The Unz Review: An Alternative Media Selection
A Collection of Interesting, Important, and Controversial Perspectives Largely Excluded from the American Mainstream Media
 TeasersiSteve Blog
Haidt: "Political Diversity Will Improve Social Psychological Science"
🔊 Listen RSS
Email This Page to Someone

 Remember My Information



=>

Bookmark Toggle AllToCAdd to LibraryRemove from Library • BShow CommentNext New CommentNext New ReplyRead More
ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
AgreeDisagreeLOLTroll
These buttons register your public Agreement, Disagreement, Troll, or LOL with the selected comment. They are ONLY available to recent, frequent commenters who have saved their Name+Email using the 'Remember My Information' checkbox, and may also ONLY be used once per hour.
Ignore Commenter Follow Commenter
Search Text Case Sensitive  Exact Words  Include Comments
List of Bookmarks

Via Marginal Revolution, here the abstract of a big paper from what seems like most of the non-liberal social psychologists in the world, such as Jonathan Haidt, Philip Tetlock, and Lee Jussim:

Political Diversity Will Improve Social Psychological Science.

Behav Brain Sci. 2014 Jul 18:1-54. [Epub ahead of print]

Duarte JL1, Crawford JT2, Stern C3, Haidt J4, Jussim L5, Tetlock PE6.

Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity-particularly diversity of viewpoints-for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: 1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years; 2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike; 3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority’s thinking; and 4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

Here are a couple of excerpts from the paper chosen by Theden:

Since the 1930s, social psychologists have been proclaiming the inaccuracy of social stereotypes, despite lacking evidence of such inaccuracy. Evidence has seemed unnecessary because stereotypes have been, in effect, stereotyped as inherently nasty and inaccurate (see Jussim, 2012a for a review).

Some group stereotypes are indeed hopelessly crude and untestable. But some may rest on valid empiricism—and represent subjective estimates of population characteristics (e.g. the proportion of people who drop out of high school, are victims of crime, or endorse policies that support women at work, see Jussim, 2012a, Ryan, 2002 for reviews).

In this context, it is not surprising that the rigorous empirical study of the accuracy of factual stereotypes was initiated by one of the very few self-avowed conservatives in social psychology—Clark McCauley (McCauley & Stitt, 1978). Since then, dozens of studies by independent researchers have yielded evidence that stereotype accuracy (of all sorts of stereotypes) is one of the most robust effects in all of social psychology (Jussim, 2012a).

Here is a clear example of the value of political diversity: a conservative social psychologist asked a question nobody else thought (or dared) to ask, and found results that continue to make many social psychologists uncomfortable. McCauley’s willingness to put the assumption of stereotype inaccuracy to an empirical test led to the correction of one of social psychology’s most longstanding errors. …

Prejudice and intolerance have long been considered the province of the political right (e.g., Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, & Sanford, 1950; Duckitt, 2001; Lindner & Nosek, 2009).



Indeed, since Allport (1954), social psychologists have suspected that there is a personality type associated with generalized prejudice toward a variety of social groups (Akrami, Ekehammar, & Bergh, 2011), which they have linked to political conservatism (Roets & van Hiel, 2011). More recently, however, several scholars have noted that the groups typically considered targets of prejudice in such research programs are usually low status and often left-leaning (e.g., African-Americans and Communists; for more examples and further arguments, see Chambers, Schlenker & Collisson, 2013 and Crawford & Pilanski, 2013).

Using research designs that include both left-leaning and right-leaning targets, and using nationally representative as well as student and community samples, these researchers have demonstrated that prejudice is potent on both the left and right. Conservatives are prejudiced against stereotypically left-leaning targets (e.g., African-Americans), whereas liberals are prejudiced against stereotypically right-leaning targets (e.g., religious Christians; see Chambers et al., 2013; Crawford & Pilanski, 2013; Wetherell, Brandt, & Reyna, 2013).

Summarizing these recent findings, Brandt, Reyna, Chambers, Crawford, and Wetherell (2014) put forward the ideological conflict hypothesis, which posits that people across the political spectrum are prejudiced against ideologically dissimilar others.

Once again, the shared moral narrative of social psychology seems to have restricted the range of research: the investigation of prejudice was long limited to prejudice against the targets that liberals care most about. But the presence of a non-liberal researcher (John Chambers is a libertarian) led to an expansion of the range of targets, which might, over time, lead the entire field to a more nuanced view of the relationship between politics and prejudice.

 
Hide 38 CommentsLeave a Comment
Commenters to Ignore...to FollowEndorsed Only
Trim Comments?
  1. Using research designs that include both left-leaning and right-leaning targets, and using nationally representative as well as student and community samples, these researchers have demonstrated that prejudice is potent on both the left and right. Conservatives are prejudiced against stereotypically left-leaning targets (e.g., African-Americans), whereas liberals are prejudiced against stereotypically right-leaning targets (e.g., religious Christians; see Chambers et al., 2013; Crawford & Pilanski, 2013; Wetherell, Brandt, & Reyna, 2013).

    Didn’t have the guts to say “whites,” I see. I don’t think liberals hate religious blacks.

    • Replies: @SportsFan
    The vast majority of blacks are deeply religious. It's pretty hard to argue on this board that right-leaning folks dislike only the non-religious blacks, as they represent only a tiny fraction of all blacks.

    In fact, the atheist or agnostic blacks would likely be upper-class professionals and thus not have the prototypical qualities that folks here dislike. Despite what 'progressives' have been accusing cons of (prejudice against blacks based on the "color of their skin"), it's mostly about class, not race. Or skin color.
  2. Steve –

    Thought you may not have noticed that Udolpho.com has been deleted. It might be time to retire it from your sidebar. Just a heads up!

  3. Udolpho was long ago abandoned for MPC–the thinking man’s thinking man’s forum.

    • Replies: @David R. Merridale
    You would be brave or foolhardy to put My Posting Career in your sidebar, unless you want to change your status in polite journalistic society from "semi-pariah" to "utter pariah". It's a good read though!
    , @Lurker
    Dr K - you still linked to Udolpho though.

    MPC - http://mpcdot.com/forums
    , @Anonymous
    Increasingly I find MPC to be a bonsai garden in which Pleasureman fusses about his favorite topics but really has nothing interesting to say beyond the occasional (and too rare) quip. What was his last big insight about anything? What was his last really incisive post? I think he actually believes "scale" is some mind-blowing revelation. It's this kind of focus that attracts all his colorless HBD nerds.
  4. I will say one thing about political diversity. It creates political competition and weeds out the incompetent. I am about as paleocon as they come, but I don’t prefer areas that are completely dominated one political party long-term, whichever party that may be. One party rule inevitably leads to incompetence and corruption.

    On the other hand, too much political diversity (multi-party) seems to result in paralysis by chaos and undue influence of fringe elements.

    A two-party system seems a reasonably good working situation. So I prefer an area that is generally conservative but is occasionally competitive enough that “conservatives” who get too comfortable in power are thrown out once in a while. That works very well, provided the system is mostly closed. Hence my preference for small towns.

  5. Priss Factor [AKA "pizza with hot pepper"] says:

    Abbie Hoffman wrote Steal This Book.

    Sailer ought to write a O’Rourkian/Barryian book called

    NOTICE THIS BOOK.

    It can be about the main controversies with which he’d been entangled with such figures as Podhoretz, Gladwell, Caplan, Freako guys, and others.

  6. “Prejudice and intolerance have long been considered the province of the political right”: by whom?

  7. If you haven’t already, you should take a look at the first author’s blog:

    http://www.joseduarte.com/blog

    I also recommend Lee Jussim’s page:

    http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~jussim/papers.html

  8. You can also find a link to a link to the entire article, which has some great examples, on José Duarte’s main page:

    http://www.joseduarte.com/

  9. So, when are we going to get affirmative action? I’d take a job as a professor of psychology

  10. @Hepp

    Using research designs that include both left-leaning and right-leaning targets, and using nationally representative as well as student and community samples, these researchers have demonstrated that prejudice is potent on both the left and right. Conservatives are prejudiced against stereotypically left-leaning targets (e.g., African-Americans), whereas liberals are prejudiced against stereotypically right-leaning targets (e.g., religious Christians; see Chambers et al., 2013; Crawford & Pilanski, 2013; Wetherell, Brandt, & Reyna, 2013).
     
    Didn't have the guts to say "whites," I see. I don't think liberals hate religious blacks.

    The vast majority of blacks are deeply religious. It’s pretty hard to argue on this board that right-leaning folks dislike only the non-religious blacks, as they represent only a tiny fraction of all blacks.

    In fact, the atheist or agnostic blacks would likely be upper-class professionals and thus not have the prototypical qualities that folks here dislike. Despite what ‘progressives’ have been accusing cons of (prejudice against blacks based on the “color of their skin”), it’s mostly about class, not race. Or skin color.

    • Replies: @Art Deco
    he vast majority of blacks are deeply religious.
    --
    I think 'expressively religious', 'intently religious', or 'have religious frames of reference by default'. Like many others, the relationship between religious precepts and mundane behavior can be quite haphazard (at least as regards amatory life).
    , @Twinkie
    "The vast majority of blacks are deeply religious."

    I often see the claim made that blacks are the most religious and Asians the least in America, but I think this is a misreading of the demographic information. Although many blacks profess nominal Christian affiliation, I think actual regular church attending population of blacks is quite small.

    On the other side, Asians indeed have the fewest of those who claim religious affiliation, but those who do are quite devoted. As I mentioned before, the active, practicing Christian groups at elite universities are now almost entirely East Asian.

    Parts of the South (both the Southwest and the Southeast) that are heavily populated by East Asians are covered with Asian Churches.
  11. Those guys seem to have a funny, outmoded view of science as a search for objective truth rather than a search for more money and power for progressives.

    Hasn’t anybody explained it to them yet?

  12. I happen to know, and know of, quite a few social psychologists. While many are indeed liberal, a surprisingly not insubstantial number are not. Those tend to publish papers with an evolutionary bent, particularly on sex differences, beauty, self-control etc. The ‘progressives’ push purely political stuff, something like how conservatives are a bunch of Nazi lemmings. The data torturing and p-hacking and subject cherry-picking to make the results come out “right” is unavoidable and is the reason for the ongoing spat about replication in social psychology (recently covered by Steve).

    Haidt and his coauthors are right – the pressure to conform to liberal orthodoxy is tremendous, distorts the literature and suppresses scientific ideas. Much like the prestige media, much of the work in social psychology is done to support the Narrative – whatever it takes. If the data do not confess to the “right” ideology despite the torturing, they are relegated to a dusty corner of a hard drive and another study is run with some “tweaks”. This is amounts to random sampling until you get the “right” sample. That’s why many famous results in social psychology do not replicate.

    For that reason many researchers in the behavioral and neural sciences choose other, less politicizeable fields, such as studying the basic sensory and motor mechanisms or cell properties. Folks in such fields view most social psychologists with great suspicion and disdain because of their reputation of making their data conform to their ideology, and the social psychologists know it. I would say social psychologists have a huge inferiority complex because their stuff is considered politicized fluff by other scientists.

  13. RE: the rote condemnation of stereotypes,

    I remember being quite pleasantly shocked by Steven Pinker’s defense of stereotypes in THE BLANK SLATE. He simply noted that stereotypes are the products of observation; therefore, if they fail to find empirical support, they are swiftly abandoned.

  14. @MPC
    Udolpho was long ago abandoned for MPC--the thinking man's thinking man's forum.

    You would be brave or foolhardy to put My Posting Career in your sidebar, unless you want to change your status in polite journalistic society from “semi-pariah” to “utter pariah”. It’s a good read though!

  15. Stereotypes are a double-edged sword. They are like emotions, a quick and dirty aid to thinking, that become troublesome when used as a substitute for thinking.

  16. Haidt is an interesting character, and far more intellectually honest than the average liberal. But don’t be deceived. He’s no conservative. There are lots of videos available on YouTube where he discusses the growing right/left divide, and he generally ends up blaming it, in effect, on the increasing extremism of conservatives.

  17. @Dr. Evil:

    Uh, yes….but stereotypes were once indeed based on original thinking. They came from somewhere, after all, and not simply out of the clear blue sky. When a new observation comes along that shatter the old stereotypes, that new observation becomes the established stereotype over time, thereby the new observation merely becomes a stereotype and repeating the cycle all over again.

    Paging Gladwell, paging Malcolm Gladwell.

    Per your book Blink, your elaborate argument, that sometimes stereotypes are well founded and other times they aren’t, has been picked up and reprocessed for intellectual consumption.

  18. Hm, I’d be cautious about giving stereotypes too much of the benefit of the doubt. Coming from linguistics, I’m aware of many popular stereotypes about e.g. gender and language that turn out to be simply false once subjected to scrutiny. Mark Liberman over at Language Log does a good job of disproving the common wisdom that women talk more than men, for example, and before you dismiss him as just another liberal social scientist, you should know that Razib Khan holds him in high respect, and the respect is mutual.

    It’s possible that stereotypes in some areas of knowledge tend to be more true than stereotypes in other areas of knowledge. Something like criminal behavior is fairly self-evident even to the uneducated, so I can see how people in general may still arrive at correct conclusions about which races commit the most crimes. When it comes to language, on the other hand, people’s intuitions about how it works are pretty poor; most of LING 101 is spent deconstructing various false but popular notions about language in order to enable students to approach the subject scientifically.

  19. It’s amusing to see how the “Prejudice” chapter of Elliot Aronson’s popular social psych book has evolved. In the first edition (1972) the examples referred by and large to Jews and blacks. The tenth edition (~2013) has lost some of the Jewish examples in favor of gay ones.

    Both editions, in line with the observations of Haidt et al, assume that stereotypes are the false beliefs of conservative people.

  20. http://www.lvhn.org/wellness_resources/wellness_articles/healthy_living/his_brain_her_brain

    Mark Liberman over at Language Log does a good job of disproving the common wisdom that women talk more than men, for example,

    He hasn’t persuaded this head-shrinker interviewed here.

    • Replies: @jtgw
    Are you sure you have the right URL? There's no mention of Liberman or an interview on that page.
  21. @SportsFan
    The vast majority of blacks are deeply religious. It's pretty hard to argue on this board that right-leaning folks dislike only the non-religious blacks, as they represent only a tiny fraction of all blacks.

    In fact, the atheist or agnostic blacks would likely be upper-class professionals and thus not have the prototypical qualities that folks here dislike. Despite what 'progressives' have been accusing cons of (prejudice against blacks based on the "color of their skin"), it's mostly about class, not race. Or skin color.

    he vast majority of blacks are deeply religious.

    I think ‘expressively religious’, ‘intently religious’, or ‘have religious frames of reference by default’. Like many others, the relationship between religious precepts and mundane behavior can be quite haphazard (at least as regards amatory life).

  22. Prejudice and intolerance have long been considered the province of the political right (e.g., Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, & Sanford, 1950; Duckitt, 2001; Lindner & Nosek, 2009).

    Chesterton once said a man reveals himself in what he takes for granted.

  23. Conservatives are prejudiced against stereotypically left-leaning targets (e.g., African-Americans)

    Jews are at least as left-leaning as African-Americans and arguably a good deal more so. Yet conservatives are not prejudiced against them, in fact if anything they are prejudiced in favor of Jews. So how do the predominantly left-wing (and frequently Jewish) social scientists deal with that awkward reality? They ignore it.

  24. @MPC
    Udolpho was long ago abandoned for MPC--the thinking man's thinking man's forum.

    Dr K – you still linked to Udolpho though.

    MPC – http://mpcdot.com/forums

  25. Priss Factor [AKA "pizza with hot pepper"] says:

    Nobody should be hired because he is conservative but no one should be not hired because he’s conservative. The problem with current academia is people are fired or not hired because they are conservative.

  26. “Jews are at least as left-leaning as African-Americans and arguably a good deal more so”

    If Jews are even more left leaning than African Americans, how come Jews don’t vote 95 percent Democrat like African Americans ?

  27. “The vast majority of blacks are deeply religious.”

    The vast majority of Black males are deeply religious as well ? Even the deadbeat fathers who do not take care of their kids and the Black Yoofs who terrorize the neighborhood ?

    • Replies: @SportsFan
    Of course they are. Why, do you think that's somehow incompatible with their behavior?
  28. @Jefferson
    "The vast majority of blacks are deeply religious."

    The vast majority of Black males are deeply religious as well ? Even the deadbeat fathers who do not take care of their kids and the Black Yoofs who terrorize the neighborhood ?

    Of course they are. Why, do you think that’s somehow incompatible with their behavior?

  29. @SportsFan
    The vast majority of blacks are deeply religious. It's pretty hard to argue on this board that right-leaning folks dislike only the non-religious blacks, as they represent only a tiny fraction of all blacks.

    In fact, the atheist or agnostic blacks would likely be upper-class professionals and thus not have the prototypical qualities that folks here dislike. Despite what 'progressives' have been accusing cons of (prejudice against blacks based on the "color of their skin"), it's mostly about class, not race. Or skin color.

    “The vast majority of blacks are deeply religious.”

    I often see the claim made that blacks are the most religious and Asians the least in America, but I think this is a misreading of the demographic information. Although many blacks profess nominal Christian affiliation, I think actual regular church attending population of blacks is quite small.

    On the other side, Asians indeed have the fewest of those who claim religious affiliation, but those who do are quite devoted. As I mentioned before, the active, practicing Christian groups at elite universities are now almost entirely East Asian.

    Parts of the South (both the Southwest and the Southeast) that are heavily populated by East Asians are covered with Asian Churches.

  30. I think Black females on average are more religious than Black males. I once went inside a Black church in Oakland, California just out of curiosity to see if it is like how Hollywood movies portray them to be. The sex ratio between men and women was nowhere near 50/50. It was quite obvious that women outnumbered men by a considerable lead.

  31. @Art Deco
    http://www.lvhn.org/wellness_resources/wellness_articles/healthy_living/his_brain_her_brain

    Mark Liberman over at Language Log does a good job of disproving the common wisdom that women talk more than men, for example,

    He hasn't persuaded this head-shrinker interviewed here.

    Are you sure you have the right URL? There’s no mention of Liberman or an interview on that page.

  32. Yeah right, religion. A lot of Mafioso paid for a lot of stained-glass windows.

  33. Re: religion/religious

    Jimmy Carter was religious. So was the Christian Right that helped Reagan defeat him.

    The Crusaders and Saracens were mighty religious, but that didn’t stop them from killing each other for 400 years.

    It’s just like being conservative. Different cultures have their own ideas of being religious and/or conservative, but it doesn’t mean they align to modern Western values.

  34. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:
    @MPC
    Udolpho was long ago abandoned for MPC--the thinking man's thinking man's forum.

    Increasingly I find MPC to be a bonsai garden in which Pleasureman fusses about his favorite topics but really has nothing interesting to say beyond the occasional (and too rare) quip. What was his last big insight about anything? What was his last really incisive post? I think he actually believes “scale” is some mind-blowing revelation. It’s this kind of focus that attracts all his colorless HBD nerds.

  35. […] Haidt: “Political Diversity Will Improve Social Psychological Science” – from steve sailer. […]

  36. […] psychologist Jonathan Haidt and his colleagues have thrown another grenade. “Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity-particularly diversity of viewpoints-for […]

Comments are closed.

Subscribe to All Steve Sailer Comments via RSS