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From Nature:

Mummy DNA unravels ancient Egyptians’ ancestry

Genetic analysis reveals a close relationship with Middle Easterners, not central Africans.

Traci Watson
30 May 2017

The tombs of ancient Egypt have yielded golden collars and ivory bracelets, but another treasure — human DNA — has proved elusive. Now, scientists have captured sweeping genomic information from Egyptian mummies. It reveals that mummies were closely related to ancient Middle Easterners, hinting that northern Africans might have different genetic roots from people south of the Sahara desert.

The study, published on 30 May in Nature Communications1, includes data from 90 mummies buried between 1380 bc, during Egypt’s New Kingdom, and ad 425, in the Roman era. The findings show that the mummies’ closest kin were ancient farmers from a region that includes present-day Israel and Jordan. Modern Egyptians, by contrast, have inherited more of their DNA from central Africans. …

Both types of genomic material showed that ancient Egyptians shared little DNA with modern sub-Saharan Africans. Instead, their closest relatives were people living during the Neolithic and Bronze ages in an area known as the Levant. Strikingly, the mummies were more closely related to ancient Europeans and Anatolians than to modern Egyptians.

The researchers say that there was probably a pulse of sub-Saharan African DNA into Egypt roughly 700 years ago. The mixing of ancient Egyptians and Africans from further south means that modern Egyptians can trace 8% more of their ancestry to sub-Saharan Africans than can the mummies from Abusir el-Meleq.

The study is:

Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods

This doesn’t mean, however, that the ancient Egyptians had no Sub-Saharan ancestry, just less than modern Egyptians:

Absolute estimates of African ancestry using these two methods in the three ancient individuals range from 6 to 15%, and in the modern samples from 14 to 21% depending on method and choice of reference populations

We can see from the Fayoum Portraits from Roman-ruled Egypt that some Egyptians 2000 years ago would be considered black in modern America, just the way Anwar Sadat was played by Lou Gossett Jr. in a TV movie biopic.

A few of the Fayoum Portraits that were painted for funerals by commercial artists look like NFL quarterback Colin Kaepernick.

By comparing ancient individuals from Abusir el-Meleq with modern Egyptian reference populations, we found an influx of sub-Saharan African ancestry after the Roman Period, which corroborates the findings by Henn and colleagues. Further investigation would be needed to link this influx to particular historic processes. Possible causal factors include increased mobility down the Nile and increased long-distance commerce between sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt. Trans-Saharan slave trade may have been particularly important as it moved between 6 and 7 million sub-Saharan slaves to Northern Africa over a span of some 1,250 years, reaching its high point in the nineteenth century. However, we note that all our genetic data were obtained from a single site in Middle Egypt and may not be representative for all of ancient Egypt. It is possible that populations in the south of Egypt were more closely related to those of Nubia and had a higher sub-Saharan genetic component, in which case the argument for an influx of sub-Saharan ancestries after the Roman Period might only be partially valid and have to be nuanced. Throughout Pharaonic history there was intense interaction between Egypt and Nubia, ranging from trade to conquest and colonialism, and there is compelling evidence for ethnic complexity within households with Egyptian men marrying Nubian women and vice versa.

Still, perhaps the biggest surprising discovery of the genomic age of archaeology is that the Sahara provided such an important division of the human race into two main groups: Sub-Saharan and Non-Sub-Saharan.

I would have assumed that there were times in the past when the Sahara was green enough for people to wander across it and that the Nile would have provided a conduit for migrations back and forth even when the Sahara was a fierce desert. But that doesn’t appear to be how it worked …

 
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  1. So… we wuzn’t kangs ‘n’ shee-it.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Dwright
    Lol, after reading , that was going to be the gist of my comment.
    Too obvious?

    Well in other news, George Washington Carver still was black.

    , @BenKenobi
    Apparently, WE were the kings all this time!
    , @mcineral
    You beat me (and probably many others) to the punch on that one.
    , @Aristippus
    HOLE UP!

    So you was sayin'?
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  2. Chuck Woolery goes anti-Semitic:

    Read More
    • Replies: @Bugg
    Chuck Woolery will NEVER HOST ANOTHER GAME SHOW IN THIS TOWN EVER AGAIN!
    , @Reg Cæsar
    Chuck Woolery is still alive?
    , @Ripple Earthdevil
    Not so simple, Chuckie. Vlad Lenin was 1/4 ethnically Jewish and was not raised in that tradition.

    El Wiki:

    [His mother] was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a Russian Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity.[5] It is likely that Lenin was unaware of his mother's Jewish ancestry, which was only discovered by his sister Anna after his death.

    As far as Marx goes, his father converted to Lutheranism, he was not raised in the Jewish traditions, and old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did.

    But it's those magical Jewish genes exerting their evil influence I guess.

    Yup, Lenin's 1/4 Jewish ancestry, which ran roughshod over the rest of his mixed ancestry, is responsible for the Bolshevik Revolution.

    You're a tool, Chuck.

    , @Mark Caplan
    Albeit leftist scum, to use the umbrella term, Bernie Sanders is a democratic socialist, not a communist. There is a pretty big difference, as in, say, the difference between Sweden and North Korea.
    , @Pat Boyle
    I tried but I can't remember the time when I was unaware of the Jewish-Communist connection. It was probably in high school. In any case Chuck seems to be a little slow. This tweet shakes my faith in Australian Dream.
    , @Moshe
    Does it make me a Semite that I never heard of this guy, like in any context whatsoever?

    The only non echo chamber blind spot that I'm aware of in my knowledge relates to sports. On most other subjects that aren't the purview of some very small set of people I'm not fully ignorant and could be expected to have heard of someone whom so many others appear to have not only heard of but be intimately familiar with.

    Is this an age gap? I mean is he a big deal to only either Boomers or Millennials???
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  3. @Thomas
    So... we wuzn't kangs 'n' shee-it.

    Lol, after reading , that was going to be the gist of my comment.
    Too obvious?

    Well in other news, George Washington Carver still was black.

    Read More
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  4. How did Egypt become more subsaharan? I would’ve assumed more European after the Macedonian invasion.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Twinkie

    How did Egypt become more subsaharan?
     
    Slavery under Islamic regimes would be my guess.

    I would’ve assumed more European after the Macedonian invasion.
     
    The number of Macedonian ruling caste and the subsequent settlers was miniscule, and did not leave much of a genetic footprint. In fact, the Macedonian soldiery proved quite thorny in Egypt. On the one hand, they proved excellent phalangite soldiers. On the other hand, they were too few in number, and proved most unwilling to train natives or even tolerate the natives being trained in a similar matter (for obvious competitive reasons). This led to an intolerable situation, in which there was a constant manpower problem.

    In pre-modern times, very small numbers of trained warriors could conquer and rule a vast empire - to the extent that the conquerors themselves could leave little genetic trace. Even in England, a supposedly "Anglo-Saxon" land, the actual Germanic ancestry is still at about 50% or below, the rest being Celtic. And that's even after the Danelaw and the Norman invasion.
    , @Hapalong Cassidy
    The Macedonians were never very numerous. Beyond the royal family, their genetic inprint in Egypt would have been negligible.
    , @The Alarmist

    "By comparing ancient individuals from Abusir el-Meleq with modern Egyptian reference populations, we found an influx of sub-Saharan African ancestry after the Roman Period ...."
     
    My money would be on this being the Southern-Roman equivalent to the Northern-Roman lax immigration policies to bring in people to do the jobs Romans did not want to do. Probably included a lot of sports stars for their enhanced athletic prowess in the games. It's not that the influx came after the Roman period as much as the fact that the influx led to the end of the Roman period.
    , @unzerker

    How did Egypt become more subsaharan?
     
    Continuous migration down the Nile and most importantly: the millions of black slaves the Muslims brought in.
    , @segundo
    I don't have the link to hand, but an mtDNA study showed that most of the SSA women in Egypt appeared to have entered later than 1400yrs ago. In other words, after the Muslim Conquest and the institution of a vigorous SSA slave trade.
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  5. @Thomas
    So... we wuzn't kangs 'n' shee-it.

    Apparently, WE were the kings all this time!

    Read More
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  6. Read More
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  7. Wait, isn’t this study comparing the Ancient Egyptian upper class to the overall population of modern Egypt? Only the upper classes got mummified.

    Even if sub-Saharan ancestry is uncorrelated with class in modern Egypt, that might not have been true in Ancient Egypt.

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    • Replies: @unzerker

    Only the upper classes got mummified.
     
    Not at all. Mummification was so common in ancient Egypt and subsequently mummies were so plentiful that in the 19th century they would be used to make medicine, pigment or simply used as fuel.
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  8. “and that the Nile would have provided a conduit for migrations back and forth even when the Sahara was a fierce desert.”

    Anyone got any theories on this one?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Thomas

    “and that the Nile would have provided a conduit for migrations back and forth even when the Sahara was a fierce desert.”

    Anyone got any theories on this one?
     
    The Cataracts of the Nile above Aswan might have had something to do with it.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cataracts_of_the_Nile
    , @Almost Missouri
    The ancient Egyptians were unabashed Egypto-Supremacists who did not take kindly to foreign in-migrations--i.e., invasions. They held themselves aloof from and considered themselves superior to their neighbors. They fought frequent wars to keep their neighbors out of Egypt and off the Nile. They took their borders seriously for thousands of years. By coincidence, their civilization flourished for thousands of years. By even greater coincidence, their civilizational collapse coincided with the collapse of their borders.
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  9. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    I love Chuck Woolery!

    The simple facts could have been implanted in his mind back when he was in school. But no. Those facts are not taught in schools. The facts are verboten, and strictly prevented from being disseminated in the media.

    We are not allowed to inquire as to the persons and events that gave rise to Lenin, Hitler, Mao. Each of these regimes is presented to the public as magically sprouting upon the earth. The long train of events that produced the regimes has been memory-holed.

    And for good reason.

    We are experiencing Bolshevik revolution 2.0 right here in the USA and if everyone knew the facts about 1.0 then that would make 2.0 impossible.

    Read More
    • Replies: @27 year old
    >We are experiencing Bolshevik revolution 2.0 right here in the USA

    LOL yeah, totally
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  10. The desertification of the Sahara started ~3000 BC.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar

    The desertification of the Sahara started ~3000 BC.
     
    Climate change caused by excessive carbon emissions-- by those consumerist Atlanteans.
    , @Eustace Tilley (not)
    It is interesting to think about the theories of Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval on the origins of Egyptian civilization. Hancock thinks, correctly (please read enough Joseph Campbell or Mircea Eliade to find yourself convinced of this) that ancient man saw himself as intimately connected to the world around him in ways that modern man, adrift in his "environment", can barely imagine. His attitude was fundamentally religious. In keeping with this view of the cosmos, the ancient Egyptians felt that the world below was a mirror of the world above: the sky.

    Hancock and Bauval think that the Great Sphinx (whose head is ludicrously undersized in relation to its body) was recarved in a pharoah's image after it had weathered to a semi-amorphous stump by thousands of years of rain, as the body was weathered by rain, not sandblasting. It was originally the representation of a lion. In 10,500 B.C. (which is a very early date; this explains why Hancock's work is scorned by "official" Egyptologists) it would have been directly facing the constellation Leo. At that time, North Africa was verdant, as testified to by the Saharan rock paintings showing men hunting giraffe in areas which are now barren of verdure. The Milky Way was the celestial Nile, and Orion was called by the Egyptians Osiris, the god of resurrection. Robert Bauval has suggested that the three pyramids on the Giza plateau represent the three stars of Orion's belt.

    The oldest mummies in the DNA study are from the New Kingdom, which was a full millenium later than the Old Kingdom, even going by the "official" chronology. It is conceivable that the people of the Old Kingdom had even less sub-Saharan DNA than the Egyptians of the New Kingdom did. So, the people whose genius created the splendor of Egyptian civilization had, perhaps, almost no genetic affinity with sub-Saharan Africans.

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  11. Colin Kaepernick should star as Rameses in the next remake of the Ten Commandments.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Steve Sailer
    Right, there are some Fayoum Portraits who look like the NFL quarterback.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
  12. @Thomas
    So... we wuzn't kangs 'n' shee-it.

    You beat me (and probably many others) to the punch on that one.

    Read More
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  13. The closest living relatives of the mummies are the Sardinians and Basque, the peoples who have best preserved the genetics of the first Anatolian and European farmers. The old Egyptians are actually less closely related to modern, 20% Black Egyptians than to any other European or Middle Eastern reference group.

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  14. So what your telling me is that them white nationalists were more right than the Nation of Islam dudes? Bring on the mothership!

    Read More
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter Display All Comments
  15. BTW – Saw a documentary a few years ago suggesting that the Egyptian Antiquities folks have known the DNA profile of the ancients for some time but were keeping it under wraps for political reasons; mentioning the sub Saharan theories but more persuasively suggesting that some in the Arab world would not favor knowing the Pharaohs were Semitic. What support does this lend to the Hyksos expulsion theory? Also, were they waiting for Obama to leave office to drop this?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Opinionator
    Arabs are Semites. I don't see the problem.
    , @Dutch Boy
    One detail of the story is that King Tut's Y DNA is haplogroup R1b.
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  16. @Shaq
    Colin Kaepernick should star as Rameses in the next remake of the Ten Commandments.

    Right, there are some Fayoum Portraits who look like the NFL quarterback.

    Read More
    • Replies: @The Last Real Calvinist
    I LOLed when I saw the dueling portraits of Fayoum Kaepernick.
    , @anonymouslee
    re: physiognomy

    Colin Kaepernick's Wonderlic was higher than most quarterbacks'. Edged out a smart qbs like Stanford's Andrew Luck and Berkeley's Aaron Rodgers (who used to mock Brett Favre as a low scoring hick) and way higher than faces of the league like Tom Brady, Peyton Manning, Drew Brees

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  17. @Anonymous
    Chuck Woolery goes anti-Semitic:

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869284650665037824

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869581555051704320

    Chuck Woolery will NEVER HOST ANOTHER GAME SHOW IN THIS TOWN EVER AGAIN!

    Read More
    • Replies: @Anonymous
    Woolery actually publicly complained about having trouble getting work before these recent tweets. Makes you wonder if resentment over his career situation motivated the tweets.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
  18. “Pulse” of sub Saharan DNA ~700 yrs ago- Mansa Musa’s entourage? The Slave trade?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Anonymous Nephew
    From the article

    "Trans-Saharan slave trade may have been particularly important as it moved between 6 and 7 million sub-Saharan slaves to Northern Africa over a span of some 1,250 years"

    2000 - 1250 = 750 AD i.e. about 100 years after Islam got going. They could just as well have called it the Muslim slave trade.
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  19. @Curle
    BTW - Saw a documentary a few years ago suggesting that the Egyptian Antiquities folks have known the DNA profile of the ancients for some time but were keeping it under wraps for political reasons; mentioning the sub Saharan theories but more persuasively suggesting that some in the Arab world would not favor knowing the Pharaohs were Semitic. What support does this lend to the Hyksos expulsion theory? Also, were they waiting for Obama to leave office to drop this?

    Arabs are Semites. I don’t see the problem.

    Read More
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  20. @Bugg
    Chuck Woolery will NEVER HOST ANOTHER GAME SHOW IN THIS TOWN EVER AGAIN!

    Woolery actually publicly complained about having trouble getting work before these recent tweets. Makes you wonder if resentment over his career situation motivated the tweets.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Opinionator
    To what did he attribute his trouble finding work?
    , @Anonymous
    I'd guess he was either holding it in and decided to stop caring, or his awareness of the problem was already well known and he was blacklisted because of it. This is the same guy who went on Fox news last year and started dropping truth bombs about cultural marxism. More celebrities like him are needed.
    , @anonyyym
    Woolery actually publicly complained about having trouble getting work before these recent tweets. Makes you wonder if resentment over his career situation motivated the tweets.

    Nah. He was just bringing up the fact that Marx and Lenin were Jews, and betrayed their own race via the promotion of Communism, which ultimately got a lot of Jews killed. He was drawing a comparison of Marx and Lenin to Bernie Saunders, who he believes is doing the same thing.
    Many Jews tend to flip out if anyone even vaguely implies that some of them may have brought some of the world vitriol against them at the time, on themselves.
    Chuck was just being a little douchy for fun. He knew people would run about tattling and pearl clutching. Chuck's always been a happy douchebag.

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  21. @Polynikes
    How did Egypt become more subsaharan? I would've assumed more European after the Macedonian invasion.

    How did Egypt become more subsaharan?

    Slavery under Islamic regimes would be my guess.

    I would’ve assumed more European after the Macedonian invasion.

    The number of Macedonian ruling caste and the subsequent settlers was miniscule, and did not leave much of a genetic footprint. In fact, the Macedonian soldiery proved quite thorny in Egypt. On the one hand, they proved excellent phalangite soldiers. On the other hand, they were too few in number, and proved most unwilling to train natives or even tolerate the natives being trained in a similar matter (for obvious competitive reasons). This led to an intolerable situation, in which there was a constant manpower problem.

    In pre-modern times, very small numbers of trained warriors could conquer and rule a vast empire – to the extent that the conquerors themselves could leave little genetic trace. Even in England, a supposedly “Anglo-Saxon” land, the actual Germanic ancestry is still at about 50% or below, the rest being Celtic. And that’s even after the Danelaw and the Norman invasion.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Dave Pinsen
    Alexander's army is estimated to have averaged a strength of about 40,000 men -- enough to defeat enemies in battle, but not enough to occupy all the lands he conquered, so he had to make accommodations. In India, for example, he put the king he'd just defeated at the battle of Hydaspes back in charge.
    , @syonredux

    The number of Macedonian ruling caste and the subsequent settlers was miniscule, and did not leave much of a genetic footprint. In fact, the Macedonian soldiery proved quite thorny in Egypt. On the one hand, they proved excellent phalangite soldiers. On the other hand, they were too few in number, and proved most unwilling to train natives or even tolerate the natives being trained in a similar matter (for obvious competitive reasons). This led to an intolerable situation, in which there was a constant manpower problem.
     
    And attempts to meet the manpower shortage problem via native troops proved problematic:

    The term Máchimoi (Greek: μάχιμοι, plural; μάχιμος, máchimos, singular) commonly refers to a broad category of ancient Egyptian low-ranked soldiers which rose during the Late Period of Egypt (664–332 BCE) and, more prominently, during the Ptolemaic dynasty (323–30 BCE).
     

    Máchimoi were still present during the Ptolemaic period, and most scholars considers them as the direct successors of their Late Period counterparts; Ptolemaic máchimoi are mostly still seen as a caste of native-Egyptian, land-granted, low-ranked warriors whom, with the passing of time, takes on increasingly important roles alongside the Greek army likely since the battle of Raphia in 217 BCE, and exerted increasing social pressure on the Ptolemies and was responsible for various rebellions and uprisings.
     
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machimoi

    Although the Ptolemies were officially recognized as pharaohs by the temples and even crowned by the high priest
    of Memphis, although they supported Egyptian religion by subsidizing the cults and building great temples (see
    below, text 2), they remained fundamentally a foreign dynasty. Starting from 246 BC there are several native
    uprisings. During the most successful of these, all Upper Egypt revolted against Alexandria for almost twenty years
    (206–186 BC) under the leadership of two native pharaohs, called Hyrgonaphor (Haronnophris) and Chaonnophris.

     

    http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/files/TheGreatRevoltoftheEgyptians.pdf

    As for Ptolemy, his war against the Egyptians followed immediately on these events. 2 This king, by arming the Egyptians for his war against Antiochus, took a step which was of great service for the time, but which was a mistake as regards the future. 3 The soldiers, highly proud of their victory at Raphia, were no longer disposed to obey orders, but were on the look out for a leader and figure-head, thinking themselves well able to maintain themselves as an independent power, an attempt in which they finally succeeded not long afterwards.
     
    Polybius, Historiae V 107.1
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  22. @Thomas
    So... we wuzn't kangs 'n' shee-it.

    HOLE UP!

    So you was sayin’?

    Read More
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  23. @Polynikes
    How did Egypt become more subsaharan? I would've assumed more European after the Macedonian invasion.

    The Macedonians were never very numerous. Beyond the royal family, their genetic inprint in Egypt would have been negligible.

    Read More
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  24. @Anonymous
    Woolery actually publicly complained about having trouble getting work before these recent tweets. Makes you wonder if resentment over his career situation motivated the tweets.

    To what did he attribute his trouble finding work?

    Read More
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  25. @Twinkie

    How did Egypt become more subsaharan?
     
    Slavery under Islamic regimes would be my guess.

    I would’ve assumed more European after the Macedonian invasion.
     
    The number of Macedonian ruling caste and the subsequent settlers was miniscule, and did not leave much of a genetic footprint. In fact, the Macedonian soldiery proved quite thorny in Egypt. On the one hand, they proved excellent phalangite soldiers. On the other hand, they were too few in number, and proved most unwilling to train natives or even tolerate the natives being trained in a similar matter (for obvious competitive reasons). This led to an intolerable situation, in which there was a constant manpower problem.

    In pre-modern times, very small numbers of trained warriors could conquer and rule a vast empire - to the extent that the conquerors themselves could leave little genetic trace. Even in England, a supposedly "Anglo-Saxon" land, the actual Germanic ancestry is still at about 50% or below, the rest being Celtic. And that's even after the Danelaw and the Norman invasion.

    Alexander’s army is estimated to have averaged a strength of about 40,000 men — enough to defeat enemies in battle, but not enough to occupy all the lands he conquered, so he had to make accommodations. In India, for example, he put the king he’d just defeated at the battle of Hydaspes back in charge.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Twinkie

    Alexander’s army is estimated to have averaged a strength of about 40,000 men
     
    That's probably a high estimate though not an inordinate one. 30,000-40,000, including light troops and baggage train, was likely the outer boundary given the logistic constraints of the time (armies had to subsist through the areas it marched).

    In any case, as attrition mounted throughout his campaigns, much of his strength was made up by local recruits and mercenaries, to the great discontent of Macedonians and Greeks.

    In India, for example, he put the king he’d just defeated at the battle of Hydaspes back in charge.
     
    Alexander's army lost a massive number of men on the return trip from Hydaspes to Susa in the Gedrosian Desert.
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  26. @Sunbeam
    "and that the Nile would have provided a conduit for migrations back and forth even when the Sahara was a fierce desert."

    Anyone got any theories on this one?

    “and that the Nile would have provided a conduit for migrations back and forth even when the Sahara was a fierce desert.”

    Anyone got any theories on this one?

    The Cataracts of the Nile above Aswan might have had something to do with it.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cataracts_of_the_Nile

    Read More
    • Replies: @anonimouse
    No!

    Egypt had natural barriers to migration and invasion. That’s why it lasted for 3000yrs.

    Egypt was a strip of land 10 miles on each side of the Nile. There is desert and the red sea east and west. North is the Mediterranean sea. South towards the source of the Nile is impenetrable jungle. The actual source of the Nile was only verified in the 19th century. That’s how difficult it was to move from the middle of Africa to Egypt. It is very unlikely anyone migrated from Black Africa to Egypt.

    The Nile itself provided an internal supply route for quick movement of soldiers and weapons to defend against any invasion location
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  27. I would have assumed that there were times in the past when the Sahara was green enough for people to wander across it and that the Nile would have provided a conduit for migrations back and forth even when the Sahara was a fierce desert. But that doesn’t appear to be how it worked …

    This is the crux of the matter right here. Modern-day anthropologists have often suffered from a constrained imagination when trying to envisage how people moved from place to place. They seem especially spellbound by the pictorial image of little huddled bands, clustered together for warmth, making epic migrations in search of game or God know’s what. So fundamental is this notion to their way of thinking that the discovery of an arrowhead or a type of pottery at disparate locations automatically signifies to them “the movement of people.” In fact, it could just as easily signify the diffusion of a technique, or trade, or the provisioning of an expedition, or the establishment of a colony, or a hitherto unsuspected guild system among ancient craftsmen. The list of plausible explanations could be extended further by those so inclined.

    But DNA can move about, and does move about, in every manner that people and their artifacts move about. Indeed, in studies such as this one, DNA is handled precisely as if it were an artifact, and we constantly find the “migration of a people” idea lurking in the background of all theories concerning arrowheads and gene sequences alike.

    We ought to recognize the great utility that this idea furnishes for anthropological thought, for it acts as a safeguard against chaotic speculation and allows for the construction of internally consistent historical narratives. Thought must of necessity reduce everything to a few foundational concepts and their interactions, and here anthropology has found its “atoms.” Peoples and their migrations are the “mass” and “force” of the unified theory of anthropology, without which its scientific pretensions would be mortally wounded.

    [MORE]

    But we must also recognize that this isn’t a picture of reality. It is simply a method of thinking about ancient, unobserved occurrences that we have no way of thinking about otherwise. It is a framework for laying out the data, but it would be a mistake to assume that it gives us any indication of “what really happened.”

    So what did really happen? That’s a difficult question to answer. The story would have to be painstakingly pieced together by researchers spanning multiple disciplines, and even the best efforts will still need to be supplemented by a great deal of insight and guess work. In any case, the appetite for such tours de force, the expertise needed to undertake them, the inquisitive and structured intellectual tradition which craves them and endows them with their symbolic weight, are all qualities that are rapidly disappearing from the West. We do not live in the generations of the great systematic cartographers and botanists anymore, of the naturalists who risked malaria and cannibalism to search the deepest jungles for exotic blooms and beetles. The days of herculean systematic science are over for us. Those who still think about such questions are largely satisfied by the “migration of peoples” schema. Many others, even less interested, will eagerly accept “ancient aliens” and “we wuz kangs.” The former, despite its inaccuracy, is culturally far superior to the latter two, but ultimately powerless against them in an age of decline. It takes hard work and acculturation before you’re even qualified to understand the former. The latter requires only the ignorance and egotism of savages.

    I would suggest that the question isn’t fated to be answered by us. Perhaps some future generation will expend its best efforts in that direction, but in our case it is a waste of time. As strange as it sounds, the proper course of action now is to “give up” on anthropology, archaeology, and other studies of the dim historical past. The narratives we construct only serve to prevent us from forming the national mythology that will be necessary to see us through the dark days to come.

    Read More
    • Replies: @attilathehen
    The crux of the matter is that miscegenation with blacks/Asians destroys IQs and their countries. Egypt and India are the best examples of this. This is why the RCC is gone. It cannot work with blacks/Asians. Now that we have a better sense of IQ, racial types it is time for separation.
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  28. A greener Nile region doesn’t necessarily mean a more passable Nile. The limit of Roman expansion to the south was a vast swamp region…

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudd

    …where it’s often tough to actually find the Nile from beneath all the vegetation. This is also why finding the source of the Nile was still such an adventure for those Victorian era Englishmen.

    Read More
    • Replies: @The Last Real Calvinist
    I heard on a podcast recently that the USA has more miles of navigable river than the rest of the world combined. Sounds implausible, but then the Mississippi is navigable for a long, long way, as is the Ohio. So maybe it's true?
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  29. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:
    @Anonymous
    Woolery actually publicly complained about having trouble getting work before these recent tweets. Makes you wonder if resentment over his career situation motivated the tweets.

    I’d guess he was either holding it in and decided to stop caring, or his awareness of the problem was already well known and he was blacklisted because of it. This is the same guy who went on Fox news last year and started dropping truth bombs about cultural marxism. More celebrities like him are needed.

    Read More
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  30. @Anonymous
    Chuck Woolery goes anti-Semitic:

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869284650665037824

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869581555051704320

    Chuck Woolery is still alive?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Father O'Hara
    As long as the passion for freedom burns in men's hearts Chuck Woolery lives!
    Two and two!
    , @Dave Pinsen
    He is but Alan Thicke isn't. Sometimes, when I'm up late at night with the TV on but the sound off, I glance up and see reruns of whatever game show Thicke hosted and it feels wrong to see him, like I'm one of those Torres Strait indigenes Australia has to warn about seeing footage of dead people.
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  31. @Kyle
    The desertification of the Sahara started ~3000 BC.

    The desertification of the Sahara started ~3000 BC.

    Climate change caused by excessive carbon emissions– by those consumerist Atlanteans.

    Read More
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  32. “The researchers say that there was probably a pulse of sub-Saharan African DNA into Egypt roughly 700 years ago.”

    Why the 14th century?

    Read More
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  33. @Anonymous
    Chuck Woolery goes anti-Semitic:

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869284650665037824

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869581555051704320

    Not so simple, Chuckie. Vlad Lenin was 1/4 ethnically Jewish and was not raised in that tradition.

    El Wiki:

    [His mother] was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a Russian Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity.[5] It is likely that Lenin was unaware of his mother’s Jewish ancestry, which was only discovered by his sister Anna after his death.

    As far as Marx goes, his father converted to Lutheranism, he was not raised in the Jewish traditions, and old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did.

    But it’s those magical Jewish genes exerting their evil influence I guess.

    Yup, Lenin’s 1/4 Jewish ancestry, which ran roughshod over the rest of his mixed ancestry, is responsible for the Bolshevik Revolution.

    You’re a tool, Chuck.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Opinionator
    You'd rather blame Gentiles?
    , @reiner Tor
    I think Robert Service in his biography wrote that Lenin received a letter from his sister sometime in 1919 about his Jewish ancestry. His sister proposed to make the information public because she thought (quite unwisely) that this would dampen Russian anti-Semitism. Lenin knew better.

    On the other hand, Lenin had very strange attitude towards Jews and Russians. He thought Russians were lazy worthless alcoholic bastards, he hated their culture, institutions, their religion and even their elites (and later on he went on to destroy all of these), while he praised the Jews, for their industriousness, for their talents, for their revolutionary fervor. These were strange attitudes in late 19th century or early 20th century Russia, especially for a nobleman, but apparently were largely shared by his sisters, too.

    I have a simple explanation for those strange attitudes: he (and his sisters) got those attitudes from his mom. Who, in turn, probably got it from her father, who was Jewish by birth, and probably converted for convenience. It also nicely dovetails with my theory that ethnic hatred is the most lasting part of a culture after traditions are lost. For example secular Jews might have very little Jewish culture, but they still hate the most roughly the same people their ancestors in the ghetto would've hated the most (Russians, Poles, religious Christian white gentiles, etc.), and since such hatred is the only part of their culture that they retained, it might actually be way more intense than what their ancestors felt... (The hatred of nationalist white gentiles might be a later addition, and perhaps be caused by the Nazis. I'm not sure. I know many Jews were way more comfortable with white gentile nationalism before the Nazis than ever since.)


    old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did
     
    What makes you think either Chuck or "anonymous" hate Jews? Not that Marx hated Jews as such.
    , @Paul Walker - Most beautiful man ever...
    "Not so simple, Chuckie. Vlad Lenin was 1/4 ethnically Jewish and was not raised in that tradition."
    One drop rule - Lenin = jew. :)
    , @Verymuchalive
    The point about the early Bolsheviks is that most of the prominent ones were not ethnic Russians or even ethnic Slavs. Lenin's father was a Chuvash or Kalmyk. Stalin was Georgian, Trotsky and several others were ethnic Jews. Felix Dzerzhinsky, the founder of the NKVD, was a renegade Pole. And then there were the Latvians.
    Needless to say, these people were very hostile to Russian Nationalism and indeed Russian Nationality. Things only changed when most of the old Bolsheviks died or were purged in the 1930s. Only then did Stalin try to harness Russian Nationalism for his own purposes, a process continued in WWII.
    , @Steve Sailer
    Lenin, a one-man Coalition of the Fringes, was Jewish enough to be allowed to immigrate to Israel under the Law of Return. Ariel Sharon welcomed lots of people from Russia who are about as Jewish as Lenin. The rabbis don't let them marry in Israel, so they have to vacation in Cyprus to be civilly married, which is then recognized by the Israeli government.
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  34. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    One very strange tale – that modern genetic methods hasn’t worked out – is the preponderance of the y DNA haplogroup E amongst sub Saharans. Basically, haplotype E covers around 90% of sub Saharan men.
    Now, haplotype E is rooted in the Eurasian clade CT, and its closest relative, D, is found in Tibet and Japan, of all places.
    The quintessential sub Saharan haplotypes are A and B, which are relatively rare.

    It has been surmised that in deep prehistoric times, Eurasian peoples, perhaps related to the Natufians, more or less dominated the sub Saharans and left the dominance of their male haplotype as the evidence.

    Read More
    • Replies: @DRA
    I remember reading that Natafians were very dark skinned, and found this:

    http://anthromadness.blogspot.com/2016/07/natufians-were-dark-skinned.html
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  35. @Anonymous
    Woolery actually publicly complained about having trouble getting work before these recent tweets. Makes you wonder if resentment over his career situation motivated the tweets.

    Woolery actually publicly complained about having trouble getting work before these recent tweets. Makes you wonder if resentment over his career situation motivated the tweets.

    Nah. He was just bringing up the fact that Marx and Lenin were Jews, and betrayed their own race via the promotion of Communism, which ultimately got a lot of Jews killed. He was drawing a comparison of Marx and Lenin to Bernie Saunders, who he believes is doing the same thing.
    Many Jews tend to flip out if anyone even vaguely implies that some of them may have brought some of the world vitriol against them at the time, on themselves.
    Chuck was just being a little douchy for fun. He knew people would run about tattling and pearl clutching. Chuck’s always been a happy douchebag.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Nico

    the fact that Marx and Lenin were Jews, and betrayed their own race via the promotion of Communism, which ultimately got a lot of Jews killed
     
    A disproportionate number of open borders advocates and intersectional academics are Jews, and those policies increase the number of anti-Semitic Muslims and darker-skinned Latinos in formerly white countries.

    Many Jews tend to flip out if anyone even vaguely implies that some of them may have brought some of the world vitriol against them at the time, on themselves.
     
    This makes Woolrey more a troll than a douchie, I think.
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  36. Egyptians can trace 8% more of their ancestry to sub-Saharan Africans than can the mummies from Abusir el-Meleq

    I would assume that the domestication of the camel making it easier to cross the Sahara probably had something to do with the change

    Read More
    • Replies: @Whoriskey
    Google reveals -

    Typically, ancient Near Eastern scholars—especially those focusing on the Levant or on archaeology related to the Bible—subscribe to a date for the domestication of the camel between the end of the 12th century BC to sometime in the 9th century BC.

    http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2014/02/17/The-Date-of-Camel-Domestication-in-the-Ancient-Near-East.aspx#Article
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  37. @Polynikes
    How did Egypt become more subsaharan? I would've assumed more European after the Macedonian invasion.

    “By comparing ancient individuals from Abusir el-Meleq with modern Egyptian reference populations, we found an influx of sub-Saharan African ancestry after the Roman Period ….”

    My money would be on this being the Southern-Roman equivalent to the Northern-Roman lax immigration policies to bring in people to do the jobs Romans did not want to do. Probably included a lot of sports stars for their enhanced athletic prowess in the games. It’s not that the influx came after the Roman period as much as the fact that the influx led to the end of the Roman period.

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  38. @Steve Sailer
    Right, there are some Fayoum Portraits who look like the NFL quarterback.

    I LOLed when I saw the dueling portraits of Fayoum Kaepernick.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Buffalo Joe
    Last Real, A recent translation of script on a Roman ruin in Egypt show that Fayoum Abdu Kaepernik, the starting quarterback for the Cairo Chariots, refused to stand for the playing of the Roman National Anthem. The script say that Kaepernick's remains are buried in Cairro, Luxor, Karnak and Memphis.
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  39. @Jaakko Raipala
    A greener Nile region doesn't necessarily mean a more passable Nile. The limit of Roman expansion to the south was a vast swamp region...

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudd

    ...where it's often tough to actually find the Nile from beneath all the vegetation. This is also why finding the source of the Nile was still such an adventure for those Victorian era Englishmen.

    I heard on a podcast recently that the USA has more miles of navigable river than the rest of the world combined. Sounds implausible, but then the Mississippi is navigable for a long, long way, as is the Ohio. So maybe it’s true?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Jaakko Raipala
    I'm pretty sure you have to specify "navigable year-round". Those giant Siberian rivers are fantastically clear for a brief while each year but then at other times they're frozen or flooding thanks to meltwater and ice dams.

    The communist government made a big show of its dams, locks, channels and so on and now you can travel the big rivers in winter with icebreakers so I'd guess Russia would actually beat the US in navigable miles. Of course the actual traffic between Mongolia and the Arctic Ocean can't be compared to the Mississippi so if you refine the definition into "habitable land within certain distance of a navigable river" it probably captures the original meaning best.
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  40. @Steve Sailer
    Right, there are some Fayoum Portraits who look like the NFL quarterback.

    re: physiognomy

    Colin Kaepernick’s Wonderlic was higher than most quarterbacks’. Edged out a smart qbs like Stanford’s Andrew Luck and Berkeley’s Aaron Rodgers (who used to mock Brett Favre as a low scoring hick) and way higher than faces of the league like Tom Brady, Peyton Manning, Drew Brees

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  41. Anwar Sadat’s maternal grandfather was Sudanese.

    Colin Kaepernick’s father might be Pro Football Hall of Famer James Lofton. Lofton could pass as a large Somali or Ethiopian.

    Video: Egyptian Mostafa Hefny has been fighting with the US government since 1987 to classify him as black not white. He says that Ancient Egyptians were brown and black until the Greeks arrived in 300 BC and intermarried with the local population. Romans ruled from 70 BC until the Arab Conquest in the 7th century.

    It was Seligman, in the 19th and 20th century, who made Ancient Egypt white.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Dave
    Yeah... but no. The genetic evidence says otherwise, as evidenced by this post.
    Afrocentrists are going to have to go back to the drawing board on this. As far as ancient Egypt is concerned, the ruling classes were not black.
    The Copts in modern Egypt are the most direct descendants of the ancient Egyptian population and have been saying so forever, and they are definitely not black.
    Mr. Mostafa Hefny is an Arab with Sub Saharan ancestry, and if he wants to be black then go ahead and let him.
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  42. @Ripple Earthdevil
    Not so simple, Chuckie. Vlad Lenin was 1/4 ethnically Jewish and was not raised in that tradition.

    El Wiki:

    [His mother] was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a Russian Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity.[5] It is likely that Lenin was unaware of his mother's Jewish ancestry, which was only discovered by his sister Anna after his death.

    As far as Marx goes, his father converted to Lutheranism, he was not raised in the Jewish traditions, and old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did.

    But it's those magical Jewish genes exerting their evil influence I guess.

    Yup, Lenin's 1/4 Jewish ancestry, which ran roughshod over the rest of his mixed ancestry, is responsible for the Bolshevik Revolution.

    You're a tool, Chuck.

    You’d rather blame Gentiles?

    Read More
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  43. The Black diaspora is generally West African, but they do anything to deny this. Rastas say they are East African Ethiopians. The ‘Afrocentrists’ believe they are ancient Egyptian kings. The Nation of Islam believe that blacks are the original Asiatics. Oprah Winfrey claims she is a Zulu. Anything but West Africa.

    The irony is that there is plenty to be proud of if you are from West Africa – folk tales, music, even metallurgy. But if your own people sold you into slavery, that might taint your appreciation of your roots.

    Read More
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  44. @Ripple Earthdevil
    Not so simple, Chuckie. Vlad Lenin was 1/4 ethnically Jewish and was not raised in that tradition.

    El Wiki:

    [His mother] was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a Russian Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity.[5] It is likely that Lenin was unaware of his mother's Jewish ancestry, which was only discovered by his sister Anna after his death.

    As far as Marx goes, his father converted to Lutheranism, he was not raised in the Jewish traditions, and old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did.

    But it's those magical Jewish genes exerting their evil influence I guess.

    Yup, Lenin's 1/4 Jewish ancestry, which ran roughshod over the rest of his mixed ancestry, is responsible for the Bolshevik Revolution.

    You're a tool, Chuck.

    I think Robert Service in his biography wrote that Lenin received a letter from his sister sometime in 1919 about his Jewish ancestry. His sister proposed to make the information public because she thought (quite unwisely) that this would dampen Russian anti-Semitism. Lenin knew better.

    On the other hand, Lenin had very strange attitude towards Jews and Russians. He thought Russians were lazy worthless alcoholic bastards, he hated their culture, institutions, their religion and even their elites (and later on he went on to destroy all of these), while he praised the Jews, for their industriousness, for their talents, for their revolutionary fervor. These were strange attitudes in late 19th century or early 20th century Russia, especially for a nobleman, but apparently were largely shared by his sisters, too.

    I have a simple explanation for those strange attitudes: he (and his sisters) got those attitudes from his mom. Who, in turn, probably got it from her father, who was Jewish by birth, and probably converted for convenience. It also nicely dovetails with my theory that ethnic hatred is the most lasting part of a culture after traditions are lost. For example secular Jews might have very little Jewish culture, but they still hate the most roughly the same people their ancestors in the ghetto would’ve hated the most (Russians, Poles, religious Christian white gentiles, etc.), and since such hatred is the only part of their culture that they retained, it might actually be way more intense than what their ancestors felt… (The hatred of nationalist white gentiles might be a later addition, and perhaps be caused by the Nazis. I’m not sure. I know many Jews were way more comfortable with white gentile nationalism before the Nazis than ever since.)

    old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did

    What makes you think either Chuck or “anonymous” hate Jews? Not that Marx hated Jews as such.

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    • Replies: @syonredux

    Not that Marx hated Jews as such.
     
    Well, Marx did make some rather negative statements about Jews......

    What is the worldly religion of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly God? Money.…. Money is the jealous god of Israel, in face of which no other god may exist. Money degrades all the gods of man – and turns them into commodities…. The bill of exchange is the real god of the Jew. His god is only an illusory bill of exchange…. The chimerical nationality of the Jew is the nationality of the merchant, of the man of money in general.
     

    Thus we find every tyrant backed by a Jew, as is every pope by a Jesuit. In truth, the cravings of oppressors would be hopeless, and the practicability of war out of the question, if there were not an army of Jesuits to smother thought and a handful of Jews to ransack pockets.

    … the real work is done by the Jews, and can only be done by them, as they monopolize the machinery of the loanmongering mysteries by concentrating their energies upon the barter trade in securities… Here and there and everywhere that a little capital courts investment, there is ever one of these little Jews ready to make a little suggestion or place a little bit of a loan. The smartest highwayman in the Abruzzi is not better posted up about the locale of the hard cash in a traveler’s valise or pocket than those Jews about any loose capital in the hands of a trader… The language spoken smells strongly of Babel, and the perfume which otherwise pervades the place is by no means of a choice kind.


    … Thus do these loans, which are a curse to the people, a ruin to the holders, and a danger to the governments, become a blessing to the houses of the children of Judah. This Jew organization of loan-mongers is as dangerous to the people as the aristocratic organization of landowners… The fortunes amassed by these loan-mongers are immense, but the wrongs and sufferings thus entailed on the people and the encouragement thus afforded to their oppressors still remain to be told.

    … The fact that 1855 years ago Christ drove the Jewish moneychangers out of the temple, and that the moneychangers of our age enlisted on the side of tyranny happen again chiefly to be Jews, is perhaps no more than a historical coincidence. The loan-mongering Jews of Europe do only on a larger and more obnoxious scale what many others do on one smaller and less significant. But it is only because the Jews are so strong that it is timely and expedient to expose and stigmatize their organization.
     
    , @syonredux
    Gotta confess, I always love pointing out to Marxists just how un-PC old Karl was. Here's Marx on Mexicans:

    "Is it a misfortune that magnificent California was seized from the lazy Mexicans who did not know what to do with it?"
     

    "In America we have witnessed the conquest of Mexico and have rejoiced at it. It is to the interest of its own development that Mexico will be placed under the tutelage of the United States."
     
    And here's Marx slamming Ferdinand Lassalle:

    "It is now completely clear to me that he, as is proved by his cranial formation and his hair, descends from the Negroes who had joined Moses' exodus from Egypt, assuming that his mother or grandmother on the paternal side had not interbred with a ni[****]. Now this union of Judaism and Germanism with a basic Negro substance must produce a peculiar product. The obtrusiveness of the fellow is also ni[*****]-like."
     
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  45. @frayedthread
    "Pulse" of sub Saharan DNA ~700 yrs ago- Mansa Musa's entourage? The Slave trade?

    From the article

    “Trans-Saharan slave trade may have been particularly important as it moved between 6 and 7 million sub-Saharan slaves to Northern Africa over a span of some 1,250 years”

    2000 – 1250 = 750 AD i.e. about 100 years after Islam got going. They could just as well have called it the Muslim slave trade.

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  46. @Ripple Earthdevil
    Not so simple, Chuckie. Vlad Lenin was 1/4 ethnically Jewish and was not raised in that tradition.

    El Wiki:

    [His mother] was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a Russian Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity.[5] It is likely that Lenin was unaware of his mother's Jewish ancestry, which was only discovered by his sister Anna after his death.

    As far as Marx goes, his father converted to Lutheranism, he was not raised in the Jewish traditions, and old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did.

    But it's those magical Jewish genes exerting their evil influence I guess.

    Yup, Lenin's 1/4 Jewish ancestry, which ran roughshod over the rest of his mixed ancestry, is responsible for the Bolshevik Revolution.

    You're a tool, Chuck.

    “Not so simple, Chuckie. Vlad Lenin was 1/4 ethnically Jewish and was not raised in that tradition.”
    One drop rule – Lenin = jew. :)

    Read More
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  47. @The Last Real Calvinist
    I heard on a podcast recently that the USA has more miles of navigable river than the rest of the world combined. Sounds implausible, but then the Mississippi is navigable for a long, long way, as is the Ohio. So maybe it's true?

    I’m pretty sure you have to specify “navigable year-round”. Those giant Siberian rivers are fantastically clear for a brief while each year but then at other times they’re frozen or flooding thanks to meltwater and ice dams.

    The communist government made a big show of its dams, locks, channels and so on and now you can travel the big rivers in winter with icebreakers so I’d guess Russia would actually beat the US in navigable miles. Of course the actual traffic between Mongolia and the Arctic Ocean can’t be compared to the Mississippi so if you refine the definition into “habitable land within certain distance of a navigable river” it probably captures the original meaning best.

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    • Replies: @The Last Real Calvinist

    I’m pretty sure you have to specify “navigable year-round”.

     

    Yes, that makes sense.
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  48. From 14 percent SS African to 21 percent does not seem very big. Especially given that the ancient remains were mummified (a particular class) and were taken far from the South, and therefore may be slightly unrepresentative.

    All in all, there doesn’t seem to be much change. Indeed it is equally plausible that modern Egyptians are slightly less black than Ancients.

    Either way, they are pretty much what one would expect genetically given Egypt’s geography and the fact that not long ago normal people would have to walk anywhere they wanted to go. They were mostly ME with some African and they are now mostly ME with some African.

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  49. @Sunbeam
    "and that the Nile would have provided a conduit for migrations back and forth even when the Sahara was a fierce desert."

    Anyone got any theories on this one?

    The ancient Egyptians were unabashed Egypto-Supremacists who did not take kindly to foreign in-migrations–i.e., invasions. They held themselves aloof from and considered themselves superior to their neighbors. They fought frequent wars to keep their neighbors out of Egypt and off the Nile. They took their borders seriously for thousands of years. By coincidence, their civilization flourished for thousands of years. By even greater coincidence, their civilizational collapse coincided with the collapse of their borders.

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    • Replies: @The Alarmist

    "By even greater coincidence, their civilizational collapse coincided with the collapse of their borders."
     
    Which can squarely be laid on the Romans, who pretty much let borders go all around the empire except, perhaps, for Byzantium and Anatolya, but then again that was a different breed of Romans ... non-European.

    So, once again, you can lay blame squarely on a self-loathing European patriarchical, slave-owning society that got its just desserts for its inherent sins.
    , @Moshe
    I suspect that starting in the Hellenistic Era their borders became more permeable.

    An interesting aside is that the Egypt's southern border ay Elephantine appears to have been secured by a highly religious Jewish community of soldiers from the middle of the 6th Century BCE* through rhe middle of the 4th Century CE*.

    -----

    * BC:AD was most probably a fight worth having 90 years ago but it isn't today. I'm using it here to piss off the congenital antisems :)
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  50. @Reg Cæsar
    Chuck Woolery is still alive?

    As long as the passion for freedom burns in men’s hearts Chuck Woolery lives!
    Two and two!

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    • Replies: @Malcolm X-Lax
    Once while visiting the Monterey Peninsula, about 15 years ago, I saw Chuck Woolery walking along Lighthouse Blvd in Pacific Grove with his family. It was like seeing Jesus of Nazareth.
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  51. @Jaakko Raipala
    I'm pretty sure you have to specify "navigable year-round". Those giant Siberian rivers are fantastically clear for a brief while each year but then at other times they're frozen or flooding thanks to meltwater and ice dams.

    The communist government made a big show of its dams, locks, channels and so on and now you can travel the big rivers in winter with icebreakers so I'd guess Russia would actually beat the US in navigable miles. Of course the actual traffic between Mongolia and the Arctic Ocean can't be compared to the Mississippi so if you refine the definition into "habitable land within certain distance of a navigable river" it probably captures the original meaning best.

    I’m pretty sure you have to specify “navigable year-round”.

    Yes, that makes sense.

    Read More
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  52. @Ripple Earthdevil
    Not so simple, Chuckie. Vlad Lenin was 1/4 ethnically Jewish and was not raised in that tradition.

    El Wiki:

    [His mother] was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a Russian Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity.[5] It is likely that Lenin was unaware of his mother's Jewish ancestry, which was only discovered by his sister Anna after his death.

    As far as Marx goes, his father converted to Lutheranism, he was not raised in the Jewish traditions, and old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did.

    But it's those magical Jewish genes exerting their evil influence I guess.

    Yup, Lenin's 1/4 Jewish ancestry, which ran roughshod over the rest of his mixed ancestry, is responsible for the Bolshevik Revolution.

    You're a tool, Chuck.

    The point about the early Bolsheviks is that most of the prominent ones were not ethnic Russians or even ethnic Slavs. Lenin’s father was a Chuvash or Kalmyk. Stalin was Georgian, Trotsky and several others were ethnic Jews. Felix Dzerzhinsky, the founder of the NKVD, was a renegade Pole. And then there were the Latvians.
    Needless to say, these people were very hostile to Russian Nationalism and indeed Russian Nationality. Things only changed when most of the old Bolsheviks died or were purged in the 1930s. Only then did Stalin try to harness Russian Nationalism for his own purposes, a process continued in WWII.

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    • Replies: @Thea
    The original coalition of the fringes.

    How Russian were the Romanovs by 1917?

    , @syonredux

    Lenin’s father was a Chuvash or Kalmyk.
     

    Lenin's father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs; his ethnic origins remain unclear, with suggestions being made that he was Russian, Chuvash, Mordvin, or Kalmyk.[2] Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility.[3] Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863.[4] Well educated and from a relatively prosperous background, she was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a Russian Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity.
     
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Lenin
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  53. hinting that northern Africans might have different genetic roots from people south of the Sahara desert.

    This was published on Nature’s website. In 2017. Hinting.

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    • Agree: dearieme
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  54. @Ripple Earthdevil
    Not so simple, Chuckie. Vlad Lenin was 1/4 ethnically Jewish and was not raised in that tradition.

    El Wiki:

    [His mother] was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a Russian Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity.[5] It is likely that Lenin was unaware of his mother's Jewish ancestry, which was only discovered by his sister Anna after his death.

    As far as Marx goes, his father converted to Lutheranism, he was not raised in the Jewish traditions, and old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did.

    But it's those magical Jewish genes exerting their evil influence I guess.

    Yup, Lenin's 1/4 Jewish ancestry, which ran roughshod over the rest of his mixed ancestry, is responsible for the Bolshevik Revolution.

    You're a tool, Chuck.

    Lenin, a one-man Coalition of the Fringes, was Jewish enough to be allowed to immigrate to Israel under the Law of Return. Ariel Sharon welcomed lots of people from Russia who are about as Jewish as Lenin. The rabbis don’t let them marry in Israel, so they have to vacation in Cyprus to be civilly married, which is then recognized by the Israeli government.

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  55. @Reg Cæsar
    Chuck Woolery is still alive?

    He is but Alan Thicke isn’t. Sometimes, when I’m up late at night with the TV on but the sound off, I glance up and see reruns of whatever game show Thicke hosted and it feels wrong to see him, like I’m one of those Torres Strait indigenes Australia has to warn about seeing footage of dead people.

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  56. @Polynikes
    How did Egypt become more subsaharan? I would've assumed more European after the Macedonian invasion.

    How did Egypt become more subsaharan?

    Continuous migration down the Nile and most importantly: the millions of black slaves the Muslims brought in.

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    • Replies: @Father O'Hara
    If blacks came to Egypt as slaves,and Egypt eventually wound up with black pharaohs,I'd say that was quite the immigrant success story!
    , @Reg Cæsar

    Continuous migration down the Nile and most importantly: the millions of black slaves the Muslims brought in.
     
    But those poor chaps got orchidectomies and penectomies. Not good for the gene flow.
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  57. @Thomas

    “and that the Nile would have provided a conduit for migrations back and forth even when the Sahara was a fierce desert.”

    Anyone got any theories on this one?
     
    The Cataracts of the Nile above Aswan might have had something to do with it.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cataracts_of_the_Nile

    No!

    Egypt had natural barriers to migration and invasion. That’s why it lasted for 3000yrs.

    Egypt was a strip of land 10 miles on each side of the Nile. There is desert and the red sea east and west. North is the Mediterranean sea. South towards the source of the Nile is impenetrable jungle. The actual source of the Nile was only verified in the 19th century. That’s how difficult it was to move from the middle of Africa to Egypt. It is very unlikely anyone migrated from Black Africa to Egypt.

    The Nile itself provided an internal supply route for quick movement of soldiers and weapons to defend against any invasion location

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    • Replies: @Thomas

    Egypt had natural barriers to migration and invasion. That’s why it lasted for 3000yrs.
     
    The natural barrier along the Nile was the Cataracts and the Great Bend, both of which made navigation difficult and prevented an arable floodplain along the Cataract Nile that could have been settled. Aswan was even in antiquity regarded as the southern border of Egypt.

    http://www.utdallas.edu/geosciences/remsens/Nile/cataracts.html

    South towards the source of the Nile is impenetrable jungle.
     
    You don't get to the impenetrable jungle until you're well past Sudan and its desert ("Sudan" incidentally comes from an Arabic term meaning "land of the blacks"), and into the highlands of Uganda.
    , @Buffalo Joe
    Mouse, the interior of Africa was dense and dark and hard to explore across the whole continent. Lord Henry Morton Stanley's exploration of the Congo River was an epic journey. Joseph Conrad's " Heart of Darkness" was his tale of his time on the Congo River and Adam Hochschild's "King Leopold's Ghost" is a fantastic book about the exploration of the Congo and the Congo River. With the advantages the colonial explorers had at their disposal, paddle wheelers and rail, the interior of Africa was extremely hard to explore and develop. The natural barriers of Africa shielded the Egyptians well. Good summer reading if you are interested. "King Leopold's Ghost" and Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" at the same time.
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  58. @Das
    Wait, isn't this study comparing the Ancient Egyptian upper class to the overall population of modern Egypt? Only the upper classes got mummified.

    Even if sub-Saharan ancestry is uncorrelated with class in modern Egypt, that might not have been true in Ancient Egypt.

    Only the upper classes got mummified.

    Not at all. Mummification was so common in ancient Egypt and subsequently mummies were so plentiful that in the 19th century they would be used to make medicine, pigment or simply used as fuel.

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    • Replies: @Dutch Boy
    Very true. Even low class Egyptians wanted an afterlife.
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  59. I am waiting for the DNA exhibit at the Museum of Natural History.

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  60. @Kyle
    The desertification of the Sahara started ~3000 BC.

    It is interesting to think about the theories of Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval on the origins of Egyptian civilization. Hancock thinks, correctly (please read enough Joseph Campbell or Mircea Eliade to find yourself convinced of this) that ancient man saw himself as intimately connected to the world around him in ways that modern man, adrift in his “environment”, can barely imagine. His attitude was fundamentally religious. In keeping with this view of the cosmos, the ancient Egyptians felt that the world below was a mirror of the world above: the sky.

    Hancock and Bauval think that the Great Sphinx (whose head is ludicrously undersized in relation to its body) was recarved in a pharoah’s image after it had weathered to a semi-amorphous stump by thousands of years of rain, as the body was weathered by rain, not sandblasting. It was originally the representation of a lion. In 10,500 B.C. (which is a very early date; this explains why Hancock’s work is scorned by “official” Egyptologists) it would have been directly facing the constellation Leo. At that time, North Africa was verdant, as testified to by the Saharan rock paintings showing men hunting giraffe in areas which are now barren of verdure. The Milky Way was the celestial Nile, and Orion was called by the Egyptians Osiris, the god of resurrection. Robert Bauval has suggested that the three pyramids on the Giza plateau represent the three stars of Orion’s belt.

    The oldest mummies in the DNA study are from the New Kingdom, which was a full millenium later than the Old Kingdom, even going by the “official” chronology. It is conceivable that the people of the Old Kingdom had even less sub-Saharan DNA than the Egyptians of the New Kingdom did. So, the people whose genius created the splendor of Egyptian civilization had, perhaps, almost no genetic affinity with sub-Saharan Africans.

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  61. @Anonymous
    I love Chuck Woolery!

    The simple facts could have been implanted in his mind back when he was in school. But no. Those facts are not taught in schools. The facts are verboten, and strictly prevented from being disseminated in the media.

    We are not allowed to inquire as to the persons and events that gave rise to Lenin, Hitler, Mao. Each of these regimes is presented to the public as magically sprouting upon the earth. The long train of events that produced the regimes has been memory-holed.

    And for good reason.

    We are experiencing Bolshevik revolution 2.0 right here in the USA and if everyone knew the facts about 1.0 then that would make 2.0 impossible.

    >We are experiencing Bolshevik revolution 2.0 right here in the USA

    LOL yeah, totally

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  62. @The Last Real Calvinist
    I LOLed when I saw the dueling portraits of Fayoum Kaepernick.

    Last Real, A recent translation of script on a Roman ruin in Egypt show that Fayoum Abdu Kaepernik, the starting quarterback for the Cairo Chariots, refused to stand for the playing of the Roman National Anthem. The script say that Kaepernick’s remains are buried in Cairro, Luxor, Karnak and Memphis.

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  63. First the news that “out of Africa” is really “out of Europe” and now this, theyre not having good week are they?

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  64. Anyone who didn’t expect the Ancient Egyptians to turn out to be largely a swarthy white people is a fool or a knave.

    The increase in % negro over the past centuries is likely to be predominantly due to Moslem slaving, I’d guess. One way to check would be to compare y chromosome data with mitochondrial data, because male slaves were usually castrated before they were moved north, and female slaves were largely used as concubines.

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  65. @Almost Missouri
    The ancient Egyptians were unabashed Egypto-Supremacists who did not take kindly to foreign in-migrations--i.e., invasions. They held themselves aloof from and considered themselves superior to their neighbors. They fought frequent wars to keep their neighbors out of Egypt and off the Nile. They took their borders seriously for thousands of years. By coincidence, their civilization flourished for thousands of years. By even greater coincidence, their civilizational collapse coincided with the collapse of their borders.

    “By even greater coincidence, their civilizational collapse coincided with the collapse of their borders.”

    Which can squarely be laid on the Romans, who pretty much let borders go all around the empire except, perhaps, for Byzantium and Anatolya, but then again that was a different breed of Romans … non-European.

    So, once again, you can lay blame squarely on a self-loathing European patriarchical, slave-owning society that got its just desserts for its inherent sins.

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    • Replies: @Almost Missouri
    I assume you are being tongue-in-cheek, but if not, don't forget that before the Romans, Egypt was invaded and controlled by the Kushites (SSAs), the Assyrians and the Macedonians successively. Not to mention that Egyptians were poor stewards of their own borders even before this, barely repelling invasion and recruiting Nubian mercenaries whom they quartered within Egypt.
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  66. @Triumph104
    Anwar Sadat's maternal grandfather was Sudanese.

    Colin Kaepernick's father might be Pro Football Hall of Famer James Lofton. Lofton could pass as a large Somali or Ethiopian.

    Video: Egyptian Mostafa Hefny has been fighting with the US government since 1987 to classify him as black not white. He says that Ancient Egyptians were brown and black until the Greeks arrived in 300 BC and intermarried with the local population. Romans ruled from 70 BC until the Arab Conquest in the 7th century.

    It was Seligman, in the 19th and 20th century, who made Ancient Egypt white.

    https://youtu.be/3XUPZokMb6A

    Yeah… but no. The genetic evidence says otherwise, as evidenced by this post.
    Afrocentrists are going to have to go back to the drawing board on this. As far as ancient Egypt is concerned, the ruling classes were not black.
    The Copts in modern Egypt are the most direct descendants of the ancient Egyptian population and have been saying so forever, and they are definitely not black.
    Mr. Mostafa Hefny is an Arab with Sub Saharan ancestry, and if he wants to be black then go ahead and let him.

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  67. @Verymuchalive
    The point about the early Bolsheviks is that most of the prominent ones were not ethnic Russians or even ethnic Slavs. Lenin's father was a Chuvash or Kalmyk. Stalin was Georgian, Trotsky and several others were ethnic Jews. Felix Dzerzhinsky, the founder of the NKVD, was a renegade Pole. And then there were the Latvians.
    Needless to say, these people were very hostile to Russian Nationalism and indeed Russian Nationality. Things only changed when most of the old Bolsheviks died or were purged in the 1930s. Only then did Stalin try to harness Russian Nationalism for his own purposes, a process continued in WWII.

    The original coalition of the fringes.

    How Russian were the Romanovs by 1917?

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    • Replies: @Old Palo Altan
    Thirteen of the sainted Nicholas II's 16 great-great-grandparents were German, and two were Danish.
    The only "Russian" amongst them was Paul I, who was himself three-quarters German, Danish, and Swedish.
    And even those four "Russians" were most likely Rurikids, that is, Scandinavian by ancestry.
    No fringes there, thank you very much.
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  68. @Alastair Trumpington

    Egyptians can trace 8% more of their ancestry to sub-Saharan Africans than can the mummies from Abusir el-Meleq

     

    I would assume that the domestication of the camel making it easier to cross the Sahara probably had something to do with the change

    Google reveals -

    Typically, ancient Near Eastern scholars—especially those focusing on the Levant or on archaeology related to the Bible—subscribe to a date for the domestication of the camel between the end of the 12th century BC to sometime in the 9th century BC.

    http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2014/02/17/The-Date-of-Camel-Domestication-in-the-Ancient-Near-East.aspx#Article

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  69. @Anonymous
    Chuck Woolery goes anti-Semitic:

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869284650665037824

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869581555051704320

    Albeit leftist scum, to use the umbrella term, Bernie Sanders is a democratic socialist, not a communist. There is a pretty big difference, as in, say, the difference between Sweden and North Korea.

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  70. A remarkable but so far unremarked finding of this study is that the native Egyptian population was at its peak in the third millennium BC and has been tanking ever since (figure 3d and PDF Supplementary Information.)

    One imagines a second century BC Egyptian Vizier Steve King-amun arguing that “We can’t restore our civilization with somebody else’s babies” and being proved tragically correct by subsequent history.

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    • LOL: Daniel Chieh
    • Replies: @ANON
    The Egyptian population has been doing anything but "tanking" in the modern era.
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  71. Martin Bernal will have to retitle his book “Not Black Athena”.

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  72. @Anonymous
    Chuck Woolery goes anti-Semitic:

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869284650665037824

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869581555051704320

    I tried but I can’t remember the time when I was unaware of the Jewish-Communist connection. It was probably in high school. In any case Chuck seems to be a little slow. This tweet shakes my faith in Australian Dream.

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  73. @Curle
    BTW - Saw a documentary a few years ago suggesting that the Egyptian Antiquities folks have known the DNA profile of the ancients for some time but were keeping it under wraps for political reasons; mentioning the sub Saharan theories but more persuasively suggesting that some in the Arab world would not favor knowing the Pharaohs were Semitic. What support does this lend to the Hyksos expulsion theory? Also, were they waiting for Obama to leave office to drop this?

    One detail of the story is that King Tut’s Y DNA is haplogroup R1b.

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  74. @Father O'Hara
    As long as the passion for freedom burns in men's hearts Chuck Woolery lives!
    Two and two!

    Once while visiting the Monterey Peninsula, about 15 years ago, I saw Chuck Woolery walking along Lighthouse Blvd in Pacific Grove with his family. It was like seeing Jesus of Nazareth.

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    • Replies: @Reg Cæsar

    Once while visiting the Monterey Peninsula, about 15 years ago, I saw Chuck Woolery walking along Lighthouse Blvd in Pacific Grove with his family. It was like seeing Jesus of Nazareth.
     
    Walking on medical waste and old tires doesn't make one a Messiah.

    Oh, wait, you mean Monterey, California.
    , @Father O'Hara
    I understand he would often be followed by groups of lepers as he made the rounds in LA.
    They would cry out,"Let me but touch the hem of your Bernini suit and I will be healed!"
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  75. @Intelligent Dasein

    I would have assumed that there were times in the past when the Sahara was green enough for people to wander across it and that the Nile would have provided a conduit for migrations back and forth even when the Sahara was a fierce desert. But that doesn’t appear to be how it worked …
     
    This is the crux of the matter right here. Modern-day anthropologists have often suffered from a constrained imagination when trying to envisage how people moved from place to place. They seem especially spellbound by the pictorial image of little huddled bands, clustered together for warmth, making epic migrations in search of game or God know's what. So fundamental is this notion to their way of thinking that the discovery of an arrowhead or a type of pottery at disparate locations automatically signifies to them "the movement of people." In fact, it could just as easily signify the diffusion of a technique, or trade, or the provisioning of an expedition, or the establishment of a colony, or a hitherto unsuspected guild system among ancient craftsmen. The list of plausible explanations could be extended further by those so inclined.

    But DNA can move about, and does move about, in every manner that people and their artifacts move about. Indeed, in studies such as this one, DNA is handled precisely as if it were an artifact, and we constantly find the "migration of a people" idea lurking in the background of all theories concerning arrowheads and gene sequences alike.

    We ought to recognize the great utility that this idea furnishes for anthropological thought, for it acts as a safeguard against chaotic speculation and allows for the construction of internally consistent historical narratives. Thought must of necessity reduce everything to a few foundational concepts and their interactions, and here anthropology has found its "atoms." Peoples and their migrations are the "mass" and "force" of the unified theory of anthropology, without which its scientific pretensions would be mortally wounded.



    But we must also recognize that this isn't a picture of reality. It is simply a method of thinking about ancient, unobserved occurrences that we have no way of thinking about otherwise. It is a framework for laying out the data, but it would be a mistake to assume that it gives us any indication of "what really happened."

    So what did really happen? That's a difficult question to answer. The story would have to be painstakingly pieced together by researchers spanning multiple disciplines, and even the best efforts will still need to be supplemented by a great deal of insight and guess work. In any case, the appetite for such tours de force, the expertise needed to undertake them, the inquisitive and structured intellectual tradition which craves them and endows them with their symbolic weight, are all qualities that are rapidly disappearing from the West. We do not live in the generations of the great systematic cartographers and botanists anymore, of the naturalists who risked malaria and cannibalism to search the deepest jungles for exotic blooms and beetles. The days of herculean systematic science are over for us. Those who still think about such questions are largely satisfied by the "migration of peoples" schema. Many others, even less interested, will eagerly accept "ancient aliens" and "we wuz kangs." The former, despite its inaccuracy, is culturally far superior to the latter two, but ultimately powerless against them in an age of decline. It takes hard work and acculturation before you're even qualified to understand the former. The latter requires only the ignorance and egotism of savages.

    I would suggest that the question isn't fated to be answered by us. Perhaps some future generation will expend its best efforts in that direction, but in our case it is a waste of time. As strange as it sounds, the proper course of action now is to "give up" on anthropology, archaeology, and other studies of the dim historical past. The narratives we construct only serve to prevent us from forming the national mythology that will be necessary to see us through the dark days to come.

    The crux of the matter is that miscegenation with blacks/Asians destroys IQs and their countries. Egypt and India are the best examples of this. This is why the RCC is gone. It cannot work with blacks/Asians. Now that we have a better sense of IQ, racial types it is time for separation.

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  76. @Twinkie

    How did Egypt become more subsaharan?
     
    Slavery under Islamic regimes would be my guess.

    I would’ve assumed more European after the Macedonian invasion.
     
    The number of Macedonian ruling caste and the subsequent settlers was miniscule, and did not leave much of a genetic footprint. In fact, the Macedonian soldiery proved quite thorny in Egypt. On the one hand, they proved excellent phalangite soldiers. On the other hand, they were too few in number, and proved most unwilling to train natives or even tolerate the natives being trained in a similar matter (for obvious competitive reasons). This led to an intolerable situation, in which there was a constant manpower problem.

    In pre-modern times, very small numbers of trained warriors could conquer and rule a vast empire - to the extent that the conquerors themselves could leave little genetic trace. Even in England, a supposedly "Anglo-Saxon" land, the actual Germanic ancestry is still at about 50% or below, the rest being Celtic. And that's even after the Danelaw and the Norman invasion.

    The number of Macedonian ruling caste and the subsequent settlers was miniscule, and did not leave much of a genetic footprint. In fact, the Macedonian soldiery proved quite thorny in Egypt. On the one hand, they proved excellent phalangite soldiers. On the other hand, they were too few in number, and proved most unwilling to train natives or even tolerate the natives being trained in a similar matter (for obvious competitive reasons). This led to an intolerable situation, in which there was a constant manpower problem.

    And attempts to meet the manpower shortage problem via native troops proved problematic:

    The term Máchimoi (Greek: μάχιμοι, plural; μάχιμος, máchimos, singular) commonly refers to a broad category of ancient Egyptian low-ranked soldiers which rose during the Late Period of Egypt (664–332 BCE) and, more prominently, during the Ptolemaic dynasty (323–30 BCE).

    Máchimoi were still present during the Ptolemaic period, and most scholars considers them as the direct successors of their Late Period counterparts; Ptolemaic máchimoi are mostly still seen as a caste of native-Egyptian, land-granted, low-ranked warriors whom, with the passing of time, takes on increasingly important roles alongside the Greek army likely since the battle of Raphia in 217 BCE, and exerted increasing social pressure on the Ptolemies and was responsible for various rebellions and uprisings.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machimoi

    Although the Ptolemies were officially recognized as pharaohs by the temples and even crowned by the high priest
    of Memphis, although they supported Egyptian religion by subsidizing the cults and building great temples (see
    below, text 2), they remained fundamentally a foreign dynasty. Starting from 246 BC there are several native
    uprisings. During the most successful of these, all Upper Egypt revolted against Alexandria for almost twenty years
    (206–186 BC) under the leadership of two native pharaohs, called Hyrgonaphor (Haronnophris) and Chaonnophris.

    http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/files/TheGreatRevoltoftheEgyptians.pdf

    As for Ptolemy, his war against the Egyptians followed immediately on these events. 2 This king, by arming the Egyptians for his war against Antiochus, took a step which was of great service for the time, but which was a mistake as regards the future. 3 The soldiers, highly proud of their victory at Raphia, were no longer disposed to obey orders, but were on the look out for a leader and figure-head, thinking themselves well able to maintain themselves as an independent power, an attempt in which they finally succeeded not long afterwards.

    Polybius, Historiae V 107.1

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  77. @Verymuchalive
    The point about the early Bolsheviks is that most of the prominent ones were not ethnic Russians or even ethnic Slavs. Lenin's father was a Chuvash or Kalmyk. Stalin was Georgian, Trotsky and several others were ethnic Jews. Felix Dzerzhinsky, the founder of the NKVD, was a renegade Pole. And then there were the Latvians.
    Needless to say, these people were very hostile to Russian Nationalism and indeed Russian Nationality. Things only changed when most of the old Bolsheviks died or were purged in the 1930s. Only then did Stalin try to harness Russian Nationalism for his own purposes, a process continued in WWII.

    Lenin’s father was a Chuvash or Kalmyk.

    Lenin’s father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs; his ethnic origins remain unclear, with suggestions being made that he was Russian, Chuvash, Mordvin, or Kalmyk.[2] Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility.[3] Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863.[4] Well educated and from a relatively prosperous background, she was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a Russian Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Lenin

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    • Replies: @Hippopotamusdrome
    So, half Mongol, half Jew.
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  78. Sadat’s mother was Sudanese, so he was Black by any standards.

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    • Replies: @syonredux

    Over the years, Egypt has had a particularly difficult time coming to grips with its African identity. Many Egyptians do not consider themselves Africans. Some take offense even to being identified with Africa at all. When speaking to Egyptians who have traveled to countries below the Sahara, nearly all of them speak of going to Africa, or going down to Africa, as if Egypt were separate from the rest of the continent.

    More than a few Egyptian women, for example, told me that they disliked the dark-skinned former President Anwar Sadat, ridiculed for years as "Nasser's black poodle." Sadat, whose mother was Sudanese, they insisted, "did not look Egyptian enough."
     

    http://www.npr.org/2011/02/07/133562448/the-root-egypts-race-problem
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  79. @reiner Tor
    I think Robert Service in his biography wrote that Lenin received a letter from his sister sometime in 1919 about his Jewish ancestry. His sister proposed to make the information public because she thought (quite unwisely) that this would dampen Russian anti-Semitism. Lenin knew better.

    On the other hand, Lenin had very strange attitude towards Jews and Russians. He thought Russians were lazy worthless alcoholic bastards, he hated their culture, institutions, their religion and even their elites (and later on he went on to destroy all of these), while he praised the Jews, for their industriousness, for their talents, for their revolutionary fervor. These were strange attitudes in late 19th century or early 20th century Russia, especially for a nobleman, but apparently were largely shared by his sisters, too.

    I have a simple explanation for those strange attitudes: he (and his sisters) got those attitudes from his mom. Who, in turn, probably got it from her father, who was Jewish by birth, and probably converted for convenience. It also nicely dovetails with my theory that ethnic hatred is the most lasting part of a culture after traditions are lost. For example secular Jews might have very little Jewish culture, but they still hate the most roughly the same people their ancestors in the ghetto would've hated the most (Russians, Poles, religious Christian white gentiles, etc.), and since such hatred is the only part of their culture that they retained, it might actually be way more intense than what their ancestors felt... (The hatred of nationalist white gentiles might be a later addition, and perhaps be caused by the Nazis. I'm not sure. I know many Jews were way more comfortable with white gentile nationalism before the Nazis than ever since.)


    old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did
     
    What makes you think either Chuck or "anonymous" hate Jews? Not that Marx hated Jews as such.

    Not that Marx hated Jews as such.

    Well, Marx did make some rather negative statements about Jews……

    What is the worldly religion of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly God? Money.…. Money is the jealous god of Israel, in face of which no other god may exist. Money degrades all the gods of man – and turns them into commodities…. The bill of exchange is the real god of the Jew. His god is only an illusory bill of exchange…. The chimerical nationality of the Jew is the nationality of the merchant, of the man of money in general.

    Thus we find every tyrant backed by a Jew, as is every pope by a Jesuit. In truth, the cravings of oppressors would be hopeless, and the practicability of war out of the question, if there were not an army of Jesuits to smother thought and a handful of Jews to ransack pockets.

    … the real work is done by the Jews, and can only be done by them, as they monopolize the machinery of the loanmongering mysteries by concentrating their energies upon the barter trade in securities… Here and there and everywhere that a little capital courts investment, there is ever one of these little Jews ready to make a little suggestion or place a little bit of a loan. The smartest highwayman in the Abruzzi is not better posted up about the locale of the hard cash in a traveler’s valise or pocket than those Jews about any loose capital in the hands of a trader… The language spoken smells strongly of Babel, and the perfume which otherwise pervades the place is by no means of a choice kind.

    … Thus do these loans, which are a curse to the people, a ruin to the holders, and a danger to the governments, become a blessing to the houses of the children of Judah. This Jew organization of loan-mongers is as dangerous to the people as the aristocratic organization of landowners… The fortunes amassed by these loan-mongers are immense, but the wrongs and sufferings thus entailed on the people and the encouragement thus afforded to their oppressors still remain to be told.

    … The fact that 1855 years ago Christ drove the Jewish moneychangers out of the temple, and that the moneychangers of our age enlisted on the side of tyranny happen again chiefly to be Jews, is perhaps no more than a historical coincidence. The loan-mongering Jews of Europe do only on a larger and more obnoxious scale what many others do on one smaller and less significant. But it is only because the Jews are so strong that it is timely and expedient to expose and stigmatize their organization.

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  80. @reiner Tor
    I think Robert Service in his biography wrote that Lenin received a letter from his sister sometime in 1919 about his Jewish ancestry. His sister proposed to make the information public because she thought (quite unwisely) that this would dampen Russian anti-Semitism. Lenin knew better.

    On the other hand, Lenin had very strange attitude towards Jews and Russians. He thought Russians were lazy worthless alcoholic bastards, he hated their culture, institutions, their religion and even their elites (and later on he went on to destroy all of these), while he praised the Jews, for their industriousness, for their talents, for their revolutionary fervor. These were strange attitudes in late 19th century or early 20th century Russia, especially for a nobleman, but apparently were largely shared by his sisters, too.

    I have a simple explanation for those strange attitudes: he (and his sisters) got those attitudes from his mom. Who, in turn, probably got it from her father, who was Jewish by birth, and probably converted for convenience. It also nicely dovetails with my theory that ethnic hatred is the most lasting part of a culture after traditions are lost. For example secular Jews might have very little Jewish culture, but they still hate the most roughly the same people their ancestors in the ghetto would've hated the most (Russians, Poles, religious Christian white gentiles, etc.), and since such hatred is the only part of their culture that they retained, it might actually be way more intense than what their ancestors felt... (The hatred of nationalist white gentiles might be a later addition, and perhaps be caused by the Nazis. I'm not sure. I know many Jews were way more comfortable with white gentile nationalism before the Nazis than ever since.)


    old Karl hated Jews just as much as you did
     
    What makes you think either Chuck or "anonymous" hate Jews? Not that Marx hated Jews as such.

    Gotta confess, I always love pointing out to Marxists just how un-PC old Karl was. Here’s Marx on Mexicans:

    “Is it a misfortune that magnificent California was seized from the lazy Mexicans who did not know what to do with it?”

    “In America we have witnessed the conquest of Mexico and have rejoiced at it. It is to the interest of its own development that Mexico will be placed under the tutelage of the United States.”

    And here’s Marx slamming Ferdinand Lassalle:

    “It is now completely clear to me that he, as is proved by his cranial formation and his hair, descends from the Negroes who had joined Moses’ exodus from Egypt, assuming that his mother or grandmother on the paternal side had not interbred with a ni[****]. Now this union of Judaism and Germanism with a basic Negro substance must produce a peculiar product. The obtrusiveness of the fellow is also ni[*****]-like.”

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    • Replies: @dearieme
    I hadn't realised that Marx assumed that the Exodus was historical. Some radical he!
    , @attilathehen
    Karl Marx's daughter Laura married a light-skinned black from Cuba.
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  81. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    It’s humorous that this is reported as a groundbreaking discovery. The admixture of both the Levant and Mediterranean were obviously whiter prior to the Arab expansionism fueled by Islam over the last 1400 years, and there is a historically well documented demarcation between Egyptians and Nubians. Sub-Saharan Nubians were a different people prior to their absorption as modern day Egyptians.

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  82. @Mark Caplan
    Albeit leftist scum, to use the umbrella term, Bernie Sanders is a democratic socialist, not a communist. There is a pretty big difference, as in, say, the difference between Sweden and North Korea.
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  83. Eh, looking at Mummy DNA may not be the most accurate representation of Egyptians as a whole. For example, if you exhumed the bodies of Argentina’s ex-presidents you might conclude native South Americans don’t live there.

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    • Replies: @Anonymous
    Ancient Egyptians of all social strata were habitually mummified after death.
    Only that the remains of the poorer classes were not interred in elaborate pyramids or tombs.

    The ancient Egyptians were even very fond of mummifying domestic cats - in enormous quantities. In fact, in the 19th century a regular trade built up between Egypt and Britain in which shiploads of mummified cats removed from feline cemeteries were imported into Britain for use as agricultural fertiliser.
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  84. @Michelle
    Sadat's mother was Sudanese, so he was Black by any standards.

    Over the years, Egypt has had a particularly difficult time coming to grips with its African identity. Many Egyptians do not consider themselves Africans. Some take offense even to being identified with Africa at all. When speaking to Egyptians who have traveled to countries below the Sahara, nearly all of them speak of going to Africa, or going down to Africa, as if Egypt were separate from the rest of the continent.

    More than a few Egyptian women, for example, told me that they disliked the dark-skinned former President Anwar Sadat, ridiculed for years as “Nasser’s black poodle.” Sadat, whose mother was Sudanese, they insisted, “did not look Egyptian enough.”

    http://www.npr.org/2011/02/07/133562448/the-root-egypts-race-problem

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  85. @Almost Missouri
    A remarkable but so far unremarked finding of this study is that the native Egyptian population was at its peak in the third millennium BC and has been tanking ever since (figure 3d and PDF Supplementary Information.)

    One imagines a second century BC Egyptian Vizier Steve King-amun arguing that "We can't restore our civilization with somebody else's babies" and being proved tragically correct by subsequent history.

    The Egyptian population has been doing anything but “tanking” in the modern era.

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    • Replies: @Almost Missouri
    According to the genetic study, they are not really "Egyptian" any more.

    That's why I wrote "native".
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  86. How do you know this isn’t more, as your president would call it, fake news?

    I mean, I’m just asking.

    Unless your are a geneticist, and have done the testing yourself, you have no idea what DNA anyone is.

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  87. To reply in scholarly terms: well, DUH.
    Hagar, mother of Arabs, was from Egypt. Abraham, Ishmael’s father, was also the Father of the Jews through Isaac.
    Hebrews wandered back and forth from Egypt from the time of Joseph, Jacob’s son, to the time of Joseph, Jesus’ foster father. Forbidden or not, there was probably interbreeding. In the meantime, Moses married the daughter of a Midianite priest.
    The Eunuch in Acts 8 converted by Philip is employed by the Queen of Sheba (now thought to be Ethiopia). He is reading the prophecies of the Messiah in Isaiah after visiting Jerusalem to worship, so almost certainly a practicing Jew.
    The “myths” of the Bible are often poetic renderings of something that actually happened.

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    • Replies: @dearieme
    "The “myths” of the Bible are often poetic renderings of something that actually happened."

    In other words, they are untrue.
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  88. Razib Khan offers his thoughts:

    What you can see is that somewhat more than half of Ethiopia’s mtDNA lineages are L, in keeping with the whole genome estimate of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in most Cushitic populations. In Egypt there is a difference over time; haplogroup L goes from low frequencies to much higher frequencies in modern periods. The ~20% fraction in the modern samples is in line with the population wide admixture one sees in modern Egyptians of Sub-Saharan admixture.

    I actually recomputed the haplogroups to a finer granularity from the supplements. A quick inspection of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies shows that ancient Egyptians are not typical of modern Europeans. Not that much H, and lots of T, J and K. What that does remind me of are Early European Farmers. These people, who brought agriculture to Europe from Anatolia contributed a large fraction of the ancestry of modern Southern Europeans, and a lesser component to Northern Europeans.

    What you can see here is that to a great extent ancient Egyptians were descended from a population closely related to Natufians, or Natufians themselves. This easily explains the mtDNA affinity to Neolithic farmers: Natufians and Anatolian Neolithic populations were sister populations. The f3 statistic which looks at shared drift shows an affinity of ancient Egyptians with ancient farmer populations with Near Eastern provenance, but also with modern Sardinians. This is a common pattern, as ancient groups do not have later migration waves, with the Sardinians the modern population closest to this.

    The PCA gives us results consonant with the model-based clustering. If you plot the genetic variation of ancient Egyptians they’re closest to Neolithic eastern Mediterranean populations. No great surprise.

    Not the modern Egyptians. Why? It’s pretty clearly because modern Egyptians are shifted toward Sub-Saharan Africans. But there is also another component: modern Egyptians have more of the cyan eastern farmer component. What could this be?

    An immediate thought comes to mind. We focus a great deal on Sub-Saharan African slavery. One reason is that it is visible. Black Africans are physically distinct from most Middle Eastern populations. But Egypt was long the center of another slave trade: “white slaves” from the Caucasus. Circassians. For hundreds of years Mamluks were recruited from the Caucasus as military slaves. They eventually became the ruling class of Egypt, until their decimation in the 19th century under Muhammad Ali (who himself was an Albanian Ottoman who never learned to speak Arabic well).

    As noted in the paper earlier work looking at patterns in ancestry tracts and LD decay had made it obvious that much of the admixture of Sub-Saharan ancestry in Egypt, as in much of the Middle East, is relatively recent. In particular, it dates to the Islamic period, when trade and conquest took on new dimensions in Africa and north into Central Asia. One way ethnic minorities like Assyrians and Lebanese Christians differ from their Muslim neighbors is that they have much lower fractions of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, and no East Asian component. The latter might surprise, but remember that Central Asian Turkic slaves have been prominent in Muslim armies since at least the 9th century.

    But some of the Sub-Saharan ancestry in Egyptians is old. The ancient Egyptian samples have it. To have none of it would seem strange, considering the history of contact between Nubia and Egypt, dating back to the Old Kingdom. Second, there is evidence of low levels of Sub-Saharan African gene flow into Southern Europeans. How did that happen? The highest fractions are in Spain, and can there be attributed to the Moorish period. But that explanation does not hold in much of Italy, where there are a few percent of haplogroup L. This probably is due to south-to-north gene flow across the Mediterranean during the Classical period. Some of the peoples on the south shore of the Mediterranean almost certainly already had some Sub-Saharan African admixture.

    What they consistently found is that modern Egyptians are about twice as much Sub-Saharan African as ancient Egyptians. The proportions for modern Egyptians ranged from ~10 to ~20 percent Sub-Saharan African against a Eurasian background, with a bias toward the higher values (depending on which populations you put into the phylogeny for non-Africans), and ~0 to ~10 percent for the ancient Egyptians, again with a bias toward the higher values. The pattern is consistent in these tests.

    An issue here is that we’re going off three samples. That being said, the authors observe that despite differences in contamination/quality and time period they’re very concordant with each other. If I had to bet I think Old Kingdom samples would have somewhat less Sub-Saharan and eastern farmer ancestry. But the basic pattern persisted down to the Roman period, and was only shifted by admixture due to slavery.

    And yet it may not be that the period before the Holocene was not clinal. Rather, it may be that large depopulations of areas of human occupation fragmented clinal ranges, and resulted in new range expansions from “core” zones.

    About ~8,000 years ago there was a major desertification period in the Sahara desert. Many trans-Saharan populations may have gone extinct during this time due to rapid climate change. Eventually repopulation may have occurred from outside of the Sahara, so that post-Natufian Levantines and Sub-Saharan Africans from what today call the Sahel pushed up and down the Nile drainage basic respectively, meeting in the zone of Nubia on the boundary of history and prehistory.

    https://gnxp.nofe.me/2017/05/30/ancient-egyptians-black-or-white/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+RazibKhansTotalFeed+%28Razib+Khan%27s+total+feed%29

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  89. @Steve Sailer
    Lenin, a one-man Coalition of the Fringes, was Jewish enough to be allowed to immigrate to Israel under the Law of Return. Ariel Sharon welcomed lots of people from Russia who are about as Jewish as Lenin. The rabbis don't let them marry in Israel, so they have to vacation in Cyprus to be civilly married, which is then recognized by the Israeli government.
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  90. @The Alarmist

    "By even greater coincidence, their civilizational collapse coincided with the collapse of their borders."
     
    Which can squarely be laid on the Romans, who pretty much let borders go all around the empire except, perhaps, for Byzantium and Anatolya, but then again that was a different breed of Romans ... non-European.

    So, once again, you can lay blame squarely on a self-loathing European patriarchical, slave-owning society that got its just desserts for its inherent sins.

    I assume you are being tongue-in-cheek, but if not, don’t forget that before the Romans, Egypt was invaded and controlled by the Kushites (SSAs), the Assyrians and the Macedonians successively. Not to mention that Egyptians were poor stewards of their own borders even before this, barely repelling invasion and recruiting Nubian mercenaries whom they quartered within Egypt.

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  91. (((Chuck Woolery goes anti-Semitic:)))

    I just looked over Chuck Woolery’s recent tweets. Had no idea he kicked that much ass.

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  92. Is it too late to swap Chuck Woolery for Trump?

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  93. @Anonymous
    Chuck Woolery goes anti-Semitic:

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869284650665037824

    https://twitter.com/chuckwoolery/status/869581555051704320

    Does it make me a Semite that I never heard of this guy, like in any context whatsoever?

    The only non echo chamber blind spot that I’m aware of in my knowledge relates to sports. On most other subjects that aren’t the purview of some very small set of people I’m not fully ignorant and could be expected to have heard of someone whom so many others appear to have not only heard of but be intimately familiar with.

    Is this an age gap? I mean is he a big deal to only either Boomers or Millennials???

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    • Replies: @reiner Tor

    I never heard of this guy, like in any context whatsoever?
     
    Same here. Though I'm not American, and it appears he's an American TV showman or something.
    , @Buffalo Joe
    Moshe, I am at a loss too. Isn't this the guy who advertises for "Australian Dream", the muscle rub with the empty jar guarantee?
    , @Days of Broken Arrows
    Not only was Woolery a game show host, as others have mentioned, but he was a songwriter in the 1960s and penned the Avant Garde's minor hit "Naturally Stoned."

    Ironically, he's namedropped in a minor hit song by the Beastie Boys, who were Jewish. His name appears in the first verse of the tune, which got to #36 on the Hot 100 chart in 1989. The group has gotten so politically correct that I wonder if they'll try to have his name removed from the song for future pressings of the album.

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  94. Eh, looking at Mummy DNA may not be the most accurate representation of Egyptians as a whole. For example, if you exhumed the bodies of Argentina’s ex-presidents you might conclude native South Americans don’t live there.

    Yes. The elites aren’t evenly distributed by race now, and there’s even less reason to think they’d be more evenly distributed thousands of years ago.

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    • Replies: @Dave
    True enough. But this stands as a good corrective to decades of Afrocentrist nonsense that has percolated up into the general culture through academia and Nation of Islam type organizations.
    You'd probably be surprised at the number of black people who buy into the "We Wuz Kangz" silliness. A lot of them, even reasonably well educated ones, buy it hook, line and sinker.
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  95. Dave says:
    @Wilkey
    Eh, looking at Mummy DNA may not be the most accurate representation of Egyptians as a whole. For example, if you exhumed the bodies of Argentina’s ex-presidents you might conclude native South Americans don’t live there.

    Yes. The elites aren't evenly distributed by race now, and there's even less reason to think they'd be more evenly distributed thousands of years ago.

    True enough. But this stands as a good corrective to decades of Afrocentrist nonsense that has percolated up into the general culture through academia and Nation of Islam type organizations.
    You’d probably be surprised at the number of black people who buy into the “We Wuz Kangz” silliness. A lot of them, even reasonably well educated ones, buy it hook, line and sinker.

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  96. @Almost Missouri
    The ancient Egyptians were unabashed Egypto-Supremacists who did not take kindly to foreign in-migrations--i.e., invasions. They held themselves aloof from and considered themselves superior to their neighbors. They fought frequent wars to keep their neighbors out of Egypt and off the Nile. They took their borders seriously for thousands of years. By coincidence, their civilization flourished for thousands of years. By even greater coincidence, their civilizational collapse coincided with the collapse of their borders.

    I suspect that starting in the Hellenistic Era their borders became more permeable.

    An interesting aside is that the Egypt’s southern border ay Elephantine appears to have been secured by a highly religious Jewish community of soldiers from the middle of the 6th Century BCE* through rhe middle of the 4th Century CE*.

    —–

    * BC:AD was most probably a fight worth having 90 years ago but it isn’t today. I’m using it here to piss off the congenital antisems :)

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    • Replies: @DRA
    It seems like "the common era" should count from the beginning of the Muslim calendar, albeit I would hope in solar years!

    Personally I'll stick with BC & AD thank you!
    , @Moshe
    Uh, 4th Century BCE that is.

    About 200 years
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  97. @Thea
    The original coalition of the fringes.

    How Russian were the Romanovs by 1917?

    Thirteen of the sainted Nicholas II’s 16 great-great-grandparents were German, and two were Danish.
    The only “Russian” amongst them was Paul I, who was himself three-quarters German, Danish, and Swedish.
    And even those four “Russians” were most likely Rurikids, that is, Scandinavian by ancestry.
    No fringes there, thank you very much.

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    • Replies: @Flip
    You would have thought that the royal German cousins of Germany, Russia, and the UK could have avoided WWI.

    What a pointless war. They didn't even know what they were fighting over. Churchill said that if America had stayed out they would have eventually worked something out.
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  98. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:
    @Ryan
    Eh, looking at Mummy DNA may not be the most accurate representation of Egyptians as a whole. For example, if you exhumed the bodies of Argentina's ex-presidents you might conclude native South Americans don't live there.

    Ancient Egyptians of all social strata were habitually mummified after death.
    Only that the remains of the poorer classes were not interred in elaborate pyramids or tombs.

    The ancient Egyptians were even very fond of mummifying domestic cats – in enormous quantities. In fact, in the 19th century a regular trade built up between Egypt and Britain in which shiploads of mummified cats removed from feline cemeteries were imported into Britain for use as agricultural fertiliser.

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    • Replies: @Rosamond Vincy
    Correct. A museum at U Penn had an exhibit with one mummy, a woman, curled up on her side (as seems to have been common) and buried with a few cosmetic pots. She was clearly not aristocracy.
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  99. @unzerker

    How did Egypt become more subsaharan?
     
    Continuous migration down the Nile and most importantly: the millions of black slaves the Muslims brought in.

    If blacks came to Egypt as slaves,and Egypt eventually wound up with black pharaohs,I’d say that was quite the immigrant success story!

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    • Replies: @Almost Missouri
    Haha, that's a good comment! But I think the timeline went the other way: the Kushite Pharaohs were in the 8th and 7th century BC, while the Muslim invasion and slave importation was from the 7th century AD.
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  100. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    The mummy portrait by Gayet looks a lot like the recently departed musicker Prince (surely much to the amusement of 5th grade readers everywhere)

    What I find striking/awkward about those early encaustics is the Margaret Keane big eyes; it seems the Egyptians invented black-velvet kitsch way ahead of us.

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  101. @syonredux
    Gotta confess, I always love pointing out to Marxists just how un-PC old Karl was. Here's Marx on Mexicans:

    "Is it a misfortune that magnificent California was seized from the lazy Mexicans who did not know what to do with it?"
     

    "In America we have witnessed the conquest of Mexico and have rejoiced at it. It is to the interest of its own development that Mexico will be placed under the tutelage of the United States."
     
    And here's Marx slamming Ferdinand Lassalle:

    "It is now completely clear to me that he, as is proved by his cranial formation and his hair, descends from the Negroes who had joined Moses' exodus from Egypt, assuming that his mother or grandmother on the paternal side had not interbred with a ni[****]. Now this union of Judaism and Germanism with a basic Negro substance must produce a peculiar product. The obtrusiveness of the fellow is also ni[*****]-like."
     

    I hadn’t realised that Marx assumed that the Exodus was historical. Some radical he!

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  102. @anonimouse
    No!

    Egypt had natural barriers to migration and invasion. That’s why it lasted for 3000yrs.

    Egypt was a strip of land 10 miles on each side of the Nile. There is desert and the red sea east and west. North is the Mediterranean sea. South towards the source of the Nile is impenetrable jungle. The actual source of the Nile was only verified in the 19th century. That’s how difficult it was to move from the middle of Africa to Egypt. It is very unlikely anyone migrated from Black Africa to Egypt.

    The Nile itself provided an internal supply route for quick movement of soldiers and weapons to defend against any invasion location

    Egypt had natural barriers to migration and invasion. That’s why it lasted for 3000yrs.

    The natural barrier along the Nile was the Cataracts and the Great Bend, both of which made navigation difficult and prevented an arable floodplain along the Cataract Nile that could have been settled. Aswan was even in antiquity regarded as the southern border of Egypt.

    http://www.utdallas.edu/geosciences/remsens/Nile/cataracts.html

    South towards the source of the Nile is impenetrable jungle.

    You don’t get to the impenetrable jungle until you’re well past Sudan and its desert (“Sudan” incidentally comes from an Arabic term meaning “land of the blacks”), and into the highlands of Uganda.

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  103. @Moshe
    Does it make me a Semite that I never heard of this guy, like in any context whatsoever?

    The only non echo chamber blind spot that I'm aware of in my knowledge relates to sports. On most other subjects that aren't the purview of some very small set of people I'm not fully ignorant and could be expected to have heard of someone whom so many others appear to have not only heard of but be intimately familiar with.

    Is this an age gap? I mean is he a big deal to only either Boomers or Millennials???

    I never heard of this guy, like in any context whatsoever?

    Same here. Though I’m not American, and it appears he’s an American TV showman or something.

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    • Replies: @Anon 2
    Chuck Woolery was very famous in the '90s
    as the game show host of two popular American TV
    shows, Love Connection and later The Dating Game.
    I suppose you had to have some interest in what
    makes two people click. This was all before the
    PUAs such as Mystery came on the scene. Roosh V
    was still in high school!
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  104. @Polynikes
    How did Egypt become more subsaharan? I would've assumed more European after the Macedonian invasion.

    I don’t have the link to hand, but an mtDNA study showed that most of the SSA women in Egypt appeared to have entered later than 1400yrs ago. In other words, after the Muslim Conquest and the institution of a vigorous SSA slave trade.

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  105. When they interviewed the mummies, they mysteriously replied: “Shimmy shimmy shimmy shy-yi-meece-e-deece!”

    Strangely enough, the word “Shumba” doesn’t appear on this thread. Allow me to remedy that for those who haven’t heard one of the greatest singles of the pre-Beatles era.

    (Sorry Steve, but I absolutely HAD to post this song. Felt like I had no choice. Like it was in my…DNA to do so.)

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  106. Ancient European and ancient Anatolian DNA is most like the ancient Egyptian DNA according to the study. I always thought the Egyptian artwork depicted an Indian-looking people (dot, not feather). Looks like my instincts were correct on this one. There are many people who are way too emotionally invested in ancient Egypt being black in ethnicity. We can expect denial, silence, and perhaps a NGO or even Soros-funded bogus bought-and-paid-for study claiming to debunk this finding in the next few years. Hope I’m wrong.

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  107. @Moshe
    Does it make me a Semite that I never heard of this guy, like in any context whatsoever?

    The only non echo chamber blind spot that I'm aware of in my knowledge relates to sports. On most other subjects that aren't the purview of some very small set of people I'm not fully ignorant and could be expected to have heard of someone whom so many others appear to have not only heard of but be intimately familiar with.

    Is this an age gap? I mean is he a big deal to only either Boomers or Millennials???

    Moshe, I am at a loss too. Isn’t this the guy who advertises for “Australian Dream”, the muscle rub with the empty jar guarantee?

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  108. @Rosamond Vincy
    To reply in scholarly terms: well, DUH.
    Hagar, mother of Arabs, was from Egypt. Abraham, Ishmael's father, was also the Father of the Jews through Isaac.
    Hebrews wandered back and forth from Egypt from the time of Joseph, Jacob's son, to the time of Joseph, Jesus' foster father. Forbidden or not, there was probably interbreeding. In the meantime, Moses married the daughter of a Midianite priest.
    The Eunuch in Acts 8 converted by Philip is employed by the Queen of Sheba (now thought to be Ethiopia). He is reading the prophecies of the Messiah in Isaiah after visiting Jerusalem to worship, so almost certainly a practicing Jew.
    The "myths" of the Bible are often poetic renderings of something that actually happened.

    “The “myths” of the Bible are often poetic renderings of something that actually happened.”

    In other words, they are untrue.

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  109. @syonredux
    Gotta confess, I always love pointing out to Marxists just how un-PC old Karl was. Here's Marx on Mexicans:

    "Is it a misfortune that magnificent California was seized from the lazy Mexicans who did not know what to do with it?"
     

    "In America we have witnessed the conquest of Mexico and have rejoiced at it. It is to the interest of its own development that Mexico will be placed under the tutelage of the United States."
     
    And here's Marx slamming Ferdinand Lassalle:

    "It is now completely clear to me that he, as is proved by his cranial formation and his hair, descends from the Negroes who had joined Moses' exodus from Egypt, assuming that his mother or grandmother on the paternal side had not interbred with a ni[****]. Now this union of Judaism and Germanism with a basic Negro substance must produce a peculiar product. The obtrusiveness of the fellow is also ni[*****]-like."
     

    Karl Marx’s daughter Laura married a light-skinned black from Cuba.

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    • Replies: @Anonymous
    Paul Lafargue was French. His father owned a plantation in Cuba.
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  110. @anonimouse
    No!

    Egypt had natural barriers to migration and invasion. That’s why it lasted for 3000yrs.

    Egypt was a strip of land 10 miles on each side of the Nile. There is desert and the red sea east and west. North is the Mediterranean sea. South towards the source of the Nile is impenetrable jungle. The actual source of the Nile was only verified in the 19th century. That’s how difficult it was to move from the middle of Africa to Egypt. It is very unlikely anyone migrated from Black Africa to Egypt.

    The Nile itself provided an internal supply route for quick movement of soldiers and weapons to defend against any invasion location

    Mouse, the interior of Africa was dense and dark and hard to explore across the whole continent. Lord Henry Morton Stanley’s exploration of the Congo River was an epic journey. Joseph Conrad’s ” Heart of Darkness” was his tale of his time on the Congo River and Adam Hochschild’s “King Leopold’s Ghost” is a fantastic book about the exploration of the Congo and the Congo River. With the advantages the colonial explorers had at their disposal, paddle wheelers and rail, the interior of Africa was extremely hard to explore and develop. The natural barriers of Africa shielded the Egyptians well. Good summer reading if you are interested. “King Leopold’s Ghost” and Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness” at the same time.

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  111. @anonyyym
    Woolery actually publicly complained about having trouble getting work before these recent tweets. Makes you wonder if resentment over his career situation motivated the tweets.

    Nah. He was just bringing up the fact that Marx and Lenin were Jews, and betrayed their own race via the promotion of Communism, which ultimately got a lot of Jews killed. He was drawing a comparison of Marx and Lenin to Bernie Saunders, who he believes is doing the same thing.
    Many Jews tend to flip out if anyone even vaguely implies that some of them may have brought some of the world vitriol against them at the time, on themselves.
    Chuck was just being a little douchy for fun. He knew people would run about tattling and pearl clutching. Chuck's always been a happy douchebag.

    the fact that Marx and Lenin were Jews, and betrayed their own race via the promotion of Communism, which ultimately got a lot of Jews killed

    A disproportionate number of open borders advocates and intersectional academics are Jews, and those policies increase the number of anti-Semitic Muslims and darker-skinned Latinos in formerly white countries.

    Many Jews tend to flip out if anyone even vaguely implies that some of them may have brought some of the world vitriol against them at the time, on themselves.

    This makes Woolrey more a troll than a douchie, I think.

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  112. @attilathehen
    Karl Marx's daughter Laura married a light-skinned black from Cuba.

    Paul Lafargue was French. His father owned a plantation in Cuba.

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    • Replies: @attilathehen
    Here is what Paul Lafargue thought himself to be: http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/social-sciences-and-law/political-science-biographies/paul-lafargue

    Given that Jews marry blacks/Asians, Lafargue fits the bill.
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  113. @Anonymous
    One very strange tale - that modern genetic methods hasn't worked out - is the preponderance of the y DNA haplogroup E amongst sub Saharans. Basically, haplotype E covers around 90% of sub Saharan men.
    Now, haplotype E is rooted in the Eurasian clade CT, and its closest relative, D, is found in Tibet and Japan, of all places.
    The quintessential sub Saharan haplotypes are A and B, which are relatively rare.

    It has been surmised that in deep prehistoric times, Eurasian peoples, perhaps related to the Natufians, more or less dominated the sub Saharans and left the dominance of their male haplotype as the evidence.

    I remember reading that Natafians were very dark skinned, and found this:

    http://anthromadness.blogspot.com/2016/07/natufians-were-dark-skinned.html

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    • Replies: @syonredux

    Something you did not mention is skin color. Looking through the supplementary tables, one of the three samples was derived for SLC24A5, but not derived for SLC45A2, while another was derived for SLC24A5, but couldn’t be tested for the other SNP. The third didn’t have any coverage for these genes. Although a small sample size, this seems to suggest ancient Egyptians were not dark brown, but may have been about as swarthy as the older bronze age Sidonians discussed last week.

    yeah. so i looked at the slc45a2 in the 48 copts from sudan. that snp is in there and it’s 25% derived. so reason i didn’t mention is if the ancient freqs were same we’d expect 50% ancestral homoz.
     
    https://gnxp.nofe.me/2017/05/30/ancient-egyptians-black-or-white/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+RazibKhansTotalFeed+%28Razib+Khan%27s+total+feed%29
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  114. @Moshe
    I suspect that starting in the Hellenistic Era their borders became more permeable.

    An interesting aside is that the Egypt's southern border ay Elephantine appears to have been secured by a highly religious Jewish community of soldiers from the middle of the 6th Century BCE* through rhe middle of the 4th Century CE*.

    -----

    * BC:AD was most probably a fight worth having 90 years ago but it isn't today. I'm using it here to piss off the congenital antisems :)

    It seems like “the common era” should count from the beginning of the Muslim calendar, albeit I would hope in solar years!

    Personally I’ll stick with BC & AD thank you!

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  115. @reiner Tor

    I never heard of this guy, like in any context whatsoever?
     
    Same here. Though I'm not American, and it appears he's an American TV showman or something.

    Chuck Woolery was very famous in the ’90s
    as the game show host of two popular American TV
    shows, Love Connection and later The Dating Game.
    I suppose you had to have some interest in what
    makes two people click. This was all before the
    PUAs such as Mystery came on the scene. Roosh V
    was still in high school!

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  116. @Moshe
    I suspect that starting in the Hellenistic Era their borders became more permeable.

    An interesting aside is that the Egypt's southern border ay Elephantine appears to have been secured by a highly religious Jewish community of soldiers from the middle of the 6th Century BCE* through rhe middle of the 4th Century CE*.

    -----

    * BC:AD was most probably a fight worth having 90 years ago but it isn't today. I'm using it here to piss off the congenital antisems :)

    Uh, 4th Century BCE that is.

    About 200 years

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  117. @DRA
    I remember reading that Natafians were very dark skinned, and found this:

    http://anthromadness.blogspot.com/2016/07/natufians-were-dark-skinned.html

    Something you did not mention is skin color. Looking through the supplementary tables, one of the three samples was derived for SLC24A5, but not derived for SLC45A2, while another was derived for SLC24A5, but couldn’t be tested for the other SNP. The third didn’t have any coverage for these genes. Although a small sample size, this seems to suggest ancient Egyptians were not dark brown, but may have been about as swarthy as the older bronze age Sidonians discussed last week.

    yeah. so i looked at the slc45a2 in the 48 copts from sudan. that snp is in there and it’s 25% derived. so reason i didn’t mention is if the ancient freqs were same we’d expect 50% ancestral homoz.

    https://gnxp.nofe.me/2017/05/30/ancient-egyptians-black-or-white/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+RazibKhansTotalFeed+%28Razib+Khan%27s+total+feed%29

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  118. @Anonymous
    Ancient Egyptians of all social strata were habitually mummified after death.
    Only that the remains of the poorer classes were not interred in elaborate pyramids or tombs.

    The ancient Egyptians were even very fond of mummifying domestic cats - in enormous quantities. In fact, in the 19th century a regular trade built up between Egypt and Britain in which shiploads of mummified cats removed from feline cemeteries were imported into Britain for use as agricultural fertiliser.

    Correct. A museum at U Penn had an exhibit with one mummy, a woman, curled up on her side (as seems to have been common) and buried with a few cosmetic pots. She was clearly not aristocracy.

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  119. @Anonymous
    Paul Lafargue was French. His father owned a plantation in Cuba.

    Here is what Paul Lafargue thought himself to be: http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/social-sciences-and-law/political-science-biographies/paul-lafargue

    Given that Jews marry blacks/Asians, Lafargue fits the bill.

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    • Replies: @Anonymous
    Jews actually tend to marry white Catholics when they intermarry. Blacks and Asians generally aren't Catholic:

    http://www.interfaithfamily.com/news_and_opinion/synagogues_and_the_jewish_community/Why_Do_Jews_Marry_Catholics.shtml

    A recent landmark study of Americans' religious behavior confirmed what many observers of intermarriage have often suggested, but never proven: when Jews intermarry, they disproportionately marry Catholics.

    According to the U.S. Religion Landscape Survey conducted by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 39% of intermarried Jews are married to Catholics, even though Protestants outnumber Catholics in the U.S. by nearly two to one. Only 23% of intermarried Jews are married to Protestants. Overall, slightly less than a third of all married Jews are intermarried.

    "This is something that everyone has known for years," says Rabbi Arthur Blecher, who noted the trend in last year's The New American Judaism: The Way Forward on Challenging Issues from Intermarriage to Jewish Identity. "Social workers, rabbis, and certainly Jews. No one knows exactly why. It is not as though the Jews are saying 'Gee, I would like to marry a Catholic…'"

    While no one has formally studied the question, sociologist Steven Cohen, a professor at New York's Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, boils the phenomenon down to one word: geography.

    "Jews are concentrated in the Northeast, and so are Catholics," he says. "People tend to marry people they encounter. I can't say that the Jews have any special affection for people who are Catholic."
     
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  120. “It reveals that mummies were closely related to ancient Middle Easterners, hinting that northern Africans might have different genetic roots from people south of the Sahara desert.”

    So ancient Pharaohs resemtled Yul Brynner. Cecil B. DeMille was way ahead of his time, who knew, who could’ve guessed it?

    This is obviously a racist finding. Where’s Ta-Nahesi Coates when you need him to weigh in on this weighty matter? I think we should all just hang tight ’til Ta-Nahesi (Egpytian name, originally?) gives his official opinion.

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  121. @Moshe
    Does it make me a Semite that I never heard of this guy, like in any context whatsoever?

    The only non echo chamber blind spot that I'm aware of in my knowledge relates to sports. On most other subjects that aren't the purview of some very small set of people I'm not fully ignorant and could be expected to have heard of someone whom so many others appear to have not only heard of but be intimately familiar with.

    Is this an age gap? I mean is he a big deal to only either Boomers or Millennials???

    Not only was Woolery a game show host, as others have mentioned, but he was a songwriter in the 1960s and penned the Avant Garde’s minor hit “Naturally Stoned.”

    Ironically, he’s namedropped in a minor hit song by the Beastie Boys, who were Jewish. His name appears in the first verse of the tune, which got to #36 on the Hot 100 chart in 1989. The group has gotten so politically correct that I wonder if they’ll try to have his name removed from the song for future pressings of the album.

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  122. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:
    @attilathehen
    Here is what Paul Lafargue thought himself to be: http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/social-sciences-and-law/political-science-biographies/paul-lafargue

    Given that Jews marry blacks/Asians, Lafargue fits the bill.

    Jews actually tend to marry white Catholics when they intermarry. Blacks and Asians generally aren’t Catholic:

    http://www.interfaithfamily.com/news_and_opinion/synagogues_and_the_jewish_community/Why_Do_Jews_Marry_Catholics.shtml

    A recent landmark study of Americans’ religious behavior confirmed what many observers of intermarriage have often suggested, but never proven: when Jews intermarry, they disproportionately marry Catholics.

    According to the U.S. Religion Landscape Survey conducted by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 39% of intermarried Jews are married to Catholics, even though Protestants outnumber Catholics in the U.S. by nearly two to one. Only 23% of intermarried Jews are married to Protestants. Overall, slightly less than a third of all married Jews are intermarried.

    “This is something that everyone has known for years,” says Rabbi Arthur Blecher, who noted the trend in last year’s The New American Judaism: The Way Forward on Challenging Issues from Intermarriage to Jewish Identity. “Social workers, rabbis, and certainly Jews. No one knows exactly why. It is not as though the Jews are saying ‘Gee, I would like to marry a Catholic…’”

    While no one has formally studied the question, sociologist Steven Cohen, a professor at New York’s Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, boils the phenomenon down to one word: geography.

    “Jews are concentrated in the Northeast, and so are Catholics,” he says. “People tend to marry people they encounter. I can’t say that the Jews have any special affection for people who are Catholic.”

    Read More
    • Replies: @attilathehen
    Here's a youtube that deal with "Jews of color."

    There are about 15 million Jews in the world. Let's say 25% are black/Asian admixture (and this is growing). That means 25% are not "white." Let's take 2 European countries that total about 15 million: Czech Republic and Slovakia. These 2 nations do not have 25% nonwhites in their populations.

    By 2050 more than 50% of Jews will be non-white. And their IQs are dropping. Israeli Jewish IQ is only 93. More than 1/2 of all Jews now live in Israel. Israel is now Little Egypt.

    Also, you mentioned white Catholics. The article does not specify the colors of Catholics. When Jews marry RCC they marry Puerto Ricans, Columbians, Cubans - many of whom are black.

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  123. @syonredux

    Lenin’s father was a Chuvash or Kalmyk.
     

    Lenin's father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs; his ethnic origins remain unclear, with suggestions being made that he was Russian, Chuvash, Mordvin, or Kalmyk.[2] Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility.[3] Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863.[4] Well educated and from a relatively prosperous background, she was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a Russian Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity.
     
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Lenin

    So, half Mongol, half Jew.

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  124. @Dave Pinsen
    Alexander's army is estimated to have averaged a strength of about 40,000 men -- enough to defeat enemies in battle, but not enough to occupy all the lands he conquered, so he had to make accommodations. In India, for example, he put the king he'd just defeated at the battle of Hydaspes back in charge.

    Alexander’s army is estimated to have averaged a strength of about 40,000 men

    That’s probably a high estimate though not an inordinate one. 30,000-40,000, including light troops and baggage train, was likely the outer boundary given the logistic constraints of the time (armies had to subsist through the areas it marched).

    In any case, as attrition mounted throughout his campaigns, much of his strength was made up by local recruits and mercenaries, to the great discontent of Macedonians and Greeks.

    In India, for example, he put the king he’d just defeated at the battle of Hydaspes back in charge.

    Alexander’s army lost a massive number of men on the return trip from Hydaspes to Susa in the Gedrosian Desert.

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    • Replies: @Johann Ricke

    Alexander’s army lost a massive number of men on the return trip from Hydaspes to Susa in the Gedrosian Desert.
     
    My impression is that armies on the march did not routinely boil their water, and this was a source of all kinds of illnesses, in addition to the mosquito-borne ones, which were also devastating. Of course, in certain areas, obtaining combustible material in the quantities necessary to boil the amounts of water consumed daily by an entire army was a difficult task.
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  125. @ANON
    The Egyptian population has been doing anything but "tanking" in the modern era.

    According to the genetic study, they are not really “Egyptian” any more.

    That’s why I wrote “native”.

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  126. @Father O'Hara
    If blacks came to Egypt as slaves,and Egypt eventually wound up with black pharaohs,I'd say that was quite the immigrant success story!

    Haha, that’s a good comment! But I think the timeline went the other way: the Kushite Pharaohs were in the 8th and 7th century BC, while the Muslim invasion and slave importation was from the 7th century AD.

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  127. @Anonymous
    Jews actually tend to marry white Catholics when they intermarry. Blacks and Asians generally aren't Catholic:

    http://www.interfaithfamily.com/news_and_opinion/synagogues_and_the_jewish_community/Why_Do_Jews_Marry_Catholics.shtml

    A recent landmark study of Americans' religious behavior confirmed what many observers of intermarriage have often suggested, but never proven: when Jews intermarry, they disproportionately marry Catholics.

    According to the U.S. Religion Landscape Survey conducted by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 39% of intermarried Jews are married to Catholics, even though Protestants outnumber Catholics in the U.S. by nearly two to one. Only 23% of intermarried Jews are married to Protestants. Overall, slightly less than a third of all married Jews are intermarried.

    "This is something that everyone has known for years," says Rabbi Arthur Blecher, who noted the trend in last year's The New American Judaism: The Way Forward on Challenging Issues from Intermarriage to Jewish Identity. "Social workers, rabbis, and certainly Jews. No one knows exactly why. It is not as though the Jews are saying 'Gee, I would like to marry a Catholic…'"

    While no one has formally studied the question, sociologist Steven Cohen, a professor at New York's Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, boils the phenomenon down to one word: geography.

    "Jews are concentrated in the Northeast, and so are Catholics," he says. "People tend to marry people they encounter. I can't say that the Jews have any special affection for people who are Catholic."
     

    Here’s a youtube that deal with “Jews of color.”

    There are about 15 million Jews in the world. Let’s say 25% are black/Asian admixture (and this is growing). That means 25% are not “white.” Let’s take 2 European countries that total about 15 million: Czech Republic and Slovakia. These 2 nations do not have 25% nonwhites in their populations.

    By 2050 more than 50% of Jews will be non-white. And their IQs are dropping. Israeli Jewish IQ is only 93. More than 1/2 of all Jews now live in Israel. Israel is now Little Egypt.

    Also, you mentioned white Catholics. The article does not specify the colors of Catholics. When Jews marry RCC they marry Puerto Ricans, Columbians, Cubans – many of whom are black.

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    • Replies: @Anonymous
    Most Jews around the world are Ashkenazi. The remainder are mainly Sephardic and Mizrahi. 25% aren't black/Asian admixture. I'm not sure where you got that figure from. You haven't posted any sources.

    The article didn't specify because most American Catholics are white. If Jews were primarily intermarrying with Puerto Ricans, Colombians, and Cubans, they would have specified Hispanic intermarriage rather than Catholic intermarriage since those groups are primarily identified as Hispanics rather than Catholics.

    Jews actually intermarry less than whites, Catholics and Protestants:

    http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2009/12/09/jewish-intermarriage/

    The Jewish intermarriage rate of about 50 percent is extremely low, given environmental odds of intermarriage of 98 percent. This compares with ethnic intermarriage rates of 80 percent for U.S.-born whites (Alba 2000:218-220) and religious intermarriage rates of 38 percent for Catholics and 65 percent for moderate Protestants (Sherkat 2004), each of which would be expected to have far lower intermarriage rates than Jews given the greater size of the groups.
     
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  128. @Twinkie

    Alexander’s army is estimated to have averaged a strength of about 40,000 men
     
    That's probably a high estimate though not an inordinate one. 30,000-40,000, including light troops and baggage train, was likely the outer boundary given the logistic constraints of the time (armies had to subsist through the areas it marched).

    In any case, as attrition mounted throughout his campaigns, much of his strength was made up by local recruits and mercenaries, to the great discontent of Macedonians and Greeks.

    In India, for example, he put the king he’d just defeated at the battle of Hydaspes back in charge.
     
    Alexander's army lost a massive number of men on the return trip from Hydaspes to Susa in the Gedrosian Desert.

    Alexander’s army lost a massive number of men on the return trip from Hydaspes to Susa in the Gedrosian Desert.

    My impression is that armies on the march did not routinely boil their water, and this was a source of all kinds of illnesses, in addition to the mosquito-borne ones, which were also devastating. Of course, in certain areas, obtaining combustible material in the quantities necessary to boil the amounts of water consumed daily by an entire army was a difficult task.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Twinkie

    My impression is that armies on the march did not routinely boil their water
     
    Ancient armies sometimes carried vinegar for water purification. Romans certainly did as a part of the standard legionary kit.

    Also, armies on the march generally fared much better than armies in a siege. Try to imagine 30,000 people (plus horses) trying to draw food and water in a small, already-devastated area. Try to imagine the hygiene consideration given the lack of modern sanitation techniques. People dropped like flies once an army was stationary.

    The passage through Gedrosia was exceptional - marching a large army through a desert was just foolish, even with a fleet accompanying on the coast.
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  129. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:
    @attilathehen
    Here's a youtube that deal with "Jews of color."

    There are about 15 million Jews in the world. Let's say 25% are black/Asian admixture (and this is growing). That means 25% are not "white." Let's take 2 European countries that total about 15 million: Czech Republic and Slovakia. These 2 nations do not have 25% nonwhites in their populations.

    By 2050 more than 50% of Jews will be non-white. And their IQs are dropping. Israeli Jewish IQ is only 93. More than 1/2 of all Jews now live in Israel. Israel is now Little Egypt.

    Also, you mentioned white Catholics. The article does not specify the colors of Catholics. When Jews marry RCC they marry Puerto Ricans, Columbians, Cubans - many of whom are black.

    Most Jews around the world are Ashkenazi. The remainder are mainly Sephardic and Mizrahi. 25% aren’t black/Asian admixture. I’m not sure where you got that figure from. You haven’t posted any sources.

    The article didn’t specify because most American Catholics are white. If Jews were primarily intermarrying with Puerto Ricans, Colombians, and Cubans, they would have specified Hispanic intermarriage rather than Catholic intermarriage since those groups are primarily identified as Hispanics rather than Catholics.

    Jews actually intermarry less than whites, Catholics and Protestants:

    http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2009/12/09/jewish-intermarriage/

    The Jewish intermarriage rate of about 50 percent is extremely low, given environmental odds of intermarriage of 98 percent. This compares with ethnic intermarriage rates of 80 percent for U.S.-born whites (Alba 2000:218-220) and religious intermarriage rates of 38 percent for Catholics and 65 percent for moderate Protestants (Sherkat 2004), each of which would be expected to have far lower intermarriage rates than Jews given the greater size of the groups.

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  130. @Johann Ricke

    Alexander’s army lost a massive number of men on the return trip from Hydaspes to Susa in the Gedrosian Desert.
     
    My impression is that armies on the march did not routinely boil their water, and this was a source of all kinds of illnesses, in addition to the mosquito-borne ones, which were also devastating. Of course, in certain areas, obtaining combustible material in the quantities necessary to boil the amounts of water consumed daily by an entire army was a difficult task.

    My impression is that armies on the march did not routinely boil their water

    Ancient armies sometimes carried vinegar for water purification. Romans certainly did as a part of the standard legionary kit.

    Also, armies on the march generally fared much better than armies in a siege. Try to imagine 30,000 people (plus horses) trying to draw food and water in a small, already-devastated area. Try to imagine the hygiene consideration given the lack of modern sanitation techniques. People dropped like flies once an army was stationary.

    The passage through Gedrosia was exceptional – marching a large army through a desert was just foolish, even with a fleet accompanying on the coast.

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  131. @Old Palo Altan
    Thirteen of the sainted Nicholas II's 16 great-great-grandparents were German, and two were Danish.
    The only "Russian" amongst them was Paul I, who was himself three-quarters German, Danish, and Swedish.
    And even those four "Russians" were most likely Rurikids, that is, Scandinavian by ancestry.
    No fringes there, thank you very much.

    You would have thought that the royal German cousins of Germany, Russia, and the UK could have avoided WWI.

    What a pointless war. They didn’t even know what they were fighting over. Churchill said that if America had stayed out they would have eventually worked something out.

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  132. @unzerker

    How did Egypt become more subsaharan?
     
    Continuous migration down the Nile and most importantly: the millions of black slaves the Muslims brought in.

    Continuous migration down the Nile and most importantly: the millions of black slaves the Muslims brought in.

    But those poor chaps got orchidectomies and penectomies. Not good for the gene flow.

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  133. @Malcolm X-Lax
    Once while visiting the Monterey Peninsula, about 15 years ago, I saw Chuck Woolery walking along Lighthouse Blvd in Pacific Grove with his family. It was like seeing Jesus of Nazareth.

    Once while visiting the Monterey Peninsula, about 15 years ago, I saw Chuck Woolery walking along Lighthouse Blvd in Pacific Grove with his family. It was like seeing Jesus of Nazareth.

    Walking on medical waste and old tires doesn’t make one a Messiah.

    Oh, wait, you mean Monterey, California.

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  134. @unzerker

    Only the upper classes got mummified.
     
    Not at all. Mummification was so common in ancient Egypt and subsequently mummies were so plentiful that in the 19th century they would be used to make medicine, pigment or simply used as fuel.

    Very true. Even low class Egyptians wanted an afterlife.

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  135. @Malcolm X-Lax
    Once while visiting the Monterey Peninsula, about 15 years ago, I saw Chuck Woolery walking along Lighthouse Blvd in Pacific Grove with his family. It was like seeing Jesus of Nazareth.

    I understand he would often be followed by groups of lepers as he made the rounds in LA.
    They would cry out,”Let me but touch the hem of your Bernini suit and I will be healed!”

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