    Whatever, it’s a very broader subject anyway.

    Read More
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  71. A question I would ask is: What selective pressures caused this alleged increase in Nigerian IQ, even if only by a subgroup?

    For example, compared to the increases in social complexity in places like China and parts of Europe over the last 2,000 to 3,000 years (and thus 40-60 generations of selection.)

    Read More
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  72. @CanSpeccy

    My own view at the moment is that the closer a mental task approaches the requirements of a ratio scale, with a non-arbitrary zero point, as explained by SS Stevens, the less it is affected by IQ inflation.
     
    It would be interesting to have some explication of "requirements of a ratio scale..." Also a synopsis of what has been found concerning international comparisons on tests unaffected by inflation.

    an explanation here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Level_of_measurement
    Jensen covered the advantages of real measures in The g factor.

    Read More
    • Replies: @CanSpeccy
    Ha!

    Thanks for the ink.

    Turns out that as Molière's Monsieur Jourdain discovered he'd been speaking prose all his life, so I find that I've been using ratio scales with non-arbitrary zero points all my life.

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  73. CanSpeccy says: • Website
    @Chuck
    Dear res,

    If you wish, you can just shoot me an email.

    I don't comment on the Unz Review much because my "Chuck" handle always gets mixed up with that of another, snarky "Chuck" -- which is annoying. (I am many terrible things, but snarky is not one of them.)

    As for this:

    "My guess ... is that African mean genotypic IQ potential is something like 80-85. Does that sound in the ballpark?"

    It is, to me, clearer to speculate in terms of qualitative genetic differences and the phenotypic differences expected owing to these, given some measure with its trait-loading and specific within-group heritabilities, assuming environmental equality.

    Based on the 'totality of the evidence' -- e.g., Davide Piffer's stuff, published and unpublished adoption analyses, immigrant performance, etc. -- I would not anticipate differences, between the said groups, greater than d = 1, given a perfectly reliable index of g which also had within group heritabilities of unity, and also given equality or rearing environments.

    So, I really don't have a problem explaining the scrabble stuff -- as surely the heritability and g-loading of scrabble-playing must be lower than that of a math exam, no? As for explaining the very large national differences, I happen to agree with Wade. I noted so in my NofR book, years back:

    "This point was made by the prominent early 20th century psychologist William McDougall. In 1920, he noted, “The principle is that, though differences of racial mental qualities are relatively small, so small as to be indistinguishable with certainty in individuals, they are yet of great importance for the life of nations, because they exert throughout many generations a constant bias upon the development of their culture and their institutions” (Lamb, 1999). Ninety-four years later, after discussing a number of societal and civilizational differences in light of human biodiversity, Wade (2014) concluded much the same:“[T]hese minor differences, for the most part invisible in an individual, have major consequences at the level of a society.”

    Anyways, this is what seems to be the case to me. And has since 2012.

    Re: McDonald:

    “The principle is that, though differences of racial mental qualities are relatively small, so small as to be indistinguishable with certainty in individuals, they are yet of great importance for the life of nations, because they exert throughout many generations a constant bias upon the development of their culture and their institutions” (Lamb, 1999).

    Looking at the development of the culture and institutions of the high-IQ Western nations, which has resulted in an ongoing process of autogenocide by suppressed reproduction and mass replacement immigration, one sees the huge advantage that low IQ has proved to be for the African nations, whose populations are burgeoning not only in Africa but throughout the suicidal West.

    Read More
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  74. @Chuck
    James,

    "The best estimate of the standard deviation of Nigerian IQ as measured by Ravens is about 15 IQ points...."

    From what I recall, in the UK SPM+ standardization sample the SD was about 7, suggesting that the Nigerian Raven's SD, despite a possible substantial floor effect, is inflated by 30%. So I am not seeing how you are now deriving a Raven's SD of about 15. Whatever the case, it would be informative to compare the distributions to see what percent of Nigerians solved as many puzzles as by the UK smart fraction, no?

    For Chanda's point, the distinction between IQ as predictor and real-world-outcomes as criterion is not particularly important. If it turned out that a large chunk of Nigerians were able to solve a lot of Raven's matrices but did not exhibit great scrabble ability, I am sure he would not scrap his argument, but rather retune it : matrix solving is a better index of functional capacity; for cultural reasons Nigerians just don't put much effort into scrabble or chess playing.

    Generally, from your discussion it is not clear that the Raven's results are inconsistent with Chanda's argument -- that the Nigerian smart fraction is much larger than a (simple) genetic model for the mean differences would anticipate. Thus it might be worthwile to look at the distribution in detail. Can you ask for a density plot?

    Dear Chuck,

    in the SPM+(GBR)2007 standardization, 6 to 7 raw scores were equated to 15 IQ scores equivalent to 1SD in IQ scores. In the Nigerian sample, a SD in raw scores of around 8.41 (+/-0.85) was estimated. Deviations depent on age-group and weightig for N. Theoretically, 8.41 (or roundet to 8) is equivalent to 20 IQ scores at the British norms, if you set the mean to 100. But Nigeria has a mean of 70 IQ scores. According to the norm tables, 8 to 9 raw scores distance to the equivalent raw score of 70 IQ scores is between 13 and 18 IQ scores difference, in mean +/-15 = 1SD in IQ scores.

    Best, David.

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  75. @Chuck
    James,

    "The best estimate of the standard deviation of Nigerian IQ as measured by Ravens is about 15 IQ points...."

    From what I recall, in the UK SPM+ standardization sample the SD was about 7, suggesting that the Nigerian Raven's SD, despite a possible substantial floor effect, is inflated by 30%. So I am not seeing how you are now deriving a Raven's SD of about 15. Whatever the case, it would be informative to compare the distributions to see what percent of Nigerians solved as many puzzles as by the UK smart fraction, no?

    For Chanda's point, the distinction between IQ as predictor and real-world-outcomes as criterion is not particularly important. If it turned out that a large chunk of Nigerians were able to solve a lot of Raven's matrices but did not exhibit great scrabble ability, I am sure he would not scrap his argument, but rather retune it : matrix solving is a better index of functional capacity; for cultural reasons Nigerians just don't put much effort into scrabble or chess playing.

    Generally, from your discussion it is not clear that the Raven's results are inconsistent with Chanda's argument -- that the Nigerian smart fraction is much larger than a (simple) genetic model for the mean differences would anticipate. Thus it might be worthwile to look at the distribution in detail. Can you ask for a density plot?

    Additional: I made a quick calculation. Paying attention to differences in sample size and mean IQ of Nigerian age groups, the standard deviations in raw scores were on average equivalent to a IQ-difference of ~16.38 from the mean score. Therefore very close to James’ 15.

    best, david.

    Read More
    • Replies: @utu
    Paying attention to differences in sample size and mean IQ

    I do not understand the relevance of the mean IQ here. SD is not dependent of mean before or after scaling.

    SD(Raw_UK)/SD(Raw_Nigeria)=SD(IQ_UK)/SD(IQ_Nigeria)

    Sample size is also irrelevant except when you want to calculate the uncertainty of your SD estimate.
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  76. CanSpeccy says: • Website
    @James Thompson
    an explanation here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Level_of_measurement
    Jensen covered the advantages of real measures in The g factor.

    Ha!

    Thanks for the ink.

    Turns out that as Molière’s Monsieur Jourdain discovered he’d been speaking prose all his life, so I find that I’ve been using ratio scales with non-arbitrary zero points all my life.

    Read More
    • Replies: @James Thompson
    All is now perfectly in order. Enjoy.
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  77. utu says:
    @David Becker
    Additional: I made a quick calculation. Paying attention to differences in sample size and mean IQ of Nigerian age groups, the standard deviations in raw scores were on average equivalent to a IQ-difference of ~16.38 from the mean score. Therefore very close to James' 15.

    best, david.

    Paying attention to differences in sample size and mean IQ

    I do not understand the relevance of the mean IQ here. SD is not dependent of mean before or after scaling.

    SD(Raw_UK)/SD(Raw_Nigeria)=SD(IQ_UK)/SD(IQ_Nigeria)

    Sample size is also irrelevant except when you want to calculate the uncertainty of your SD estimate.

    Read More
    • Replies: @James Thompson
    If the mean is at the lower end of the scale, there will not be room for much variance at the lower end: a restriction of range.
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  78. utu says:
    @res
    There is some data out there. For example, the pre-1995 SAT generally yielded about 10 perfect 1600 scores per year. That's just (~4.27) over 4SD per http://www.iqcomparisonsite.com/oldSATIQ.aspx
    For a Gaussian, over 4SD is about 1 in 16,000 so knowing the number of people in the age cohort (not just test takers) would give a decent benchmark (may have to correct for inclusion of foreign students).

    I don't know if TIP/SMPY have looked into this. They should have a decent dataset for this purpose.

    La Griffe used the Terman data for his calculations, but see my comments above.

    Can anyone recommend other datasets?

    From the empirical position the non-parametric approach is preferable where you do not even try to approximate your data with a Gaussian but use a histogram directly. This has its drawbacks because you can’t do theorizing by going to next stages of abstractions, however you reduce chances of misstating your case.

    From the discussions here I conclude that no rigorous studies whether IQ has a normal distribution were performed and the answer how good is the approximation with a Gaussian several SD’s away from the mean is not really known.

    For this reason to large extend the discussion here including the argument made by Chanda Chisala is purely academic.

    Read More
    • Replies: @res
    I guess the perfect really is the enemy of the good.

    Here is a 2012 paper critical of IQ fat tails:
    Does the Normal Curve Accurately Model the Distribution of Intelligence?
    http://www.ncurproceedings.org/ojs/index.php/NCUR2012/article/view/159

    Here is a 1963 paper from Cyril Burt which claimed fat tails:
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1963.tb00208.x/abstract
    Table 1 gives observed/expected numbers in 5 point bins from 30-160. The low tails were fatter (but they were closer after screening for pathology, etc.).
    utu, you might like figure 1 which shows a histogram overlaid on both a normal and type IV distribution. The y scale is logarithmic which I don't recall seeing often for this kind of plot and really helps show the tail effect.

    As I have already commented in this thread and is mentioned in that first link, ratio IQs had a fat tail problem as shown in the Terman study. See comments about tail behavior in http://hiqnews.megafoundation.org/Terman_Summary.htm
    I suspect that is a big part of the "fat tail mythology." For example, see La Griffe post mentioned above.
    Also note comments about tail behavior in other characteristics (e.g. height).
    This brief popular level post talks about height: https://www.johndcook.com/blog/2008/07/20/why-heights-are-not-normally-distributed/

    As I mentioned earlier, I would like to know what the SMPY/TIP found.

    P.S. I would be very interested in what people here more conversant with the literature than I am think about this.
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  79. @Santoculto
    Because Italy is very diverse and what I said there are very pretty Italian women too. But on avg Italian women in my view tend to inherit traits that works for men but not for women, the example i used, a masculine/phallic big and well build nose it's expected will not work well for women faces. The same about black people. The muscled and masculine men and the...masculinized women. Yes it's a question of taste too. But in my view it's objective too, indeed almost everything that is subjective is also objective.

    “But on avg Italian women in my view tend to inherit traits that works for men but not for women, the example i used, a masculine/phallic big and well build nose it’s expected will not work well for women faces.”

    You’re talking out of your ass.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Santoculto
    Ethnic genetic interest...
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  80. @CanSpeccy
    Ha!

    Thanks for the ink.

    Turns out that as Molière's Monsieur Jourdain discovered he'd been speaking prose all his life, so I find that I've been using ratio scales with non-arbitrary zero points all my life.

    All is now perfectly in order. Enjoy.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Wizard of Oz
    See #84. Right?

    And to return to the point I overlooked CanSpeccy having also mentioned viz. that the African 70 average is meaningless when used for comparison with the European 100 and then as a basis for predictions.... I wonder if you have dealt with the odd fact that it is IQ scores derived from Raven's Matrices that are the principal evidence for the Flynn Effect??? Culture fair maybe but, I speculate, subject to training effects which are substantial and prompt (not requiring a lot more reading for example) though also reaching a plateau quite quickly???

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  81. @RaceRealist88
    "But on avg Italian women in my view tend to inherit traits that works for men but not for women, the example i used, a masculine/phallic big and well build nose it’s expected will not work well for women faces."

    You're talking out of your ass.

    Ethnic genetic interest…

    Read More
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  82. res says:
    @utu
    From the empirical position the non-parametric approach is preferable where you do not even try to approximate your data with a Gaussian but use a histogram directly. This has its drawbacks because you can't do theorizing by going to next stages of abstractions, however you reduce chances of misstating your case.

    From the discussions here I conclude that no rigorous studies whether IQ has a normal distribution were performed and the answer how good is the approximation with a Gaussian several SD's away from the mean is not really known.

    For this reason to large extend the discussion here including the argument made by Chanda Chisala is purely academic.

    I guess the perfect really is the enemy of the good.

    Here is a 2012 paper critical of IQ fat tails:
    Does the Normal Curve Accurately Model the Distribution of Intelligence?

    http://www.ncurproceedings.org/ojs/index.php/NCUR2012/article/view/159

    Here is a 1963 paper from Cyril Burt which claimed fat tails:

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1963.tb00208.x/abstract

    Table 1 gives observed/expected numbers in 5 point bins from 30-160. The low tails were fatter (but they were closer after screening for pathology, etc.).
    utu, you might like figure 1 which shows a histogram overlaid on both a normal and type IV distribution. The y scale is logarithmic which I don’t recall seeing often for this kind of plot and really helps show the tail effect.

    As I have already commented in this thread and is mentioned in that first link, ratio IQs had a fat tail problem as shown in the Terman study. See comments about tail behavior in http://hiqnews.megafoundation.org/Terman_Summary.htm
    I suspect that is a big part of the “fat tail mythology.” For example, see La Griffe post mentioned above.
    Also note comments about tail behavior in other characteristics (e.g. height).
    This brief popular level post talks about height: https://www.johndcook.com/blog/2008/07/20/why-heights-are-not-normally-distributed/

    As I mentioned earlier, I would like to know what the SMPY/TIP found.

    P.S. I would be very interested in what people here more conversant with the literature than I am think about this.

    Read More
    • Replies: @utu
    Thanks for the links to v. pertinent papers. I will read them.
    , @Wizard of Oz
    As I am quite a bit behind you in the mathematical realm I say only with some confidence that there is on this thread and generally a significant ignoring of the fact that the assumptions about what the population is are often misleading. At its simplest you can assume that Greg Clark's fertile upper middle and professional classes produced Burt's fat right tails.
    , @Chuck
    The 2012 paper was equivocal. The ASVAB results showed fat tail for most subtests. The ecles had specially designed math reading tests. And the properties of those are not clear.

    So I don't know.

    But yes it should be an answerable question. And if we are going to use LaGriffe's method we should figure it out.

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  83. utu says:
    @res
    I guess the perfect really is the enemy of the good.

    Here is a 2012 paper critical of IQ fat tails:
    Does the Normal Curve Accurately Model the Distribution of Intelligence?
    http://www.ncurproceedings.org/ojs/index.php/NCUR2012/article/view/159

    Here is a 1963 paper from Cyril Burt which claimed fat tails:
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1963.tb00208.x/abstract
    Table 1 gives observed/expected numbers in 5 point bins from 30-160. The low tails were fatter (but they were closer after screening for pathology, etc.).
    utu, you might like figure 1 which shows a histogram overlaid on both a normal and type IV distribution. The y scale is logarithmic which I don't recall seeing often for this kind of plot and really helps show the tail effect.

    As I have already commented in this thread and is mentioned in that first link, ratio IQs had a fat tail problem as shown in the Terman study. See comments about tail behavior in http://hiqnews.megafoundation.org/Terman_Summary.htm
    I suspect that is a big part of the "fat tail mythology." For example, see La Griffe post mentioned above.
    Also note comments about tail behavior in other characteristics (e.g. height).
    This brief popular level post talks about height: https://www.johndcook.com/blog/2008/07/20/why-heights-are-not-normally-distributed/

    As I mentioned earlier, I would like to know what the SMPY/TIP found.

    P.S. I would be very interested in what people here more conversant with the literature than I am think about this.

    Thanks for the links to v. pertinent papers. I will read them.

    Read More
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  84. @res
    I guess the perfect really is the enemy of the good.

    Here is a 2012 paper critical of IQ fat tails:
    Does the Normal Curve Accurately Model the Distribution of Intelligence?
    http://www.ncurproceedings.org/ojs/index.php/NCUR2012/article/view/159

    Here is a 1963 paper from Cyril Burt which claimed fat tails:
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1963.tb00208.x/abstract
    Table 1 gives observed/expected numbers in 5 point bins from 30-160. The low tails were fatter (but they were closer after screening for pathology, etc.).
    utu, you might like figure 1 which shows a histogram overlaid on both a normal and type IV distribution. The y scale is logarithmic which I don't recall seeing often for this kind of plot and really helps show the tail effect.

    As I have already commented in this thread and is mentioned in that first link, ratio IQs had a fat tail problem as shown in the Terman study. See comments about tail behavior in http://hiqnews.megafoundation.org/Terman_Summary.htm
    I suspect that is a big part of the "fat tail mythology." For example, see La Griffe post mentioned above.
    Also note comments about tail behavior in other characteristics (e.g. height).
    This brief popular level post talks about height: https://www.johndcook.com/blog/2008/07/20/why-heights-are-not-normally-distributed/

    As I mentioned earlier, I would like to know what the SMPY/TIP found.

    P.S. I would be very interested in what people here more conversant with the literature than I am think about this.

    As I am quite a bit behind you in the mathematical realm I say only with some confidence that there is on this thread and generally a significant ignoring of the fact that the assumptions about what the population is are often misleading. At its simplest you can assume that Greg Clark’s fertile upper middle and professional classes produced Burt’s fat right tails.

    Read More
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  85. @James Thompson
    All is now perfectly in order. Enjoy.

    See #84. Right?

    And to return to the point I overlooked CanSpeccy having also mentioned viz. that the African 70 average is meaningless when used for comparison with the European 100 and then as a basis for predictions…. I wonder if you have dealt with the odd fact that it is IQ scores derived from Raven’s Matrices that are the principal evidence for the Flynn Effect??? Culture fair maybe but, I speculate, subject to training effects which are substantial and prompt (not requiring a lot more reading for example) though also reaching a plateau quite quickly???

    Read More
    • Replies: @James Thompson
    On what basis has it been determined that African results are "meaningless"?
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  86. @utu
    Paying attention to differences in sample size and mean IQ

    I do not understand the relevance of the mean IQ here. SD is not dependent of mean before or after scaling.

    SD(Raw_UK)/SD(Raw_Nigeria)=SD(IQ_UK)/SD(IQ_Nigeria)

    Sample size is also irrelevant except when you want to calculate the uncertainty of your SD estimate.

    If the mean is at the lower end of the scale, there will not be room for much variance at the lower end: a restriction of range.

    Read More
    • Replies: @utu
    If the mean is at the lower end of the scale, there will not be room for much variance at the lower end: a restriction of range.

    Not a realistic scenario. But if indeed you have the effect of crowding at the lower end of the range you (1) overestimate the mean and (2) underestimate the SD.
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  87. @Wizard of Oz
    See #84. Right?

    And to return to the point I overlooked CanSpeccy having also mentioned viz. that the African 70 average is meaningless when used for comparison with the European 100 and then as a basis for predictions.... I wonder if you have dealt with the odd fact that it is IQ scores derived from Raven's Matrices that are the principal evidence for the Flynn Effect??? Culture fair maybe but, I speculate, subject to training effects which are substantial and prompt (not requiring a lot more reading for example) though also reaching a plateau quite quickly???

    On what basis has it been determined that African results are “meaningless”?

    Read More
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  88. Chuck says:
    @res
    I guess the perfect really is the enemy of the good.

    Here is a 2012 paper critical of IQ fat tails:
    Does the Normal Curve Accurately Model the Distribution of Intelligence?
    http://www.ncurproceedings.org/ojs/index.php/NCUR2012/article/view/159

    Here is a 1963 paper from Cyril Burt which claimed fat tails:
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1963.tb00208.x/abstract
    Table 1 gives observed/expected numbers in 5 point bins from 30-160. The low tails were fatter (but they were closer after screening for pathology, etc.).
    utu, you might like figure 1 which shows a histogram overlaid on both a normal and type IV distribution. The y scale is logarithmic which I don't recall seeing often for this kind of plot and really helps show the tail effect.

    As I have already commented in this thread and is mentioned in that first link, ratio IQs had a fat tail problem as shown in the Terman study. See comments about tail behavior in http://hiqnews.megafoundation.org/Terman_Summary.htm
    I suspect that is a big part of the "fat tail mythology." For example, see La Griffe post mentioned above.
    Also note comments about tail behavior in other characteristics (e.g. height).
    This brief popular level post talks about height: https://www.johndcook.com/blog/2008/07/20/why-heights-are-not-normally-distributed/

    As I mentioned earlier, I would like to know what the SMPY/TIP found.

    P.S. I would be very interested in what people here more conversant with the literature than I am think about this.

    The 2012 paper was equivocal. The ASVAB results showed fat tail for most subtests. The ecles had specially designed math reading tests. And the properties of those are not clear.

    So I don’t know.

    But yes it should be an answerable question. And if we are going to use LaGriffe’s method we should figure it out.

    Read More
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  89. utu says:
    @James Thompson
    If the mean is at the lower end of the scale, there will not be room for much variance at the lower end: a restriction of range.

    If the mean is at the lower end of the scale, there will not be room for much variance at the lower end: a restriction of range.

    Not a realistic scenario. But if indeed you have the effect of crowding at the lower end of the range you (1) overestimate the mean and (2) underestimate the SD.

    Read More
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  90. As observed in the study in question.

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  91. gda says:
    @FKA Max
    I came across a curious case of a high-functioning African-derived population:

    Barbados has an average IQ of 78, so how has it managed to become a such a highly developed country?
     
    - https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090617121032AAjCM0U

    In 2014, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index ranked Barbados joint second in the Americas (after Canada, equal with the United States) and joint 17th globally (after Belgium and Japan, equal with the US, Hong Kong and Ireland).
     
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbados

    Interestingly, Barbados shares a unique distinction with Japan: both countries have the highest per capita occurrences of centenarians on earth.
     
    - http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/barbados-population/

    Now a leading Canadian newspaper, the National Post, has come up with some possible answers.

    "A good start might be Bajan water," suggested the Post in an article headlined: Many Rivers To Cross, Why So Many Barbadians Live For More Than 100 years?

    The paper stated, "the only volcanic island in the Caribbean, Barbados' coral limestone filters water to a healthy state of 'hard' calcium rich drinking water similar to that of Okinawa."
     
    - https://web.archive.org/web/20071211110656/http://www.nationnews.com/story/284159291378094.php

    IQ-wise, the Caribbean doesn’t seem to make much sense, but there are a number of instances in this region that are impossible to explain by hard HBD theory.
     
    - https://robertlindsay.wordpress.com/2015/08/18/caribbean-iq-scores/

    “Here we used a panel of 28 AIMs to examine the genetic ancestry of 298 individuals of African descent from the Caribbean islands of Jamaica, St. Thomas and Barbados. Differences in global admixture were observed, with Barbados having the highest level of West African ancestry (89.6%+/- 2.0) and the lowest levels of European (10.2%+/- 2.2) and Native American ancestry (0.2%+/- 2.0), while Jamaica possessed the highest levels of European (12.4%+/- 3.5) and Native American ancestry (3.2%+/- 3.1). St. Thomas, USVI had ancestry levels quite similar to African Americans in continental U.S. (86.8%+/- 2.2 West African, 10.6%+/- 2.3 European, and 2.6%+/- 2.1 Native American).”
     
    - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17908263

    Remember that Barbados was the jewel in the crown of the British colonies, and was a colony until it was granted independence in 1966. Contrary to contemporary opinion, colonialism, especially the English variety, was (compared to the governments ruling in former colonies today), a very effective and successful system of government.

    By the time of the transfer of power in 1966, the country was most fortunate to have a most extraordinary and far-sighted leader in the person of Errol Barrow:

    “Barrow was very adept at drawing on the talents and experience of those White business leaders. He knew that these men, despite their colour, would help him build a new Barbados. He asked them to serve and they did.”

    “Errol Barrow wanted to build a more equitable society but not by fire. What many people don’t appreciate is that, in the social hierarchy of Barbados – at least the Black hierarchy – he was an aristocrat. And aristocrats tend to value rather than despise order and stability.

    He was an international thinker, extremely well educated and with a world view honed by participation in a world war. And on November 30, 1966, he knew EXACTLY how precarious his country’s future was.”

    https://barbadosunderground.wordpress.com/2016/01/17/errol-barrow-refused-to-be-joshua/comment-page-1/

    Other brilliant contemporaneous leaders included Sir Grantley Adams and his son, JMG (Tom) Adams (who became Prime Minister after Barrow).

    The Adams family had a heavy admixture of European ancestry and Barrow would certainly have had some as well, likely more than the 10.2 % mentioned above for the average Barbadian black.

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