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Salter and Harpending on Rushton's Theory of Ethnic Nepotism
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From the journal Personality and Individual Differences in 2013:

J.P. Rushton’s theory of ethnic nepotism

Frank Salter and Henry Harpending

Abstract

Unreciprocated aid among co-ethnics and the emotional intensity of ethnic conflict have long been explanatory challenges to evolutionary science. J.P. Rushton’s theory of assortative ethnic affiliation–altruism, mating and friendship directed towards fellow ethnics–derives from his more general theory of genetic similarity (GST). GST proposes that humans give preferential treatment to others in whom they detect genetic resemblance and that such behavior enhances genetic fitness. The theory coincides with W.D. Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness as applied to relations between populations. GST helps explain core features of ethnicity, including its basis in putative kinship and correlation with gene frequencies. Ethnic nepotism due to similarity is a weak social force compared to social identity. However its pervasiveness makes it a potential driver of evolutionary and social change, a potential borne out by sociological studies of the impact of ethnic diversity on social cohesion and public altruism. Genomics confirms the theory for interactions within populations with sufficient genetic diversity, such as ethnically mixed societies. GST applied to ethnicity is promising for further research in evolutionary social science because it unifies evolutionary and behavioral mechanisms in a single theory.

Highlights
► GST helps explain core features of ethnicity. ► Sociological research confirms GST applied to ethnicity. ► Genomics confirms the theory for ethnically mixed societies. ► Rushton’s important discoveries concerning genetic ethnic similarity are yet to be fully mined.

The degree of genetic similarity within subracial groups compared to the rest of the world is quite comparable to the degree of genetic similarity within small extended families compared to the rest of the subracial group.

Harpending pointed out that if he were going to visit a grandchild he’d never met before and came upon a group of white children playing on the sidewalk in front of the address he’d been given, he’d be challenged to identify his own grandchild. In contrast, if the group of children were of different races, he’d have no more and probably less trouble identifying them by race.

 
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  1. While it seems clear that something along the lines of this phenomenon exists, Greg Cochran remains unconvinced, because plain kin selection legitamately doesn’t do the trick:

    Your country’s not your blood | West Hunter

    However, we do seem to have the real behaviors. The mystery continues…

    Read More
    • Replies: @candid_observer
    I always have a problem with people who claim that the math of kin selection rules out possibilities like ethnic nepotism. They seem to believe that the rules of kin selection, e.g., I'll die for two children, or 4 cousins, etc. somehow can be exactly reflected in the brain structures and processes of people (or other organisms) so that we only make sacrifices in precisely the cases in which the math works out.

    I don't know why they think that. Far more likely, genes have only a very crude handle on brain processes and behaviors. It's entirely possible that genes can do little more than, say, shift us from more or less empathic toward people we have come to know, and can't begin to calibrate our empathic responses to precise groups and numbers of people who actually carry on our genes in some specified proportion.

    I think the fact that people often adopt children is one example of this. From an evolutionary point of view, it makes pretty much no sense at all. But some people simply can't be happy if they don't. No doubt they feel this way because the parenting "instinct" operates in them potently, and doesn't care a lot about the genetic composition of its objects.

    Extending that sort of empathy toward one's entire ethnic group, while not feeling it toward those of other ethnic groups, might be as close as genes can get to the happy medium between too little and too much empathy.
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  2. the typical westerner of our time would always rank the importance of the life of somebody with subsaharan african ancestry higher than the importance of the life of somebody with european ancestry, so ethnic nepotism seems not to work anymore

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  3. the typical westerner of our time would always rank the importance of the life of somebody with subsaharan african ancestry higher than the importance of the life of somebody with european ancestry, so ethnic nepotism seems not to work anymore

    The ‘typical westerner’ does not work for the social services apparat or the educational apparat.

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  4. […] Source: Steve Sailer […]

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  5. The left claims that affirmative action is needed because too many Whites use nepotism to get jobs and university slots for their family members.

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  6. @JayMan
    While it seems clear that something along the lines of this phenomenon exists, Greg Cochran remains unconvinced, because plain kin selection legitamately doesn't do the trick:

    Your country’s not your blood | West Hunter

    However, we do seem to have the real behaviors. The mystery continues...

    I always have a problem with people who claim that the math of kin selection rules out possibilities like ethnic nepotism. They seem to believe that the rules of kin selection, e.g., I’ll die for two children, or 4 cousins, etc. somehow can be exactly reflected in the brain structures and processes of people (or other organisms) so that we only make sacrifices in precisely the cases in which the math works out.

    I don’t know why they think that. Far more likely, genes have only a very crude handle on brain processes and behaviors. It’s entirely possible that genes can do little more than, say, shift us from more or less empathic toward people we have come to know, and can’t begin to calibrate our empathic responses to precise groups and numbers of people who actually carry on our genes in some specified proportion.

    I think the fact that people often adopt children is one example of this. From an evolutionary point of view, it makes pretty much no sense at all. But some people simply can’t be happy if they don’t. No doubt they feel this way because the parenting “instinct” operates in them potently, and doesn’t care a lot about the genetic composition of its objects.

    Extending that sort of empathy toward one’s entire ethnic group, while not feeling it toward those of other ethnic groups, might be as close as genes can get to the happy medium between too little and too much empathy.

    Read More
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
  7. The degree of genetic similarity within subracial groups compared to the rest of the world is quite comparable to the degree of genetic similarity within small extended families compared to the rest of the subracial group.

    I think it’s rather obvious that, holding other variables constant, genetic propinquity increases group cohesion and, indeed, nepotism.

    Most other variables matter very little, but I think two non-genetic variables can have a substantial input into the outputs (cohesion, nepotism, mutual trust, etc.): religion and sharing of intense experience (e.g. combat).

    I think sharing religious fervor can powerful unify people of different genetic makeup and help them build a kin-like community. And the same goes for sharing life-altering experiences like intense training, combat, hardship, etc. (in other words, military experience), especially while young and unattached to women/children.

    Obviously, when all three factors come together the cohesion is likely to be extremely powerful, which is why the Brits have continued to hold onto the regimental recruitment system despite considerable organizational inefficiency. Having men of “primary social groups,” from the same area, who are family, relatives, friends, neighbors, of a similar ethno-religious background, and who train, risk lives, and kill together creates intense bonds of brotherhood-of-fire.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
    Underground mining is another cohesion-builder. It's kind of like combat. Those three dozen black South African miners who were gunned down charging the strikebreaking cops in South Africa a couple of years ago were classic miners.
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  8. @Twinkie

    The degree of genetic similarity within subracial groups compared to the rest of the world is quite comparable to the degree of genetic similarity within small extended families compared to the rest of the subracial group.
     
    I think it's rather obvious that, holding other variables constant, genetic propinquity increases group cohesion and, indeed, nepotism.

    Most other variables matter very little, but I think two non-genetic variables can have a substantial input into the outputs (cohesion, nepotism, mutual trust, etc.): religion and sharing of intense experience (e.g. combat).

    I think sharing religious fervor can powerful unify people of different genetic makeup and help them build a kin-like community. And the same goes for sharing life-altering experiences like intense training, combat, hardship, etc. (in other words, military experience), especially while young and unattached to women/children.

    Obviously, when all three factors come together the cohesion is likely to be extremely powerful, which is why the Brits have continued to hold onto the regimental recruitment system despite considerable organizational inefficiency. Having men of "primary social groups," from the same area, who are family, relatives, friends, neighbors, of a similar ethno-religious background, and who train, risk lives, and kill together creates intense bonds of brotherhood-of-fire.

    Underground mining is another cohesion-builder. It’s kind of like combat. Those three dozen black South African miners who were gunned down charging the strikebreaking cops in South Africa a couple of years ago were classic miners.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Twinkie

    Underground mining is another cohesion-builder. It’s kind of like combat. Those three dozen black South African miners who were gunned down charging the strikebreaking cops in South Africa a couple of years ago were classic miners.
     
    Yes, indeed.

    The same for the coal country Catholics in western Pennsylvania and the Protestant Scotch-Irish mining families in West Virginia.

    A favorite TV show I watch occasionally is "Justified." The main character, a U.S. Marshal played by Timothy Olyphant, is asked by another character about his arch-nemesis, a local criminal, to whom he often displays affection of sorts, "how do you know him?"

    The answer? "We dug coal together."
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
  9. @Steve Sailer
    Underground mining is another cohesion-builder. It's kind of like combat. Those three dozen black South African miners who were gunned down charging the strikebreaking cops in South Africa a couple of years ago were classic miners.

    Underground mining is another cohesion-builder. It’s kind of like combat. Those three dozen black South African miners who were gunned down charging the strikebreaking cops in South Africa a couple of years ago were classic miners.

    Yes, indeed.

    The same for the coal country Catholics in western Pennsylvania and the Protestant Scotch-Irish mining families in West Virginia.

    A favorite TV show I watch occasionally is “Justified.” The main character, a U.S. Marshal played by Timothy Olyphant, is asked by another character about his arch-nemesis, a local criminal, to whom he often displays affection of sorts, “how do you know him?”

    The answer? “We dug coal together.”

    Read More
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
  10. Contrary to Harpending, I find it fairly easy to pick out family resemblances, certainly with first degree relatives.

    Example: two children enter a room belonging to an organization with 80 members. “Oh those have to be Anne’s kids” I think, and Anne follows them in. (The vast majority of the organization is white, as are Anne and her family.)

    Movies and TV shows usually irritate me by how little siblings resemble each other. The Narnia movies did it rather well, the BBC Pride and Prejudice did it very badly, even if you ignore the half-Lebanese Lydia.

    Read More
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  11. the typical westerner of our time would always rank the importance of the life of somebody with subsaharan african ancestry higher than the importance of the life of somebody with european ancestry, so ethnic nepotism seems not to work anymore

    This kind of doom-and-gloom pronouncement comes as often from malice as concern in my experience, so I don’t know if my advice will be considered, but I’ll try anyway: consider the possibility that the ranking you refer to is precisely what you deny – white tribalism. A certain class of whites signal membership in their own tribe by absorbing and, much more importantly, announcing this pathology.

    Evidence: the same tribe knows perfectly well to never expect non-whites to do likewise, and does not punish them for failing to do so.

    Read More
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  12. E. O. Wilson and Martin Nowak would probably argue that GST could easily be recast in terms of group selection rather than kin selection. Inter-group behavior of Yanamamo post-village-fission would support a group selection mechanism.

    Read More
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