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A popular study hyped by Malcolm Gladwell et al is that people are so implicitly biased against hiring women that when orchestras have potential hires audition “blind” behind a screen, women are hired 50% more often. This ties into popular narratives about how implicit bias is rampant in 21st Century America.

But is it true?

This claim is taken from a 2000 study that eventually, after much methodological huffing and puffing, concluded:

Using the audition data, we find that the screen increases—by 50 percent—the probability that a woman will be advanced from certain preliminary rounds and increases by severalfold the likelihood that a woman will be selected in the final round.

From the American Economic Review in 2000:

Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of “Blind” Auditions on Female Musicians
By CLAUDIA GOLDIN AND CECILIA ROUSE*

A change in the audition procedures of symphony orchestras—adoption of “blind” auditions with a “screen” to conceal the candidate’s identity from the jury— provides a test for sex-biased hiring. Using data from actual auditions, in an individual fixed-effects framework, we find that the screen increases the probability a woman will be advanced and hired. Although some of our estimates have large standard errors and there is one persistent effect in the opposite direction, the weight of the evidence suggests that the blind audition procedure fostered impartiality in hiring and increased the proportion women in symphony orchestras.

But as Jonatan Pallesen pointed out earlier this year, at JSMP.DK, the 2000 paper is kind of a mess and the 50% number that has entered the conventional wisdom is cherrypicked out of a lot of pro and con evidence.

Blind auditions and gender discrimination

A seminal paper from 2000 investigated the impact of blind auditions in orchestras, and found that they increased the proportion of women in symphony orchestras. I investigate the study, and find that there is no good evidence presented.

Jonatan Pallesen May 11, 2019

… Analysis
Table 4 is perhaps the most surprising.

This table unambiguously shows that men are doing comparatively better in blind auditions than in non-blind auditions. The -0.022 number is the proportion of women that are successful in the audition process minus the proportion of men that are successful. Thus a larger proportion of men than women are successful in blind auditions, the exact opposite of what is claimed.

And in fact Goldin and Rouse do mention in a footnote that the tendency of men to do much better in blind than non-blind semifinals might be due to affirmative action for women:

This result on the semifinals is robust across time, instrument, position, and orchestra. One interpretation is that it represents a form of affirmative action by the audition committees. Committees may hesitate to advance women from the preliminary round if they are not confident of the candidate’s ability. On the other hand, semifinals are typically held the same day as are preliminaries and give the audition committee a second chance to hear a candidate before the finals. Thus, audition committees may actively advance women to the final round only when they are reasonably confident that the female candidate is above some threshold level of quality. If juries actively seek to increase the presence of women in the final round, they can do so only when there is no screen

Andrew Gelman confirms that Pallesen is largely right.

Here’s what I think is going on:

There was a lot of bias against hiring women in the fairly distant past. The harp was considered a womanly instrument, but not much else.

Here’s a good-humored 1971 New York Times article about the 4 women in the New York Philharmonic:

Is Women’s Lib Coming to the Philharmonic?
By Judy Klemesrud
April 11, 1971

These are well-paid union jobs with tenure for life, so only about 4 to 6 people were hired per year. Therefore, you have to look at new hires rather than the orchestral roster, which lags.

Here’s Goldin and Rouse’s graph of new hires:

Only about 5% of new hires by four top orchestras were of women in the mid-1950s.

After the mid-fifties, the percentage of female new hires rose, with a big inflection point upward around 1975. (These are 5 year moving averages, so the actual inflection point might be a little earlier or later than 1975, but it was in the Feminist Seventies.)

Here are the percentages of Juilliard school graduates who are women:

The usual lag is maybe a decade (?) between graduating from Juilliard and being hired for life by a famous orchestra.

Many of the new hires at the top of the line orchestras in the 1950s were likely veterans of WWII or the Korean War, and there was much prejudice in their favor. Society had a prejudice in favor of hiring men in to jobs that paid enough enough to support a wife and children, as the most prestigious orchestras did.

My father-in-law, who played for the Chicago Lyric Opera, was the second-best classical tuba player in Chicago, after the superlative Arnold Jacob of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. His pay wasn’t bad, but not quite enough for four kids, so my mother-in-law frequently worked. He led a big strike at the Lyric Opera for higher pay, but it failed.

By the way, my late father-in-law told me that high school band was basically invented to give swing musicians coming home from WWII a job now that the big band era was over. (I gather that other countries don’t really have the equivalent of America’s high school band culture. I can recall going into the hippest clothing store on the King’s Road in Chelsea in London in 1980 and they had dozens of used American high school band uniforms for sale in the hopes that, say, Malcolm McLaren or Vivienne Westwood would declare that dressing up like an American band geek in a velour shako to be The In Thing of 1981.)

My impression is that the polite assumption of the times was that respectable young ladies, as a classically trained musician would be, were virgins until marriage and after marriage did not use birth control, so they would not have time any more for a demanding job due to having a passel of kids. (See, for example, Rosalind Russell’s insistence to her editor/ex-husband Cary Grant in His Girl Friday on retiring from the newspaper business the day she marries Ralph Bellamy.) Plus, in the postwar era it was considered un-democratic to turn childrearing and homemaking over to servants.

In reality, lots of married women worked. They needed the money. But it wasn’t considered socially ideal. In contrast, symphony orchestras strove for perfection of image.

During the 1960s, however, The Pill came along, with 1964 seeming to be the year that it became A Thing and started to have an impact on how people thought about how society should be organized. By 1969, Women’s Lib was a Thing, and during the first half of the Seventies, society in general rather quickly and painlessly switched its thinking to approving of women working.

Update: I see now that Claudia Goldin’s views on this history are quite similar to mine:

What it looks like to me is that Goldin and Rouse don’t have all that much data on blind auditions before the Feminist Inflection Point, or what Goldin calls the Quiet Revolution of the 1970s. In the table above, for example, they have no examples of “Completely Blind Auditions” before the 1980s. (There were some blind rounds but not as many as later.)

In the old days, Arturo Toscanini or whomever basically just hired whomever he felt like. Were you going to argue with Toscanini about who is a better musician?

But around 1970, the musicians took some power back from conductors. (This was part of a general trend of the time among elite performers to take more control — e.g., the touring pro golfers mutinied against the Professional Golf Association in 1968 and got much autonomy to run their own affairs.) This led to more bureaucratic hiring practices, including blind auditions. Feminism was another trend of the time.

So my guess is that blind auditions would have helped women get hired more in the 1950s and 1960s. But by the time blind auditions became really common, society had gone through its Feminist Inflection Point, so blind auditions were slightly worse for women due to the pro-women prejudice of the the last quarter century of the 1900s (much less today’s hysteria).

A big part of The Narrative works like this: at some point in the Bad Old Days, there was much discrimination against women. Today there is less, but it’s a constant grinding battle to eke out a slightly more justice, decade after decade.

In reality, the Women’s Lib battle over working women was rather quickly and painlessly won in approximately 1970-1975, with Society en masse switching from con to pro. That’s why it’s difficult to identify any employers who enjoyed an enduring advantage from hiring lots of women the way the Brooklyn Dodgers and Cleveland Indians enjoyed a long advantage from hiring black baseball players in the later 1940s, while the St. Louis Cardinals and Boston Red Sox suffered from not playing blacks until the late 1950s. Instead, most everybody shifted their opinions on the propriety of working women quickly in the first half of the 1970s, even symphony orchestras.

 
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  1. That was a very interesting post, with that nice mix of graphically presented data, personal anecdotes, and the usual discriminating look at another victimology article. Just on this thing about your father-in-law:

    He led a big strike at the Lyric Opera for higher pay, but it failed.

    That strikes me as funny, just the idea of a “work action” by musicians. (Really, that pun was unintentional, at first!) Instead of shooting out the Met Hall windows with 12 gauge shotguns, or at least keying the conductor’s car out in the parking lot, what did they do? Did they play “we shall overcome” out on the street while blocking vehicular traffic. If so, how did they keep in time? Can you play louder than 1950s car horns, and is there a part for a tuba at all?

    • Replies: @Laurence Whelk
  2. Instead, most everybody shifted their opinions on the propriety of working women quickly in the first half of the 1970s, even symphony orchestras.

    True. If I look at my local Philharmonic Orchestra at the Lake of Constance – Tiger Moms here and abroad seem to have boosted the competitiveness of – lots of the newly hired female musicians.
    How are the numbers for the Julliard school – lots of Asian female musicians too, I’d assume?

  3. On the women’s lib inflection point (portion?), it takes a while to change personal attitudes. Lots of men still, rightly, did not like the idea of women spending most of the day away from the house and family, if possible financially. What did it take to change this?

    In your example of the high-class symphony players, perhaps it just took a critical mass of women in the orchestra to convince the hiring guys and the audiences that it was working out OK. The home life thing, as you discussed a bit, is a lot different for this special case. After all, if a woman is that good at something she’s practiced and done for her whole life, I can’t see many husbands prohibiting her from taking a job like that.

    However, for a mundane job like office clerk, the real question was just “should she be doing this”. The taking of a job from a guy feeding a family is the big one, which nobody seems to give a damn about anymore (glad you mentioned this, Steve). Having the kids accompanied by their mother as much as possible was another big one.

    The cause of the inflection portion of a “women’s lib” curve for other, mundane areas of work was the constant push by the media to change attitudes. It was pervasive on TV, at least in the late 1970s, which I can remember. And then there was Maude.

    • Replies: @Anthony
    , @Jim Don Bob
  4. Top Flutist Settles Gender Pay-Gap Suit With Boston Symphony

    Written by Anastasia Tsioulcas Feb. 21, 2019

    Elizabeth Rowe, the principal flutist of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO), has settled the lawsuit she filed against the orchestra last July, in which she claimed that she was being paid substantially less than her closest, male peer. Rowe sought more than $200,000 in unpaid wages.

    Rowe and the orchestra entered mediation in December, and the case was closed in Massachusetts’ Suffolk Superior Court last Thursday. The terms of the settlement have not been disclosed.

    Rowe was among the first women to file a gender pay-equity claim under the Massachusetts Equal Pay Act (MEPA), which went into effect last July. Her case was being closely followed by the classical music industry as well as by those interested more broadly in gender parity issues.

    Rowe was hired in 2004 by the BSO — an ensemble widely considered one of the top orchestras not just in the U.S., but worldwide — to serve in this high-profile and extremely competitive position. According to the suit, she has appeared as a soloist with the orchestra more than any other BSO principal musician in the fifteen years since she was hired, and has been heavily promoted in the orchestra’s publicity and marketing campaigns.

    https://www.kcrw.com/music/shows/npr-music/npr-story/696574690

  5. Dtbb says:

    I wonder if women even realize it is 2019. All I hear in interviews is how that they had it so tough in the 80s and 90s. On what planet? The real problem is the old ladies refuse to move aside.

    • Replies: @Rosie
  6. Some old comments of mine:

    The auditions for the Vienna Philharmonic (Vienna State Opera Orchestra) are not as blind as they would seem. The women hired are good looking and white. (LINK) Although the first woman was hired in 1997, it was not until 2003 that the Vienna Philharmonic hired an Asian (male). (LINK) This despite Asians being some of the best classical musicians in the world, many of whom have studied and are living in Austria.

    In 2015, “Women now hold 14 of the 149 positions in the Vienna State Opera Orchestra for a ratio of 9.3%. Ten of these women have been tenured into the Philharmonic, which currently has 140 positions, for a ratio of 7.1%.”.

    ————–

    The first Asian that was hired by the Philharmonic got fired the same year. I don’t know if there has been another Asian/non-white since, although supposedly there is a half white (German?)/half Asian violin player.

    Asian students comprise 25 per cent of music students in Vienna yet the Philharmonic’s only non-white musician, tuba player Yasuto Sugiyama, was fired before he completed his trial year in 2003. Dr Clemens Hellsberg, VPO chairman, says that although he didn’t fit, Sugiyama is “maybe one of the best tuba players in the world”. He says that “even sitting in the audience, I could hear how differently he played compared to the rest of the orchestra”.

    http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/all-white-on-the-night-why-does-the-world-famous-vienna-philharmonic-feature-so-few-women-and-ethnic-1915666.html

    • Replies: @Autochthon
    , @Lurker
    , @BB753
  7. Anon[163] • Disclaimer says:

    Society had a prejudice in favor of hiring men in to jobs that paid enough enough to support a wife and children, as the most prestigious orchestras did.

    I don’t think this has ever been true. Even major orchestra musicians teach students. They act as sales agents for instrument manufacturers, recommending and selling instruments and prepping and fine tuning them for students. Double reed players make and sell reeds. They do other gigs or recording. The big cliche usde to be selling insurance to other orchestra members, the orchestra equivalent of the Amway friend … and I bet some musicians sell Amway.

    The Fort Worth Symphony unionized a few years ago and eventually reached an agreement, but I don’t think they got much for their trouble, and the whole incident surfaced a lot of information about the financial precariousness of classical music. When your big, bad employer is a nonprofit that is in the red and is annually bailed out by donors, you don’t have much room to bargain.

  8. Obviously, the percentage of females amongst the eligible pool of players varies with instrument. Flautists are going to be more often female than tuba players.

    And amongst, say, pianists, the choice of specialization in repertoire is going to vary as well.

    In the strings, the same dynamics are true to a lesser extent amongst violinists, but it does seem that more women gravitate to the viola, many violists being converted violinists, and obviously fewer on double bass because it’s so hard to move around. Women also are far more likely to go into education than remain in the scramble for an orchestral position: a high school orchestra director slot looks pretty good for a lot of women but less so for men who have ran the gantlet, who are more likely to leave the music business entirely and go to law or MBA school. Male orchestra directors are almost always music ed majors, not performance majors, and usually from state schools and not prestigious institutions.

    • Replies: @Triumph104
  9. @donvonburg

    Thanks for the interesting post.

    • Agree: Rosie
  10. Art Deco says:

    1. Feminist academics misrepresented their own study.

    2. The journal editors were willing to publish the misrepresentation. This isn’t some lower rung publication. This is the leading publication in economics, which might be the least corrupt social research discipline. Note also that this article was yet another manifestation of economists being bored with economic questions and poaching on sociology.

    3. Journalists who don’t know anything but how to turn in copy on time ran with the misrepresentation.

    4. The authors have positions at Harvard and Princeton. They suffered professionally not at all.

    • Agree: PiltdownMan, Desiderius
  11. keypusher says:

    During the 1960s, however, The Pill came along, with 1964 seeming to be the year that it became A Thing and started to have an impact on how people thought about how society should be organized. By 1969, Women’s Lib was a Thing, and during the first half of the Seventies, society in general rather quickly and painlessly switched its thinking to approving of women working.

    Marvin Harris tells a different story in Why Nothing Works (2d edition 1987, but the book originally came out in 1980). He observes that the birthrate peaked in 1957, then began falling again as married women increasingly found they had to work to maintain their families’ standards of living. (The birthrate has been falling ever since; to say the Baby Boom ended in 1962 or 1964 is to draw a more or less arbitrary line.) But women tended to go into dead-end “flexible” jobs, because they wanted to be able to leave the workforce whenever family circumstances allowed. By the end of the 1960s, women realized they weren’t ever going to be able to leave the workforce, and at the same time they were still expected to carry the load at home. And that, Harris argues, is what triggered feminism. No idea if he’s right or not, but his discussion is very interesting.

    I learned about Harris from one of your commentors (can’t remember who, unfortunately). If any of your younger readers are curious to know just how much the 1970s sucked, I strongly recommend Why Nothing Works.

    • Replies: @Dmon
  12. Putting nubile young music hotties behind a screen is not going to increase their odds of getting hired. Removing the screen will.

    • LOL: Old Palo Altan
    • Replies: @Dale Gribble
  13. dearieme says:

    Mr iSteve is hereby declared recipient of the Dearieme 2019 Award for Journalism, for being – to a first approximation – the only American journalist in the last twenty years to use the expression “inflection point” correctly.

  14. dearieme says:

    Sorry: I’ve just looked at that figure again. It’s not really an inflection point, is it? Bugger!

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  15. Just as some analysts would say that the bulk of human progress since the Industrial Revolution has been due to the use of fossil fuels — and is thus vulnerable to dissolve if those fuels become too expensive to extract — it seems to me that many of the so-called advances since the 1950s are simply due to the decline in the rate of reproduction. Once you eliminate the raising of children from your life, it’s amazing all the wonderful things you can do and all of the pesky supposedly moral rules that no longer apply. Our society has to a large part chosen infertility and decline. In such a society it doesn’t matter at all if a woman is hired to work at a job where the demands will be extraordinarily high, and it doesn’t matter if men sleep with men or women with women or if we call men who insist they’re women he or she or they. But in a society that cared about its furtherance into the future, as it seems ours was 60-some years ago, priorities are quite different.

  16. I was at Oktoberfest, or harvest festival, or whatever they call it in the Rhineland in 1987 at Remagen (yes) and there was a marching band and cheerleaders. No doubt a taste fomented by the occupying GIs.

  17. In reality, the Women’s Lib battle over working women was rather quickly and painlessly won in approximately 1970-1975, with Society en masse switching from con to pro.

    By 1980, in my matriculating MBA class of 250, about 110 students were women. In the bank I worked in, in my 20s, after graduating , between a third and a half of my peers in the training program were women, and most were there, rising up through the ranks until my mid 30s. My female colleague kind of wondered if they’d get promoted, but it wasn’t a big issue, because most of them were. It was only later, when people started getting to the big bucks level, that there were far fewer women who made the grade. But then, most of the guys didn’t either, and the women were dropping out of the high-intensity tracks, seeking out research jobs, cushy expatriate stints, and the like, as they started having kids.

    By contrast, only three guys in my MBA class were black, and one of them was a foreign student from Jamaica.

    • Replies: @The Alarmist
    , @AnotherDad
  18. A popular study hyped by Malcolm Gladwell et al is that people are so implicitly biased against hiring women that when orchestras have potential hires audition “blind” behind a screen, women are hired 50% more often.

    I can’t speak to orchestral hiring, but as a hiring manager in finance, I have noticed that many male managers are afraid to hire or mentor young women because everyone “knows” what the relationship is “really about,” and female managers are rather indifferent to actually helping other members of the Sisterhood unless it can be shown to help their own P&L and status in the company.

    • Replies: @dearieme
  19. @Triumph104

    That’s your argument? “The hiring cannot possibly be meritocratic because not enough Orientals have been hired?” You must be new around here…. May I suggest a rudimentary course in logic? Perhaps the Khan Academy offer one (maybe with an Oriental instructor – they are the Khan Academy, after all….

  20. kihowi says:

    How do we know that women aren’t oppressed? Because they’re always saying so! The first rule of oppression is: you’re not allowed to say that you are.

    • Agree: Dtbb
    • Replies: @MBlanc46
  21. prosa123 says:

    The harp was considered a womanly instrument

    Mr. Arthur Marx would disagree, if he weren’t dead.

  22. The big switch to women’s hiring in the 1970s came about because:

    1) A lot of middle-aged women, the mothers of the baby boomers had their kids at 18-25, and now were in their mid 30s to early 40s with nothing to do. So, they decided to go back into the workforce.
    2) Their baby boomer daughters had been raised to believe they were equal to boys and jobs were waiting for them. While women of the greatest generation had been raised to be wives and homemakers, the female boomers weren’t. Mr. and Mrs. Rodman didn’t raise Hillary to stay home to bake cookies.
    3) A lot of College professors, business execs, law firms etc. wanted to hire/work with their sisters, daughters and wives rather then some strange man who probably from the wrong religion or ethnic group.

    • Replies: @dfordoom
  23. anonymous[128] • Disclaimer says:

    This is a thoughtful, measured rebuttal to not only a deceitful study and its amplification, but the general tendency in 21st Century discourse to childishly oversimplify and moralize anything sensitive, especially racial, sexual, and other categories of people. The Narrative can’t survive above the level of Weekly Reader, which is why so much American journalism is willfully clueless.

    Think how rare true dissidence has become. What would happen if this post were to be published in, say, a newspaper? Or brought up by a student tired of being marinated in grievance studies?

    • Agree: sayless
  24. Jack D says:

    and after marriage did not use birth control,

    Aside from devout people who had religious reasons (Catholics, Orthodox Jews), it has not been common in the West for most women to have as many babies as God allows (this could be a dozen or more) for many centuries if ever. A few women did this but most did not. Certainly by the 1950s, the birth rates implied that most people were using some form of birth control.

  25. “In reality, lots of married women worked. They needed the money. But it wasn’t considered socially ideal.”

    This goes vs. the data in Charles Murray’s book Coming Apart: The state of White America 1960-2010, where Murray makes the point that prior to the 1970’s, married women didn’t work but stayed home and raised the kids. Unless you mean beginning with the 1970’s more and more married women entered the workforce, that point was not clear enough.

    Also, other factors were at work, such as the economic downturn beginning with the ’70’s (e.g. declining wages for US workers, which has not recovered since it’s peak during the early ’70’s). This necessitated the need for two income households, thus women entered the workforce (beginning in the ’70’s) to offset declining wages for households. Not to mention the gas crisis of the ’70’s (beginning in 1973 with OPEC wars). No longer was gas 29 cents a gallon in the early ’70’s as it was for most of the US, including in LA.

    By the way, for the most part, NY did just fine without hiring black MLBers from the 1946-1964 era.

    • Replies: @Art Deco
    , @FPD72
    , @Reg Cæsar
  26. @Jack D

    Hold up. It’s a Mexican Standoff. Centuries ago, Western women certainly did have more babies than now. The thing is, they often died in childbirth, or most of the children were stillborn, or didn’t survive to adulthood. But had them they certainly did. Ex. Charles Darwin, among Steve’s more recent posts, had ten children to his wife. Ten is a lot of kids. JS Bach had twenty kids to two women. The 1946-64 generation is known as the Baby Boom, meaning that that generation had lots of offspring. Certainly women had more children during that time than they have had in the succeeding generations.

  27. Art Deco says:
    @Jack D

    Donald McCloskey put together an anthology about 30 years ago which included an article on fertility among 19th century British peasants. IIRC, mean # of live births was 8 (over a period of 20 years or so), with the last birth typically at age 39. Fertility rates in Quebec prior to 1960 were around 4 children per woman per lifetime.

    • Replies: @TomSchmidt
  28. If blind auditions are slightly worse for women, then isn’t that evidence that men (in very general terms) are slightly better classical performers than women?

    Do men suffer less from “stage fright” or any other condition that could impair audition performances?

    It’s been more than 45 years since the feminist inflection point, yet female Julliard graduates in brass instruments (trumpet, trombone, french horn, tuba, euphonium, etc.) have never been more than one-third of any class, and are now barely one-fifth.

    As a serious trumpet player at an elite music school myself at that time, I remember that none of the first chair brass were women. There weren’t many girls in any brass section four decades ago, and according to the Julliard graph, there still aren’t.

    Musical parents don’t push their daughters to pursue careers in the brass instruments, and no amount of societal hand-wringing will change that anytime soon, if ever.

    • Replies: @TomSchmidt
  29. Lurker says:
    @Triumph104

    Fortunately for Yasuto Sugiyama, Hannibal Lecter was not resident in Vienna.

    • Replies: @SFG
  30. @PiltdownMan

    “… three guys in my MBA class were black, and one of them was a foreign student from Jamaica.”

    What’s the punchline?

  31. KunioKun says:

    It warms my heart to see posts like these, but, of course, the cost of creating lies is always lower than the cost of proving them wrong so the cold always comes creeping back.

  32. I watch a lot of symphony concerts on YouTube. These are primarily European orchestras, and I’m struck by how much the women dominate the string sections, particularly the first and second violin sections. Except for the Berlin Philharmonic and the Vienna Philharmonic, this is the case with every European orchestra I’ve watched. Granted that BPO and VPO are at the very top, but a lot of excellent orchestras are female-dominated: Frankfurt, SDR, WDR, Elb, Denmark, Paris, Concertgebouw, many of the British and even many Japanese orchestras. What happened to male violinists in Europe? Perhaps there has been a cultural shift, with many European men associating violin playing as a stereotypical female pursuit?

    If these orchestras are instituting AA for women, they are going way overboard, unless they feel the need to go 70-80 percent female to make “past amends”.

    Most top American string sections still seem dominated by men.

  33. ic1000 says:
    @Triumph104

    NPR is a national leader in the dumbing down of middlebrow news reporting. So the Party’s line is that the Elizabeth Rowe/BSO row proves that the gender pay gap is terrible, in classical music as everywhere else.

    Stipulating that there is a pro-male bias in this case, Ms. Rowe benefited from focusing attention on it. NPR and others ran with her version.

    Among top symphonies, there could be one (or a dozen) more-or-less equivalent pro-female bias cases. Would one of the underpaid musicians stand to gain from publicizing his story? If a mainstream reporter found it newsworthy, she’d as likely as not put a #CancelSexistMale spin on the affair.

    Seen and unseen.

  34. TWS says:

    If Gladwell told me not too jump off a bridge I’d start wondering which bridge I should jump off of.

  35. Anon[211] • Disclaimer says:

    OT: #Courage

    A feel bad story about Howard County, the upper-middle class county bordering Baltimore County with a significant East Indian and NE Asian population.

    https://www.baltimoresun.com/education/bs-md-howard-school-redistricting-20190906-xhzkmkf2zvgcxdkbd3vqdanblm-story.html

    In Howard County, a ‘courageous’ plan to redraw school boundaries tests community’s commitment to diversity

    In Howard County, people pride themselves on making everyone feel welcome. Bumper stickers say “Choose Civility.” The county’s pioneering newtown, Columbia, was founded on the premise that people of different races and economic status should live side by side.

    Now, those convictions are being tested by a proposal that seeks to redistribute some 7,400 of the school system’s 58,000 children to different schools — in part to address socioeconomic segregation that leaves children from poor families concentrated in certain schools…

    No one should be surprised by the level of passion this debate is stirring, said Deepak Baskaran, an Ellicott City parent of three who opposes the plan. Should it pass, his young children would eventually attend a lower-rated high school that’s four miles farther away than the one they’re zoned to now.
    “Whenever you’re talking about your kids, it gets emotional,” he said. “You work really hard in life to provide what’s best for your kids.”…

    Lol, the only honest parents interviewed in this article are East Indian. Here’s another parent:

    Raj Tuliani is among those whose children would get moved into Wilde Lake.

    Tuliani says he chose his home under the assumption he would get to send his children to River Hill High in Clarksville, which state officials rank in the 99th percentile of all Maryland schools. Wilde Lake instead is in the 51st percentile.

    His kids’ commute would triple, he wrote in testimony to Howard County officials, leading to less sleep and family time.

    His 12-year-old son, Veer, has long anticipated becoming a River Hill Hawk. He already goes to the campus on Tuesday nights for an accelerated math program and feels connected to the school.
    “I was just pretty shocked,” Veer said about hearing of the proposal. “Howard County shouldn’t tear up communities like this. Going to River Hill is definitely going to be a high point of my school career.”

    These Asian parents need to show some courage, like Christiana Mercer Rigby.

    …Some are disheartened by the divisions in the community the redistricting debate has exposed…

    At a time of acrimony nationally over race and class, some of Howard County’s political and school leaders have staked their reputations on support of the redistricting plan.
    “I believe we value diversity and inclusion, and this is an opportunity to live it,” said Howard County Councilwoman Christiana Mercer Rigby, who has pushed for more socioeconomically integrated schools. “We get an opportunity to be the best of what we can be.”


    Christiana Mercer Rigby

    [Insert Whiskey truism about white women here]

    • Replies: @Anon
    , @SFG
    , @Anonymous
  36. BB753 says:

    I have a brilliant idea. How about blind screen auditions for Hollywood? No more casting couches! And if the body doesn’t match up to the voice, CGI can step in! Hell, The Irishman has proved we don’t need young good-looking actors anymore.

  37. Only semi-OT:

    We need better [cushier] prisons for women:

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/magazine/2019/10/28/prisons-jails-are-designed-men-can-we-build-better-womens-prison

    Ctrl-F “hair” only returns 2 matches….clearly we need a follow-up piece about the inmates’ hair stat!

    • Replies: @TWS
  38. BB753 says:
    @Triumph104

    Has the Vienna Philarmonic improved in any way since 1997?

    • Replies: @Laurence Whelk
  39. B36 says:

    The next inflection point make make this whole issue moot. How long before human musicians are replaced by robots backed by AI? Blind auditions would just be another Turing test.

  40. SFG says:
    @Lurker

    We never did see him develop a taste for Japanese.

    • LOL: Lurker
    • Replies: @Autochthon
  41. prosa123 says:

    The number of annual hires by major symphony orchestras is so low I just don’t see how it’s possible to get a meaningful sample size.

    • Agree: Laurence Whelk, sayless
  42. SFG says:

    The inflection point was probably at different dates in different industries, though–it was probably well before 1969 in fashion and may still not have arrived in, say, mining. This is one of the ways they get away with making everything seem sexist against women–they’ll harp endlessly on one of the remaining male-dominated industries like software and ignore things like publishing where straight men are unwelcome.

  43. Anonymous[895] • Disclaimer says:

    I think the tuba player is Arnold Jacobs with an “s”.

    Anon in Arkansas

  44. Anonymous[895] • Disclaimer says:

    Steve — you or yer ole lady might be interested in this:

    https://inthesetimes.com/working/entry/21505/chicago_lyric_opera_orchestra_strike_musician

    Anon in Arkansas

  45. @SFG

    Issei Sagawa ate a woman, but never a man – a Dutch woman at that (so white!): sexism and racism, right there. Nowadays our awakened cannibals are encouraged to eat black males.

  46. Ano says:

    Used American High School Band uniforms…

    Definitely sure they were the cast-offs of American schoolchidren?

    • Replies: @Lurker
  47. …when orchestras have potential hires audition “blind”

    behind a screen,

    women are hired 50% more often.

    Once again, the wisest American who ever lived:

    “In all your Amours you should prefer old Women to young ones. You call this a Paradox, and demand my Reasons. They are these:

    1. Because as they have more Knowledge of the World and their Minds are better stor’d with Observations, their Conversation is more improving and more lastingly agreable.

    2. Because when Women cease to be handsome, they study to be good. To maintain their Influence over Men, they supply the Diminution of Beauty by an Augmentation of Utility. They learn to do a 1000 Services small and great, and are the most tender and useful of all Friends when you are sick. Thus they continue amiable. And hence there is hardly such a thing to be found as an old Woman who is not a good Woman.

    3. Because there is no hazard of Children, which irregularly produc’d may be attended with much Inconvenience.

    4. Because thro’ more Experience, they are more prudent and discreet in conducting an Intrigue to prevent Suspicion. The Commerce with them is therefore safer with regard to your Reputation. And with regard to theirs, if the Affair should happen to be known, considerate People might be rather inclin’d to excuse an old Woman who would kindly take care of a young Man, form his Manners by her good Counsels, and prevent his ruining his Health and Fortune among mercenary Prostitutes.

    5. Because in every Animal that walks upright, the Deficiency of the Fluids that fill the Muscles appears first in the highest Part: The Face first grows lank and wrinkled; then the Neck; then the Breast and Arms; the lower Parts continuing to the last as plump as ever:

    So that covering all above with a Basket,

    and regarding only what is below the Girdle, it is impossible of two Women to know an old from a young one. And as in the dark all Cats are grey, the Pleasure of corporal Enjoyment with an old Woman is at least equal, and frequently superior, every Knack being by Practice capable of Improvement.

    6. Because the Sin is less. The debauching a Virgin may be her Ruin, and make her for Life unhappy.

    7. Because the Compunction is less. The having made a young Girl miserable may give you frequent bitter Reflections; none of which can attend the making an old Woman happy.

    8thly and Lastly They are so grateful!!”

    — Benjamin Franklin

  48. @prosa123

    The number of annual hires by major symphony orchestras is so low I just don’t see how it’s possible to get a meaningful sample size.

    Women only seem to want equality (or superiority) in fields where they get to enjoy some prestige and will not get dirty, do physically demanding labor, or be in any danger.

    Like you said, the annual number of these tenured big name orchestra jobs (in a slowly dying cultural niche in America) is so tiny and so removed from the experience of millions of working women that it seems trivial to try to cash it out as representing something about women in the workforce at large. Is Google or Walmart or Amazon going to start conducting blind interviews – how could they even do it?

    BTW: as a professional musician who has worked with many orchestras as a contract player, I can confirm that having women in an orchestra greatly enhances the organization in two areas: increased drama and infidelity.

    BTW: Malcolm Gladwell is full of sh**.

    • Agree: jim jones
  49. @prosa123

    My wife’s department at the local Conservatory is all female. They’ve been struggling to find a male to hire for the last couple years.

    NPR/Times is fantasyland for Wine moms.

    • Replies: @Redneck farmer
  50. I gather that other countries don’t really have the equivalent of America’s high school band culture.

    When you have wars on a regular basis and subsequent poverty episodes, you soon discover chorus singing is just as good but much cheaper.

  51. By 1969, Women’s Lib was a Thing

    By 1969, the Jaffe Memo was a thing.

    Those birth rates weren’t going to lower themselves.

    The theory now seems to be that we can’t handle the truth those Rough Women on the Planned Spinsterhood barricades are protecting us from.

    • LOL: Kronos
    • Replies: @Keypusher
    , @Kronos
  52. @PiltdownMan

    By 1980, in my matriculating MBA class of 250, about 110 students were women. In the bank I worked in, in my 20s, after graduating , between a third and a half of my peers in the training program were women, and most were there, rising up through the ranks until my mid 30s. …

    By contrast, only three guys in my MBA class were black, and one of them was a foreign student from Jamaica.

    Making the point that there was never any coherent argument for affirmative action for women. Women are not a race, where one can argue that they are “behind due to centuries of discrimination”. Women grow up in the same families, with the same afffulence, go to the same schools as the men. Once you change the societal rules, nothing is holding them back … other than their natural distribution of talents between the sexes.

    I pointed this out back in the 70s–with, of course, predictable responses from aggreived women–and, of course this is exactly what we’ve seen. Within a generation–even faster in some professions–women–conforming to the new narrative–leaped forward toward parity and beyond. Pretty much anything with
    — comfortable working conditions
    — gateway is simply conscientiousness to study some body of knowledge
    — involves social interaction
    women have done well.

    Women lag pretty much only where
    — working conditions are uncomfortable, dirty or dangerous
    — physical strenght still matters
    — thing, idea, gadget–rather than people–oriented
    — require higher level of mathematics, logic or spatial or mechanical aptitude

    And lag generally in the higher levels because women on average
    a) don’t have the same natural desire for dominance–what’s the reproductive/fitness payoff?
    and
    b) work less in order to devote more time to having children.

    There is basically … zero–absolutely zero!–about the American experience that shows that the society is “sexist”. Actually it has treated women very very well–generally the Western tradition relative to the rest of the world. American women are pretty much the most priviliged people in the history of this planet. And yet … the whine ….

    • Agree: Dtbb
  53. TWS says:
    @The Wild Geese Howard

    You cannot treat women in prison like you do men. If you try you will kill women. Men and women are different, who knew?

  54. My mother, after graduating with a BA in music from St Mary’s College in Brentwood in 1944, went to Julliard. Her instrument was the piano, and her graduation concert at St Mary’s was a Schumann concerto for that instrument. This was fitting, as through her father she was so closely related to him that he was referred to in the family circle as “Uncle Bobby”.
    But the point to be made here is that she had no thought of a career in music, but rather of spending a few carefree and elegant years in New York City, which just after the war was, and remained for decades, America’s centre of sophistication, culture and, well, class. The further point to be made is that this was very likely true of the majority of women studying there at that time. Had it not been for the quick descent of the Cold War, the late Forties and early Fifties would have been something of a repeat of the Roaring Twenties.
    As it turned out, her years of freedom were few: my father carried her off back to California in 1947, where marriage and ultimately five children followed in rapid succession. Music remained central to her life, but she only began to play for the local church and give a few lessons to advanced students once the youngest child was in her teens.
    A study of those early female students at Julliard would, I wager, reveal a similar pattern. I would guess that solo instruments like the piano would show this most clearly, while potentially massed instruments like the violin would have been the province of the less gifted and most needy. But did Julliard even take students of that sort? Perhaps there is an expert here who can tell us.

  55. @Jack D

    No Jack D, you are entirely wrong here. My Protestant ancestors, whether from England, New England, or the Netherlands, whether rich or poor, lawyers and bankers or sailors and farmers, all had children by the dozen. The exception was not ten or twelve pregnancies but a mere four or five.
    This ended, not because forms of birth control were not available, but because at some point in the early nineteenth century, all the children started to live to adulthood. It was one thing to give birth to a dozen babies but then need to educate only the three or four who reached their teens, and quite another to find schools and then jobs (or husbands) for precisely that larger number.
    It was this financial consideration, quite new, which focused minds and, I fear, closed hearts.

    • Replies: @Art Deco
  56. @Laurence Whelk

    Women only seem to want equality (or superiority) in fields where they get to enjoy some prestige and will not get dirty, do physically demanding labor, or be in any danger.

    Correct. Their current platform is to want the jobs that everyone would rather have, and leave the other jobs to the men. There is definitely disparate impact in terms of the mortality rate in the workplace, but women never seem to mention it.

  57. Women just aren’t good enough.

    Especially for the world men created for them.

    • Troll: Rosie
  58. Aidan Kehoe says: • Website

    The traditional approach in the Irish civil service was that women were welcome, but once they got married they were advised to quit. This changed once the country joined the EU, with the entertaining consequence in the 1970s of positions being advertised for the removal of sex discrimination in employment with differing pay scales for women vs. men (I apologise, I can’t find a link with a few minutes’ Googling, though I’ve seen it cited repeatedly).

    A cousin of mine, for whom I have great affection, demonstrated in the last decade why this was encouraged. She is herself attractive and intelligent, and married a dentist with good business sense. They have had five children over the last decade, and she has been away from her job as a primary school teacher for about a decade, with paid maternity leave followed by unpaid but guaranteed maternity leave. They have a beautiful house in the best address in the country and will die wealthy, likely five decades from now. She’s been back teaching for about a year. Everyone’s happy about their situation, with, I imagine, the presumptive exception of her managers. And yes, well, you can argue that the taxpayers should be unhappy too.

    • Replies: @Old Palo Altan
  59. @BB753

    Has the Vienna Philarmonic improved in any way since 1997?

    No, but, thanks to the internet – YouTube, Spotify, Apple Music, etc – you can still enjoy the pre-estrogen VPO:

    • Agree: BB753
    • Replies: @Bubba
  60. @AnotherDad

    Privilege, as in private law, or law pertaining to one person.

  61. Art Deco says:
    @Yojimbo/Zatoichi

    Married women in large numbers had workaday jobs prior to 1970 and wages were not declining.

    • Replies: @keypusher
  62. Anon[214] • Disclaimer says:

    I suspect a peculiar type of bias here, if women are underrepresented in classical music. After all, if you’ve ever looked at Youtube, any female rock musician with even the slightest shred of ability gets outsize notice in comparison to male rock musicians with the same level of talent.

    What I think is going on here is the tendency of classical music’s gay mafia, the group that runs the business end of classical music, of preferring male performers for sexual reasons.

    Your average red-blooded heterosexual male cares little for classical music these days. He might listen to a recording now and then because he’s been told it’s good for him, but if he goes to a concert, it’s because his wife dragged him there.

  63. Anon[214] • Disclaimer says:
    @Anon

    I am beginning to think there’s a correlation between a woman’s nose size and her politics. Bigger nose and therefore less attractive to men as a mate, means more leftwing.

    • Replies: @SFG
  64. Rosie says:
    @Dtbb

    I wonder if women even realize it is 2019. All I hear in interviews is how that they had it so tough in the 80s and 90s. On what planet? The real problem is the old ladies refuse to move aside.

    I think it’s partly the old ladies, but mostly it’s the financiers. Feminist organizations are just like any others. They have to justify their existence by finding problems to fix. After “the feminist inflection point,” organized feminism no longer had any base of aggrieved grass-roots support.

    The natural thing to do at this point would be to start thinking about how to help third world women and girls facing real oppression, ideally without creating more problems than we solved and/or relocating the problems to our own homelands. Of course, that’s not what happened, because the donor class had other, more radical ideas.

    Getting rid of the old ladies will help some, but it won’t solve the problem of unresponsive “women’s organizations” altogether, because he who pays the piper calls the tune.

    • Agree: Bubba
    • Replies: @Kronos
    , @Moses
  65. Rosie says:
    @Laurence Whelk

    Women only seem to want equality (or superiority) in fields where they get to enjoy some prestige and will not get dirty, do physically demanding labor, or be in any danger.

    And if we did, that also would be grounds for demonizing us as unfeminine or whatever.

    We may not do physically dangerous work if we can avoid it, but we certainly do more than our share of dirty work, to wit:

    Changing babies and old people’s diapers, cleaning toilets, washing dishes, doing laundry, scrubbing floors,etc.

    • Agree: Bardon Kaldian
    • Replies: @jsm
    , @R.G. Camara
    , @Whiskey
    , @TWS
  66. Art Deco says:
    @Old Palo Altan

    https://www2.census.gov/library/publications/1949/compendia/hist_stats_1789-1945/hist_stats_1789-1945-chB.pdf?#

    This historical data derived from Census returns puts the median family size at 5.43 persons in 1790.

    • Replies: @Old Palo Altan
    , @res
  67. By the way, my late father-in-law told me that high school band was basically invented to give swing musicians coming home from WWII a job now that the big band era was over.

    Not entirely true in some places.

    My father’s high school band in Modesto, pre-war, was lead by a musician who had been a member of John Philip Sousa’s band. I have a big, wide, black-and-white photo of my dad’s whole band, with that Sousa alumnus in front. The picture was taken when they went to some big event in San Francisco.

    Having someone from Sousa’s band lead your high school band was a big deal in Modesto.

  68. @Art Deco

    No deadnaming, please. He is now Deirdre McCloskey.

  69. @Paul Jolliffe

    It’s not just stage fright. There’s an assumption about blind auditions that unchallenged here: that the best orchestra is made up of the best individuals on each instrument. Does that assumption actually hold?

    If everyone is the best at his individual instrument, and unwilling to work with the rest of the musicians, you get chaos. Perhaps working together in a team is the higher skill to test for, a skill that a blind audition completely ignores.

    Any classical musicians know? And do women or men make better players in, for example, a string quartet?

  70. Anon55uu says:

    Just to note, where I live in Australia High School bands are a big deal. There’s an annual big band competition that has 5000+ competitors.

  71. Kronos says:
    @Rosie

    I just finished Phyllis Chesler’s “A Politically Incorrect Feminist.” It’s a hybrid autobiography/history of the Second Wave feminist movement. Chesler goes into detail about the internal workings (and backstabbing) of Second Wave feminism. But only very lightly discusses Third Wave feminism. (That might be in her book “The Death of Feminism” I don’t know.)

    The old guard (second wave) still seems to wield the most political power. They still possess the strongest networks in fundraising, publishing, and academia. Any bets on when the “old ladies” will transfer power if ever?

    • Replies: @Keypusher
    , @Rosie
    , @Anthony
  72. jsm says:
    @Rosie

    We may not do physically dangerous work if we can avoid it, but we certainly do more than our share of dirty work, to wit:

    Nursing’s plenty dangerous, too. Dirty needle sticks from HIV patients; back injuries from lifting invalids.

  73. Bubba says:
    @Laurence Whelk

    Herbert von Karajan was brilliant. My playlist on Naxos.com is filled with his recordings.

    • Replies: @Old Palo Altan
  74. Keypusher says:
    @Desiderius

    Birth rates fell every decade in American history except the 40s and 50s (until 1957). In the 1960s they dropped like a rock. So yes, those birthrates were absolutely guaranteed to lower themselves.

  75. Keypusher says:
    @Kronos

    Any bets on when the “old ladies” will transfer power if ever?

    Are they immortal?

    • Replies: @Kronos
  76. Prosa123 says:
    @Laurence Whelk

    Funny you mention Amaz, er, an Extremely Large Online Retailer. I just started work at one of their distribution centers and at least at that level they don’t conduct interviews at all. They instead rely on an online assessment that’s a bit tricky though not especially difficult overall.

    Interestingly, the workforce in this distribution center, located in a large urban area, is at least 95% minority. I’d say it’s because minorities are concentrated in low-paid jobs, except that these jobs are not low paid. The ELOR pays a *lot* more than nearly every physical retailer.

    • Replies: @ScarletNumber
  77. @Art Deco

    A very rough and ready figure, as it was derived by simply dividing the free population by the number of families. In other words, families with ten children born between 1770 and 1790, eight of whom have died, are counted as families with two children. Etc, etc.
    My point is about number of children born, not family size at any given point in time.
    But thanks for a most interesting series of population statistics, entirely free from tendentious 21st century claptrap.

    • Replies: @Art Deco
  78. the touring pro golfers mutinied against the Professional Golf Association in 1968 and got much autonomy to run their own affairs

    Yet they both got the right to use the trademark PGA, which is how the PGA Tour isn’t run by the PGA per se. For those wondering what the distinction is, the PGA Tour is for touring pros, while the PGA proper is for club pros. The PGA still runs the PGA Championship, one of the 4 majors, but it explicitly includes the club pros, unlike the other 3. At the 2019 PGA Championship, 20 spots were reserved for club pros. Rob Labritz (as well as two others) made the cut, finishing 60th. He is the club pro at GlenArbor Golf Club in Bedford Hills, New York.

    In a similar vein, the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (LA) and the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (NYC) split in 1977, but they both are allowed to use the trademark Emmy for their awards. The LA organization gives the primetime version, while the NYC organization gives the daytime version.

  79. This was part of a general trend of the time among elite performers to take more control — e.g., the touring pro golfers

    You can ask your friendly neighborhood hoplophile about this phenomenon, too:

    NRA: ‘Revolt at Cincinnati’ molded National Rifle Association

    the hippest clothing store on the King’s Road in Chelsea in London in 1980 and they had dozens of used American high school band uniforms for sale

    The Madonna of attire. They embarrass us, but fascinate the Brits.

    On the Continent, marching band uniforms are meant for an older, and wider, demographic:

  80. @Prosa123

    Between Home Depot and Amazon, are you capable of holding a job?

    Also, you haven’t posted to your blog since August 24. Is it dead?

  81. I think another — if impossibly unverifiable — factor here would be that girls are encouraged to pursue playing a musical instrument even if they’re marginally talented, while boys are not.

    I can recall several girls who played this and that growing up, but no boys. Let’s assume I was moderately gifted at playing the cello. My point is that as a Coliness, I would have been and would be more heartily encouraged by my peers and the adults around me to pursue it than I would be as a Colin. Can you picture what Uncle Fred the deer hunter would think of it if I couldn’t come on my first hunt because I had a cello audition?

    …he might bite his tongue, but he would bite it. I’d guess boys who pursue careers in classical music only do so it they are seriously devoted to their instrument and gifted at playing it.

    • Agree: Old Palo Altan
  82. keypusher says:
    @Art Deco

    You are right, though I suspect it was only a matter of time as the percentage of women (married and unmarried) working outside the home rose. In 1940, 15% of married women with a husband present (i.e. not separated or widowed) had an outside job. In 1960, 30%. In 1980, 50%. In the 1960s the marriage rate began falling (and basically never stopped) and the divorce rate skyrocketed, so the number of single women rose. (My mother was among those fortunate enough in the late 60s to find herself newly single with four kids under the age of 10.)

    In Why Nothing Works Marvin Harris argues that wages were beginning to fall in real terms by 1965 because the quality of manufactured goods was beginning to decline and because the costs of housing, food, health care and and education were rising faster than general inflation. This part of his book is more assertion than hard evidence, though.

    In 1890 apparently only 2% of married native-born white women worked outside the home, apparently. It was different for black married women and immigrants, however.

    • Replies: @Rosie
  83. dearieme says:
    @The Alarmist

    I used to know a senior Professor at Notre Dame. He said his department ought never to hire a female Assistant Prof. “Why not?” “Because if she proved to be no good we’d never be able to get rid of her.”

    • Replies: @The Wild Geese Howard
  84. Thea says:

    In Frank Zappa’s autobiography he writes about making a record with the LA orchestra. He tells a very funny story about their lack of professionalism and work ethic compared with his rock band mates.

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
  85. @Bubba

    His Hansel and Gretel is the best around, and he was more or less discovering it as he conducted.

    • Replies: @Bubba
  86. res says:
    @Art Deco

    Thanks for including a link to the data!

  87. @Aidan Kehoe

    I used to know Ireland well.
    By best address do you mean Dublin 4? And if not, why not?

    • Replies: @Aidan Kehoe
  88. @Thea

    Orchestras are union jobs, so if you go one minute over time, the pay goes way up.

    • Replies: @Autochthon
  89. @prosa123

    Yes, Harpo was indeed quite something. For the most part self-taught, he made a pretty good showing.

    And speaking of male harpists, this gentleman, the Spanish master Nicanor Zabaleta, was quite something. A friend and I, both students at Haverford College (still all male for a few more years) were fortunate enough to see him in solo recital at our sister institution, Bryn Mawr College, in the early 70s. We didn’t know him from Adam, but thought this sounded interesting, and once we heard him play, we were completely blown away.

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicanor_Zabaleta

    I think I still have an LP set by him called Five Centuries of Harp Music. Have to dig that bad boy out and reacquaint myself with his artistry.

    BTW, females do often play harp, but moving it around usually involves a van or a large station wagon, a wheeled cart, and as often as not some willing guy to be her roadie to move it hither and thither, as grand harps are heavy, ungainly, and frightfully expensive.

  90. @Rosie

    We may not do physically dangerous work if we can avoid it.

    No, you don’t do it at all. Because you can’t do it. You are physically inferior to men, so men have to do the physical labor that is the roughest.

    Go have some babies and thank every man in your life for making a world protective enough so you can bitch on the internet.*

    *which was also created by men.

    • Agree: Dannyboy
    • Replies: @Rosie
  91. FPD72 says:
    @Yojimbo/Zatoichi

    “ By the way, for the most part, NY did just fine without hiring black MLBers from the 1946-1964 era.”

    With the notable exception of AL MVP Elston Howard.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  92. This is rather OT, even if it is about the art of the audition. A wonderful Welsh pianist, Llyr Williams, had what must be the most impressive audition ever. Read the whole thing:

    “After graduating with a first from Oxford, Llyr applied for the repetiteur course at the Royal Academy of Music in London, where I was then Principal. I should explain that a repetiteur is a highly specialized pianist who accompanies opera rehearsals; one must be able to play any score at sight, teach sometimes illiterate singers their parts, be able to help them with several languages and shape their interpretation of particular roles. Applicants for the Academy course are asked to prepare a scene from a standard opera and, at audition, play from the full score whilst singing the vocal parts at the same time. This can be a tricky business, and most applicants choose something fairly uncomplicated, from Mozart, for instance. (Llyr’s audition is now legendary, but I was actually there.) When we asked him what he had prepared, he said The Ring. “Good heavens,” we exclaimed, “what passage?” “Whatever you’d like,” he replied. Accepting this brash challenge, I said, “OK, let’s hear the beginning of Act 2 of Siegfried.” Llyr proceeded to play and sing all the different voice parts, without even looking at the score – beautifully. I doubt that even Daniel Barenboim could do that. Needless to say, Llyr became a mainstay of the Academy Opera Department for the next two years, learning skills which have stood him good stead as, for example, one of the official accompanists of the Cardiff Singer of the World competition.”

    He is indeed every bit as good as that implies, particulalrly for us Wagner lovers.

  93. SFG says:
    @Anon

    Oddly enough, does not appear to have parentheses (((which wasn’t my first guess))).

    If you scroll through her Twitter feed, below the good wishes to people celebrating Diwali, she wishes a Rosh Hashanah to “all celebrating”, and an easy Yom Kippur fast to “all our Jewish friends, family, and neighbors”.

    • Replies: @Rosie
  94. SFG says:
    @Anon

    You’ve got a (((confounding factor))) there, I’m afraid.

    Of course, it could still work straight–the less cute you are, the less effective playing the mating game straight is going to be, and the more likely you are to need money on your own (or take it from men through diversity lawsuits, etc.).

  95. @dearieme

    Mr iSteve is hereby declared recipient of the Dearieme 2019 Award for Journalism, for being – to a first approximation – the only American journalist in the last twenty years to use the expression “inflection point” correctly…

    Sorry: I’ve just looked at that figure again. It’s not really an inflection point, is it? Bugger!

    Ben Orlin, an American who taught the yobs* at King Edward’s School in Birmingham for a time:

    Like “exponential”, the phrase “inflection point” has oozed out of the mathematics textbook and into the general language. Myself, I always applaud the viruslike spread of math jargon, but I must point out that the popular usage– as “a moment when growth suddenly takes off”– gets inflection points rather backward.

    In logistic growth, the inflection point is not when rapid growth starts. It’s when rapid growth climaxes**, hitting its fever pitch maximum– and thus beginning a long, slow decay.

    Change is the Only Constant: The Wisdom of Calculus in a Madcap World, p.83.

    So this is like “learning curve”. Steep learning curves are actually easy As, as re-learning to ride a bicycle is. Or that (real!) headline, “Hispanics Ace Spanish Tests”. Gradual curves are what’s tough.

    This misuse could be easily corrected by turning the graph sideways, so the steep curve will be the hard one. (Elsewhere in the book, Orlin chides economists for always drawing their graphs sideways.)

    Then there’s the ubiquitous “x times more”, when they mean “x times as” Literally, “x times more” would be “x + 1 times as”.

    *Or yobbettes. There are two King Edward’s Schools next to one another, one for boys, one for girls.

    **Yes, “climaxes” changes meaning when you go from the calculus to the patriarchy. So go ahead, make your laddish jokes.

    • Replies: @Rob McX
  96. Rosie says:
    @keypusher

    In 1890 apparently only 2% of married native-born white women worked outside the home, apparently. It was different for black married women and immigrants, however.

    That’s not a very good metric, though, because many men also worked at home then, too. The separation of work from home hadn’t really taken off yet of I’m not mistaken.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  97. Oh good God, an entire website devoted to minimizing the male titans of science:

    https://massivesci.com/articles/gabrielle-emilie-du-chatelet-voltaire-newton-physics

    Would love to know what actual, original technical research the authoress has done:

    https://massivesci.com/people/kelsey-lucas/

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
  98. @dearieme

    That senior ND prof was correct.

    You’d be amazed how quickly technically incompetent, socially adept females are fast-tracked up the ranks these days.

  99. Rosie says:
    @SFG

    Oddly enough, does not appear to have parentheses (((which wasn’t my first guess))).

    I say Ms. Rigby is doing White people a service here. UMC Whites shouldn’t be able to buy their way out of the diversity they impose on the deplorables.

  100. @The Wild Geese Howard

    Voltaire was the most important popularizer of Newton, but it was his girlfriend who explained Newton to him.

  101. Rosie says:
    @Kronos

    Any bets on when the “old ladies” will transfer power if ever?

    I don’t know, but I fear it won’t matter by then. Demographically, young WOC will be the only ones that matter, and they don’t much care about women’s rights. They never have. “Intersectionality” is really just a scam by which WOC get to put their race first at the same time as they demand White women do otherwise.

    • Replies: @Kronos
  102. Whiskey says: • Website
    @Rosie

    No White Woman has done that since 1981. Guatemalans and Mexicans do those jobs.

    • Replies: @Rosie
  103. @Yojimbo/Zatoichi

    No longer was gas 29 cents a gallon in the early ’70’s as it was for most of the US, including in LA.

    Regular is as low as $2.50 in my area today, and may go lower. That’s equivalent to 38¢ in 1970, or a rise of 30% in real terms. Some of that rise is tax. You’re probably getting 50-100% the MPG of those days, as well, and your car is likely to last twice as long.

    Driving is cheaper today.

    • Replies: @Jim Don Bob
  104. Aidan Kehoe says: • Website
    @Old Palo Altan

    I do mean Dublin 4. Their children’s main problem when trick or treating is that all their neighbours are over 70 (because they bought the property back when it was more affordable and property taxes aren’t quite the same issue they are in the US) and so they hadn’t expected to have trick or treaters.

    • Replies: @Old Palo Altan
  105. @Achmed E. Newman

    That strikes me as funny, just the idea of a “work action” by musicians.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1942%E2%80%9344_musicians%27_strike

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
  106. @FPD72

    “ By the way, for the most part, NY did just fine without hiring black MLBers from the 1946-1964 era.”

    With the notable exception of AL MVP Elston Howard.

    And Monte Irvin, Hank Thompson, Willie Mays, Tommie Agee, Cleon Jones, Donn Clendenon, Ed Charles…

    • Replies: @njguy73
  107. @Laurence Whelk

    When my father-in-law was head of the musician’s union in Chicago, his office was the one occupied by Petrillo when he led the huge national musicians strike of WWII. Petrillo’s office was completely bulletproof because he’d gotten his start getting the musician’s union out from under the thumb of Capone’s gang. The front door fell off its hinges during my father in law’s tenure because it was 1500 pounds of bulletproof steel. He had it replaced with a wooden door.

  108. Rosie says:
    @Whiskey

    No White Woman has done that since 1981. Guatemalans and Mexicans do those jobs.

    That’s funny. I seem to remember changing many hundreds of diapers over the years, along with washing the dishes, scrubbing the toilets, etc.

  109. Kronos says:
    @Keypusher

    Are they immortal?

    Not quite, that technology isn’t available yet.

    One thing I found is that plenty of women’s organizations both before and after the 1960s had a habit of dying off somewhat quickly. (I’m doing a political analysis binge on feminism mainly out of boredom, know your enemy right?)

    These political organizations became friendly clubs/meetups and became very isolated/insulated. Talk about pre-1960s female literature being suppressed largely stemmed from members of suffragette/prohibitionists organizations dying off and family members taking transcripts/essays to the dump to free up space. These organizations were/are quite poor at outreach and sustaining a political entity. Rather, they’d often allow the organization to die than hand over power to potentially younger/competent rivals. I’d wager this is still very true today.

    However, via academic departments/grand money, there’s plenty of money to keep these organizations afloat at least in a financial sense. The contemporary “Trotskyite vs Stalinist” battles going on in Women’s Studies/Gender Studies are intriguing. Can Feminism exist without the Baby Boomers? Its a good question. But you have a lot of factions fighting over this earmarked money and corporate contacts. The corporate feminist motivational circuit can bring in substantial money.

    • Replies: @SFG
    , @Reg Cæsar
    , @Steve Sailer
  110. Russ says:

    … the way the Brooklyn Dodgers and Cleveland Indians enjoyed a long advantage from hiring black baseball players in the later 1940s, while the St. Louis Cardinals and Boston Red Sox suffered from not playing blacks until the late 1950s.

    How much did the New York Yankees (World Series champions of the 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1956, and 1958 seasons) suffer all those years from having only Elston Howard on the team, as Yogi Berra’s caddy?

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
  111. Old post, nothing about music. Just my ancient thoughts on what has been done; are races interchangeable re sex/gender issues & what not…

    Women, as sex/gender, are more members of a kind than they are individuals. The Talmud says something like (quoting from memory): “Women are a separate people”; Michel de Montaigne, a man perhaps completely unacceptable to modern feminist mind said that women were not fully human (now, we shouldn’t take him literally). He equated them with nature & nature’s processes and thought they were lacking in “higher” mental pursuits & non-egoic strivings. Of course, perhaps he followed now archaic modes of thought- men are, after all- equally rooted in nature: but, their “natural state” gives them much more freedom in life. Although Montaigne was one of the fathers of modern Western mind- I think he is, along with Shakespeare, the first progenitor of intellectual/spiritual modernity- he remains safely in the tradition of male reductionism re females. If only Indians, Muslims, Chinese, …could have read him 500 years ago, they would have agreed. Women are mostly determined by their “biology” which does not leave much space for individualism & non-biological creativity.

    This leads me to a rather tenuous association: when I compare Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Pentateuch’s rendition of females (Leah, Rebecca, Rachel, Sarah, ..) they all seem like sex-procreation machines without individuality; their entire “meaning of life” is to get knocked up & to give birth to as many children as possible.

    So far, so good. We’re still in the realm of traditions, and perception of men’s & women’s role was exclusively pre-modern & could be applied to both east & West equally.

    On the other hand, ancient Greeks
    – the best of their writers, dramatists & philosophers; they, perhaps unwilling progenitors of what will become in next 200-2500 years modern world- treat women as individuals, especially Sophocles & Euripides. But, even a man’s man like Aeschylus give us unforgettable Clytemnestra in “Oresteia”. Of course, these women were seen from male perspective- but they are ravishing. Is it something in Western mind, that all whites/Europeans have inherited, that pushes for individualism, however intermittently? That gives women potentiality for individualization, which they themselves would not have the power nor will to obtain or fight for. Is individualism “genetically” Western thing, while others assimilate only aspects of it, only in portions they can digest?

    So- generally, without Western men’s interference, women go with the flow.

    Be as it may, only Western men, from Paris to Petrograd, from London to Ottawa and Buenos Aires, not only let, but actively push individuality on their females. So, low birth rate in the West (Sweden, Poland, ..) is a conflation of male individualism & female wish for an easier, more gratifying life without fussing around too many children who’re constantly screaming & nagging. In other corners of earth (Japan, China, modernized Iran,..) it is just a second component.

    While, the natural condition among Africans, most Mestizos & Arab browns seems to retain female procreational animalism as described in the Pentateuch.

    In both cases, women go with the flow, either having post-modern pseudo-individual fun & not having babies ( West, North) or pumping out babies because that’s their natural position in the chain of life (South, East).

    I would say that seed for n-th wave of feminism had been planted c. 2400 years ago in Athens- and nowhere else. Were it not for male Greek thinkers & writers, there would have been no contemporary harridans, female CEOs, flutists, novelists or lawyers. Step by step, with many zig-zags, Western man imposed on Western woman the idea that her life can be rich; can be exciting; can possess grandeur & freedom- something no other culture, whenever & wherever, ever came up with.

    Because they all saw for them just one role: (a bit refurbished) baby mamas.
    Just baby mamas.

  112. SFG says:
    @Kronos

    (I’m doing a political analysis binge on feminism mainly out of boredom, know your enemy right?)
    Sounds like you’re finding a lot of interesting stuff. If you have any ideas on how men can start fighting back, feel free to share.

    • Replies: @Kronos
  113. @Russ

    The Yankees had Mickey Mantle who probably had even more natural talent than Willie Mays.

    • Replies: @Russ
  114. Kronos says:
    @Rosie

    In that case, are you more concerned over Black or Hispanic “feminists.” The Second Wave Feminists invested tons on ink (essays and checks) in regards to female blacks. Early on in the 1970s, the WASP-Jew splits weren’t nearly as significant as the white-black fissures. Black feminists always seemed to be the weakest link in terms of fundraising and intellectual output. In Chesler’s autobiography, she singled out many feminists with claims of antisemitism but tiptoed around black feminist underachievement/dysfunction within the movement. That black feminists experience such a far more difficult world that just surviving is a victory.

    That still to this day, black feminism is still a sore-point that couldn’t be discussed openly.

    I’d imagine Hispanic feminism is still a boring blank. That the old phrase that you can’t politicize Hispanics to the level of Blacks is true even here.

    • Replies: @Rosie
  115. @Steve Sailer

    Songwriters went on a “strike” not long before that. ASCAP pulled its songs off radio and demanded larger royalties as ransom. Stations “scabbed” them by creating BMI– Broadcast Music International– and played public domain folk songs, Mexican and other Latin tunes (e.g., “Perfidia”), retooled classics, country-and-western, “race music”, and whatever new writers under BMI contract could come up with.

    ASCAP buckled big-time, finally agreeing to a much smaller royalty than they’d had before.

    It doesn’t sound like the musicians were affected at all.

  116. sayless says:
    @prosa123

    Yes, Harpo would disagree. It’s neat to watch the changeover of expression when he starts to play. His face goes from comic void to full of soul.

  117. Dmon says:
    @keypusher

    I read Harris’s “Our Kind” (written about 1990). Sort of a survey of world cultures through history. He covered Europe, Asia, the Americas. Last chapter was Africa. He had to admit that Africa hadn’t achieved much as of yet, but handwaved it as due to colonialism. The wrapup to the chapter was that Africa was going to be the next big cultural and technological powerhouse – I quote: “Africa’s day is coming”. Maybe he foresaw that Africa was going to supercede European civilization through mass migration? Whatever, either he was ignorant or pandering, and neither explanation speaks well for his credibility.

  118. @Steve Sailer

    You also have an element of a sinecure. If you don’t do awfully well on any given day, you aren’t getting canned, and the orchestra is not going to dissolve.

    If a Chester Thompson screws up a show, just one show, or comes late to a session more than once or twice, Zappa may become embarrassed and irate enough to call up a Terry Bozzio and Thompson is looking for a new gig that day (with a bad reference). I’m just picking on Chester for an example, of course; the guy’s effort and ability are legendary.

    Then, too, personalities are fundamentally different. While a session musician may be comparable to a person in an orchestra in the sense of choosing steady work and security over a risky shot at fame, many more do harbour a hope to some day make it doing their own stuff (and many do, perhaps most famously exemplified in Toto…). Gifted rockers have a fire and drive to “make it big” the gal playing third chair viola probably lacks. That gal also likely has enough formal credentials and the kind of pedigree to go teach music at a high school or offer private lessons more easily than does a guy who, however talented he may be, lacks a degree required by the bureaucracies in schools and may not be the kind of guy parents with money want little Sally or Billy spending three afternoons a week with (tattoos, long hair, “didn’t he say he had toured with Slayer?!”).

    All that said, I bet Zappa’s experience was unusual because his standards were so unusually high. The guys who make the cut to play with a Frank Zappa or a Robert Fripp are very different from the guys who would make the cut in other contexts: for all their intrinsic talent, I expect no one from Guns ‘n’ Roses ever impressed anyone with his professionalism (during their drug-fueled, youthful heyday, I mean).

  119. @Triumph104

    Unmentioned (or more accurately, obfuscated) in this article, was the identity of the “closest peer” against which she wished to compare herself, & why the pay differential about which she was complaining might exist.

    That “closest peer” was the principal oboist. Permit me to explain a few things. The oboe (I play oboe, and related instruments, the English horn, & oboe d’amore) is a difficult instrument. Superior tone production and control are only attained by mastering wind support in the air column and embouchure (the fine musculature of the mouth & lips that interact with the reed, the thing which actually produces the fundamental sound material), and superior technique arises from first, meticulous fingering of the complex mechanism, and second, having this be in absolute synchrony with the aforementioned wind support & embouchure (and tongue, which provides articulation) as a seamless whole.

    And the reeds? They are hand-crafted by the player through various steps. All of the wind control, embouchure, & technique can be pretty much for naught unless the player’s competence in fabricating the reed from its constituent materials (first and foremost, the organic cane), and then further – and crucially – adjusting the reed to interact with the characteristics of the instrument and to assure comfort in the embouchure to be responsive, resonant, easily controllable, and of a pleasing sonority is successful, and this only happens with focused effort with skills acquired over time.

    Flute players, once their simple mechanism is well adjusted, and they are happy with the characteristics of their head joint, can whip it out and get on with the business of development of technique, control, and interpretation in their copious practice time. This happy estate is not that of the top notch oboist, who is daily confronted with demands that flutists never need to sweat, which can put a pinch on time to actually practice. (Remember the old feminist critique that Ginger Rodgers did everything Fred Astaire, except backwards and in high heels? Well, if you are going to compare flute playing to oboe playing, think of the oboist as Ginger Rodgers…) So, traditionally, given all of these complications, principal oboists have been compensated more in recognition of these facts.

    In the BSO, the principal oboist is a man. One wonders if the principal oboist were a woman, whether this action would even have happened at all.

    Ironically, as the old feminist complaint has had it, women have to work twice as hard as men to become credible contenders, while in this instance we have a man working twice as hard as the woman to be a credible contender, and for good reasons being paid more, and she then carps about this. The hypocrisy of her position is pretty glaring, as the demanded equal pay is not about her “equal work” being rewarded, but for her getting paid the same for arguably less work. Talented she clearly is; but pay differentials in recognition of the complexity and the difficulty of the tasks and demands placed upon the executant in question are everywhere to be found in the professional work world. So what we see here is another grifting wokester exploiting their Pokemon points.

    • Agree: Old Prude
    • Replies: @Russ
  120. @Kronos

    One thing I found is that plenty of women’s organizations both before and after the 1960s had a habit of dying off somewhat quickly. (I’m doing a political analysis binge on feminism mainly out of boredom, know your enemy right?)

    I highly recommend Jane Mansbridge’s How We Lost the ERA. Very balanced and informative. She was in Chicago when Illinois was the Ground Zero Iwo Jima Gettysburg Little Bighorn of the movement. Just as Tennessee’s ratification clinched the 19th Amendment, Illinois’s eventual refusal killed the ERA.

    Fun tidbit: She writes of two strains of the movement in Illinois, an older, businesslike Rotary-ish bunch consisting mostly of natives or long-term residents, and a younger, more radical branch, often fresh from college or new to the state. She’d attend the meetings of both groups, and found that in each, about half the women wore slacks.

    The difference was in what the remainder wore– in one group, it was skirts, in the other, tattered blue jeans.

    • Replies: @Russ
  121. Moses says:
    @Rosie

    Feminist organizations are just like any others. They have to justify their existence by finding problems to fix.

    You just described a majority of non-profit organizations, gubment offices, race hustlers and psychologists, among many others.

    Fixing the problems they were created to solve means the money stops, no more sinecures.

    So, naturally, the problems will never be “fixed.”

    In fact, many of these orgs have a vested interest in making problems *worse* (both real and imagined).

    Always consider the financial and power incentives of the principals.

  122. Judy Klemesrud, who wrote that 1971 article that quoted “the handsome Zubin Mehta,” also wrote the first major profile of one Donald J. Trump for the Times in 1976. All I remember about it is that she gushed that he “looks so much like Robert Redford.”

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  123. No current Yankee should be mentioned in the same sentence as Mantle.

    • Replies: @Keypusher
  124. Kronos says:
    @SFG

    In terms of fighting back; that information is far more accessible in “Manosphere” blogs.
    Blogs such as “The Rational Male” discuss the superior legal status presented to women in regards to divorce, child custody, and preferred employment status. (This includes both personal and theoretical political remedies.)

    I agree with Tomassi (The Rational Male author) that a male-equivalent contraception pill might help balance things out. I’ve had two friends get trapped in the “accidental pregnancy” game despite being told by the girls that they were on the pill. The website is full of superb advice and insight.

    https://therationalmale.com/2016/10/02/spare-the-rod/

    I’m focusing on the institutional development and internal fissures within the Feminist Movement. Like how they easily obtained corporate sponsorship.

    A very short example is that if your were a 1960s-1970s GM/Ford Executive, you often tore your hair out due to Union negotiations. Suddenly, this new political movement emerges with many members from the same socio-economic class as yourself. (Hey, is that Cousin Betty in a Pussy Hat?) They join the workforce (middle management of course) and wage costs stagnate while providing a political counterweight to blue-collar unions in DC. Sailer has pointed out plenty of times that limiting the workforce by gender/immigration is inherently sexist/racist to corporations. It raises wages you hateful hater!

    Such things have continued today. But with the wider LGBTQ community.

    But yeah, the literature is interesting.

    • Replies: @SFG
  125. Lurker says:
    @Ano

    There was definitely a fashion for UK marching bands/majorettes at one time. Just reading your comment I had a sudden flash of memory. Seeing the British Airways majorettes as a kid:

    https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/british-airways-majorettes-seen-here-taking-part-in-the-news-photo/592338940

    That seems to be about the only photo of them. But, by some serendipity, that is the event I saw them at. Who knows, I may be in the crowd somewhere there? I can remember an older woman behind me tutting, something about young girls being exploited. I was quite but I knew that pretty girls in uniforms, short skirts and high boots were having an effect on me.

    I had all but forgotten about this!

    They were sponsored by British Airways, for promotional purposes, not actual employees or anything.

    Just looking I see that BA also maintains a marching band to this day.

    http://www.britishairwaysband.com/about.html

    They may also have been at the parade above, but its the girls I remember. Sadly, the majorettes are long gone by the looks of it.

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  126. SFG says:
    @Kronos

    I’ve seen that site recommended to me by a commenter at Slate Star Codex, so if SSC and UNZ commenters are both for it, it must be worth checking out.

    Thanks!

  127. Rosie says:
    @Kronos

    In that case, are you more concerned over Black or Hispanic “feminists.”

    I worry about both, but for different reasons. They will simply ignore women’s issues altogether in favor of their ethnic agenda, more immigration and set-asides for their own people. There will be no interest at all in empowering Third World women to control their fertility to ease the migration pressure on White countries.

    • Replies: @Kronos
    , @Jim Christian
  128. njguy73 says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    I believe that

    “ By the way, for the most part, NY did just fine without hiring black MLBers from the 1946-1964 era.”

    refers to the Yankees, not the Giants, Dodgers, or Mets.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  129. MBlanc46 says:
    @kihowi

    Brilliant! I’ll be using that.

  130. @prosa123

    Mr. Arthur Marx would disagree, if he weren’t dead.

    He does disagree. He’s just not talking.

  131. Art Deco says:
    @Old Palo Altan

    https://www.census.gov/library/publications/1960/compendia/hist_stats_colonial-1957.html
    https://www.census.gov/library/publications/1975/compendia/hist_stats_colonial-1970.html

    Here you can find estimates of infant and child mortality for 1900. These suggest a cumulative probability of death under the age of 15 at about 25%.

    This paper here:

    https://www.nber.org/papers/h0134.pdf

    Assembles fragments of 19th century date. The author’s argument is that advancing urbanization damaged public health for much of the 19th century, with general improvements after 1870. Some data tables can be seen at pg. 27 which indicate (among other things) probability of death prior to age 15. The mid-19th century estimates are pretty similar those derived from the 1900 census.

  132. Kronos says:
    @Rosie

    You have any favorite feminist books? (I’m serious.) I’m going on a feminist research binge so any good books help. Especially anything in regards to documentation of second wave vs. third wave schisms.

    • Replies: @Rosie
  133. Anonymous[427] • Disclaimer says:
    @Lurker

    Emirates airlines did something similar at an LA Dodgers game. I have no idea if these women are real, actual flight attendants or professional actors, dancers, or what. And if actual cabin crew how they were trained and rehearsed and what the pay and union arrangements were.

    In the Sixties it was not unheard of for several domestic and foreign airlines to have “stewardesses” who were actually not trained or used as cabin crew and whose function was for PR purposes, public appearances, modeling for photo shoots, et al, for several reasons (not tying up actual crew members, being able to higher girls who were prettier or more poised in these situations, union pay issues, et al).

    Those who remember the book “Catch Me If You Can” will remember Abagnale’s alleged scam of having a troupe of these “stewardess models” he was touring Europe with one step ahead of the law (for a while). While IIRC it’s been alleged he greatly embellished his actual escapades, there were such activities actually done by real airlines. I can remember being in the Greenwood Mall in Indianapolis as a kid and there being a display of Eastern (or maybe it was Allegheny-we are talking over fifty years ago!) Airlines with a big model of some airliner-probably a 707 or DC-8-and two or three of these stews talking to curious passers-by. I was somewhere between five and ten years old then, and I remember asking a lot of questions about the airplane until I had made enough of a pest of myself my mother hauled me off from the poor women. At any rate I remember thinking, “These women don’t seem to know the stuff you’d think they would”. My mother explained they were stewardesses and not pilots or mechanics and so wouldn’t know, but I was asking stuff about things like microwave ovens-I’d heard of them but never actually used or been in contact with one yet.

    My father, who had business with a major retailer in the mall, later told me that those women, despite wearing stewardess uniforms and name tags, weren’t really stewardesses but some mysterious thing called “public relations”.

    Both my parents and both the airlines are long since passed on so there is no sense asking anyone involved, but it does sem an interesting part of The Old Weird (but nevertheless saner) America.

    • Replies: @Bill Jones
    , @Bubba
  134. Keypusher says:
    @Milesglorious

    “Aaron Judge is a hell of a lot more professional than Mickey Mantle.”

    • Replies: @Milesglorious
  135. Russ says:
    @Steve Sailer

    The Yankees had Mickey Mantle who probably had even more natural talent than Willie Mays.

    Just so. And when the Oklahoma boy won a tryout with his “local” St. Louis Browns, the Browns passed – Mantle himself told that story. The Yankees were obviously better talent evaluators, and they present a glaring exception to this “blacker = better” retroactive pillar of MLB team-building on the tongue of every VP of Diversity and Inclusion in every major company now doing business in these United States. The irony of course is in how relatively few blacks are in MLB today. Quite some time since the 1971 Pirates won the World Series.

    • Replies: @keypusher
    , @Reg Cæsar
  136. Russ says:
    @JerseyJeffersonian

    Permit me to explain a few things. The oboe (I play oboe, and related instruments, the English horn, & oboe d’amore) is a difficult instrument.

    That was outstanding; thank you.

  137. Russ says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    Illinois’s eventual refusal killed the ERA.

    Fun tidbit: She writes of two strains of the movement in Illinois, an older, businesslike Rotary-ish bunch consisting mostly of natives or long-term residents …

    Alton Illinois’s Phyllis Schlafly rushes to mind here. (How could she not?) Bigger brass on that lady than on 90% of the GOP politicians in that godforsaken state.

    • Replies: @Jim Don Bob
    , @Reg Cæsar
  138. @Steve Sailer

    All those Musicians Union actions and negotiations over the years have had a real effect on musicians‘ economic fortunes, I know musicians in LA in their 70s who are still getting residual/royalty checks for TV/Film/Record dates they did decades ago. This is slowly eroding in the Spotify/Netflix era.

  139. dfordoom says: • Website
    @Honesthughgrant

    The big switch to women’s hiring in the 1970s came about because

    Because women were less likely to join unions so employers got a more docile more easily exploitable workforce, and it made it easier to drive wages down.

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
    , @Old Prude
  140. @dfordoom

    My late father-in-law, the tuba player, was a union leader for musicians because reedy violinists sensed that he was less likely to cave in under pressure from management.

    • Replies: @Anthony
  141. Rob McX says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    Then there’s the ubiquitous “x times more”, when they mean “x times as” Literally, “x times more” would be “x + 1 times as”.

    I just heard someone on the radio saying the value of the Zimbabwean dollar “has dropped more than 500 per cent since January”.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  142. keypusher says:
    @Russ

    Actually there are lots of blacks in baseball today. They’re mostly from Latinx America, however.

    Teams that went after black talent post-Jackie Robinson did better overall than teams that did not, even if the Yankees managed to be an exception. There’s only one Mickey Mantle, after all.

  143. When I want to watch Rachmaninoff’s Second Piano Concerto in C Minor on Youtube, I always go for Gloria Campaner or Khatia Buniatishvili

  144. @Intelligent Dasein

    Do you remember the Cheers episode when Diane takes the bar regulars to an Opera? Norm and Cliff just go to stare at the “warheads” on the female performer.

  145. un-democratic to turn childrearing and homemaking over to servants

    “I can’t believe I read that!”

  146. Anthony says:
    @Achmed E. Newman

    The 1970s were also a time of much economic turmoil. There had been a boom in the 60s, which continued somewhat into the 1970s, so there wasn’t a lot of “taking off jobs”, but inflation came along and effectively lowered almost everyone’s pay. So women going to work was “necessary” for families to maintain standard of living, but they weren’t “taking jobs away” from men.

    • Replies: @Kronos
  147. Anthony says:
    @Kronos

    The old ladies will transfer power when they die. Look at Ruth Ginsburg.

    Hell, Hillary Clinton is probably trying to hold on to power even after she dies.

  148. TWS says:
    @Rosie

    Please change the subject more. Women don’t do the hard work because they cannot. Women cannot do the most difficult and dirtiest jobs and when they try they fail. It creates more work for the men involved and division. Dirty work? You want to discuss dirty work, okay then.

    No women work in the trenches in sanitation. It’s physically demanding and dirtier than any job you can name. But not those I can name, because being a man I know what other men do. No woman works in the bilges. Or in the nastiest jobs anywhere. If the work is dirty, dangerous, and physically demanding you won’t see anyone but men working. Women might be on the payroll but not doing the job.

    Quick question how many women fire fighters died on 9-11? How many have actually passed the old standards? The number is the same.

    • Replies: @Rosie
    , @Anonymous
  149. Anthony says:
    @Steve Sailer

    They needed someone who could open that door.

  150. @Anonymous

    The original function of stewardesses was to give the flight crew something to do during the frequent overnight stopovers.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  151. MEH 0910 says:
    @Steve Sailer

    OT:


    [MORE]

  152. Willem says:

    Malcolm Gladwell is a total fake. You should believe nothing of his writing. The number of studies that he quotes are, when checking, always different than what he is reporting, and he always shills for corporations and the rich, while pretending to write for the average Joe and Jane. If you don’t believe this, read this https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2012/06/malcolm-gladwell-unmasked-a-look-into-the-life-work-of-americas-most-successful-propagandist.html

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  153. @Kronos

    The National Organization for Women was a huge deal from about 1970-1990, but you hardly hear of it anymore.

    • Replies: @Desiderius
    , @Kronos
    , @Art Deco
  154. Anonymous[334] • Disclaimer says:
    @Anon

    I went to Oakland Mills, among the worst ranked of HoCo. What will happen to these studious, conscientious Indian kids is what happens everywhere else that has a lot of ‘diversity’. Seperation of the AP kids from the regular/’honors’ kids.

    In all of the 4 years of schooling, the same unchanging cohort of AP kids (majority Asian and white) will be in the same class, same teachers. They will almost never interact with the regular kids unless it is through sports or an elective class like journalism or from passing eachother in the hallway. It was an eye-opener during graduation seeing all those (mainly black and Hispanic) faces I had literally never known existed until then.

    Once again there will be ‘diversity’ at the superficial, statistical level (gotta counterbalance for the test scores of the regular kids!). But the boots-on-the-ground experience will be the same old de facto segregation. Sucks for the families that have to take longer bus rides.

    Fear not for their education though, I assure you that all HoCo high schools are very good, compared to the nation average. Even the worst ranked gets a quality teacher pool as it is a very nice place to live.

  155. @Aidan Kehoe

    The same situation exists in the very similar North British city I live in. But we over-seventies like it that way! Peace and quiet is all after a certain age.
    On the other hand I congratulate your cousin -five children in ten years ins doing the Lord’s work.

  156. @Achmed E. Newman

    Adrienne Barbeau was the two best parts of Maude:

    • Agree: Old Prude
  157. @Keypusher

    Judge has not been a factor in any post season series he has played in,Mantle on the other hand…

  158. @AnotherDad

    They whine because they’re the most privileged. Mixing up Yin and Yang isn’t treating either one well, it’s mistreating both.

  159. @Steve Sailer

    Once all organizations became Organizations for Women™ NOW became superfluous.

  160. Kronos says:
    @Steve Sailer

    In Chesler’s book, she commented that NOW (National Organization for Women) was the most nerve wracking organization ever. That any sexual harassment/class action lawsuit never came close to that level of stress. That it became a 24 hour project for many women. (Sometimes literally.)

  161. @Reg Cæsar

    I paid $2.32 a gallon this afternoon in the Peoples’ Republic. Your other points are spot on. Federal gas taxes were raised $0.05 in the late 1980s. Thank a fracker.

    Somewhat OT: saw The Current Year this afternoon. Good movie with an interesting story and No Message.

    Coming soon is a movie based on real events that took place in Germany in the 30s. The Bad Guys are, wait for it, Nazis! The only saving grace is that it is by Terence Malik, so at least the photography will be good.

    Also a movie based on real events that took place in South Carolina in 1996. The Bad Guys are, wait for it, the KKK!

  162. @Russ

    Phyllis Schlafly was bitterly mocked for saying that the ERA would lead to coed dorms and bathrooms, etc. The only thing she didn’t predict were trannies.

    • Agree: Rosie
  163. Kronos says:
    @Desiderius

    Well this is certainly new to me…

    • Replies: @Desiderius
  164. Rosie says:
    @Kronos

    I sure don’t; it’s been so long. It’s great that you’re doing that research, though. Experts on feminism (and not a straw man thereof) are very much needed in our circles.

    I will tell you that I have a favorite feminist movie, though: Stepford Wives, the original, not the remake.

    If you haven’t seen it, you should check it out. It really captures the existential terror that women feel when faced with a truly dehumanizing culture of androcentrism. One really does feel as if society is trying to turn one into an automaton optimized for men’s pleasure and comfort. I don’t experience this much anymore, but I certainly did growing up in a working-class milieu. I suspect, even there, things have improved a great deal.

    • Replies: @Kronos
    , @Reg Cæsar
  165. Rosie says:
    @TWS

    No woman works in the bilges.

    So what? Isn’t the question whether or not women do our fair share of the dirty work? Taken as a whole, we certainly do. How many diapers have you changed? As I said, I’ve changed hundreds and anticipate hundreds more when I have grandchildren. Ergo, suggestions that we shouldn’t be allowed to play in symphony orchestras are ridiculous and unjust.

    This whole line of reasoning is very strange in any event. Suppose a man works in the bilges to put his daughter through Julliard. Who are you to tell him what his daughter can and can’t do?

    Men who work in the bilges alone deserve the credit and satisfaction for their work, not you, and not men as a class. I would hope they are very well-paid for their services.

  166. Kronos says:
    @Rosie

    I watched the 2004 remake during my teen years. Looking back, it had some serious feminist overtones. That Nicole Kidman played a fired high-powered TV executive recovering from a nervous breakdown demonstrated the negative flip side of women’s lib. The movie’s premise was that the whole “time machine” approach wasn’t the answr either.

  167. Rosie says:
    @R.G. Camara

    No, you don’t do it at all. Because you can’t do it. You are physically inferior to men, so men have to do the physical labor that is the roughest.

    Physically inferior, are we?

    Of course, there is one glaring exception to your claim.

  168. Bubba says:
    @Old Palo Altan

    Thank you – I’ll add it to the playlist and listen to it later this week! I’m a fumbling amateur in classical music, but enjoy the comments from those who know better.

    Along the same lines, I read somewhere that Hans Knappertsbusch did not particularly enjoy practicing. He trusted his musicians so much that he would cancel rehearsals and conduct concerts “spontaneously.” I find that surreal after listening to his brilliant recordings of Bruckner symphonies and Wagner’s “Siegfried Idyll.” Then again, I’m not a musician nor a critic, I just thoroughly enjoy listening to classical music.

  169. @Jim Don Bob

    I’ve written almost that exact line, Jim Don! Are you following Peak Stupidity now? ;-}

    From The Fun Feminism of the 1970’s:

    And then there was Maude ♪♫♬ … Even the uberfeminist purported head-of-household (filing jointly?) in the Maude TV show of the time, spun off from All in the Family, though containing lots of feminist lines and slogans, was not to be taken seriously. (OK, the only thing to take seriously was Maude’s show-daughter’s big hooters, probably the reason they errr, it, stayed on the air to begin with.)

  170. Bubba says:
    @Anonymous

    She throws a baseball far better than Obama.

  171. @Russ

    Alton Illinois’s Phyllis Schlafly rushes to mind here.

    She was a St Louis native. We are all fortunate that she crossed the river– Missouri never ratified, indeed, even raising a robust defense in the Duren case the very year the ERA failed.(The Notorious RBG beat them.) Her talents would have been wasted there.

    Also, don’t forget her less-heralded work in the 1960s for Goldwater, which lost the battle but put us ahead in the war until recently. She’s about the most underrated figure in US politics in the last hundred years.

    Bad news, though– Illinois finally did ratify, not two years after her passing. 37 states have now ratified, two after the deadline, and four have rescinded, all before. So whether the ratification count is 37, 35, 33, or 31 is to be decided by a future court.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equal_Rights_Amendment#Ratifications

  172. @Bill Jones

    The original function of stewardesses was to give the flight crew something to do during the frequent overnight stopovers.

    Let’s hope not — the original “stews” were teenage boys!

    A lot of them died on the job. The very first one survived the Hindenburg:

    https://www.airships.net/blog/worlds-first-flight-attendant/

    https://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2013/07/23/before-the-stewardess-the-steward-when-flight-attendants-were-men/

    • Replies: @Anonymous
  173. Art Deco says:
    @Steve Sailer

    Betty Friedan was anxious ca. 1970 about the possibility that the organization might be taken over by lesbians. By 1991, it was run by Patricia Ireland, who was quite blatantly whoring around on her husband with a dyke. After a decade running NOW, Ireland was hired as President of the YWCA, who canned her six months later. One wag pointed out that the President of NOW is a professional complainer, whereas the YWCA has real buildings to manage and payrolls to meet.

    It appears the current president of NOW is a retired travel agent from Pinellas County, Florida and is 71 years old. They’ve never had a President born after 1954.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  174. @njguy73

    …refers to the Yankees, not the Giants, Dodgers, or Mets.

    Exactly. That’s the problem.

    Would NJGuy like this to be read as “NY”? It sure looks like it:

    • Replies: @njguy73
  175. @Rob McX

    I just heard someone on the radio saying the value of the Zimbabwean dollar “has dropped more than 500 per cent since January”.

    You have to pay people to take it!

  176. Kronos says:
    @Anthony

    So women going to work was “necessary” for families to maintain standard of living, but they weren’t “taking jobs away” from men.

    But wouldn’t that double the workforce and thus effect supply and demand?

  177. @Rosie

    I worry about both, but for different reasons. They will simply ignore women’s issues altogether in favor of their ethnic agenda, more immigration and set-asides for their own people.

    Pretty damned good take, Rosie, ya cut right to the nut of the New Age. Women of Colors’ issues don’t parallel the issues and interest of even the third-wave feminists. While not the go-to for women’s rights anymore (probably for two decades), N.O.W. back in the day when they did have influence was an all-White female affair, top-to-bottom. As a tech with a female-owned telephone company after the Bell breakup, I serviced the phones and IT stuff 80’s-90s at the headquarters in DC. In nearly twenty years in and out of there every week, I don’t remember so much as a single Hispanic or Black even answering the phones, not reception, not a one. Everyone in DC had a few Blacks, at the least, the law firms, lobbies, the Hill and throughout the Federal and State governments.

    Not at N.O.W.. All this applies to Planned Parenthood, too, by the way, even the abortion mills sprinkled around the region and their headquarters, I was an insider there, too. They never allowed women of color to make of women’s issues their own issues of color. Never. Ever. Feminism N.O.W.-style was always about what WHITE women, educated and quite well off, wanted. White feminists didn’t give a shit about Hispanic women, that is, say the ones who cleaned their houses, the ones that replaced their Black housekeepers as DC was invaded. We now know that White women dominate Human Resources, a position invented to give White women a job. Turns out, White women in these positions are quite sexist and racist. But because it’s women they’re hiring, all-White has been all Right. Women of color are starting to notice, but it was smart of the White feminists to keep sassy Hispanics and Blacks out of their little club for so long.

    Where you see Indians (dots) dominating agencies in DC such as FreddieMac and the others Fannie, Salley, the Indian H.R. folks only hire, surprise, Indians. Because THEY’RE racist, they like their own kind too. And because they’re hiring ‘minorities’, they turn entire branches into an Indian Caste system. Asians are the same in tech, obviously. Where H.R. is White and female (they’re ALWAYS female, always), the workforce is predominately White female.

    Racist? Sexist? Sure, why not? But it’s the human condition to want to live among your own. If or once we get rid of ‘woke’ racial thoughts and turn down the terrorism over it all, quite naturally, each race will sort out to their own companies, neighborhoods, gatherings. We can impose law and the rest, but you can’t mess with mother nature. Even those who lecture us live in their own neighborhoods, you know, the ones with ‘good school’, they insist it’s only a coincidence the neighborhood is all White.

  178. njguy73 says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    Anyone who would confuse the Devils logo with “NY” is in such wretched shape that they could barely comprehend the concept of sport.

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  179. Anonymous[296] • Disclaimer says:
    @TWS

    Cleaning up – usually after men – is dirty work. It’s dangerous too. I know a cleaning woman who wound up in hospital with hepatitis as a result of her work. It’s a routine occupational hazard in her profession.

    • Replies: @Autochthon
  180. Anonymous[296] • Disclaimer says:
    @Willem

    Gladwell was the previous ‘pet’ of the people who now fawn over Ta-Nehisi Coates.

  181. @Kronos

    Get used to it.

    Kayne’s letting the proverbial cat out of the bag.

    If the Blacks go back to the Rs over this, shit gets real.

  182. Anonymous[296] • Disclaimer says:
    @Jim Don Bob

    Butterface

  183. Old Prude says:
    @dfordoom

    “women were less likely to join unions”. I’ve been working in the same factory for twenty-five years. When it was a white blue collar work force, the threat of union organizing was real, even though the workforce was treated. well. Now, with a work force of over fifty percent immigrants, a growing number from refugee scams, the worry about a union trying to organize is nil, despite the workforce being jerked around and misused by current management.

  184. @njguy73

    Anyone who would confuse the Devils logo with “NY” is in such wretched shape that they could barely comprehend the concept of sport.

    Likewise anyone who assumes “New York” to mean “Yankees”.

  185. @Rosie

    I will tell you that I have a favorite feminist movie, though: Stepford Wives, the original, not the remake.

    I read the Ira Levin novel, albeit in a women’s magazine condensation. Eventually I figured out it wasn’t a satire about sex, but about race. He was mocking his WASP neighbors in Wilton, Conn.

    Wilton is today, like many other Fairfield County towns, an expensive residential community with open lands (a testament to its colonial farming roots), historic architecture such as the Round House and antique colonial homes, as well as extensive town services. Many residents commute to Stamford or New York City.

    Wilton is home to global corporations such as ASML, Deloitte & Touche, Sun Products, Breitling SA, Cannondale Bicycle Corporation, and Melissa & Doug. Many Fortune 500 companies are headquartered within a 30-minute commute.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilton,_Connecticut

    Levin was quite the trickster as a writer. He went to Drake U in Des Moines, and that appears in his debut novel, A Kiss Before Dying. You discover his murderer about halfway through, hidden in plain sight. I have no idea how they filmed this; every shot would be a spoiler.

    Rosemary’s Baby was his, too.

  186. @Russ

    And when the Oklahoma boy won a tryout with his “local” St. Louis Browns, the Browns passed – Mantle himself told that story.

    Perhaps that’s why they’re the Orioles now. A few years earlier they signed Pete Gray and Eddie Gaedel:


  187. @Tom Scarlett

    Judy Klemesrud, who wrote that 1971 article that quoted “the handsome Zubin Mehta,” also wrote the first major profile of one Donald J. Trump for the Times in 1976. All I remember about it is that she gushed that he “looks so much like Robert Redford.”

    She came from an Iowan Norwegian journalistic family. She and her brother Tom Theo took on Scientology. That takes nerve. Kudos to them.

    Was Trump still passing as Swedish in 1976? Any Viking ancestry is likelier through his Scottish mother.

  188. @Rosie

    In 1900, 40% of employed Americans were in agriculture. You take a risk in telling a farm wife she doesn’t work. She’s handy with implements, and one may be at hand.

  189. @Art Deco

    One wag pointed out that the President of NOW is a professional complainer, whereas the YWCA has real buildings to manage and payrolls to meet.

    Real buildings with such inviting entrances:



  190. @Anonymous

    Run the numbers from OSHA about deaths from hepatitis for maids against those from trauma for loggers, fishermen, builders, and soldiers (marines, sailors, airmen…); run them against the numbers for deaths from disease among miners and garbagemen (ouch, sexist title!), too, if you like. Make sure to verify the numbers of men and women in all the relevant lines of work while you are at it.

    Go ahead; I’ll wait.

    • Replies: @TWS
  191. Anonymous[427] • Disclaimer says:
    @Reg Cæsar

    A few women flight attendants died on the job too:

    Barbara Jane Harrison
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jane Harrison

    24 May 1945
    Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire, England
    Died 8 April 1968 (aged 22)
    London Heathrow Airport
    Cause of death Fire
    Resting place Fulford Cemetery, York
    Nationality English
    Other names Jane Harrison
    Occupation Flight attendant
    Employer British Overseas Airways Corporation
    Known for BOAC Flight 712
    Parent(s) Alan Harrison, Lena Harrison (née Adlard)
    Awards George Cross (posthumous)

    Barbara Jane Harrison GC (24 May 1945 – 8 April 1968), known as Jane Harrison,[1] was a British flight attendant, one of four women to have been awarded the George Cross for heroism[2] and the only woman awarded the medal for gallantry in peacetime (the other three female George Cross recipients served with the Special Operations Executive in occupied France during the Second World War).
    Death at her post
    Harrison’s gravestone, Fulford Cemetery, York[3]

    Harrison, aged 22, was a flight attendant on board BOAC Flight 712 when it left Heathrow Airport at 16.27 BST on 8 April 1968, bound indirectly for Sydney. The citation for Harrison’s George Cross recites what happened almost immediately after takeoff:

    No. 2 engine of B.O.A.C. Boeing 707 G-ARWE caught fire and subsequently fell from the aircraft, leaving a fierce fire burning at No. 2 engine position. About two and a half minutes later the aircraft made an emergency landing at the airport and the fire on the port wing intensified. Miss Harrison was one of the stewardesses in this aircraft and the duties assigned to her in an emergency were to help the steward at the aft station to open the appropriate rear door and inflate the escape chute and then to assist the passengers at the rear of the aircraft to leave in an orderly manner. When the aircraft landed, Miss Harrison and the steward concerned opened the rear galley door and inflated the chute, which unfortunately became twisted on the way down so that the steward had to climb down it to straighten it before it could be used. Once out of the aircraft he was unable to return; hence Miss Harrison was left alone to the task of shepherding passengers to the rear door and helping them out of the aircraft. She encouraged some passengers to jump from the machine and pushed out others. With flames and explosions all around her, making an escape from the tail of the machine impossible, she directed her passengers to another exit while she remained at her post. She was finally overcome while trying to save an elderly cripple who was seated in one of the last rows and whose body was found close to that of the stewardess. Miss Harrison was a very brave young lady who gave her life in her utter devotion to duty.[4]

    According to witnesses, after the escape chute had been burnt away Harrison continued to force passengers to safety by pushing them out the door, even as “flames and smoke [were] licking around her face”.[A]:72–74,136 She then seemed to be preparing to jump but instead turned back inside;[A]:76,77 there was another explosion and she was not seen alive again.[A]:131 Her body was found with four others near the rear door;[A]:91 all had died from asphyxia.[A]:151

    Anthony Crosland (President of the Board of Trade and the minister responsible for civil aviation) later wrote of Harrison’s “lonely and courageous action” and “devotion to duty, in the highest traditions of her calling”.[A]:139

    In August 1969 Harrison became the only woman to receive the George Cross in peacetime,[5][4] and its youngest female recipient.[6][7] It is now at British Airways’ Speedbird Centre, which is dedicated to the history of the crew and story of British Airways.

  192. Anonymous[427] • Disclaimer says:
    @Jim Don Bob

    She was/is a pretty good, not great actress, not a great beauty or otherwise physically striking except for those big melons. But she knew how to use them, that’s for sure. I’ve heard she was easy to work with and pleasant and a decent person generally, and well liked.

  193. TWS says:
    @Autochthon

    I try to tell them but they cannot get it. Women never understand what men do.

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