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Nigeria, like China, has regional affirmative action quotas for college admissions. (Now that I think of it, America has different cutoffs by state on the PSAT for the National Merit Scholarship.) That’s a pretty interesting subject, but one that’s hard for Americans to think about since we don’t know much about differences within these large countries. Plus, the American press has largely dropped the topic of affirmative action as being too hard to square with The Narrative of white privilege, unless affirmative action is in front of the courts at the moment.

iSteve commenter Res points out that affirmative action is still a thing in Nigeria:

There was still a similar policy in 2013.

The test scores are different now (200 possible vs. 400). The link above has a list of NCEE cutoffs for each state/locality. And the fun part (don’t tell the SJWs, because some of the female cutoffs are higher so they might have a stroke) is for some states they have different male/female cutoffs.

The differences in the cutoff scores are staggering (range from 2 – 139). Our little ~1 SD boost for blacks looks trivial in comparison.

I wonder how useful these score cutoffs are for making inferences about the IQ of different groups in Nigeria.

P.S. If you are interested in learning more about this, search for “nigeria federal character”.
For example:
From there: “The federal character was stated in Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution.”

From the Nigerian Vanguard article:

From the 2013 National Common Entrance Examinations cut-off marks made available to Vanguard, while Anambra State was assigned a cut-off of 139, Imo 138, Lagos 133, and Delta 131; educationally-disadvantaged states like Taraba had 3 for males and 11 for females, Sokoto 9 for males and 13 for females; and Zamfara 4 for males and 2 for females.

I hope those are being scored on a scale where the average score is ranked as zero, because otherwise …

Citing an example with Anambra State, he said in the 2012 examination, “out of 6,000 candidates that made the national cut-off, Anambra State had the lion’s share. However, if all Anambra candidates are admitted, there will be no unity colleges.” John identified low investment in education in the north as an issue. He said: “Due to very low investment in education in the north, the children are clearly more disadvantaged educationally than those from the south so sometimes you find that if you want to apply strict rules across the board, you may end up excluding people from certain parts of the country so I think the spirit of the rule is so that we can have a representation from all parts of the country because it may be unfair if you exclude certain people.”

Nigeria’s low-scoring north is heavily Muslim. In general, Islam correlates with lower test scores, although no doubt there are exceptions here and there around the world.


2013 National Common Entrance Examinations (NCEE)
Table 3: Cut-Off Marks Based on State/Locality
1 ABIA 130 130
2 ADAMAWA 62 62
3 AKWA IBOM 123 123
4 ANAMBRA 139 139
5 BAUCHI 35 35
6 BENUE 111 111
7 BORNO 45 45
9 DELTA 131 131
10 EDO 127 127
11 ENUGU 134 134
12 IMO 138 138
13 JIGAWA 44 44
14 KADUNA 91 91
15 KANO 67 67
16 KATSINA 60 60
17 KEBBI 9 20
18 KOGI 119 119
19 KWARA 123 123
20 LAGOS 133 133
21 NIGER 93 93
22 OGUN 131 131
23 ONDO 126 126
24 OSUN 127 127
25 OYO 127 127
26 PLATEAU 90 90
27 RIVER 118 118
28 SOKOTO 9 13
29 TARABA 3 11
30 YOBE 2 27
31 FCT 90 90
32 BAYELSA 72 72
33 EBONYI 112 112
34 EKITI 119 119
35 GOMBE 58 58
36 NASARAWA 75 75
37 ZAMFARA 4 2

Read more at:

From Wikipedia on Anambra state in Nigeria’s fertile southeast:

The indigenous ethnic groups in Anambra state are the Igbo (98% of population)…

Anambra is the eighth-most populated state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second-most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State. The stretch of more than 45 km between the towns of Oba and Amorka contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns, giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500–2,000 persons per square kilometre.

Anambra is rich in natural gas, crude oil, bauxite, and ceramic. It has an almost 100 percent arable soil.

Anambra state has many other resources in terms of agro-based activities such as fisheries and farming, as well as land cultivated for pasturing and animal husbandry.

It has the lowest poverty rate in Nigeria.

So, a lot of good things are going on here.

Anambra, unlike much of Africa, has really good soil, which allows a high population density. In the Cochran-Harpending theory of Ashkenazi intelligence, IQ and urbanization are positively correlated. Much of Africa was not densely populated until recently, however.

I’ve read a description of an island in Lake Victoria with no sleeping sickness disease and no major wildlife, where the way of life resembles a village in southeast Asia: hardworking, well-organized peasant farmers who use up every inch of land and bump up against the Malthusian ceiling. I wouldn’t be surprised if Anambra is a little like that, but I don’t know.

The apparently lowest scoring state in Nigeria is Zamfara in the northwest, up against the Niger border. Niger is kind of the bottom of the world’s barrel country, with most rapid population growth. From Wikipedia:

Zamfara is a state in northwestern Nigeria. …

Zamfara is populated with the Hausa and Fulani peoples. …

Islam is the principal and major religion of the state. Zamfara was the first state in Nigeria to introduce Sharia law during the regime of Ahmad Sani Yerima, the former Governor of the state.

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  1. trelane says:

    Three thousand years ago in classical Greece, around Athens, there were no more than 100,000 citizens of whom no more than half were male and perhaps less than half of those were adults. A superior civilization built around only 25,000 adult men at any one time. Francis Galton estimated the classical Greeks must have been a full sigma or more above Englishmen of the late 19th century. Probably an underestimate.

  2. I presume you think that “much of Africa was not densely populated until recently” because of their low IQ?

    That makes sense.

  3. Lot says:

    “In general, Islam correlates with lower test scores, although no doubt there are exceptions here and there around the world.”

    The only place I can see any exceptions are around the Sahara where the Muslims are semi-caucasoid elites and the Christians and animists are black.

    Albania probably has the lowest IQ of any European ethnicity and Pashtuns any major white-looking group.

    Moldova, with per capita GDP well lower than such powerhouses as Guatemala, Indonesia, Angola, and Bolivia makes me wonder, but I know very little about it.

    • Replies: @J.Ross
    , @theo the kraut
  4. Neoconned says:

    The mixed race UK singer Sade is Igbo

    • Replies: @Nigerian Nationalist
  5. some of the female cutoffs are higher so they might have a stroke

    A professor at U of St Thomas let on in a talk a year or two ago that many U.S. schools now quietly practice affirmative action for men, to bring back balance. If the student bodies get too female, women themselves lose interest, risking what he called a “death spiral”.

    He didn’t say which color(s) these men were.

    In general, Islam correlates with lower test scores

    Inbreeding depression?

    • Replies: @BengaliCanadianDude
  6. The Igbo get called “the Jews of Africa” because they’re good at book-learning and business.

    War Nerd: Nigeria’s Inevitable Mess March 26, 2013

    • Replies: @YetAnotherAnon
  7. J.Ross says: • Website

    Syria was a civilizational center, off and on again, for longer than Jews have existed, and Damascus was one of the great duelling capitals of Islam (with Baghdad. Cairo and al-Quds are historically less important, Mecca and Medina are religiously central but not important in other ways). Syrians ought to be known for high IQ and they’re not. No temporary policy regarding learning can outpace cousin marriage.

    • Replies: @Lot
  8. Hail says: • Website

    In general, Islam correlates with lower test scores

    Proposed metaphors:

    Islam as cultural-civilizational mega-parasite, sucking the lifeblood and vitality out of any culture unfortunate enough to let it latch on.

    Islam as zombie-virus; transforms host into a cultural-civilizational zombie entity; cheap and inferior imitation copy of what they could have been.

    • Troll: BengaliCanadianDude
    • Replies: @Colin Wright
  9. donut says:

    Hey Steve you weak bitch try a introductory weekend at the Rochester Zen Center and then do a 7 day Sesshin .

    The Rochester Zen Center is the boot camp of the Waffen SS or the US Marines of Zen . My little guy , Willey ran right in the front door and pissed on a potted plant in the foyer . He might have been a Bodhisattva . Anyway he got the 1939 Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross .

  10. newrouter says:

    >Islam as cultural-civilizational mega-parasite, <

    It is all the same stuff: progressives, commies, islam- will to power. That they are silly schemes is amusing if you don't die from them.

  11. OT. I surfed to a Town Hall and a black man was questioning Beto O’Rourke. Man was identified as Terrance Pendleton, Prof. Drake University. Quick Google search and Pendleton has a Doctorate in Applied Mathematics. Finding blacks with Doctorates in Math is not so hard.

    • Replies: @HammerJack
    , @fish
  12. StemPete says:

    So the Igbo is 1.15 SD above the national average, that put their average IQdb132 at 92.5, compare to USA’s 98.6.

    Rank| NCEE|NSD|DIQ|IQdb132|State
    1 139.0|1.15|17.28|92.5|ANAMBRA
    2 138.0|1.13|16.94|92.1|IMO
    3 134.0|1.04|15.55|90.8|ENUGU

    • Replies: @Bonner Tal
  13. @trelane

    But Athens had a lot of smart guys move there, like Aristotle.

  14. Anon[116] • Disclaimer says:

    The Nigerian “federal character” clause sounds a little like the reational for the United States electoral college, as well as for affirmative action.


    By the way, there used to be a black track National Merit Scholarship program:

    It is likely that very few Black students were qualifying for National Merit Scholarships. So, in 1964, the organization founded the National Achievement Scholarship Program for Outstanding Negro Students. This was subsequently shortened to the National Achievement Scholarship Program. Over the past 51 years, 34,000 Black students have received about $108 million in scholarship awards under this Black-only program.

    Now the last cohort of National Achievement Scholars has entered college. The NMSC has announced that a new program will be administered by the United Negro College Fund called the Achievement Capstone Program. No longer will entering college students receive scholarships to help them pay for college. Now students who graduate from historically Black colleges or universities or predominantly Black educational institutions will be eligible to receive money to help them pay off college loans or to help them finance graduate study.

    Bob Schaeffer, public education director of FairTest: National Center for Fair & Open Testing, told JBHE … that “the termination of the National Achievement Scholars Program means that even fewer top African American high school students will receive college tuition aid from the National Merit Scholarship Program. The misuse of PSAT results to select semifinalists in the main competition has long guaranteed that very few Blacks win awards from the main program, because of historic racial gaps in test scores. The separate-but-unequal National Achievement Scholar competition provided a partial offset to that inequity. What will replace those funds for talented, low-income teenagers?”


    The state National Merit Scholarship cutoffs are by percentage:

    Students who achieve top scores may receive recognition from the National Merit Scholarship Corporation. NMSC compares your PSAT scores with those of other students in your state using its own Selection Index, which falls on a scale between 48 and 228.

    The top 3-4% of scorers are named Commended Scholar. The top 1%, usually about 16,000 students, are named National Merit Semifinalists. Semifinalists may go on to apply for Finalist status and potentially win scholarship money.

    I was a semifinalist in California in the 1970s, but I didn’t really know at the time what it meant. My dad’s aerospace company employer had some banquet where me and some other kids were feted. Maybe we were all semifinalists. I never got any money out of it though.

    From here:

    I extracted the data from the table for the 50 states and D.C., and then sorted by the class of 2019 state score cutoffs, descending:

    222 District of Columbia
    222 Massachusetts
    222 New Jersey
    221 California
    221 Maryland
    221 Virginia
    220 Connecticut
    220 Texas
    220 Washington
    219 Arizona
    219 Georgia
    219 Illinois
    219 Minnesota
    219 New York
    219 Oregon
    218 Colorado
    218 Delaware
    218 North Carolina
    218 Pennsylvania
    218 Tennessee
    217 Florida
    217 Hawaii
    217 Indiana
    217 Kansas
    217 Ohio
    217 Rhode Island
    216 Michigan
    216 Missouri
    216 New Hampshire
    215 Alabama
    215 Iowa
    215 Kentucky
    215 Nebraska
    215 South Carolina
    215 Utah
    215 Vermont
    215 Wisconsin
    214 Idaho
    214 Louisiana
    214 Maine
    214 Nevada
    213 Alaska
    213 Arkansas
    213 New Mexico
    213 Oklahoma
    212 Mississippi
    210 Montana
    209 North Dakota
    209 South Dakota
    209 West Virginia
    209 Wyoming

    I don’t see any overwhelming patterns. It would be interesting to add data columns for state population, Non-Asian minority percentage, urban vs. rural, percentage of pickup truck owners, highest educational level obtained times number of tattoos factor, closeness to Canadian border, etc.

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
  15. Makes me think of the interesting claim that Protestant missionary activity is strongly correlated with the the spread of democracy when controlling for cultural factors. Somewhat as an unintended byproduct. Basically they really wanted everybody to read the Bible in their own language. So there was a lot of effort put into starting schools and printing material in the native language whereas civil authorities just wanted a small class of bilingual clerks. So heavy mission activity meant a local educated class developed more rapidly. The result was people like Mandela or Sun Yatsen who were products of missionary schools. Associating anti imperialist icons with missionaries is not a popular theory for obvious reasons.

    Missionary education efforts were concentrated on southern Nigeria not just because Muslims were more resistant than animists but also surprisingly because British civil authorities were often hostile to it, with many administrators described as “Islamophilic”. Not sure if this was in the Lawrence of Arabia style or what.

  16. @Anon

    The top of the list is where the smart kids are. For example, California has lousy average test scores but it does have quite a few smart kids, especially in private schools.

    • Replies: @Anon
    , @Truth
  17. @Steve Sailer

    True, but even assuming Athens’s catchment was 10× its native population, that is still only 250,000. Heck, even if we assume a 100× catchment, that is only 2.5 million, for the greatest flowering of culture in human history. Meanwhile, Nigeria has 200 million (or 8000× Athens’s native population or 80× the most generous estimate of Athens’s catchment population) and where is the Nigerian Aristotle? I like our own Nigerian Nationalist, but he is no Aristotle.

    Not to pick on Nigeria. The modern US has a 350 million pop, and our great exponent is … Ta-Nehisi Coates?!

    Colonial America had a mere 2.1 million citizens (0.006× today) and produced: Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Washington, Hamilton, etc., etc.

    • Replies: @Nigerian Nationalist
  18. Affirmative action may actually have a certain political logic in Nigeria, where they are basically apportioning a federally-funded resource among various ethnic/regional constituencies.

    If a tribe or region has to fund the federal university system it isn’t unreasonable for it to require, as a quid pro quo, that a minimum number of spots be reserved for its citizens.

    That’s just good old fashioned political horsetrading.

    • Replies: @Nigerian Nationalist
  19. DB Cooper says:
    @Steve Sailer

    Aristotle basically delay the birth of modern science by 2000 years. There were a lot of smart guys there then but Aristotle probably wasn’t one.

  20. @Neoconned

    No she is not. Folasade is an obvious Yoruba name.

    • Replies: @TelfoedJohn
    , @Truth
    , @Neoconned
  21. @twentycents

    Igbo are majority Catholic. Interestingly because the local leaders wanted to learn English and the White Man’s medicine, while Protestants were insistently ‘multi-kulti’. The Catholics were willing to teach in English, so they were welcomed and the Protestants shunned.

    Even today, with the increased protestant conversions thanks to the export of American-style prosperity gospel, there is always a sense that protestants are inferior. People who could not quite ‘cut it’.

  22. Isn’t discussing college admissions standards in Nigeria a bit like comparing chess ratings for dogs?

    • Replies: @HammerJack
  23. Anon[116] • Disclaimer says:
    @Steve Sailer

    The top of the list is where the smart kids are. For example, California has lousy average test scores but it does have quite a few smart kids, especially in private schools.

    For that to be true, wouldn’t it mean that the score distribution in California isn’t following a bell curve/normal distribution? Or the standard deviation is higher than other states. Is that the case? Or do we not know or lack of data transparency? You could figure this out from the CAASPP school test scores, if that data is sufficiently transparent. Hispanic scores do no follow a clean bell curve, but have two camel humps.

    With a clean bell curve and an assumption of a statewide IQ of 100, the top 1 percent would have an IQ of 130.8, about two standard deviations above average.

    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
    , @StemPete
  24. @Hail

    ‘Proposed metaphors:

    Islam as cultural-civilizational mega-parasite, sucking the lifeblood and vitality out of any culture unfortunate enough to let it latch on.

    Islam as zombie-virus; transforms host into a cultural-civilizational zombie entity; cheap and inferior imitation copy of what they could have been.

    Zzz. Been having a party since 9/11, haven’t you? Able to take your dog out for a walk every night.

  25. @Anon

    High schools like Harvard-Westlake in North Hollywood claim average SAT scores around 1400, although it’s easier to get a 1400 these days.

  26. The scores are logarithms, right?

  27. @Almost Missouri

    In contrast, I almost like you…

    Ta-Nehisi is American, not Nigerian. Igbos have many high achievers, and more soon. Pretty much anytime you hear of a Nigerian breaking a record, dollars to doughnuts, they are Igbo.

    Of course, applying Occam’s Razor, the answer is simple. Igbos were the ethnic group who most willingly abandoned their old ways. Although today, many among us wring their hands about the death of ‘Igbo culture’, the correlation is hard to miss. One of the most westernised of Africa’s ethnic groups happens to be among the most exceptional. I mean, duh!

    Although there was an old bronze age kingdom at Igbo-Ukwu, at the time of the western advent, we were among the continent’s poorest and least developed, infanticide was rife and our better-armed neighbours and to be fair, some of our constituent groups used the region as a slaving basin. Olaudah Equiano claimed Igbo descent. I have no compunctions admitting that contact with the West has been incredibly beneficial, sadly many second generations migrants are becoming ever more American and hence SJWs, Osita Nwanevu, being a prominent example.

    P.S, Steve, no need for contortions, the key has always been adaptation to the dominant culture:

    The Confucians thrived when China was at the centre of the middle kingdom. Ditto, Islamic scholars when it was Baghdad. Today, the more aligned your culture is to the historic West, the richer you are. I bet this applies to groups even within America’s disadvantaged minorities. Asians are as educationally gung-ho as protestants used to be when they were lean and mean.

    Of course, it is ever more complicated, but I prefer that baseline to jumping through hoops like ‘fertile soil’. The most fertile soil on the continent are in the Ganda basin and the Kikuyu highlands. In Nigeria, it is the Middle-Belt, especially the Benue savannahs. Anambra’s soil is at best middling.

    PPS. Isn’t urbanisation correlated more to commercial opportunity, fast-flowing rivers and threats? Hence why Africa’s urban centres were concentrated in the east (the Swahili) and the North (The Mediterranean). Further, there were cities in the Arab records yet to be excavated, off the top of my head…Sijimalsa, Dejnne, probably many more. There is, of course, Timbuktu and Great Zimbabwe.

    Building cities along most of Africa’s seasonal rivers would be suicidal, I think. So saying that much of Africa was not urbanised is technically correct, it’s a big place. But it had its fair share of cities, and lest we forget, had the world’s least population at the time.

    Final PS: Anambra is also home to Nnewi, supposedly the largest concentration of billionaires in the world. That’s a bit of received wisdom though, and I admit that my people are given to exaggeration. The trader’s curse.

  28. Igbo Supremacy

    On a small device, in the right-hand column list, this can read “Igloo Supremacy”. But the polar peoples appear to be a lesson that you can take the cold-weather ancestry thing too far. Above 65°N seems to hurt more than help.

    One of Thom Hartmann’s “hunter/farmer” ADD books mentioned an Inuit school where every child was diagnosed with the “disorder”. Of course, nothing was wrong with them; they just thought like the hunters they were.

  29. @Hypnotoad666

    Northerners don’t fund anything, the oil is in the South, Lagos is in the south. The highest revenue is generated in the south.

    They are politically dominant though. The Brits saw them as one of the ‘martial races’, and many Brits loved the whole Bedouin aesthetic, so they have the guns.

    • Replies: @Truth only the truth
  30. Anonymous[241] • Disclaimer says:
    @DB Cooper

    So… ONE DUDE held off MODERN SCIENCE for 2000 years… but he was dumb?

  31. Lot says:

    I think the Balkans, Greece, and Levant all suffered serious brain drain during the Ottoman period, assimilating into the Turkish middle and upper classes, dying in war and political violence, and population-sinking in Istanbul, a hot humid crowded expensive mega-city.

    • Replies: @nebulafox
    , @Ali Choudhury
  32. RobUK says:

    In general, Islam correlates with lower test scores

    Not surprising for a religion that only permits one book.

    • Replies: @BengaliCanadianDude
  33. @Nigerian Nationalist

    Wikipedia says she is half Yoruba half white.

    • Replies: @YetAnotherAnon
  34. @Buffalo Joe

    Speaking of math, your n=1

  35. @Colin Wright

    No. Dogs will often amaze you with their intelligence.

  36. @Nigerian Nationalist

    All well and good, but is there any way of preventing billions of africans from swamping the civilized parts of the globe?

  37. Pericles says:

    Educational achievement in the country that spawned Boko Haram (tr. “books bad”).

  38. StemPete says:

    From the list of California NMS2017 semifinalist surnames, whatever the distribution curve, tallying up the ethnic composistion according to the US Census 2010 surname ethnic distribution (e.g. Lee, %whie=35.95, %Asian=42.22, %Black=16.33, %Hispanic=1.89), the estimated percentage of NMS17 semifinalists by ethnicities is not that different in magnitude from the Brookings report of the ethnic distribution of SAT750+ in Math.

    Group PctWhi PctAsi PctBla PctHis N.CA
    NMS2017 28.04 62.32 3.62 3.36 1835
    SAT750+ 33 60 3 5 100%

  39. Bonner Tal says: • Website

    Where do you get the SD?

  40. Bonner Tal says: • Website

    I have been looking for exactly this information recently, to put an estimate of Igbo IQ on a solid footing. Unfortunately, without additional information like the standard deviation or mean + admission quota, these numbers can still mean just about anything.

  41. @Steve Sailer

    Aristotle was not an Athenian citizen. He was a foreigner from Stagira in northern Greece. As the great nation of ancient Greece, Athens attracted many talented foreigners. In addition to Athenian citizens whose parents had to be themselves Athenian citizens, there were many thousands of resident foreigners called metics who practiced the trades, were bankers and were merchants of the enormous amount of imported goods that were brought by ship to the Piraeus then and now the port of Athens. The numerical population of Athens and its makeup are unsettled questions with a large scholarly literature.

  42. LondonBob says:

    Ancient Greece is grossly overrated.

  43. @trelane

    Only adult males counted as citizens in the Athenian census.

  44. @Lot

    Muslims in India,

    42% illiterate (average: 36%, Christians: 25%); 67% non-workers (average: 60%, Christians: 58%); 13% with higher education. (average: 23%, Christians: 36%)

    • Replies: @BengaliCanadianDude
  45. @DB Cooper

    Now, now.
    Even if Aristoteles had invented nothing but the Scientific Method ™ and the female orgasm, we´d still consider him towering and foundational.
    – It has become fashionable to deride the great compilators (say, Plinius the Younger or Chladni)
    by picking around and bitching wah, dis don´t hold up and dat´s anathema!
    However in the grand scheme of things they are AT LEAST as important as the great researchers and explorers (= Newton´s “shoulders of Giants”).

    OK, so “women are inferior because they have fewer teeth” does not hold up, not so much because correlation is not causation or because women (potentially) have as many teeth but because I am held to believe, under pain of being sent to the diversity and inclusion officer, that women are equal in every which way only morally and intellectually superior (you may have noticed the teeth are no longer mentioned AND it contradicts observation).
    See, Aristoteles gave us the philosophical framework on which to decide the zeitgeist is
    unicorn-on-acid poop.
    And seriously, would YOU, on your own, have found a possible cause of female inferiority? ;b

  46. @Nigerian Nationalist

    “Ta-Nehisi is American, not Nigerian.”

    Right, that was the point.

    Thank you for the Igbo/Nigerian/African précis.

    BTW, when you were choosing your commenting handle, did you consider “Igbo Nationalist” or, more daringly, “Biafran Nationalist”?

  47. @Nigerian Nationalist

    Where did the Catholic missionaries come from? Were they British too?

  48. martin2 says:

    I’ve had quite a few Igbo students. My belief is that there is some gene for intelligence that a lucky few appear to inherit somehow or other that means that the Normal Probability Law (Bell Curve) is NOT a useful way of modelling Igbo intelligence. The IQ distribution is for them, roughly speaking, bimodal.

  49. @twentycents

    Seems plausible re Protestants.

    many administrators described as “Islamophilic”

    Also plausible. Certainly, British policy operated disproportionately through the martial Muslims of India as compared to the Hindus. Similarly, as NN points out, the British favored the Muslim Northerners in Nigeria. Even when “fellow” Christians were available, the British often tilted Muslim. The British intervened in Orthodox Russian Crimea in favor of the Muslim Ottomans. British Palestine had Christians among the many local confessions, but I can’t think of anything the British did to favor them.

    • Replies: @nebulafox
  50. @simple_pseudonymic_handle

    I’ve quoted it before, but here’s Nigerian taxi driver Mobi on the Igbo, part of his description of the tribes of Nigeria.

    “Nigeria is very much like America, for the man, for he is adrift, in Life, in his own little boat.

    With the Igbo man it is not so. The Igbo always thinks of his brother—”I must bring my brother along in my business, must teach my brother, must aid my brother.”

    This extends to the tribe. Every Igbo man will do first and foremost for his tribe and his fellow Igbo men. I know an Igbo man in Ownings Mills. He belongs to the Baltimore Igbo Caucus. In any city where Igbo men live, they have a caucus that meets regularly to discuss concerns for Igbo men, to promote the cause of Igbo culture, to promote Igbo business. I hear the Igbo Caucus in Houston is very strong. The Igbo are very irritating in that they meddle in the greater society, attempting to shape other peoples’ culture in a way such as will suit their purposes. Igbo men are renown as arrogant and tend to control business, are very much the bargaining merchant. The Igbo are very much like the Chinese, who have a presence in every country and do not alter their ways to conform to the native society and who tend to be business-oriented, meddlesome and arrogant wherever they go. In fact—and I did not understand this clearly until now—the Igbo in Africa are very much like the Jews in the United States, in that people in host countries complain of their meddlesome manner and would rather they not impose their culture and ways so aggressively.”

    • Replies: @Truth only the truth
  51. @TelfoedJohn

    “Wikipedia says she is half Yoruba half white.”

    She was a very handsome girl in her prime, looked terrific on Live Aid. AFAIK she’s living quietly in Stroud, Gloucestershire, a 70s hippy haven, with a white chap and their daughter.

    • Replies: @Truth
  52. nebulafox says:

    >In general, Islam correlates with lower test scores, although no doubt there are exceptions here and there around the world.

    I think this has to do less with Islam, per se, than the traits of the cultures and ethnic groups themselves. Religion is ultimately subordinate to culture, not the other way around. Just look at the behavior of lay believers around the world and throughout history. This probably has my roots in my materialistic interpretation of religion to an extent, but I believe that many Islamic cultures are ultimately the way they are-with the problems with tolerance and modernity they have-for cultural and coinciding historical reasons more than theological ones.

    As an example, in Malaysia and Singapore, Malays notoriously lag behind their Southeastern Chinese and Tamil rivals in educational attainment. With the additional corrosive force of the bumi laws behind them, Malaysian Malays are particularly notorious for their cultural laziness, as no less than Mahathir despairingly but bluntly stated last year. This is sometimes attributed to Islam encouraging the Malays to focus more on getting married and preparing for the next life than exceeding in this one. But this ignores that Tamil Muslims (mamaks) tend to do just fine. They have no sharp differences in educational or professional success, to the best of my knowledge, with their Hindu co-ethnics: who they share a biological background, a language, and a culture with, the sharp religious differences aside.

    • Replies: @BengaliCanadianDude
  53. anonymous[103] • Disclaimer says:

    Google: Anambra kidnapping gangs

    Igbo territories seem to have an organized crime problem. Igbos are much more motivated to accomplish something than other Nigerian groups but that also manifests itself in turning to organized crime more.

    I wonder how much of the world’s email hijacking and online advanced fee fraud crimes originate from Anambra.

    • Replies: @Truth only the truth
  54. nebulafox says:
    @Almost Missouri

    That wasn’t the case in Malaya. The British favored the Chinese and Indian immigrants over the indigenous Malays. But I think that was ultimately about race, not religion, as the British imported both Muslim and Hindu Indians. The Chinese and Indians made more suitable coolies and shopkeepers in the minds of the colonial overlords, for a whole host of reasons. This only changed in the 1950s, because the Communist insurgency was predominantly ethnic Chinese. The Malays remained loyal to the British (an interesting legacy of the 1950s is that Malays are over-represented in Singapore’s police force), because they knew if the Maoists won, their culture and their faith would be in serious peril. As you might guess, the Malays weren’t exactly pleased at the prospect of becoming a minority in their own country, and after the war, were not unreasonably paranoid about their fate should the newly independent country fall into the newly established PRC’s orbit.

    WWII and all the geopolitical fallout from that would prove to be the great game changer. The Japanese noticed the anti-Chinese sentiment among Malays when they occupied the country during WWII and exploited it. To be sure, the IJA was nasty to everybody (my Malay GF’s grandmother has some horror stories), but the ethnic Chinese got the worst of it, and as a result of Tokyo’s rule, there was also more of a sense of Malay national consciousness after the war.

  55. nebulafox says:

    Didn’t Renaissance Italy get an influx of Greek intelligentsia bringing with them preserved classical knowledge after the final fall of Constantinople? I know that the rediscovery of the classical world in the West predated that-Aquinas, Petrarch-but still, interesting to think about.

    • Replies: @Lot
  56. @nebulafox

    Good point. It had occurred to me that my comment didn’t apply east of Mandalay, but I decided not to split hairs about it. And your comment addressed it better than I could have anyway.

    Another thought: compared to the Islamic heartland, are the Malays really all that Islamic historically? Malaysia is famously one of the few parts of the world where Islam spread by trade rather than by the sword. Maybe as a result, Islam there doesn’t have the character it does elsewhere, and consequently the British colonials found it less useful.

    • Replies: @jim jones
    , @nebulafox
  57. jim jones says:
    @Almost Missouri

    A female Malysian friend of mine had no idea that perfume was haram until I told her

    • Replies: @Ali Choudhury
  58. nebulafox says:
    @Almost Missouri

    Thanks. 🙂

    Yes and no. I’d say that the kind of insecurely showy orthodox Islam that has become sadly normative in Malaysia has its roots in modern political events-specifically, globalization coinciding with the wave of conservative Islamic revival that the year of 1979 really kicked into high gear and meshing with Malaysia’s ethnic problems-but I’d also argue that being Muslim has innately been thought of as being Malay for a long time, much as Theravada Buddhism is an important part of Khmer and Thai identity. It was part of what differentiated Malays from neighbors. The local flavor of Islam differed from other parts of the Islamic World, sure, but the Muslim identity was there, even before the British.

    (One interesting legacy of Confucianism is that East Asians-Chinese, Koreans, Japanese, and Vietnamese-rigorously separate ethnic and religious affiliation more than anyone else in the world. A Korean Buddhist is no more or less Korean than his Christian neighbor, and China is arguably the only major civilization in history that has managed to fully, totally absorb and sublimate Islam, as the history of the Hui people should show. It does *not* work that way further south and west, where there is a deep tendency to intertwine the two.)

    Apart from the old adage about trade, one major difference between Malaysia/Indonesia and most of the rest of the Islamic World was the conquests were wholly piecemeal. Individual sultans and tribal chiefs converted-and with them, their people-for varying reasons. Some were conquered. Some got into marriage alliances. Some developed trade links and were impressed with what the traders brought. Some wanted a more modern religion than the old animist traditions for political reasons. The timing also varied: in Indonesia, Aceh (which has a great deal of Arab ancestry) converted a lot earlier than Java did.

    >Maybe as a result, Islam there doesn’t have the character it does elsewhere, and consequently the British colonials found it less useful.

    Yeah, but I think this has more to do with the Malays themselves than Islam. Mahathir’s bitter soliloquies about his own race states its own case. Even Singaporean Malays are quite candid about the defects of their counterparts to the north.

    • Replies: @BengaliCanadianDude
  59. @nebulafox

    “But I think that was ultimately about race, not religion, as the British imported both Muslim and Hindu Indians. The Chinese and Indians made more suitable coolies and shopkeepers…”

    Same in Fiji. They basically thought they couldn’t make enough money using local labour so they imported it.

    Now they’re doing it to the UK population, for the same reasons.

  60. A test doesn’t test enough. A better way of identifying the intelligence of groups is through their best works. Take the best-in-class fine arts produced by various skin-pigmentation groups.

    Whites in primarily Christian nations and their kin scattered around the globe, including in Britain, the British Isles, the USA, Europe (Southern, Northern, Western & Eastern [including the Russians] and including the traditional Jewish ethnic minority in all of the predominately Christian countries and scattered via the diaspora, with Jews contributing disproportionately to a few of these accomplishments, namely film and literature): a stellar overall tradition of visual art, ranging from the highest forms of representational painting across multiple mediums and styles, the innovation of hand-pulled prints and non-objective art in varied mediums; innovative and best-in-class architectural & applied arts traditions; the world’s premier classical music tradition; countless top-flight writers in every literary category—from novels, to plays, to poetry; the originator of the modern film and photographic arts.

    Asians: with an equally ancient and variegated tradition of difficult-to master visual fine art—from the one-stroke-accuracy of ink painting in China, the inventor of paper and ink, to the methodical intricacy of Japanese printmaking and the Indian sculptural tradition; an innovative tradition of applied arts, including the coveted, fine porcelain-making tradition, which some scholars attribute to the Persians, with most giving China credit for the innovation; a large body of written works that are still in print, even in the case of writers going back centuries.

    ** Hispanics (a group that some would put with the whites, with Spaniards definitely grouped with Europeans): with a world-class painting tradition, especially in the 20th century, when the Mexican Muralist painters soaked up commissions from all over the world—long before affirmative action; a good applied arts tradition, including top-grade architecture if the Cubans belong in this category; a Spanish guitar tradition falling under the European category, with Mariachi music not likely making it into the fine arts category since the less complex composition & technique push the definition of fine art in the same way that the simplicity of drawing pushes it, although a few masters manage to vault less complex works done by simpler means into the fine arts category, like Chopin for instance; quite a bit of Nobel-level literature, including the works of Gabriel Marquez.

    ** Arabs &amp Persians (that some might classify as white) in Muslim nations: with some of the oldest sculptural relics in the ancient world; some world-class architecture and applied arts, with the juxtaposition of flat-patterned mosaics with unadorned spaces for the eye to rest having a big impact on Western design at certain points in time, much like the Japanese bird’s eye perspectival system and the decorative patterns of China’s applied arts did at other times; lots of celebrated writers, going back centuries.

    ** Blacks: with one major musical categorical innovation—Jazz—that scholars rank as a fine art due to its structural complexity, the same objective reason that classical music is regarded as a fine art and an unequaled, stunning tradition of synchronized-cubed choral music, making you wonder what it would sound like if the chorus at Aretha Franklin’s funeral sang the choral portion of Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy” or “Mozart’s Requiem”; a pretty extensive list of no-affirmative-action-needed top-grade writers, starting in the 19th century and growing a lot in the 20th century, made more notable since Blacks were not trained to read in large numbers until recent centuries.

    Unless the lyrics are culture-centric, it would be more apt for Blacks to provide a version of classical choral music than to change history by casting Blacks as Founding Fathers in a play. Especially in the case of instrumental scores, music is the most abstract and open-to-interpretation fine art outside of non-objective painting. Best-in-class choruses, including the Black ones, should provide a version of best-in-class classical choral compositions.

  61. Evocatus says:
    @Almost Missouri

    Probably Irish. Ireland sent legions of priests to evangelize African countries colonized by the British.

  62. Lot says:

    Yes, others fled “the Turkish yoke” for a long time. There was a wealthy Greek diaspora in France and England that helped fund the Greek War of Independence.

  63. @theo the kraut

    Hard to succeed when Muslims are discriminated against on a daily basis. If you knew anything about India, it would make perfect sense. The poverty rate for Muslims is better than Hindus. Muslims are not rented to, they do not get university admission quotas, they don’t have affirmative action benefits in regards to civil service, their neighbourhoods are designated dumping grounds for biological and other kinds of waste, there are laws that are recurrently passed and implemented to target Muslims, they face persecution in the classroom, and their businesses are constantly harrased, homes demolished as well as personal livelihood violated. This prejudice towards Indian muslims is out of order and quite frankly… ludicrous. Not to mention, given the Hindutvadi nutjobs running the country, even nuttier cowworshippers are given free reign to basically attack muslims as much as they want. Muslims are, to these barbarians, open season. Hindutvadi mobs, on a regular basis, conjure up lies and propaganda against muslims, which they use to incite riots. They have developed elaborate channels by which they can promulgate such rumours, to other fanatical morons. There are a plethora of web groups on various online platforms which are used to coordinate brutal onslaughts against Muslims. Schools and other educational and recreational facilities in predominantly Muslim neighbourhoods are perpetually denied the proper funding, and many are in turn underdeveloped. Progroms are not uncommon..As mentioned previously, the poverty rates are not so different, if you juxtapose it with that of Hindus, in fact, Muslims have a lower rate of poverty, and this is coupled with the fact that ” We” are not given heed in regards to affirmative action. We do not receive the fruits stemming from the admission quotas, even though a non-negliegibe percentage of the Indian Muslim population are converted DALITs. Arguably, the state that is the most developed, clean orderly, with the biggest HDI and literacy rate is Kerala( you could make a solid case for Goa). Goa has the lowest percentage of Hindus amongst all states in the Indian Republic, as well as the highest, or one of the highest, percentages of Muslims. 26 % are Muslims, 19 % are Christians. Why is the best state in India the one with the fewest Hindus? And the highest
    ….. why do they go to the ME with begging bowls then?

  64. @nebulafox

    Singapore and Malaysia should not be compared with each other at all. Can’t compare a city( country whatever) with an actual country. Unfair. Singapore should be colligated with urban agglomerations like the Greater Toronto Area or New York.

  65. @nebulafox

    Indians in Malaysia are by far tamil, more than 90%. Also, they are 86% Hindu and 6% Christian. Muslim Indians are recent converts or mixed race(mongrels) and as such only are 4% Muslim, so your point about the Brits importing Muslims……WRONG

    • Replies: @nebulafox
  66. @nebulafox

    These people are excessively prejudiced against Muslims even when it makes no f****** sense!

  67. @Reg Cæsar

    That “hypothesis” is astoundingly inaccurate anyways. It’s based on the cultural attitudes anyways

    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar
  68. Truth says:
    @Nigerian Nationalist

    Igbos were middlemen slave traders nobody invaded Igbos, Olaudah was sold slave merchants. Igbos were very powerful warriors and very rich, They were building their own weapons, the first palm oil from Igboland to Britain was in 1588. @ Nigerianationalist. Yorubaland was made a slave Basin, They were enslaved by Dahomey female warriors and many neighboring tribes until they were rescued by the Brits.

    • Replies: @Nigerian Nationalist
  69. Truth says:
    @Nigerian Nationalist

    Igbo were middlemen slave traders and were never invaded by any of their neighbors, Igbos were very powerful and rich. the first palm oil from Igboland was sent to Britain in 1588. After Igboukwu Igbos had Abiriba, Arochukwu etc who formed the very powerful Aro confederacy.

  70. fish says:
    @Buffalo Joe

    “OT. I surfed to a Town Hall and a black man was questioning Beto O’Rourke. Man was identified as Terrance Pendleton, Prof. Drake University. Quick Google search and Pendleton has a Doctorate in Applied Mathematics.”

    …..and what question did the good doctor have for Kennedy Teeth?

    • Replies: @Buffalo Joe
  71. Neoconned says:
    @Nigerian Nationalist

    My error, for some reason I recall reading she was half igbo….guess per Wikipedia I’m wrong.

  72. Organised online free frauds are found in South Western Nigeria operate mostly by Yorubas. South Eastern Nigeria was declared the safest place in Nigeria to live in by U.N. Most Nigerian advance fee fraudsters caught accross the world are Yorubas, they’re lazy and prone to criminalities. The Igbo terrotories have the highest human capital index in Nigeria.

  73. @Nigerian Nationalist

    Where did you get all these false info, why dishing out wrong info purposely? The truth is Igbos have Catholilics, Protestants and Jewish religion and there’s nothing like bad blood or division between them, religion pay no role in Igboland, Igbos never abadoned their culture till date they take their culture anywhere they are but integrate easily in western culture because is similar to their culture. Igbo number one adage is live and let live.

  74. @Nigerian Nationalist

    The Brits saw the North as submissive at a point the North refused independent, Nigeria was supposed to be independent by 1956 but due to the North unreadiness and the fear of Igbo dominance it was postponed to 1960, the leader of the independent movement was an Igbo Nnamdi Azikiwe and a nationalist. The Brit manipulated the first census and the first national election in favor of the North. I think now they’re regreting it.

  75. Truth says:

    Three thousand years ago in classical Greece, around Athens, there were no more than 100,000 citizens of whom no more than half were male and perhaps less than half of those were adults

    This is untrue from all that I have read, assuming a say in government was a condition of “citizenship.”

    The citizens were all male, and most of relatively noble birth. Additionally, and wikipedia does not mention this; all citizens did a 2-year “apprenticeship” with an older man between the ages of 14-16. In other , practically every citizen of ancient Athens was a homosexual.

    • Replies: @J.Ross
  76. Truth says:
    @Steve Sailer

    Well, the District of Columbia is…far darker than any state…

  77. Truth says:

    She was a very handsome girl in her prime

    Well; you’re half right…

  78. J.Ross says: • Website

    >leave people alone together

  79. J.Ross says: • Website
    @DB Cooper

    Define happiness better.

  80. @Truth

    Arochukwu abughi ani Igbo nine. It’s that simple. Further, the Aro themselves weren’t the actual warriors but that would be getting into the weeds.

    • Replies: @Truth only the truth
  81. @Almost Missouri

    Yup. Tons of Shanahans, O’connors etc. The Irish and the Holy Ghost Fathers.

  82. @Almost Missouri

    Nope, the ethnic nationalisms are chock-full of kooky folk. Igbo/Biafran nationalists, there is no difference, believe things like being descended from the Jews and that sheer ‘Igboness’ means that in the event of separation, we will be Singapore instead of Eritrea.

    I don’t for many reasons, like most ethnic-based nationalisms, there is a whiff of millenarianism about them, in my opinion.

    Nigeria, in contrast, is my version of the EU or I guess an America from ‘shining sea to shining sea’, in the sense of being a strategic space–energy resources, relatively fertile soil, potentially lucrative market– at present underutilised but which could be made great under the right management.

  83. @fish

    fish, i actually didn’t listen. My bad or good for me. He was reading from a sheet of paper, so maybe a plant.

  84. @BengaliCanadianDude

    Islam doesn’t require consanguinity, it just does less than other religions or cultures to prevent it. Catholicism, Roman or Eastern, is at the other extreme, with strict restrictions of degree. Put them together, and…

    Well, one source Steve sent me to years ago reported that 29% of Islamic Palestinian marriages were consanguine, but only 16% of Christian Palestinian ones were. And that’s low for the former and high for the latter faith.

  85. nebulafox says:

    Not in Singapore. Tamils only make up a little over half of the Indians here, and over 1/5th of the local Indians are Muslim. You’ll find Gujuratis, Sinhalese, Punjabis, Malayalis, Telugus, etc. There’s also a sizable Sikh community, both here and in KL. You would not guess it, though, because the non-Tamils in Singapore primarily speak Tamil because of government language policies enforcing a common, homogeneous standard. Much like Mandarin was imposed as a common standard on the Chinese over Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew, etc. So, as a result, you’ll have a pale skinned Parsi kid taking a Tamil language subject test…

    Interestingly, there are many more Indian Christians in Malaysia than Singapore.

    >Muslim Indians are recent converts or mixed race(mongrels)

    No, the mamaks were already Muslim before emigrating. There’s obviously been a lot more assimilation and racial mixing with the mamaks because of the shared religion-Mahathir is half-mamak-but they have their own identity.

    • Replies: @BengaliCanadianDude
  86. @anonymous

    The South western Nigeria Yorubaland is where you have organised crime problem, Most advance fee fraudsters are Yorubas, even most of them defend it. Yorubas are lazy, most hoodlums and crime are commited by them. Yorubas are also very envious of the industrous Igbos. Advance fee and E-mail hijacking originated from South western Nigeria. All Nigerian fraudster nabbed in U.S and U.K are Yorubas. The recorsd are their!

  87. @jim jones

    Huh? Using scents and perfumes is encouraged in Islam. Huge trade in them outside the Kabah in Mecca. The very religious may abstain from using perfumes with alcohol content on the grounds that any contact with alcohol should be avoided.

  88. @Lot

    Istanbul is a port city, 200 miles from Bulgaria and 350 miles from Athens and built on both sides of the Bosphorus strait. The average summer temperature highs are in the 80s, winters can get close to freezing.

  89. @Nigerian Nationalist

    You’re not Igbo and don’t know much about their history or you purposely want to revise it. Aro confederation was like everyother, they were in control uptill Fernando poo. Aro Confederacy was made of other Igbo clans like Abiriba etc Aro confederacy was like Preußen. Nobody invaded Igbos, Igbos were very powerful warriors and well advance than her neighbors, They l made local guns and special cannons called Ukurutu. Igbos fought colonialism on two fronts Ekumeku and Aro anglo war, their women also fought too Aba women war. Most Igbo slave were sold through Ibini ukpabi. After Igboukwu was Aro confederacy that was also very advanced the first British contact with Igbos was in 1588 when a palm oil was sent by the Aro confederacy to Britain before then they were dealing with the Portuguese.

    • Replies: @Nigerian Nationalist
  90. @Almost Missouri

    He’s not Igbo. He pretends to be Igbo to dishe out wrong infos. He’s from one of those tribes envious of the Igbos.

  91. @nebulafox

    Not in Singapore

    I said Malaysia. Read again. I’m right.

    They are about 2 million. 1.86 speak Tamil.

    I don’t know what you’re debating, because this is a well estabilished fact.

    Parsi kid

    You’ve just exposed yourself as an absolute fraud.

  92. @Truth only the truth

    Oburom bu onye aghotaho Igbo.

    ‘Nobody invaded the Igbo’, except the Igala and the Bini. Ekumeku was a resistance movement. Local guns? The British shredded them, could they do that to Prussia?

    The British thought the Aro were sovereign, a theory quickly disproven because they then had to spend the next 4 years or so, literally conquering village by village. Igbo enweghi eze, after all. Your idea of ‘very advanced’ is simply absurd. The Aro replied on Abam and Ezza mercenaries, this is common knowledge. The Women’s war was not a literal war but a protest against certain infringements on female rights and the imposition of warrant chiefs.

    I have a set policy against engaging with Igbo nationalists, but I wanted to reply not to seem rude. I shall not be replying further. Ego belu, ugo belu, okwa ya? Ka odi.

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