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"A General Intelligence Factor in Dogs"

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From Intelligence:

A general intelligence factor in dogs

Rosalind Arden, Mark James Adams,

The structure of cognitive abilities in dogs is similar to that found in people.

- Dogs that solved problems more quickly were also more accurate.
- Dogs’ cognitive abilities can be tested quickly, like those of people.
- Bigger individual differences studies on dog cognition will contribute to cognitive epidemiology.


Hundreds of studies have shown that, in people, cognitive abilities overlap yielding an underlying ‘g’ factor, which explains much of the variance. We assessed individual differences in cognitive abilities in 68 border collies to determine the structure of intelligence in dogs. We administered four configurations of a detour test and repeated trials of two choice tasks (point-following and quantity-discrimination). We used confirmatory factor analysis to test alternative models explaining test performance. The best-fitting model was a hierarchical model with three lower-order factors for the detour time, choice time, and choice score and a higher order factor; these accounted jointly for 68% of the variance in task scores. The higher order factor alone accounted for 17% of the variance. Dogs that quickly completed the detour tasks also tended to score highly on the choice tasks; this could be explained by a general intelligence factor. Learning about g in non human species is an essential component of developing a complete theory of g; this is feasible because testing cognitive abilities in other species does not depend on ecologically relevant tests. Discovering the place of g among fitness-bearing traits in other species will constitute a major advance in understanding the evolution of intelligence.

The study in this paper was done on 68 youngish border collies from farms in Wales. Border collies are famously energetic and trainable.

Our results indicate that even within one breed of dog, where the sample was designed to have a relatively homogeneous background, there is variability in test scores. The phenotypic structure of cognitive abilities in dogs is similar to that found in people; a dog that is fast and accurate at one task has a propensity to be fast and accurate at another. It may seem obvious that once a detour task (finding the treat behind a barrier) has been solved in one form, the solution to the other forms will follow naturally, but dogs are not people. Experiments have shown that dogs’ problem-solving skills do not transfer readily from one problem to a different form of the same problem as ours do (Osthaus, Marlow, & Ducat, 2010). The g factor we report is consistent with the prediction made by the many experts in the ‘dog world’ (trainers, veterinarians, members of dog societies, and farmers) who were consulted in the early stages of this study. Those experts said that in their experience some dogs were more likely to catch-on, learn and solve problems more quickly than others.

Pets seemed to vary notably in intelligence. My wife’s family had to move from the Austin neighborhood in Chicago to a distant exurban farm from which her parents commuted to their Chicago jobs. They took in dozens of dogs from their city friends (“Fido went to live on a farm” isn’t always a euphemism). The dogs differed sharply in personality and intelligence.

Or, for example, consider my two pet rabbits who lived in the backyard. One reacted to almost being grabbed by a giant hawk by immediately setting about digging a 15 foot long tunnel under a concrete floor, giving himself two exits. It took us months to figure out where all the dirt, like in The Great Escape, was coming from. The other one never noticed raptors, including the chicken hawk that sat on a chair 3 feet from him.

As a child, I owned, in succession over 14-years, five identical-looking blue parakeets named Tweeter. (I don’t like change.) Tweeters 1, 3, and 4 were pretty sharp, while Tweeters 2 and 5 were duds.


87 Comments to ""A General Intelligence Factor in Dogs""

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  1. That Border Collie looks like a pig.

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  2. says:
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    “five identical-looking blue parakeets named Tweeter”

    Is Sailer the George Foreman of HBD?

    Didn’t Foreman name all his kids George?

  3. We got a shelter kitten that had been found in the middle of the street. Even at age 3 it doesn’t seem to have mastered object permanence (even though it loves cat-treats, it ignores them even if it’s seen and heard them being placed out of direct sight) or alternate paths (scratching at the bedroom door even though the bathroom route would lead to the same place). It also refuses to un-learn that my feet are fun to wrestle, even though its claws now do serious damage (when it was a kitten I could ignore them).

  4. We’re on our third dog, an Australian Shepherd, after owning a pair of beagles. The Aussie is supposed to be a very intelligent breed but our beagles were clever enough when they wanted to be (good example of beagle ingenuity here). The biggest difference between the breeds we’ve noted is that the Aussie is very attuned to and eager to please her people and can be trusted with the run of the house when we’re home. Our beagles spent 15+ years penned into our kitchen/family room because they’d like as not pee on the carpet out of spite when you weren’t looking and sometimes even if you were. The Aussie is very observant and figured out that when I blow dry my hair (not a daily occurrence) I’m usually heading out without her and I’ll find her sitting in her crate when I reach the bottom of the stairs.

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  5. Border Collies take time to train. As a short cut surely shepherds have learned to identify physical traits in pups that indicate potential future intelligence. Any info on what those traits may be

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  6. Probably faster to just identify smart pups.

  7. Oh, but were you aware there’s far more variation within dog breeds than between dog breeds?

    ( /s )

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  8. “Dozens of dogs”?? 24? 36? 48 dogs? WTF is wrong with your wife’s family? How entrenched are you in that relationship? Run.

    5 birds named Tweeter- then you’d think you’d owe it to their legacy to do a better job tweeting. Engage these cuck journalists. They all read you. Make them admit it. Make them bow down to you Steve!!!

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  9. How can you refer to your own pet as “it”? Lol

  10. Having owned four dogs over a few decades I have watched them choose and obey on a daily basis.
    I had a white dog who was dumb but could run like a grey hound, an aloof black dog who knew it all and dominated the white one. I had a brown one who was mid level intelligent but was all dog, she protected me, killed groundhogs in the fields and followed me everywhere. My latest version of dog is too smart for her own good.
    The one thing I would say is intelligence in dogs might help them if they were alone on their own resources, scrabbling to survive while stealing a haunch of that dead deer from the wolfpack. But occasionally intelligence can be counterproductive for dogs due to the human factor in their environment . Got to keep the human happy…right? If you are a really smart dog and want your own way(like a lot of Border Collies), your stubbornness will be interpreted as bullheaded stupidity and its off to the pound for you. Generally there are more humans who reward slavish obedience than freedom of choice.
    But yeah I don’t see how anyone could say dogs don’t think and that they are animals who just react solely to their instincts, I’ve seen them make choices for thirty years…”Should I roll in that turd or just keep walking?”
    What is the intelligent choice?

  11. says:
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    Steve: does your wife look back fondly on her farm years? I want to move from the city to a distant exurban farm but don’t want to torpedo my kids’ childhoods. (Also farm country is the richest county in the country so the schools are way better.)

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  12. She was bored at the local farm town public high school, but thrived when the she got into a good catholic girls school in Joliet.

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  13. P.S. Ancient tip on buying a collie: don’t buy one from Wales. It might only understand Welsh.

  14. ”- Dogs that solved problems more quickly were also more accurate”

    The ”smarter” ones are those who are good ( ”fast and accurate”) to learn (most of all) human instructions***

    Solve specially SCHOOL (domestication or gratification) problems, teacher.

    I don’t understand why h-B-d be so surprised at the relationship between ”intelligence” (cognition) and conformity (specially in the academia)… even ”when” (always) the system to do stupid actions like en masse immigration….

    Border collies are the alpha +’s of the ”dognity”…

    ”Fast and accurate”

    Sometimes to be fast mean not to be accurate….

    ”As a child, I owned, in succession over 14-years, five identical-looking blue parakeets named Tweeter. (I don’t like change.) Tweeters 1, 3, and 4 were pretty sharp, while Tweeters 2 and 5 were duds.”

    Thanks for keeping me informed…..

    As I understand by now, for most of the human populations that has no Jewish ancestry, and especially Ashkenazi, there is a close relationship between all KIND of intelligence (or PART of ” ” ” mechanical or operational intelligence ” ” ‘= cognition). Therefore, for most humans, g psychometric factor will be found, but that reverberates on the type of cognitive profile that has prevailed in human demographics and not a supposedly universal nature of human beings, that is, such as walking straight and have two eyes.

    Yes, there is g factor for cognitive ability and is found in all species, even in microorganisms, the ability to recognize ( specie-specific) functional, constructive or logical patterns and most of the non-human animals, especially those of lower evolutionary scale, it will so narrowly ” selfish ‘or directed to their own survive while sociability tends to share this animus for the maintenance of life, creating altruism or share the sense of self-preservation (group-amalgamated and shared instinct).

    And surprisingly the Ashkenazi are one of the few groups that has been unable to establish civilizations, despite their superior capabilities. Why *** First, because of the small size of the groups (I still try to understand why the Germans have increased both in demographics and the Swedes did not, despite the comparatively larger territory …. this is why some populations grew much more than others **). Interestingly, the territory, the supply of food and prosperity of long-term material, may have a role.

    Second, Ashkenazi eliminated somehow their populations with less cognitive capacity for urban regions basically verbal and numerical skills, producing a population where the majority have adaptation skills in densely populated regions and it is known that all civilization tends to sprout in the virgin fields, that is, having the need for explorers and large proportion of cheap labor to conquer and establish new borders and vital needs.

    And third, the own cognitive profile (individual and predominant) of Ashkenazi the disadvantage to be able, as a group, to establish the foundations of a society despise the huge religious influences, with Christianity and Islam, they also have been shown preponderant while an outlier class of ‘social engineers’ (Marxism is the new Christianity as orange is the new black) and merchants.

    the g factor of the real world, can be detected in each of the everyday attitude. In each smart attitude (pragmatic or rational), and even in ” stupid ” attitudes, because the g factor is the skeleton of cognition. However, it is very clear, including in political terms left and right dichotomy, that the g factor between humans displays an diverse approach or variability in analytical emphasis and potentially (re) actions.

    The part where personality types matter to compose the intelligence of the social species.

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  15. I’ve had all sorts of pets over the years. I’m a little skeptical about measuring animal IQ simply because I have yet had a cat finish any of the exams I’ve given him. Maybe they are just slackers. Maybe they are too dumb to finish. Maybe they struggled to hold a pencil, lacking a thumb.

    Of course, only haters think biology is real so I’m probably on thin ice asserting that my pets even have intelligence.

    In all seriousness, I think I’d be more interested in ways to test border collies for border collie-ness. Human intelligence is relevant to humans, not goldfish. If my fish suddenly start solving math problems I’m flushing them down the bowl.

  16. My wife and I lived on a fertile, 5 acre, exurban farm for 14 years. Neither of us were raised on a farm. She loves gardening, I am a handyman. So I speak from intimate experience when I tell you that you will need every skill in the human toolbox as well as every tool in the human toolbox were you to move onto a farm.

    You will be surrounded by animals. This is good. Humans today suffer from a dearth of contact with other living species–hauling 10 tons of fish aboard a trawler doesn’t count. Ducks, chickens, goats, sheep, horses and cows, dogs and cats–they form a community, not merely an aggregation, a real community. They are all aware of one another and socially interact with each other. They like one another, enjoy each other’s company and suffer a sense of loss when one of the community is killed or dies.

    You will learn more about human nature from studying animal nature than all the scholastically trained anthropologists in the world know combined. You (plural) will deal with more deaths than you think you can bear, Coyotes, hawks, eagles, raccoons etc all want to dine at your table. Both to protect your community and to eat, you will learn to kill some animals. This will teach you some surprising things about yourself. It will also teach you the meaning of existentialism, that either/or is not just a logical proposition or transistor gate. As compensation for your frequent encounters with the grim reaper, you will see many births.

    Having witnessed animals mating, fighting, being born and dying, your children will become much wiser than city children. City children will be craftier and more worldly (in a limited sense) than your farm-raised children, but they will suffer from a crippling, lopsided blindness in their dealings with the world around them. They will be literally creatures of the hot-house, puffed up and near-perfect in appearance, but soft in texture and bland in flavor.

    Although living on a farm is the hardest work you can undertake, and perhaps the least rewarding in terms of profitability, it is exceedingly rewarding in the sense of grounding you in this world, our living planet. You will eat better than the wealthiest person in the world who dines nightly at restaurants which pride themselves on serving only locally sourced food–because you will be the source from which that food comes. You and your family can take pride in growing and eating the best meats, making the best cheeses, eating the freshest berries etc. You will become healthy as a horse because you will work and eat like a horse.

    Not for nothing did Homer begin the Odyssey with the image of Odysseus pining on the shore of Calypso’s island wishing to return home if only long enough to see the smoke rise from the chimney of his farm.

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  17. I live where you are contemplating moving. Sailer readers are very welcome. My older child loves it and will never leave. Younger child is out exploring the world, but I suspect he will be back. Warning: depending on what part of the county you are considering, private schools are pretty entrenched and a near social obligation.

  18. I’ve only seen one person deny that some breeds are smarter than others. It was when someone used the argument that races of people might vary in intelligence just as breeds of dogs do. The PC believer then denied that dog breeds varied in intelligence.

    Curiouser and curiouser.

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  19. Steve, you missed the funniest pull quote from this article.

    Although we cannot calculate empirically the impact of range-restriction (of intelligence) on our results we surmise that our sample of farm dogs is somewhat analogous to a human university student population because farm dogs at the low tail of the intelligence distribution are more likely to be given away as companion animals.

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  20. Dunno’ why, but your story about Tweeters 1-5 is one of the funniest things I’ve ever read!!

  21. They say Dobermans are more prone to being gun shy which is why they are not use so much for military or police work. The quick and dirty test when picking a puppy is to shake a can of pennies right by their head to see how they react. If they startle then its a pet.

  22. I had two German Shepherds bitches (spayed). One was a lot more “doggy” than the other. The smarter one was alpha, and could be a bit of a bully. When the alpha passed away, the beta segued effortlessly into alpha-ing other dogs in the neighborhood. When she passed away, it ruined me for ever having another dog. I still get misty-eyed over them.

    • Agree: dc.sunsets
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  23. Although the Holy Quran instructs us that while the Jooos are sons of pigs and apes, nothing is said about which breeds of dogs —all of them unclean and despicable— have the most salient jooooish characteristics. But the breeds with the longest noses, e.g., wolfhounds, salukis, standard collies, etc., seem to have the smallest brains and the lowest intelligence. Quelle merde! Perhaps Santoculto, as a diversion from his illuminations on why we Ashkenazi are incompetent at establishing civilizations, can take on a project of identifying the least and most Ashkenazi-like dog breeds?

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  24. Its always fascinated me that , if you discuss ‘breed’, people readily acknowledge that, amongst dogs, there is a wide variety in behavior and that it is innate to the breed not the species. OTOH if you then suggest that there are human ‘breeds’ with similar variation in behavior etc they will argue with you and, of course, claim that is racist.

    Years ago, I was amazed when I took my city born and raised Irish Setter to the woods where he could run free. He had never been to the woods before but when he came upon some quail hidden in the brush he froze and assumed a ‘pointing’ stance to alert me that there was ‘game’ in the brush. You may not be able to ‘teach an old dog new tricks’ but it seems some breeds never forget the tricks their ancestors learned.

  25. @That Border Collie looks like a pig.

    border corries taste rike pig?

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  26. What breeds – you mean those social constructs they call “poodles”, “Rottweilers”, etc?

  27. Cryptogenic [AKA "Gentile Ben"]
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    Border Collies take time to train.

    Harpending and Cochran note in The 10,000 Year Explosion that Border Collies can master a task after five repetitions and repeat it accurately 95% of the time, in contrast to a poor Bassett Hound who requires over a hundred repetitions and rarely repeats the task correctly.

    Kinda reminds me of Black Autumn students.

  28. says:
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    Differences across dog breeds is due to their parents. Some dog parents don’t bark at their pups enough. Early puppyhood intervention would make all dog breeds equally intelligent, as well as equally good at hunting and sensitive to scent.

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  29. says:
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    farm dogs at the low tail of the intelligence distribution are more likely to be given away as companion animals

    I suspect these dogs are being given away because they are mutants. Apparently, they have two tails, a low tail and a high tail.

  30. says:
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    Is a ‘blue parakeet’ the same bird which is generally known as a budgerigar or ‘budgie’ in Australia and England?

    Apparently, ‘budgerigar’ is not a native Australian Aborigine term, but some sort of 18th century cockney English slang meaning ‘good’.

  31. “That Border Collie looks like a pig.”

    That’s the result of selective breeding. That is actually the Generation X of border collies. Pigs are reputed to be very intelligent creatures. (According to “Animal Farm,” they succeeded in taking over Manor Farm after expelling farmer Jones and devising all sorts of clever terms, like Thomas Jefferson, such as “all animals are created equal,” and even mastered the art of walking on two legs.) What dog geneticists have discovered is that the more you breed for intelligence the more the border collie comes to resemble a pig.

  32. “As a child, I owned, in succession over 14-years, five identical-looking blue parakeets named Tweeter. (I don’t like change.) Tweeters 1, 3, and 4 were pretty sharp, while Tweeters 2 and 5 were duds.”

    I hope you at least thought to change their numbers—and gave them Roman Numerals to distinguish one from the other, like Super Bowls and English monarchs and Popes.

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  33. Dogs that think they are poodles.

  34. Really smart dogs can lie to you. I’ve had two in the last 50 years. Got to watch them.

  35. WGG [AKA "World's Greatest Grandson"]
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    Oh man, beagles. Ours is very smart, but also very independent and apathetic to human endeavors. I have spent ten years and thousands of dollars trying to keep the beagle from escaping several different yards.

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  36. Cannot resist…

    Cats are superior!

    (saying this as a person, who lives in the city and sees each day dogs forcing their hapless so called “masters” into rain and snow).

  37. Until a dog labeled “unintelligent” or “less trainable” creates research to refute these findings.

  38. Even if dogs were unintelligent do you think the store chain would have named itself PetStupid?

  39. I have read recently that research in dog intelligence is still growing. But it was practically nonexistent before 1990s. Everybody who had a dog knew how intelligent dogs were but scientists just kept talking about the instinct and were dismissive. Then in 1990s dog mania started among yuppies (why?) and there were countless stories and references about dogs in the New Yorker for instance. I remember then thinking that perhaps Jews overcame their prejudice against dogs and finally discovered white people’s joy of having a dog. Now I wonder whether this scientific interest in dogs and money that pay for the research stems from this Jewish neophytic fascination with dogs. In the future, if there is one, when muslims begin to have dogs it will be a sure sign they are assimilating into our culture. Dogs make as human.

  40. “When she passed away, it ruined me for ever having another dog. I still get misty-eyed over them.”

    Did you know that purebred GSDs often end up in kill shelters? Many ordinary people aren’t prepared for how active the breed is, how much attention and even grooming the dogs require.

    Being “people dogs”, shepherds quickly become depressed in shelters, so much so that it hinders their chances of being adopted.

    It breaks my heart to know there are healthy, adoptable shepherds in desperate need of loving forever homes. I see them all the time on Facebook. You could give and receive years of companionship if you adopted one.

  41. I’ve only seen one person deny that some breeds are smarter than others. It was when someone used the argument that races of people might vary in intelligence just as breeds of dogs do. The PC believer then denied that dog breeds varied in intelligence.

    Curiouser and curiouser.

    That is because the dog breed analogy with human races is so perfectly apt and so perfectly self-evident that it has to be met with strident dismissal when anyone makes the obvious comparison.

    Deep down, PC people know their beliefs are hollow nonsense, but their very beings are defined by those beliefs, so they will deny whatever it takes.

  42. It’s so funny how far you can walk people down that path and they just keep agreeing with you, and all of a sudden you can see them realize their impending Thoughtcrime and instantly derail the train of thought they’re on.

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  43. I think I spelled them out: Tweeter the First, Tweeter the Second, etc.

    The original plan was simply for them all to be Tweeter, for death to have no dominion. But they had distinct personalities despite being as identical as possible.

  44. budgerigar


  45. The smart puppies hear millions of barks growing up.

  46. Animals are pretty interesting in that they demonstrate how large an effect can result from a rather small difference in intelligence.

    We have two cats that are sisters, so they can’t be that far apart in intelligence. Yet one is noticeably smarter than the other one, in ways that could potentially have real-world implications. For example, the smarter one has apparently figured out how doors work, although she can’t open one herself. If she wants to get through a door she starts trying to jump up and grab the knob to turn it. She can’t get enough of a grip to actually turn it, but she clearly understands the basic principle. If the knob had a more grippable design, she’d be able to open doors by herself. She demonstrates problem solving skills in other ways, but that’s the most striking example.

    Like I said, this is a cat. They’re not smart to begin with, and if she’s smarter than her sister, it can’t be by much. But just that tiny amount would probably pay huge dividends in the wild.

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  47. says:
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    Little new here for people who deal with dogs a lot. Heck, differences in personality and, without a doubt, intelligence, are noticeable even within the same litter! And yes, the dogs that learn and obey commands better are also the dogs that solve the new problems better on their own (e.g, opening a cabinet or stealing food when a new opportunity presents itself).

  48. I grew up on a sheep farm in New Zealand. The sheepdogs aren’t usually actively trained, as such. When one of the dogs is getting old a pup will be aquired and be expected to pick up what it is supposed to do from the experienced dogs. First just by watching and then joining in and being berated (or worse) when it makes a mistake. It doesn’t take very long before they know what standard commands like, ‘Waaaaaaaaayooooooo’ or ‘Get in behind, you &%$# @^*$&’ mean.

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  49. farm dogs at the low tail of the intelligence distribution are more likely to be given away as companion animals.

    Tail bounces dog.

  50. Perhaps one of the best known “barkless” dogs is the Basenji. It is actually from Africa and is one of the oldest domesticated …

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  51. Does on-the-job training work with ambitious pigs, too?

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  52. Yeah, Beagles are like that. They follow a scent, wander off and will happily find a new human home for themselves miles away.

    Got a Labrador puppy a few months ago. She enjoyed emptying the water bowl several times a day by trying to swim in it (with front paws only) and began to retrieve everything from the back yard (stones, wood, garden hose, etc.) and bring it into the living room. A gun dog, she’s totally unfazed by loud noises. That last trait is very good, fireworks are very popular around here.

  53. In Europe, pigs are trained to find truffles, but I don’t know the details of the training, or whether particular breeds of pigs are preferred.

  54. A more inclusive, diverse, and vibrant breed of dog would be Collies Without Borders.

  55. Hound breeds are notoriously hard to housebreak. That may be changing in the pet category but hounds still used for hunting are not house pets.

    We had two beagles. Exceptionally dumb dogs but were good at getting into trouble. Loved them both.

  56. Any remake of Lassie Come Home had better star a Black Lab or there’ll be hell to pay.

  57. I never understood why evolution has not produced smarter rabbits or smarter sharks.

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  58. I never understood why evolution has not produced smarter rabbits or smarter sharks.

    It has been argued (correctly, IMO) that a large, active brain is a very expensive piece of biological apparatus to feed and maintain. The animal has to have a significant return on survival (of the species, not the individual) to justify the investment.

    Rabbits survive by procreation (r/K), their niche is to provide lunch for predators which they do quite well with the brain they have. Sharks are apex predators and would quickly eliminate their prey and competitors if any better at what they do – then experience a population collapse for lack of prey.

    It remains to be seen, but my money is on a human population collapse. As an old cartoon said, “War is nature’s way!”

  59. Economist John Kenneth Galbraith said that unless you’ve done farm work you don’t really know what hard work is.

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  60. I had a poodle that climbed a cyclone fence, (multiple times) another that figured out ladders.

  61. We have a cat that could open doors. She started with our front door that we never locked. We’d wake up in the morning with an open door and worry who had opened it. Later she started opening my son’s door after he fell asleep at night.

    She’s gotten too old and decrepit to swing from a door anymore. The last time she did her trick was when our son returned from Iraq and he stayed with us for a week. After he went back she spent the next few days randomly opening his door to see if he was in there.

    She’s in her twenties now. Still one of the smartest animals we’ve ever owned.

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  62. He’s right.

  63. You will become healthy as a horse because you will work and eat like a horse.

    IF you are careful with the chemicals that are such treacherously easy shortcuts. The statistics are not good for those who use a lot of chemicals.

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  64. Damn things make plenty of other noises. Our neighbors owned one. Really smart but also really aggressive.

  65. When discussing intelligence of dog breeds, it’s important to remember that intelligence and trainability are two separate traits. Some dogs (e.g. Border Collies) have both. Others (e.g. Siberian Huskies) are highly intelligent, but not as trainable (or, put another way, more “independent”). Some breeds, of course, rank low on both traits. But such dogs can still make great companions.

    Generally, ancient breeds tend to be intelligent but independent while “constructed” breeds tend to much more trainable.

    Also, it’s important to keep in mind that dog breeds tend to be far more inbred than human races/ethnic groups, so the analogy between the two species is not always proper.

  66. says:
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    You like them Catholic schoolgirls, don’t you? I always knew you were a real horn dog.

  67. “As a child, I owned, in succession over 14-years, five identical-looking blue parakeets named Tweeter. ”

    I thought you owned a cocker spaniel? Isn’t that the dog in your famous Christmas picture that a French rock group used on its CD cover?

  68. Loudoun County, VA?

  69. Miners beg to differ.

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  70. We were certified organic.

    We grew 5 species of apples which we pressed into cider delicious enough that it made your eyes water, filled 1 gallon zip lock bags and froze. Enough to last all year. Asian pears that were so fresh and crunchy their juice would run down your chin when you bit into them. Hazelnuts roasted on our wood stove. Raspberries spread on cookie sheets and frozen. And of course, fresh chicken eggs.

    Sheep for meat. And a border collie to round them up. What a great, great dog. Smart enough to know that her job was to protect everything that belonged on the farm from those things that didn’t. She would play with the ducks and lick the sheep’s faces, but if another cat came near ours or a coyote came by, look out, then she was all business.

  71. It’s a good job they stuck to only one breed of dog.

    OT – Hungarian news site reports Merkel/Erdogan deal to bring ‘refugees’ direct from Turkey to Europe.

    “According to the report, the secret agreement stipulates that 400,000-500,000 immigrants are planned to be transported directly from Turkey onto the European Union’s territory. The migrants would be accepted not only by Germany but they would be distributed among member states by obligation, the paper said”

  72. Miners beg to differ.

    Most might be amazed at how hard it is these days to find a man who will work a jack-leg drill all day.

  73. Steve’s sequential budgerigar naming has a distinguished precedent. Sir Aurel Stein, Hungarian-British scholar-explorer and his fox terriers who accompanied him on journeys through Central Asia and China. All named Dash. (I-VII).

  74. Gold Box Nominee!

  75. “border corries taste rike pig?”

    Took me a moment but quite funny..

  76. Mr. Sailer’s predictive powers are demonstrated again; his bird name was only very slightly off.

  77. But, as usual, off just enough.

  78. Congratulations on your wonderful cat, TWS!

    We had a really smart cat some 35 years ago that learned how to open our refrigerator door by lying on his back and using his back legs cleverly at the edge. I caught him right in the act. I made a furious face, picked him up, and tossed him outside in the garden. He seemed to get the point because he never did it again. The fact that he never did it again was proof-positive to me that he was truly brilliant.

  79. Civilizations need all ‘types of men’, since those whose best strength, his brute strength or muscles, to one that has just your brain as strength.

    The AshkeNAZI has only a few types of men and civilization needs all kinds of specializations, from the gardener to the scientist.

    The Ashkenazi seem to be not only bad for establishing civilizations, after all, they have never produced one for themselves, only if …

    They are also very good to destroy the ‘civilizations’ of others, with their stupid lies, that only the fool can buy as crystalline truth.

    Will reduce his brilliant literary achievement, though it may be being too hasty and biased in

    ” A book that teaches people chosen to be naughty ‘

    And the worst part is that it’s so easy to take control of nations, just be extremely good with everyone, cultivate them in their comfort zones,

    Jews collect enemies, many of them perished, it is true, but still, it’s the samedisgusting story since a long time,

    I thought smart people learn from their mistakes, as I am a fool.

    while real wises, within a political perspective, will collect friends.

    The biggest and easiest means of domination is doing good, something unprecedented in the human story, beginning the truth.

  80. It’s unsurprising that an analysis of dogs of one breed show g. Dogs are bred for particular abilities, and g will represent the collection of abilities the breeders selected for. It would be much more surprising to find g across breeds. Dogs seem to be smart in distinct ways, determined by breed.

    I don’t think, without the artifact of breeding, one dog of one breed can easily be said to be generally smarter than another. We tend to call trainable dogs smart, but there are other versions of dog intelligence.

    If (as I think) the core of g is working memory (more broadly reconceptualized), I would not expect to find it in dogs, whose relative status probably depend more on the quality of particular modules.

  81. My dad was a farm boy. He worked his ass off in school as well, just to get away from the farm.

    One summer my brother and I (14 & 12 respectively) were helping the old man do a serious landscape renovation of the entire property, which took about 5 weeks. I remember my brother asking him if it was like working on the farm. Dad said no, because this hard work was going to end when we were done. The farm is a life sentence of hard labor.

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