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512QZUX2sSL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ Over at The Genetic Literacy Project Jon Entine has a post up, Usain Bolt’s Olympic gold proves again why no Asian, white–or East African–will ever be crowned world’s fastest human. Fifteen years ago Jon wrote Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports And Why We’re Afraid To Talk About It, so he knows something about this topic.

Actually, I think Jon is wrong on this. Better drugs and biological engineering mean that I suspect at some point in the near future the fastest “human” alive is going to be non-African, and, if I had to bet, Chinese. But you know what Jon meant.

There is a lot of detail in Jon’s post because he knows a lot about this topic. But at the end of the day the specific details are less important than the general theoretical framework, which makes it unsurprising that a single group of humans who are genetically related dominate sprinting. Unlike figure skating, sprinting is entirely objective. All that matters are physical inputs. Second, unlike swimming, which is also objective, sprinting seems to have pushed very close to the boundaries of what non-modified or drug-enhanced individuals are capable of. To my knowledge there’s no expectation of a Fosbury Flop in sprinting.

Therefore, sprinting is selecting for raw ability. Training is not irrelevant, but the issue with training is that others can train too. What can’t be mimicked is raw ability due to one’s biological aptitudes and abilities (again, excepting bioengineering). Let’s assume that Olympic caliber sprinters are among the 10,000 fastest humans on the planet, because not all people with the aptitudes become sprinters. Assuming a normal distribution, that’s about five standard deviations above the human norm. I suspect I’m being conservative. Someone like Usain Bolt is probably a six standard deviation unit human. Google tells me that a fit human can run the 100 meter dash in 13.5 seconds. The world record is about 9.5 seconds. The absolute range here is not incredibly large. Small differences in the mean across populations suggest that when you select for extreme individuals those small differences will make all the difference.

If sprinting was less objective, then there would probably be more equality in outcome. I suspect judges would be biased for various reasons, and one set of nations or people of a particular ethnic background dominating a field can get quite embarrassing. But sprinting is rather objective, and the socioeconomic obstacles are low. Given basic nutrition, and the ability to huff it, you have a shot. What matters is the magnitude of your ability.

principlespopulationgenetics One peculiar thing population genetics teaches us that non-adaptive traits are more heritable. This is due to the fact that selection tends to remove variation, selecting for fitter individuals. Humans are good runners, there are entire evolutionary theories based around our biomechanical modifications and adaptations. But there’s really no benefit in running in bursts of 10.5 in the 100 meter dash vs. 9.5. We’re not that sort of ambush predator. There’s probably some heritable variation in burst ability, but it’s small, and not visible in any normal set of tasks among large groups of humans.

But modern competitive sports at the Olympic level is not selecting for normality, it’s selecting from outliers. It isn’t that West Africans were guaranteed to be the best sprinters, it’s just that a priori it shouldn’t be surprising that in such a non-adaptively beneficial trait as running a few seconds faster in the 100 meter dash some populations had the genetic die loaded in their direction.

Note that I’m not denying any sort of selective or adaptive argument. There’s a fair amount of evidence that there is some selection in favor of greater height in Northern Europeans vs. Southern Europeans, which probably explains why Lithuanians are more prominent in basketball in relation to their numbers than Italians. But the selection wasn’t for basketball, and the fact that there is heritable variation suggests that selection wasn’t that strong and unidirectional….

Humans vary. Populations vary too. When you select from the tails of the distribution, the differences between populations are going to be very noticeable. If a sport is objective, and pushing its limits, it will select from the tails of the distribution.

 
• Category: Race/Ethnicity, Science • Tags: Race, Sports 
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  1. Thursday says:

    Does this mean that intelligence, at least past a certain point, is not adaptive? I mean I can tell a just so story that points to some real disadvantages for high IQ.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    heritable quantitative traits are ones which are less likely to have been subject to strong continuous unidirectional selection because genetic variation remains. intelligence is a heritable quantitative trait.

    so yes.
    , @FKA Max
    Cleverness may carry survival costs

    https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4200-cleverness-may-carry-survival-costs/

    Being smart is not always a good thing in the evolutionary race, suggests a new study by Swiss researchers

    If intelligence were always a positive attribute, it would always be selected for by natural selection. But it is not – people and animals have their dolts as well as their Einsteins.

    To evolutionary biologists, that diversity means that theoretically, there must be some cost to being smart. Now for the first time, researchers have shown that in fruit flies at least, it doesn’t always pay to be clever.

    When Frederic Mery and colleagues at the University of Fribourg, pitted fast-learning fruit fly larvae against their more dimwitted cousins in scarce food conditions – the slower fruit flies came out on top.

    “This shows that just having a better ability to learn involves a cost, even when you aren’t using it,” Mery told New Scientist.
     
    Some more interesting thoughts and observations on intelligence and environment/climate adaptations and interactions, and how it affects survival:

    Swiss researchers Fredric Mer[y] and others at the University of Fribourg found that fast learning fruit fly larvae competing against more slow-witted ones in scarce food conditions did not win! More energy was devoted to making and rearranging neural connections in their brains leaving less energy to forage. Decisive action requires consideration of limited alternatives and smart people often out-smart themselves by complicating matters.
    [...]

    Rushton hypothesizes that Mongoloids are intellectually superior to Whites because they evolved in a colder climate, as evidenced by their slight builds and the epicanthic folds of the eyes. However the epicanthic folds are usually regarded as an adaptation to dusty environments. Cold climates favour larger, stronger builds such as Nordic Whites [Patterns of variation in body mass and bill surface area were consistent with Bergmann's and Allen's rules, respectively (small body size and larger bill size in warmer climates), with maximum summer temperature being a strongly weighted predictor of both variables. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26936361]. Pale skin is an adaptation to the cold, maximising vitamin D production. The light eyes of the Nordic are more of an adaptation to cold climates than the dark eyes of the Mongoloid. Eskimos have successfully lived in very cold environments such as Greenland – but so too have Nordics. It does not follow from such an Eskimo presence that they are physiologically better adapted to the cold than Nordics. The Viking settlement in Greenland died out because of cultural factors affecting adaptation during an unusually harsh climatic period, rather than racial factors: J. Diamond “Collapse” (Allan Lane, London 2005). Interestingly enough the Eskimo, a Mongoloid, arrived in the Arctic about 10,000 years ago, probably too late for major physiological changes to occur. Their mean IQ is 91 and they have a visual-spatial score of 90 – yet in the field have superior spatial-visual abilities. It is likely that the IQ tests are flawed because they could not have survived in such a harsh environment without peak spatial-visual skills.

    It has not even been established that the challenges of a cold environment causes high intelligence to evolve. It could very well mean the reverse: that natural selection ensures that only intelligent people survive in cold environments. It may be a fact that high intelligence races are found in cold environments because they were highly intelligent to start with; Rushton commits an “after, therefore because of” fallacy in his reasoning. Nor should the challenges of desert environments be underestimated, where droughts and other challenges existed.
     
    - http://thecross-roads.org/race-culture-nation/25-the-myth-of-east-asian-intellectual-supremacy

    Do more intelligent human beings intentionally locate to more harsh and less inhabitable environments, because they would be outcompeted by their less intelligent peers in more accommodating and less harsh/less difficult-to-survive-in environments?

    Is White flight https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_flight the avoidance, by more intelligent individuals/groups, of direct competition with less intelligent humans, which they would lose?

    Is fight the more dominant survival instinct/mechanism in less intelligent human beings, and flight the more dominant survival instinct/mechanism in more intelligent human beings?

    California to Idaho Relocation- Top 5 Reasons People Make the Move

    https://www.buyidahorealestate.com/blog/california-to-idaho-relocation-top-5-reasons-people-make-the-move.html

    The crime rate in Idaho is the lowest in the West. According to USA.com, Idaho is rated as the sixth least crime-ridden state, and has nearly forty percent less crime than the national average.
     
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  2. @Thursday
    Does this mean that intelligence, at least past a certain point, is not adaptive? I mean I can tell a just so story that points to some real disadvantages for high IQ.

    heritable quantitative traits are ones which are less likely to have been subject to strong continuous unidirectional selection because genetic variation remains. intelligence is a heritable quantitative trait.

    so yes.

    Read More
    • Replies: @RCB
    Mind you there's a difference between the claim that "intelligence differences between populations are due to selection/adaptation" and "human intelligence vis-a-vis chimpanzees is to due selection/adaptation." The latter has to be true. I suspect that the former is at least a little bit true.
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  3. wilson says:

    I don’t think the much more diverse make-up of most team sports is because they are ‘not objective.’ I think it’s because they reward a variety of athletic and mental skills. Basketball is unique among major team sports in rewarding height over virtually any other skill of factor.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    i wasn't talking about team sports above for that reason.
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  4. Lucho says:

    Agreed, but I think people overlook how specialized athletes like Usain Bolt are. A popular meme/joke here is

    “Congratulations Mr. Bolt on winning the 100m dash. Now Let’s see you run a half marathon (21km).”

    Is it wrong to think that sprinters get more hype than they should? Yes, Bolt’s “threepeat” deserves praise, but compare this to triathletes. How about the traits necessary to compete in a triathlon versus the singular ability to dash just a bit more?

    Read More
    • Replies: @RaceRealist88
    Marathon runners have different muscle fiber typing. Bolt has fast twitch fibers, they fire off faster so he cannot run a marathon due to that.
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  5. @wilson
    I don't think the much more diverse make-up of most team sports is because they are 'not objective.' I think it's because they reward a variety of athletic and mental skills. Basketball is unique among major team sports in rewarding height over virtually any other skill of factor.

    i wasn’t talking about team sports above for that reason.

    Read More
    • Replies: @wilson
    Fair enough. You mention basketball at one point, and talk about "modern competitive sports at the Olympic level," so I don't think I was merely being obtuse in thinking you were trying to make a broader point. But since all your analysis focused on an individual sport that is overwhelmingly based a single monolithic ability, maybe I should have known that the other things were irrelevant to you.
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  6. Erelis says:

    Sprinting is selecting for a raw ability. I say something more important as a raw ability as it was more important to human survival–male upper body strength. This is a much more meaningful raw ability than sprinting. In the totality of nature, bi-pedial human speed is pathetic. Distance running yes, but not sprints. I would look to where weight lifting medalists have come from instead to find superior physical human beings.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Roger Sweeny
    Razib is not talking about superiority or inferiority. He is talking about difference. This is a scientific post, not a moral one.
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  7. Robert Ford says: • Website

    Hopes pinned on genetically gifted among cookie-cutter athletes

    http://m.medicalxpress.com/news/2016-08-pinned-genetically-gifted-cookie-cutter-athletes.html

    Read More
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  8. Luke Lea says: • Website

    When you says “non-adaptive traits are more heritable” doesn’t this assume that enough time has passed since the original mutation(s) to allow the allele(s) involved to go to fixation? In the case of human intelligence, might certain minimum levels be adaptive, and might those levels change over time, either positively or negatively, since modern humans haven’t been around that long while the human environment has changed a lot. E.g., the Iceman’s lifestyle strikes me as requiring more intelligence than that of the typical Millennial navigating the world with his (or her) smartphone.

    I’ve probably got this all wrong.

    Read More
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  9. @Erelis
    Sprinting is selecting for a raw ability. I say something more important as a raw ability as it was more important to human survival--male upper body strength. This is a much more meaningful raw ability than sprinting. In the totality of nature, bi-pedial human speed is pathetic. Distance running yes, but not sprints. I would look to where weight lifting medalists have come from instead to find superior physical human beings.

    Razib is not talking about superiority or inferiority. He is talking about difference. This is a scientific post, not a moral one.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    appreciate this comment. you are much nicer than i am!

    to erelis, it's OK, having a small penis is not that big of an issue :-)
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  10. @Roger Sweeny
    Razib is not talking about superiority or inferiority. He is talking about difference. This is a scientific post, not a moral one.

    appreciate this comment. you are much nicer than i am!

    to erelis, it’s OK, having a small penis is not that big of an issue :-)

    Read More
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  11. notanon says:

    So did the idea that an anti malarial adaptation -> sprinting ability not pan out?

    I had a little bet with myself that all the future Chinese 100m gold medal winners would have ancestry from the ex-malarial regions in the south.

    #

    height, IQ etc – could they not be under balancing selection as both would need more energy / resources?

    a sequence something like

    1) average balancing selection for average HG height range due to average dietary inputs across most of the world (broad range)

    2) particularly unusual region/environment selecting for height -> random mutations -> height genes spread among that population

    3) environment changes in that region -> no longer have the diet to support the higher level of height balancing selection -> population comes back under average balancing selection -> height gradually reduces as frequency of height genes drop (or not if the genes simply don’t function without the dietary input i.e. they are only potential height genes)

    4) modern diet intervenes before the height reducing selection is complete so those populations with the earlier height genes (or frequency) from the earlier time shoot up – other populations with the modern diet grow too but not as much because they don’t have those specific height genes (or frequency)

    just an idea but if so the peaks of modern height would be somehow tied to that specific ancestry

    Read More
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  12. wilson says:
    @Razib Khan
    i wasn't talking about team sports above for that reason.

    Fair enough. You mention basketball at one point, and talk about “modern competitive sports at the Olympic level,” so I don’t think I was merely being obtuse in thinking you were trying to make a broader point. But since all your analysis focused on an individual sport that is overwhelmingly based a single monolithic ability, maybe I should have known that the other things were irrelevant to you.

    Read More
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
  13. Neandertals were pretty stumpy in the leg department. But are also currently suspected of being “dash-hunters”. Could they beat “us” (quondam Africans, apparently) in the 100 m.?

    http://www.science20.com/curious_cub/short_legs_neanderthal-84035

    All that means is “we don’t really know that much about what neandertals got up to in the day job (as opposed to being orderly museum specimens)”.
    I’d pay money to watch Usain turn in from an early spring 24-hr fell-running event (with scree, and forest). Somewhere well behind the Nepalese, I suspect.
    And we’re probably all “dumber” than premodern humans, in that sort of event, or lifestyle. But they’d be shit at calculus, so yar boo sucks, what losers.

    Read More
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  14. FKA Max says:
    @Thursday
    Does this mean that intelligence, at least past a certain point, is not adaptive? I mean I can tell a just so story that points to some real disadvantages for high IQ.

    Cleverness may carry survival costs

    https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4200-cleverness-may-carry-survival-costs/

    Being smart is not always a good thing in the evolutionary race, suggests a new study by Swiss researchers

    If intelligence were always a positive attribute, it would always be selected for by natural selection. But it is not – people and animals have their dolts as well as their Einsteins.

    To evolutionary biologists, that diversity means that theoretically, there must be some cost to being smart. Now for the first time, researchers have shown that in fruit flies at least, it doesn’t always pay to be clever.

    When Frederic Mery and colleagues at the University of Fribourg, pitted fast-learning fruit fly larvae against their more dimwitted cousins in scarce food conditions – the slower fruit flies came out on top.

    “This shows that just having a better ability to learn involves a cost, even when you aren’t using it,” Mery told New Scientist.

    Some more interesting thoughts and observations on intelligence and environment/climate adaptations and interactions, and how it affects survival:

    Swiss researchers Fredric Mer[y] and others at the University of Fribourg found that fast learning fruit fly larvae competing against more slow-witted ones in scarce food conditions did not win! More energy was devoted to making and rearranging neural connections in their brains leaving less energy to forage. Decisive action requires consideration of limited alternatives and smart people often out-smart themselves by complicating matters.
    [...]

    Rushton hypothesizes that Mongoloids are intellectually superior to Whites because they evolved in a colder climate, as evidenced by their slight builds and the epicanthic folds of the eyes. However the epicanthic folds are usually regarded as an adaptation to dusty environments. Cold climates favour larger, stronger builds such as Nordic Whites [Patterns of variation in body mass and bill surface area were consistent with Bergmann's and Allen's rules, respectively (small body size and larger bill size in warmer climates), with maximum summer temperature being a strongly weighted predictor of both variables. - http://thecross-roads.org/race-culture-nation/25-the-myth-of-east-asian-intellectual-supremacy

    Do more intelligent human beings intentionally locate to more harsh and less inhabitable environments, because they would be outcompeted by their less intelligent peers in more accommodating and less harsh/less difficult-to-survive-in environments?

    Is White flight https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_flight the avoidance, by more intelligent individuals/groups, of direct competition with less intelligent humans, which they would lose?

    Is fight the more dominant survival instinct/mechanism in less intelligent human beings, and flight the more dominant survival instinct/mechanism in more intelligent human beings?

    California to Idaho Relocation- Top 5 Reasons People Make the Move

    https://www.buyidahorealestate.com/blog/california-to-idaho-relocation-top-5-reasons-people-make-the-move.html

    The crime rate in Idaho is the lowest in the West. According to USA.com, Idaho is rated as the sixth least crime-ridden state, and has nearly forty percent less crime than the national average.

    Read More
    • Replies: @notanon

    The light eyes of the Nordic are more of an adaptation to cold climates than the dark eyes of the Mongoloid.
     
    I don't know so much about cold but if eye color is connected to sun light then there might be three bands
    - equator, too much light, dark eyes
    - north, less light, light eyes
    -far north, less direct light but after reflection off snow, ice and water etc maybe too much again? dark eyes better again?

    (military put camo paint around the eyes on arctic training to reduce reflection into the eyes to prevent snow blindness - caveat, that's why they say they do it - only assuming it works)
    , @Razib Khan
    rushton was full of a lot of shit. i had some email correspondences with him where i told him to stop it, and he refused, even when i pointed out to him how he was full of shit. he said a lot of brave and courageous things that people didn't want to hear, yeah. but he was also mendacious when it suited him. i guess he wasn't a saint, but a human. but whatever.

    second, we know the ancient genetics of light eyes. it has nothing to do with nordics. it predates nordics, who are a mongrel race that emerged in the last 4,000 years. we know this because of ancient DNA. additionally, it looks like the oca2-herc2 mutation was present in the near east during the paleolithic too....

    please refrain from extensive quotations in the comments. it will make me think you are as stupid as sean.

    , @Roger Sweeny
    Decisive action requires consideration of limited alternatives and smart people often out-smart themselves by complicating matters.

    This sounds similar to things that Gerd Gigerenzer and his followers say. Gigerenzer is a psychologist who has written books with titles like Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.

    Jason Collins (Evolving Economics) is a fan. E.g.,
    https://jasoncollins.org/2014/12/02/the-power-of-heuristics/
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  15. notanon says:
    @FKA Max
    Cleverness may carry survival costs

    https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4200-cleverness-may-carry-survival-costs/

    Being smart is not always a good thing in the evolutionary race, suggests a new study by Swiss researchers

    If intelligence were always a positive attribute, it would always be selected for by natural selection. But it is not – people and animals have their dolts as well as their Einsteins.

    To evolutionary biologists, that diversity means that theoretically, there must be some cost to being smart. Now for the first time, researchers have shown that in fruit flies at least, it doesn’t always pay to be clever.

    When Frederic Mery and colleagues at the University of Fribourg, pitted fast-learning fruit fly larvae against their more dimwitted cousins in scarce food conditions – the slower fruit flies came out on top.

    “This shows that just having a better ability to learn involves a cost, even when you aren’t using it,” Mery told New Scientist.
     
    Some more interesting thoughts and observations on intelligence and environment/climate adaptations and interactions, and how it affects survival:

    Swiss researchers Fredric Mer[y] and others at the University of Fribourg found that fast learning fruit fly larvae competing against more slow-witted ones in scarce food conditions did not win! More energy was devoted to making and rearranging neural connections in their brains leaving less energy to forage. Decisive action requires consideration of limited alternatives and smart people often out-smart themselves by complicating matters.
    [...]

    Rushton hypothesizes that Mongoloids are intellectually superior to Whites because they evolved in a colder climate, as evidenced by their slight builds and the epicanthic folds of the eyes. However the epicanthic folds are usually regarded as an adaptation to dusty environments. Cold climates favour larger, stronger builds such as Nordic Whites [Patterns of variation in body mass and bill surface area were consistent with Bergmann's and Allen's rules, respectively (small body size and larger bill size in warmer climates), with maximum summer temperature being a strongly weighted predictor of both variables. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26936361]. Pale skin is an adaptation to the cold, maximising vitamin D production. The light eyes of the Nordic are more of an adaptation to cold climates than the dark eyes of the Mongoloid. Eskimos have successfully lived in very cold environments such as Greenland – but so too have Nordics. It does not follow from such an Eskimo presence that they are physiologically better adapted to the cold than Nordics. The Viking settlement in Greenland died out because of cultural factors affecting adaptation during an unusually harsh climatic period, rather than racial factors: J. Diamond “Collapse” (Allan Lane, London 2005). Interestingly enough the Eskimo, a Mongoloid, arrived in the Arctic about 10,000 years ago, probably too late for major physiological changes to occur. Their mean IQ is 91 and they have a visual-spatial score of 90 – yet in the field have superior spatial-visual abilities. It is likely that the IQ tests are flawed because they could not have survived in such a harsh environment without peak spatial-visual skills.

    It has not even been established that the challenges of a cold environment causes high intelligence to evolve. It could very well mean the reverse: that natural selection ensures that only intelligent people survive in cold environments. It may be a fact that high intelligence races are found in cold environments because they were highly intelligent to start with; Rushton commits an “after, therefore because of” fallacy in his reasoning. Nor should the challenges of desert environments be underestimated, where droughts and other challenges existed.
     
    - http://thecross-roads.org/race-culture-nation/25-the-myth-of-east-asian-intellectual-supremacy

    Do more intelligent human beings intentionally locate to more harsh and less inhabitable environments, because they would be outcompeted by their less intelligent peers in more accommodating and less harsh/less difficult-to-survive-in environments?

    Is White flight https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_flight the avoidance, by more intelligent individuals/groups, of direct competition with less intelligent humans, which they would lose?

    Is fight the more dominant survival instinct/mechanism in less intelligent human beings, and flight the more dominant survival instinct/mechanism in more intelligent human beings?

    California to Idaho Relocation- Top 5 Reasons People Make the Move

    https://www.buyidahorealestate.com/blog/california-to-idaho-relocation-top-5-reasons-people-make-the-move.html

    The crime rate in Idaho is the lowest in the West. According to USA.com, Idaho is rated as the sixth least crime-ridden state, and has nearly forty percent less crime than the national average.
     

    The light eyes of the Nordic are more of an adaptation to cold climates than the dark eyes of the Mongoloid.

    I don’t know so much about cold but if eye color is connected to sun light then there might be three bands
    - equator, too much light, dark eyes
    - north, less light, light eyes
    -far north, less direct light but after reflection off snow, ice and water etc maybe too much again? dark eyes better again?

    (military put camo paint around the eyes on arctic training to reduce reflection into the eyes to prevent snow blindness – caveat, that’s why they say they do it – only assuming it works)

    Read More
    • Replies: @FKA Max
    Thank you, interesting point!
    , @Expletive Deleted
    "-far north, less direct light but after reflection off snow, ice and water etc maybe too much again? dark eyes better again?"
    Not as good as a strip of bone with tiny horizontal slits gouged out with a flint.
    In the atlantic boreal zone, I suppose it's so goddam gloomy all the time that fortuitously inheriting big round googly pale eyes from our ancestor Gollum won't blind/kill us. So we kind of get away with it. Like being the color of yogurt, or (shudder) even ginger ...
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  16. @FKA Max
    Cleverness may carry survival costs

    https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4200-cleverness-may-carry-survival-costs/

    Being smart is not always a good thing in the evolutionary race, suggests a new study by Swiss researchers

    If intelligence were always a positive attribute, it would always be selected for by natural selection. But it is not – people and animals have their dolts as well as their Einsteins.

    To evolutionary biologists, that diversity means that theoretically, there must be some cost to being smart. Now for the first time, researchers have shown that in fruit flies at least, it doesn’t always pay to be clever.

    When Frederic Mery and colleagues at the University of Fribourg, pitted fast-learning fruit fly larvae against their more dimwitted cousins in scarce food conditions – the slower fruit flies came out on top.

    “This shows that just having a better ability to learn involves a cost, even when you aren’t using it,” Mery told New Scientist.
     
    Some more interesting thoughts and observations on intelligence and environment/climate adaptations and interactions, and how it affects survival:

    Swiss researchers Fredric Mer[y] and others at the University of Fribourg found that fast learning fruit fly larvae competing against more slow-witted ones in scarce food conditions did not win! More energy was devoted to making and rearranging neural connections in their brains leaving less energy to forage. Decisive action requires consideration of limited alternatives and smart people often out-smart themselves by complicating matters.
    [...]

    Rushton hypothesizes that Mongoloids are intellectually superior to Whites because they evolved in a colder climate, as evidenced by their slight builds and the epicanthic folds of the eyes. However the epicanthic folds are usually regarded as an adaptation to dusty environments. Cold climates favour larger, stronger builds such as Nordic Whites [Patterns of variation in body mass and bill surface area were consistent with Bergmann's and Allen's rules, respectively (small body size and larger bill size in warmer climates), with maximum summer temperature being a strongly weighted predictor of both variables. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26936361]. Pale skin is an adaptation to the cold, maximising vitamin D production. The light eyes of the Nordic are more of an adaptation to cold climates than the dark eyes of the Mongoloid. Eskimos have successfully lived in very cold environments such as Greenland – but so too have Nordics. It does not follow from such an Eskimo presence that they are physiologically better adapted to the cold than Nordics. The Viking settlement in Greenland died out because of cultural factors affecting adaptation during an unusually harsh climatic period, rather than racial factors: J. Diamond “Collapse” (Allan Lane, London 2005). Interestingly enough the Eskimo, a Mongoloid, arrived in the Arctic about 10,000 years ago, probably too late for major physiological changes to occur. Their mean IQ is 91 and they have a visual-spatial score of 90 – yet in the field have superior spatial-visual abilities. It is likely that the IQ tests are flawed because they could not have survived in such a harsh environment without peak spatial-visual skills.

    It has not even been established that the challenges of a cold environment causes high intelligence to evolve. It could very well mean the reverse: that natural selection ensures that only intelligent people survive in cold environments. It may be a fact that high intelligence races are found in cold environments because they were highly intelligent to start with; Rushton commits an “after, therefore because of” fallacy in his reasoning. Nor should the challenges of desert environments be underestimated, where droughts and other challenges existed.
     
    - http://thecross-roads.org/race-culture-nation/25-the-myth-of-east-asian-intellectual-supremacy

    Do more intelligent human beings intentionally locate to more harsh and less inhabitable environments, because they would be outcompeted by their less intelligent peers in more accommodating and less harsh/less difficult-to-survive-in environments?

    Is White flight https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_flight the avoidance, by more intelligent individuals/groups, of direct competition with less intelligent humans, which they would lose?

    Is fight the more dominant survival instinct/mechanism in less intelligent human beings, and flight the more dominant survival instinct/mechanism in more intelligent human beings?

    California to Idaho Relocation- Top 5 Reasons People Make the Move

    https://www.buyidahorealestate.com/blog/california-to-idaho-relocation-top-5-reasons-people-make-the-move.html

    The crime rate in Idaho is the lowest in the West. According to USA.com, Idaho is rated as the sixth least crime-ridden state, and has nearly forty percent less crime than the national average.
     

    rushton was full of a lot of shit. i had some email correspondences with him where i told him to stop it, and he refused, even when i pointed out to him how he was full of shit. he said a lot of brave and courageous things that people didn’t want to hear, yeah. but he was also mendacious when it suited him. i guess he wasn’t a saint, but a human. but whatever.

    second, we know the ancient genetics of light eyes. it has nothing to do with nordics. it predates nordics, who are a mongrel race that emerged in the last 4,000 years. we know this because of ancient DNA. additionally, it looks like the oca2-herc2 mutation was present in the near east during the paleolithic too….

    please refrain from extensive quotations in the comments. it will make me think you are as stupid as sean.

    Read More
    • Replies: @FKA Max
    Roger that.
    , @Sean
    Bolt spent the night before his London win with several Swedish women handball competitors. The performance enhancing drugs in power sports are to a large extent mimicking the effect of testosterone., As Elton John sang


    Well they're packed pretty tight in here tonight
    I'm looking for a dolly who'll see me right
    I may use a little muscle to get what I need
    I may sink a little drink and shout out "She's with me!"

     
    If you cross a load of diverse dog breeds and then select only for speed you will end up with a totally mongrel breed, but one that runs like a greyhound. Nordics have resulted from diverse lines of ancestors mixing, especially in the Bronze age: sure. But just as it would cross my boggle threshold to believe a random mix of dog breeds without the aforementioned selection would produce something swifter than any other breed, I have trouble accepting that the way Nordics look was simply the result of a mix of populations.
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  17. FKA Max says:
    @Razib Khan
    rushton was full of a lot of shit. i had some email correspondences with him where i told him to stop it, and he refused, even when i pointed out to him how he was full of shit. he said a lot of brave and courageous things that people didn't want to hear, yeah. but he was also mendacious when it suited him. i guess he wasn't a saint, but a human. but whatever.

    second, we know the ancient genetics of light eyes. it has nothing to do with nordics. it predates nordics, who are a mongrel race that emerged in the last 4,000 years. we know this because of ancient DNA. additionally, it looks like the oca2-herc2 mutation was present in the near east during the paleolithic too....

    please refrain from extensive quotations in the comments. it will make me think you are as stupid as sean.

    Roger that.

    Read More
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  18. FKA Max says:
    @notanon

    The light eyes of the Nordic are more of an adaptation to cold climates than the dark eyes of the Mongoloid.
     
    I don't know so much about cold but if eye color is connected to sun light then there might be three bands
    - equator, too much light, dark eyes
    - north, less light, light eyes
    -far north, less direct light but after reflection off snow, ice and water etc maybe too much again? dark eyes better again?

    (military put camo paint around the eyes on arctic training to reduce reflection into the eyes to prevent snow blindness - caveat, that's why they say they do it - only assuming it works)

    Thank you, interesting point!

    Read More
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  19. Second, unlike swimming, which is also objective, sprinting seems to have pushed very close to the boundaries of what non-modified or drug-enhanced individuals are capable of.

    I made a similar post over on Steve Sailor’s HBD post today.

    Sprint swim times as defined by the 50 and 100 meter freestyles with one very small exception have not improved since 2009. That was the last time that the non water permeable Polyurethane full body suits, that were introduced in 2004, were allowed to be worn in competition. Without some kind of human enhancements, I believe we may be very close to the end of the line in sprint swimming speed progression as well.

    50-meter swim progression https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_record_progression_50_metres_freestyle

    100-meter swim progression https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_record_progression_1500_metres_freestyle

    FYI – 50-meter freestyle Gold Medal winner Anthony Ervin doesn’t do anywhere near the same amount of training as mid to distance freestyler Katie Ledecky nor should he as it would be detrimental to pure speed to train like Katie.

    PS I’m a former swimmer and coach. In the last 25 years swim training, with technology (video analysis, biomechanical analysis, VO2max testing and training etc) has come to the masses. In the sprint world of swimming we may have approached the limit. Additionally coaches know what to look for, there is a prototypical swim body (Michael Phelps), when a coach sees a kid that looks like they might have it, they get a lot of attention.

    Read More
    • Replies: @RaceRealist88
    I wrote an article on swimming and blacks and whites.

    https://notpoliticallycorrect.me/2016/05/30/white-men-cant-jump-thats-ok-black-men-cant-swim/
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  20. RJJCDA says:

    When they expanded team player numbers, and instituted unlimited substitution in American Football, African Americans became advantaged as they had genetic inheritances favoring quick, explosive bursts of power and movement. But they lacked the same level of endurance traits of the white players. If change of possession substitution (once out, you can’t get back in until CoP) were instituted, and team player numbers lowered, whites would again more populate the game.

    Read More
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  21. @notanon

    The light eyes of the Nordic are more of an adaptation to cold climates than the dark eyes of the Mongoloid.
     
    I don't know so much about cold but if eye color is connected to sun light then there might be three bands
    - equator, too much light, dark eyes
    - north, less light, light eyes
    -far north, less direct light but after reflection off snow, ice and water etc maybe too much again? dark eyes better again?

    (military put camo paint around the eyes on arctic training to reduce reflection into the eyes to prevent snow blindness - caveat, that's why they say they do it - only assuming it works)

    “-far north, less direct light but after reflection off snow, ice and water etc maybe too much again? dark eyes better again?”
    Not as good as a strip of bone with tiny horizontal slits gouged out with a flint.
    In the atlantic boreal zone, I suppose it’s so goddam gloomy all the time that fortuitously inheriting big round googly pale eyes from our ancestor Gollum won’t blind/kill us. So we kind of get away with it. Like being the color of yogurt, or (shudder) even ginger …

    Read More
    • Replies: @Karl Zimmerman
    I know this is partially tongue in cheek, but my understanding is that light irises really are more sensitive to bright light. One can easily see how this would result in heavy selection against light eyes in more equatorial climates during hunter-gatherer times. A moment's issue with sun glare could easily result in not being able to throw a spear at prey (or an enemy tribe member) resulting in you missing more meals - or perhaps even dying. I would expect though once agriculture was invented that the need for constant visual acuity lessened - crops don't run away, and don't try to kill you.
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  22. Whites (form US Merica) have only populated games because they used the Rule of Law to prevent participation from others and this was the reason for them to do as they did. When you engage in this type of behaviour, one can guarantee a result to one’s benefit all the time explicitely having power to prevent others from participating. Let’s face it. Having the opportunity to engage in a task vs passing laws to prevent others access are part and parcel of the modus operandi of pre-1970′s USA. So when people talking of making America great again, it is this pre 1970s crap that scare people!

    When you rely on true natural selection, this means that only the most capable will end up being part of the game plan.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Expletive Deleted

    When you rely on true natural selection, this means that only the most capable basically adequate, and very, very lucky will end up being part of the game plan.
     
    .
    Do you feel lucky?
    Well, do ya?
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  23. @jack shindo
    Whites (form US Merica) have only populated games because they used the Rule of Law to prevent participation from others and this was the reason for them to do as they did. When you engage in this type of behaviour, one can guarantee a result to one's benefit all the time explicitely having power to prevent others from participating. Let's face it. Having the opportunity to engage in a task vs passing laws to prevent others access are part and parcel of the modus operandi of pre-1970's USA. So when people talking of making America great again, it is this pre 1970s crap that scare people!

    When you rely on true natural selection, this means that only the most capable will end up being part of the game plan.

    When you rely on true natural selection, this means that only the most capable basically adequate, and very, very lucky will end up being part of the game plan.

    .
    Do you feel lucky?
    Well, do ya?

    Read More
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  24. @FKA Max
    Cleverness may carry survival costs

    https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4200-cleverness-may-carry-survival-costs/

    Being smart is not always a good thing in the evolutionary race, suggests a new study by Swiss researchers

    If intelligence were always a positive attribute, it would always be selected for by natural selection. But it is not – people and animals have their dolts as well as their Einsteins.

    To evolutionary biologists, that diversity means that theoretically, there must be some cost to being smart. Now for the first time, researchers have shown that in fruit flies at least, it doesn’t always pay to be clever.

    When Frederic Mery and colleagues at the University of Fribourg, pitted fast-learning fruit fly larvae against their more dimwitted cousins in scarce food conditions – the slower fruit flies came out on top.

    “This shows that just having a better ability to learn involves a cost, even when you aren’t using it,” Mery told New Scientist.
     
    Some more interesting thoughts and observations on intelligence and environment/climate adaptations and interactions, and how it affects survival:

    Swiss researchers Fredric Mer[y] and others at the University of Fribourg found that fast learning fruit fly larvae competing against more slow-witted ones in scarce food conditions did not win! More energy was devoted to making and rearranging neural connections in their brains leaving less energy to forage. Decisive action requires consideration of limited alternatives and smart people often out-smart themselves by complicating matters.
    [...]

    Rushton hypothesizes that Mongoloids are intellectually superior to Whites because they evolved in a colder climate, as evidenced by their slight builds and the epicanthic folds of the eyes. However the epicanthic folds are usually regarded as an adaptation to dusty environments. Cold climates favour larger, stronger builds such as Nordic Whites [Patterns of variation in body mass and bill surface area were consistent with Bergmann's and Allen's rules, respectively (small body size and larger bill size in warmer climates), with maximum summer temperature being a strongly weighted predictor of both variables. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26936361]. Pale skin is an adaptation to the cold, maximising vitamin D production. The light eyes of the Nordic are more of an adaptation to cold climates than the dark eyes of the Mongoloid. Eskimos have successfully lived in very cold environments such as Greenland – but so too have Nordics. It does not follow from such an Eskimo presence that they are physiologically better adapted to the cold than Nordics. The Viking settlement in Greenland died out because of cultural factors affecting adaptation during an unusually harsh climatic period, rather than racial factors: J. Diamond “Collapse” (Allan Lane, London 2005). Interestingly enough the Eskimo, a Mongoloid, arrived in the Arctic about 10,000 years ago, probably too late for major physiological changes to occur. Their mean IQ is 91 and they have a visual-spatial score of 90 – yet in the field have superior spatial-visual abilities. It is likely that the IQ tests are flawed because they could not have survived in such a harsh environment without peak spatial-visual skills.

    It has not even been established that the challenges of a cold environment causes high intelligence to evolve. It could very well mean the reverse: that natural selection ensures that only intelligent people survive in cold environments. It may be a fact that high intelligence races are found in cold environments because they were highly intelligent to start with; Rushton commits an “after, therefore because of” fallacy in his reasoning. Nor should the challenges of desert environments be underestimated, where droughts and other challenges existed.
     
    - http://thecross-roads.org/race-culture-nation/25-the-myth-of-east-asian-intellectual-supremacy

    Do more intelligent human beings intentionally locate to more harsh and less inhabitable environments, because they would be outcompeted by their less intelligent peers in more accommodating and less harsh/less difficult-to-survive-in environments?

    Is White flight https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_flight the avoidance, by more intelligent individuals/groups, of direct competition with less intelligent humans, which they would lose?

    Is fight the more dominant survival instinct/mechanism in less intelligent human beings, and flight the more dominant survival instinct/mechanism in more intelligent human beings?

    California to Idaho Relocation- Top 5 Reasons People Make the Move

    https://www.buyidahorealestate.com/blog/california-to-idaho-relocation-top-5-reasons-people-make-the-move.html

    The crime rate in Idaho is the lowest in the West. According to USA.com, Idaho is rated as the sixth least crime-ridden state, and has nearly forty percent less crime than the national average.
     

    Decisive action requires consideration of limited alternatives and smart people often out-smart themselves by complicating matters.

    This sounds similar to things that Gerd Gigerenzer and his followers say. Gigerenzer is a psychologist who has written books with titles like Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.

    Jason Collins (Evolving Economics) is a fan. E.g.,

    https://jasoncollins.org/2014/12/02/the-power-of-heuristics/

    Read More
    • Replies: @FKA Max
    Maybe, originally the KISS principle was (maybe, still is) predominately intended for smart people?: "Keep it simple, [Smarty]"

    The principle is best exemplified by the story of Johnson handing a team of design engineers a handful of tools, with the challenge that the jet aircraft they were designing must be repairable by an average mechanic in the field under combat conditions with only these tools. Hence, the "stupid" refers to the relationship between the way things break and the sophistication available to repair them.
     

    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KISS_principle#Origin
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  25. @Expletive Deleted
    "-far north, less direct light but after reflection off snow, ice and water etc maybe too much again? dark eyes better again?"
    Not as good as a strip of bone with tiny horizontal slits gouged out with a flint.
    In the atlantic boreal zone, I suppose it's so goddam gloomy all the time that fortuitously inheriting big round googly pale eyes from our ancestor Gollum won't blind/kill us. So we kind of get away with it. Like being the color of yogurt, or (shudder) even ginger ...

    I know this is partially tongue in cheek, but my understanding is that light irises really are more sensitive to bright light. One can easily see how this would result in heavy selection against light eyes in more equatorial climates during hunter-gatherer times. A moment’s issue with sun glare could easily result in not being able to throw a spear at prey (or an enemy tribe member) resulting in you missing more meals – or perhaps even dying. I would expect though once agriculture was invented that the need for constant visual acuity lessened – crops don’t run away, and don’t try to kill you.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Expletive Deleted
    You're right there, which is why the La Brana 1 forager/hunter dude, with his assumed George Best baby-blues and brown skin is such a puzzle to me. Maybe you just get used to it.
    I went to Avignon as a teen (from northwest UK) and had to spend the second day in bed with what I suppose was the holiday equivalent of "welder's flash", just from mooching about the streets, and the odd aqueduct. Wore superdark aviators after that, still could only make out silhouettes for a few days even at sunset with them off. I thought I was going blind.
    And all the old grannies sat around on their doorsteps muttering "Boche .." after us, which did nothing to improve my mood.
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  26. FKA Max says:
    @Roger Sweeny
    Decisive action requires consideration of limited alternatives and smart people often out-smart themselves by complicating matters.

    This sounds similar to things that Gerd Gigerenzer and his followers say. Gigerenzer is a psychologist who has written books with titles like Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.

    Jason Collins (Evolving Economics) is a fan. E.g.,
    https://jasoncollins.org/2014/12/02/the-power-of-heuristics/

    Maybe, originally the KISS principle was (maybe, still is) predominately intended for smart people?: “Keep it simple, [Smarty]”

    The principle is best exemplified by the story of Johnson handing a team of design engineers a handful of tools, with the challenge that the jet aircraft they were designing must be repairable by an average mechanic in the field under combat conditions with only these tools. Hence, the “stupid” refers to the relationship between the way things break and the sophistication available to repair them.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KISS_principle#Origin

    Read More
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  27. @Karl Zimmerman
    I know this is partially tongue in cheek, but my understanding is that light irises really are more sensitive to bright light. One can easily see how this would result in heavy selection against light eyes in more equatorial climates during hunter-gatherer times. A moment's issue with sun glare could easily result in not being able to throw a spear at prey (or an enemy tribe member) resulting in you missing more meals - or perhaps even dying. I would expect though once agriculture was invented that the need for constant visual acuity lessened - crops don't run away, and don't try to kill you.

    You’re right there, which is why the La Brana 1 forager/hunter dude, with his assumed George Best baby-blues and brown skin is such a puzzle to me. Maybe you just get used to it.
    I went to Avignon as a teen (from northwest UK) and had to spend the second day in bed with what I suppose was the holiday equivalent of “welder’s flash”, just from mooching about the streets, and the odd aqueduct. Wore superdark aviators after that, still could only make out silhouettes for a few days even at sunset with them off. I thought I was going blind.
    And all the old grannies sat around on their doorsteps muttering “Boche ..” after us, which did nothing to improve my mood.

    Read More
    • Replies: @FKA Max

    You’re right there, which is why the La Brana 1 forager/hunter dude, with his assumed George Best baby-blues and brown skin is such a puzzle to me.
     
    His competitive advantage, in my opinion, was that he slept less.

    This is actually, what my first ever comment on Unz Review and Mr. Khan's blog was about:

    This melatonin secretion suppression by light leads to insomnia and hyperactivity (good for non-stop foraging during the short summers in Northern Europe) during the light summer months, and ensures one does not become lethargic, unproductive, and depressed ( e.g., seasonal affective disorder (SAD)) during the dark winter months in extreme northern or southern latitudes.
     
    - http://www.unz.com/gnxp/the-2000-year-selection-of-the-british/#comment-1415185

    What he lacked in visual acuity he made up by just being awake for more hours in the day.

    How To Turn Your Insomnia Into A Productivity Tool
    http://www.fastcompany.com/3025086/how-to-be-a-success-at-everything/how-to-turn-your-insomnia-into-a-productivity-tool

    "What is insomnia, but the gift of more time?" says Michael Perlis, associate professor of psychology and director of the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program at the University of Pennsylvania. Perlis is not advocating for purposely losing sleep, but if faced with short-term insomnia, he says, it's best to treat the time productively rather than tossing for hours in bed. Think of insomnia as an opportunity to get stuff done.
     
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  28. Sean says:
    @Razib Khan
    rushton was full of a lot of shit. i had some email correspondences with him where i told him to stop it, and he refused, even when i pointed out to him how he was full of shit. he said a lot of brave and courageous things that people didn't want to hear, yeah. but he was also mendacious when it suited him. i guess he wasn't a saint, but a human. but whatever.

    second, we know the ancient genetics of light eyes. it has nothing to do with nordics. it predates nordics, who are a mongrel race that emerged in the last 4,000 years. we know this because of ancient DNA. additionally, it looks like the oca2-herc2 mutation was present in the near east during the paleolithic too....

    please refrain from extensive quotations in the comments. it will make me think you are as stupid as sean.

    Bolt spent the night before his London win with several Swedish women handball competitors. The performance enhancing drugs in power sports are to a large extent mimicking the effect of testosterone., As Elton John sang

    Well they’re packed pretty tight in here tonight
    I’m looking for a dolly who’ll see me right
    I may use a little muscle to get what I need
    I may sink a little drink and shout out “She’s with me!”

    If you cross a load of diverse dog breeds and then select only for speed you will end up with a totally mongrel breed, but one that runs like a greyhound. Nordics have resulted from diverse lines of ancestors mixing, especially in the Bronze age: sure. But just as it would cross my boggle threshold to believe a random mix of dog breeds without the aforementioned selection would produce something swifter than any other breed, I have trouble accepting that the way Nordics look was simply the result of a mix of populations.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    But just as it would cross my boggle threshold to believe a random mix of dog breeds without the aforementioned selection would produce something swifter than any other breed, I have trouble accepting that the way Nordics look was simply the result of a mix of populations.

    cut the crap. you think it's selection. so do i. you know that. it's just that your speculations are really fucking confused to me. perhaps you're the picture of clarity, but the veil of opacity goes over my perception for some reason.
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  29. @Sean
    Bolt spent the night before his London win with several Swedish women handball competitors. The performance enhancing drugs in power sports are to a large extent mimicking the effect of testosterone., As Elton John sang


    Well they're packed pretty tight in here tonight
    I'm looking for a dolly who'll see me right
    I may use a little muscle to get what I need
    I may sink a little drink and shout out "She's with me!"

     
    If you cross a load of diverse dog breeds and then select only for speed you will end up with a totally mongrel breed, but one that runs like a greyhound. Nordics have resulted from diverse lines of ancestors mixing, especially in the Bronze age: sure. But just as it would cross my boggle threshold to believe a random mix of dog breeds without the aforementioned selection would produce something swifter than any other breed, I have trouble accepting that the way Nordics look was simply the result of a mix of populations.

    But just as it would cross my boggle threshold to believe a random mix of dog breeds without the aforementioned selection would produce something swifter than any other breed, I have trouble accepting that the way Nordics look was simply the result of a mix of populations.

    cut the crap. you think it’s selection. so do i. you know that. it’s just that your speculations are really fucking confused to me. perhaps you’re the picture of clarity, but the veil of opacity goes over my perception for some reason.

    Read More
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  30. FKA Max says:
    @Expletive Deleted
    You're right there, which is why the La Brana 1 forager/hunter dude, with his assumed George Best baby-blues and brown skin is such a puzzle to me. Maybe you just get used to it.
    I went to Avignon as a teen (from northwest UK) and had to spend the second day in bed with what I suppose was the holiday equivalent of "welder's flash", just from mooching about the streets, and the odd aqueduct. Wore superdark aviators after that, still could only make out silhouettes for a few days even at sunset with them off. I thought I was going blind.
    And all the old grannies sat around on their doorsteps muttering "Boche .." after us, which did nothing to improve my mood.

    You’re right there, which is why the La Brana 1 forager/hunter dude, with his assumed George Best baby-blues and brown skin is such a puzzle to me.

    His competitive advantage, in my opinion, was that he slept less.

    This is actually, what my first ever comment on Unz Review and Mr. Khan’s blog was about:

    This melatonin secretion suppression by light leads to insomnia and hyperactivity (good for non-stop foraging during the short summers in Northern Europe) during the light summer months, and ensures one does not become lethargic, unproductive, and depressed ( e.g., seasonal affective disorder (SAD)) during the dark winter months in extreme northern or southern latitudes.

    http://www.unz.com/gnxp/the-2000-year-selection-of-the-british/#comment-1415185

    What he lacked in visual acuity he made up by just being awake for more hours in the day.

    How To Turn Your Insomnia Into A Productivity Tool

    http://www.fastcompany.com/3025086/how-to-be-a-success-at-everything/how-to-turn-your-insomnia-into-a-productivity-tool

    “What is insomnia, but the gift of more time?” says Michael Perlis, associate professor of psychology and director of the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program at the University of Pennsylvania. Perlis is not advocating for purposely losing sleep, but if faced with short-term insomnia, he says, it’s best to treat the time productively rather than tossing for hours in bed. Think of insomnia as an opportunity to get stuff done.

    Read More
    • Replies: @FKA Max
    This is just anecdotal evidence by by Dr Lendon H. Smith M.D. [1921-2001], but most other doctors and therapists dealing with hyperactive children, I checked online, observed and reported a similar pattern in the phenotype of their patients. Predominantly light-eyed Nordics.

    What are the hereditary factors? My study of these hyper children indicates that most --- at least in my practice --- are blue-eyed blondes or green-eyed redheads, Nordic types. I had the feeling that the Northern Europeans were restless in the old country, and when faced with the prospect of marrying the girl next door and farming for rest of his life, he decided to emigrate to the United States. Their restlessness forced them to keep on moving West until the Pacific Ocean stopped them.
     
    - http://www.phosadd.com/support%20evidence/lsmith.htm

    I wonder what percentage of pioneer stock had lightly pigmented eyes?

    Darker-eyed patients were significantly more depressed and fatigued than blue-eyed patients. [...] Lightly pigmented eyes, in particular, may serve to enhance photic input during winter and allay depressive symptoms in vulnerable populations.
     

    - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11816051

    For the Chief believed that all men were sons of a common ancestor, that the people with the red hair and the blue eyes were still brothers.
     
    - p. 207 Tahoe Tales of Bygone Days and Memorable Pioneers By Don Lane
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  31. Great post Razib. You should do one on Europeans and East Asians and strength competitions like Strongman and powerlifting competition.

    Like West African blacks and their descendants have the gene that allows for fast twitch fibers, Eurasians have slow twitch fibers that fire off slowly but through different anabolic pathways than fast twitch fibers. Like Africans dominate sprinting and other competitions, Eurasians dominate strength comps.

    Read More
    • Replies: @reiner Tor

    Eurasians have slow twitch fibers
     
    This might be true, but they excel (relative to Africans) in weight exercises, like Olympic weightlifting, powerlifting, or strongman competitions, which also require a lot of fast twitch fibers. So it isn't that clearcut.
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  32. @Lucho
    Agreed, but I think people overlook how specialized athletes like Usain Bolt are. A popular meme/joke here is

    "Congratulations Mr. Bolt on winning the 100m dash. Now Let's see you run a half marathon (21km)."

    Is it wrong to think that sprinters get more hype than they should? Yes, Bolt's "threepeat" deserves praise, but compare this to triathletes. How about the traits necessary to compete in a triathlon versus the singular ability to dash just a bit more?

    Marathon runners have different muscle fiber typing. Bolt has fast twitch fibers, they fire off faster so he cannot run a marathon due to that.

    Read More
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  33. @George Taylor

    Second, unlike swimming, which is also objective, sprinting seems to have pushed very close to the boundaries of what non-modified or drug-enhanced individuals are capable of.
     
    I made a similar post over on Steve Sailor's HBD post today.

    Sprint swim times as defined by the 50 and 100 meter freestyles with one very small exception have not improved since 2009. That was the last time that the non water permeable Polyurethane full body suits, that were introduced in 2004, were allowed to be worn in competition. Without some kind of human enhancements, I believe we may be very close to the end of the line in sprint swimming speed progression as well.

    50-meter swim progression https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_record_progression_50_metres_freestyle

    100-meter swim progression https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_record_progression_1500_metres_freestyle

    FYI – 50-meter freestyle Gold Medal winner Anthony Ervin doesn’t do anywhere near the same amount of training as mid to distance freestyler Katie Ledecky nor should he as it would be detrimental to pure speed to train like Katie.

    PS I’m a former swimmer and coach. In the last 25 years swim training, with technology (video analysis, biomechanical analysis, VO2max testing and training etc) has come to the masses. In the sprint world of swimming we may have approached the limit. Additionally coaches know what to look for, there is a prototypical swim body (Michael Phelps), when a coach sees a kid that looks like they might have it, they get a lot of attention.
    Read More
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  34. Anonymous says: • Disclaimer

    Did you catch Devon Allen in the 110m hurdles? A white guy who also plays for the Oregon Ducks. He came in 5th after nailing quite a few hurdles during the run.

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  35. I wouldn’t be surprised if the ability to outrun those who are after you and out to do you harm were an important life skill.

    In 1982 I was headed into the Century Mall in Chicago when a black teen rushed out, followed by two twenty-something Hispanic security guards in close pursuit. I watched them head up Clark Street with the teen in sneakers pulling away from the guards in shiny black leather shoes. The shoplifter then turned left at the first corner. It occurred to me that was an important life decision he had just made: if it was a dead end he was in big trouble. But if it were a thru street then he needed to make a series of seemingly random turns until he had lost his pursuers.

    Perhaps in forested terrain sprinting is selected for because the pursued individual can get lost faster, while in open grassland, endurance running is the best way to get away.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Ziel
    What about the old joke "you don't have to outrun the bear, you just have to outrun whomever you're with"?

    I'd imagine that kind of dynamic might have some survival advantage in areas with many dangerous predators.
    , @Expletive Deleted

    Perhaps in forested terrain sprinting is selected for because the pursued individual can get lost faster, while in open grassland, endurance running is the best way to get away.
     
    On the savannah you can lie down for a rest when you've sprinted yourself to exhaustion.
    OTOH, if you lie down in the snow ...
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  36. the fact that there is heritable variation suggests that selection wasn’t that strong and unidirectional…

    Is it not possible that if a lot of alleles are involved, then even after a relatively long time there would be individual variation even in the presence of selection pressures? Suppose that there are 100 genes affecting sprinting ability, each with two alleles, 0 and 1. Sprinting ability is determined by the simple sum of all alleles, with the optimum at 50. Then neither 0 nor 1 is better for sprinting, you’d need 50% of the alleles to be version 1 and 50% version 0. If that is the case, eventually selection will settle with some combination, e.g. the first allele will get fixed at 0, the second at 1, etc., but it must take a very long time. Especially if selection doesn’t invariably favor 50, but sometimes 55, sometimes 45.

    I might be totally wrong, but that’s my mental model of selection for intelligence: there’s probably an optimum, but it’s determined by a very large number of genes, and the optimum also changes according to place, time, and SES, and so variation remains even after a very long time.

    Read More
    • Replies: @notanon

    I might be totally wrong, but that’s my mental model of selection for intelligence: there’s probably an optimum, but it’s determined by a very large number of genes, and the optimum also changes according to place, time, and SES, and so variation remains even after a very long time.
     
    That's how I tend to see it also.

    Thing is if you were trying to create a fail-safe system* (which imo is what evolution is effectively trying to do through its use of probability) then separate balancing selection on individual traits would seem to be a good way of doing it.

    And if bell curves were probablistically (lol spelling) the most effective form of balancing and bell curves are a poisson curve (iirc?) with a large n - then over time you'd probably get a large n.

    And if balancing selection changed and so the frequencies started to adapt to the change then unless the change was extreme it might take a long while (especially if the genes didn't trigger without a specific input e.g. diet).

    (* maybe just me but i find thinking about the driving force in terms of fail-safe rather than currently optimal throws up some interesting ideas about the evolution of intelligence - a shark is optimal but not as fail-safe)
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  37. RCB says:
    @Razib Khan
    heritable quantitative traits are ones which are less likely to have been subject to strong continuous unidirectional selection because genetic variation remains. intelligence is a heritable quantitative trait.

    so yes.

    Mind you there’s a difference between the claim that “intelligence differences between populations are due to selection/adaptation” and “human intelligence vis-a-vis chimpanzees is to due selection/adaptation.” The latter has to be true. I suspect that the former is at least a little bit true.

    Read More
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  38. Ziel says:
    @Steve Sailer
    I wouldn't be surprised if the ability to outrun those who are after you and out to do you harm were an important life skill.

    In 1982 I was headed into the Century Mall in Chicago when a black teen rushed out, followed by two twenty-something Hispanic security guards in close pursuit. I watched them head up Clark Street with the teen in sneakers pulling away from the guards in shiny black leather shoes. The shoplifter then turned left at the first corner. It occurred to me that was an important life decision he had just made: if it was a dead end he was in big trouble. But if it were a thru street then he needed to make a series of seemingly random turns until he had lost his pursuers.

    Perhaps in forested terrain sprinting is selected for because the pursued individual can get lost faster, while in open grassland, endurance running is the best way to get away.

    What about the old joke “you don’t have to outrun the bear, you just have to outrun whomever you’re with”?

    I’d imagine that kind of dynamic might have some survival advantage in areas with many dangerous predators.

    Read More
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  39. RCB says:

    Had a similar thought re swimming vs. track, recently.

    My impression of their wiki pages was that swimming records are still being broken all the time, where as sprinting records aren’t (although the men’s 400m from 1999 was just broken!). Seems to me that everyone tries running at some point: if you’ve got the potential to be an olympic-caliber runner, you’re going to know it, almost regardless of where you live. Not the case with swimming.

    The implication is that Usain Bolt probably truly is the fastest human ever (well, since we’ve been paying attention), but some unknown guy out there in the world probably would have been a better swimmer than Michael Phelps.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Erik Sieven
    "My impression of their wiki pages was that swimming records are still being broken all the time" sorry for being off-topic, but what really makes me wonder is how they break weight lifting records all the time. Actually I find this a little bit frightening. These women and men lift weights above their head nobody should lift for the sake of their health. Yet they lift even heavier weights all the time. When will this end?
    , @Roger Sweeny
    It was only a few years ago that swimmers adopted new suits that significantly lowered drag in the water. The recent crash of world records has probably been because of that.
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  40. Alfa158 says:

    Non West Africans are currently 5% off the pace in the 100m from West Africans. Isn’t it unlikely that there will be a miracle drug regimen that could make up that large a difference, and would not be available pretty quickly to West Africans as well?
    Genetic enhancement could do the trick but would be decades away because enhanced babies need 20 years to mature. Even that would assume that geneticists would direct their early efforts to engineering humans for athletics. It seems likely that the early focus on research would be on enhancing intelligence, unless it turns out to be easy to engineer athletic enhancements in parallel and create a bunch of Khan Noonan Singhs. ( BTW, given your name and profession, it tickles me to envision the Ricardo Montalban Khan!!! as one of your descendants )

    Read More
    • Replies: @notanon

    Non West Africans are currently 5% off the pace in the 100m from West Africans. Isn’t it unlikely that there will be a miracle drug regimen that could make up that large a difference, and would not be available pretty quickly to West Africans as well?

    Genetic enhancement could do the trick but would be decades away...
     
    I think it would depend on the cause.

    *If* it turned out to be a side effect of malaria protection then the difference could be the frequency of that protection among different populations with West Africa still having a lot and most places above and below certain latitudes having very little to none.

    The exceptions (if there were any) would be places that were both recently malarial and the sort of place where money is put into athletics - which tend to not go together except maybe south China.

    In that case it wouldn't mean producing a drug or genetic enhancement it would mean screening people with ancestry from ex-malarial regions to see if you could find any that still had it.

    I was hoping the Chinese might have done it this Olympics just for the lulz.
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  41. @Steve Sailer
    I wouldn't be surprised if the ability to outrun those who are after you and out to do you harm were an important life skill.

    In 1982 I was headed into the Century Mall in Chicago when a black teen rushed out, followed by two twenty-something Hispanic security guards in close pursuit. I watched them head up Clark Street with the teen in sneakers pulling away from the guards in shiny black leather shoes. The shoplifter then turned left at the first corner. It occurred to me that was an important life decision he had just made: if it was a dead end he was in big trouble. But if it were a thru street then he needed to make a series of seemingly random turns until he had lost his pursuers.

    Perhaps in forested terrain sprinting is selected for because the pursued individual can get lost faster, while in open grassland, endurance running is the best way to get away.

    Perhaps in forested terrain sprinting is selected for because the pursued individual can get lost faster, while in open grassland, endurance running is the best way to get away.

    On the savannah you can lie down for a rest when you’ve sprinted yourself to exhaustion.
    OTOH, if you lie down in the snow …

    Read More
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  42. “It isn’t that West Africans were guaranteed to be the best sprinters, it’s just that a priori it shouldn’t be surprising that in such a non-adaptively beneficial trait as running a few seconds faster in the 100 meter dash some populations had the genetic die loaded in their direction.”

    An ability to sprint fast IS adaptively beneficial. The selective mechanism is obvious. When you and your brothers get caught on ‘foreign’ territory stealing figs, the slower runners are more likely to get caught, and death or slavery is likely. The ‘penalty’ of this selection is that bones get denser, and muscles stronger. This won’t matter if your tribe lives in much the same place for many millennia. But it will matter to those who set off to find new territory across the continent, or in far distant lands. They will need to cross rivers, and those who can’t swim will not make it. As they travel, over hundreds of generations, there will be selection for lighter bones, less dense muscles, and larger thoracic air pockets. That’s why we see so many black sprinters and so few black swimmers.

    Read More
    • Replies: @notanon

    An ability to sprint fast IS adaptively beneficial. The selective mechanism is obvious. When you and your brothers get caught on ‘foreign’ territory stealing figs, the slower runners are more likely to get caught, and death or slavery is likely.
     
    Yeah but that was true everywhere not just West Africa.

    (although now i think of it if there was a cost attached to the sprint gene then as soon as the need changed then people might lose it - so it could be West Africa lost the positive selection pressure most recently - although that makes me think of malaria again)

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  43. “One peculiar thing population genetics teaches us that non-adaptive traits are more heritable” what I do not understand about this argument is whether it is rather meant in absolute terms or relative. For example considering running 100 m there is obviously some variance among humans and this variance is in large parts heritable. On the side the variance could be even bigger, for example in a alternate universe the normal range for grown up males for the 100 m dash running time could be between 0,5 seconds and 1 minute. So in this alternate universe running speed would be even more heritable and thus following the theoretical argument less adaptive.
    Compared to this alternate universe running 100 m is adaptive in the our real universe. Seen from this point of view every human trait is adaptive to some degree. So where is the line drawn between non adaptive and adaptive traits?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Sean
    Pit bulls are invariably aggressive, so they have been selected for that, not for running fast although in many cases they can run very fast

    [this is a complicated issue, and not settled. it looks like "pitt bull" is not even a breed; i know something about canine genetics now... -Razib (thanks for not bringing sexual selection into this, and the long blonde hair of golden retrievers, which you must find fetching!)]

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  44. Sean says:
    @Erik Sieven
    "One peculiar thing population genetics teaches us that non-adaptive traits are more heritable" what I do not understand about this argument is whether it is rather meant in absolute terms or relative. For example considering running 100 m there is obviously some variance among humans and this variance is in large parts heritable. On the side the variance could be even bigger, for example in a alternate universe the normal range for grown up males for the 100 m dash running time could be between 0,5 seconds and 1 minute. So in this alternate universe running speed would be even more heritable and thus following the theoretical argument less adaptive.
    Compared to this alternate universe running 100 m is adaptive in the our real universe. Seen from this point of view every human trait is adaptive to some degree. So where is the line drawn between non adaptive and adaptive traits?

    Pit bulls are invariably aggressive, so they have been selected for that, not for running fast although in many cases they can run very fast

    [this is a complicated issue, and not settled. it looks like "pitt bull" is not even a breed; i know something about canine genetics now... -Razib (thanks for not bringing sexual selection into this, and the long blonde hair of golden retrievers, which you must find fetching!)]

    Read More
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  45. @RCB
    Had a similar thought re swimming vs. track, recently.

    My impression of their wiki pages was that swimming records are still being broken all the time, where as sprinting records aren't (although the men's 400m from 1999 was just broken!). Seems to me that everyone tries running at some point: if you've got the potential to be an olympic-caliber runner, you're going to know it, almost regardless of where you live. Not the case with swimming.

    The implication is that Usain Bolt probably truly is the fastest human ever (well, since we've been paying attention), but some unknown guy out there in the world probably would have been a better swimmer than Michael Phelps.

    “My impression of their wiki pages was that swimming records are still being broken all the time” sorry for being off-topic, but what really makes me wonder is how they break weight lifting records all the time. Actually I find this a little bit frightening. These women and men lift weights above their head nobody should lift for the sake of their health. Yet they lift even heavier weights all the time. When will this end?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Psmith
    1. To a first approximation, they don't. The IWF has reshuffled the weight classes a couple of times to wipe out the old records from back when there was little or no effective drug testing, but the all-time best performances mostly occurred 1984-1992.

    2. Elite competitive sports are not healthy and never have been. See Arrhichion, Phidippides, etc.
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  46. @RaceRealist88
    Great post Razib. You should do one on Europeans and East Asians and strength competitions like Strongman and powerlifting competition.

    Like West African blacks and their descendants have the gene that allows for fast twitch fibers, Eurasians have slow twitch fibers that fire off slowly but through different anabolic pathways than fast twitch fibers. Like Africans dominate sprinting and other competitions, Eurasians dominate strength comps.

    Eurasians have slow twitch fibers

    This might be true, but they excel (relative to Africans) in weight exercises, like Olympic weightlifting, powerlifting, or strongman competitions, which also require a lot of fast twitch fibers. So it isn’t that clearcut.

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  47. toto says:

    FWIW Jon Entine is making a bit of an ass of himself on Twitter right now.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Robert Ford
    wow, this guy is a dick! how did i miss him? does he have good judgment or just a contrarian? seems right up my alley
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  48. notanon says:
    @reiner Tor

    the fact that there is heritable variation suggests that selection wasn’t that strong and unidirectional…
     
    Is it not possible that if a lot of alleles are involved, then even after a relatively long time there would be individual variation even in the presence of selection pressures? Suppose that there are 100 genes affecting sprinting ability, each with two alleles, 0 and 1. Sprinting ability is determined by the simple sum of all alleles, with the optimum at 50. Then neither 0 nor 1 is better for sprinting, you'd need 50% of the alleles to be version 1 and 50% version 0. If that is the case, eventually selection will settle with some combination, e.g. the first allele will get fixed at 0, the second at 1, etc., but it must take a very long time. Especially if selection doesn't invariably favor 50, but sometimes 55, sometimes 45.

    I might be totally wrong, but that's my mental model of selection for intelligence: there's probably an optimum, but it's determined by a very large number of genes, and the optimum also changes according to place, time, and SES, and so variation remains even after a very long time.

    I might be totally wrong, but that’s my mental model of selection for intelligence: there’s probably an optimum, but it’s determined by a very large number of genes, and the optimum also changes according to place, time, and SES, and so variation remains even after a very long time.

    That’s how I tend to see it also.

    Thing is if you were trying to create a fail-safe system* (which imo is what evolution is effectively trying to do through its use of probability) then separate balancing selection on individual traits would seem to be a good way of doing it.

    And if bell curves were probablistically (lol spelling) the most effective form of balancing and bell curves are a poisson curve (iirc?) with a large n – then over time you’d probably get a large n.

    And if balancing selection changed and so the frequencies started to adapt to the change then unless the change was extreme it might take a long while (especially if the genes didn’t trigger without a specific input e.g. diet).

    (* maybe just me but i find thinking about the driving force in terms of fail-safe rather than currently optimal throws up some interesting ideas about the evolution of intelligence – a shark is optimal but not as fail-safe)

    Read More
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  49. notanon says:
    @Paul Crowley
    @Razib Khan

    "It isn’t that West Africans were guaranteed to be the best sprinters, it’s just that a priori it shouldn’t be surprising that in such a non-adaptively beneficial trait as running a few seconds faster in the 100 meter dash some populations had the genetic die loaded in their direction."
     
    An ability to sprint fast IS adaptively beneficial. The selective mechanism is obvious. When you and your brothers get caught on 'foreign' territory stealing figs, the slower runners are more likely to get caught, and death or slavery is likely. The 'penalty' of this selection is that bones get denser, and muscles stronger. This won't matter if your tribe lives in much the same place for many millennia. But it will matter to those who set off to find new territory across the continent, or in far distant lands. They will need to cross rivers, and those who can't swim will not make it. As they travel, over hundreds of generations, there will be selection for lighter bones, less dense muscles, and larger thoracic air pockets. That's why we see so many black sprinters and so few black swimmers.

    An ability to sprint fast IS adaptively beneficial. The selective mechanism is obvious. When you and your brothers get caught on ‘foreign’ territory stealing figs, the slower runners are more likely to get caught, and death or slavery is likely.

    Yeah but that was true everywhere not just West Africa.

    (although now i think of it if there was a cost attached to the sprint gene then as soon as the need changed then people might lose it – so it could be West Africa lost the positive selection pressure most recently – although that makes me think of malaria again)

    Read More
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  50. notanon says:
    @Alfa158
    Non West Africans are currently 5% off the pace in the 100m from West Africans. Isn't it unlikely that there will be a miracle drug regimen that could make up that large a difference, and would not be available pretty quickly to West Africans as well?
    Genetic enhancement could do the trick but would be decades away because enhanced babies need 20 years to mature. Even that would assume that geneticists would direct their early efforts to engineering humans for athletics. It seems likely that the early focus on research would be on enhancing intelligence, unless it turns out to be easy to engineer athletic enhancements in parallel and create a bunch of Khan Noonan Singhs. ( BTW, given your name and profession, it tickles me to envision the Ricardo Montalban Khan!!! as one of your descendants )

    Non West Africans are currently 5% off the pace in the 100m from West Africans. Isn’t it unlikely that there will be a miracle drug regimen that could make up that large a difference, and would not be available pretty quickly to West Africans as well?

    Genetic enhancement could do the trick but would be decades away…

    I think it would depend on the cause.

    *If* it turned out to be a side effect of malaria protection then the difference could be the frequency of that protection among different populations with West Africa still having a lot and most places above and below certain latitudes having very little to none.

    The exceptions (if there were any) would be places that were both recently malarial and the sort of place where money is put into athletics – which tend to not go together except maybe south China.

    In that case it wouldn’t mean producing a drug or genetic enhancement it would mean screening people with ancestry from ex-malarial regions to see if you could find any that still had it.

    I was hoping the Chinese might have done it this Olympics just for the lulz.

    Read More
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  51. So, intelligence is heritable because it isn’t highly adaptive. This would seem to refute Pumpkin Person, who claims intelligence is the very ability to adapt to circumstances.

    Read More
    • Replies: @notanon
    from post #2

    "subject to strong continuous unidirectional selection"

    I missed the key word "unidirectional" the first time.
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  52. FKA Max says:
    @FKA Max

    You’re right there, which is why the La Brana 1 forager/hunter dude, with his assumed George Best baby-blues and brown skin is such a puzzle to me.
     
    His competitive advantage, in my opinion, was that he slept less.

    This is actually, what my first ever comment on Unz Review and Mr. Khan's blog was about:

    This melatonin secretion suppression by light leads to insomnia and hyperactivity (good for non-stop foraging during the short summers in Northern Europe) during the light summer months, and ensures one does not become lethargic, unproductive, and depressed ( e.g., seasonal affective disorder (SAD)) during the dark winter months in extreme northern or southern latitudes.
     
    - http://www.unz.com/gnxp/the-2000-year-selection-of-the-british/#comment-1415185

    What he lacked in visual acuity he made up by just being awake for more hours in the day.

    How To Turn Your Insomnia Into A Productivity Tool
    http://www.fastcompany.com/3025086/how-to-be-a-success-at-everything/how-to-turn-your-insomnia-into-a-productivity-tool

    "What is insomnia, but the gift of more time?" says Michael Perlis, associate professor of psychology and director of the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program at the University of Pennsylvania. Perlis is not advocating for purposely losing sleep, but if faced with short-term insomnia, he says, it's best to treat the time productively rather than tossing for hours in bed. Think of insomnia as an opportunity to get stuff done.
     

    This is just anecdotal evidence by by Dr Lendon H. Smith M.D. [1921-2001], but most other doctors and therapists dealing with hyperactive children, I checked online, observed and reported a similar pattern in the phenotype of their patients. Predominantly light-eyed Nordics.

    What are the hereditary factors? My study of these hyper children indicates that most — at least in my practice — are blue-eyed blondes or green-eyed redheads, Nordic types. I had the feeling that the Northern Europeans were restless in the old country, and when faced with the prospect of marrying the girl next door and farming for rest of his life, he decided to emigrate to the United States. Their restlessness forced them to keep on moving West until the Pacific Ocean stopped them.

    http://www.phosadd.com/support%20evidence/lsmith.htm

    I wonder what percentage of pioneer stock had lightly pigmented eyes?

    Darker-eyed patients were significantly more depressed and fatigued than blue-eyed patients. [...] Lightly pigmented eyes, in particular, may serve to enhance photic input during winter and allay depressive symptoms in vulnerable populations.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11816051

    For the Chief believed that all men were sons of a common ancestor, that the people with the red hair and the blue eyes were still brothers.

    – p. 207 Tahoe Tales of Bygone Days and Memorable Pioneers By Don Lane

    Read More
    • Replies: @FKA Max
    I guess this is to be expected from the NY Times:

    Blue eyes are increasingly rare in America - Americas - International Herald Tribune

    With the exception of an increased risk of macular degeneration (blue eyes are at greater risk) , eye color is biologically indicative of almost nothing. Boys are 3 percent to 5 percent likelier to have blue eyes than girls, but beyond that it's a non-issue -- physiologically speaking. The cultural implications are another story.
     

    - http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/18/world/americas/18iht-web.1018eyes.3199975.html?_r=0

    This study was published in 2007, shortly after the above article was published, but still: Influence of eye colors of Caucasians and Asians on suppression of melatonin secretion by light. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17332164


    About half of Americans born at the turn of the 20th century had blue eyes, according to a 2002 Loyola University study in Chicago. By mid-century that number had dropped to a third. Today only about one 1 of every 6 Americans has blue eyes, said Mark Grant, the epidemiologist who conducted the study.
     
    What kind of effect does and will this have on the pioneering and ''New Frontier'' spirit of the United States of America?

    Space was a “new frontier,” a “new sea” in the next great age of discovery. The conquest of space, a historic and strategic imperative, would challenge Americans to show their greatness and would signal national prestige and global leadership. Invoking the competition of the space race, the speech nevertheless transcended the Cold War by emphasizing a romantic and visionary national quest. It stressed how practical and technological greatness could mix with the noblest goals of human aspiration.
     

    - http://www.nasa.gov/topics/history/features/john_f_kennedy.html#.V7YuKTWsQSU

    PS: In my above comment, there was a *by* too many. It was just supposed to say: ... evidence by Dr Lendon H. Smith M.D. [1921-2001] ...

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  53. FKA Max says:
    @FKA Max
    This is just anecdotal evidence by by Dr Lendon H. Smith M.D. [1921-2001], but most other doctors and therapists dealing with hyperactive children, I checked online, observed and reported a similar pattern in the phenotype of their patients. Predominantly light-eyed Nordics.

    What are the hereditary factors? My study of these hyper children indicates that most --- at least in my practice --- are blue-eyed blondes or green-eyed redheads, Nordic types. I had the feeling that the Northern Europeans were restless in the old country, and when faced with the prospect of marrying the girl next door and farming for rest of his life, he decided to emigrate to the United States. Their restlessness forced them to keep on moving West until the Pacific Ocean stopped them.
     
    - http://www.phosadd.com/support%20evidence/lsmith.htm

    I wonder what percentage of pioneer stock had lightly pigmented eyes?

    Darker-eyed patients were significantly more depressed and fatigued than blue-eyed patients. [...] Lightly pigmented eyes, in particular, may serve to enhance photic input during winter and allay depressive symptoms in vulnerable populations.
     

    - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11816051

    For the Chief believed that all men were sons of a common ancestor, that the people with the red hair and the blue eyes were still brothers.
     
    - p. 207 Tahoe Tales of Bygone Days and Memorable Pioneers By Don Lane

    I guess this is to be expected from the NY Times:

    Blue eyes are increasingly rare in America – Americas – International Herald Tribune

    With the exception of an increased risk of macular degeneration (blue eyes are at greater risk) , eye color is biologically indicative of almost nothing. Boys are 3 percent to 5 percent likelier to have blue eyes than girls, but beyond that it’s a non-issue — physiologically speaking. The cultural implications are another story.

    http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/18/world/americas/18iht-web.1018eyes.3199975.html?_r=0

    This study was published in 2007, shortly after the above article was published, but still: Influence of eye colors of Caucasians and Asians on suppression of melatonin secretion by light. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17332164

    About half of Americans born at the turn of the 20th century had blue eyes, according to a 2002 Loyola University study in Chicago. By mid-century that number had dropped to a third. Today only about one 1 of every 6 Americans has blue eyes, said Mark Grant, the epidemiologist who conducted the study.

    What kind of effect does and will this have on the pioneering and ”New Frontier” spirit of the United States of America?

    Space was a “new frontier,” a “new sea” in the next great age of discovery. The conquest of space, a historic and strategic imperative, would challenge Americans to show their greatness and would signal national prestige and global leadership. Invoking the competition of the space race, the speech nevertheless transcended the Cold War by emphasizing a romantic and visionary national quest. It stressed how practical and technological greatness could mix with the noblest goals of human aspiration.

    http://www.nasa.gov/topics/history/features/john_f_kennedy.html#.V7YuKTWsQSU

    PS: In my above comment, there was a *by* too many. It was just supposed to say: … evidence by Dr Lendon H. Smith M.D. [1921-2001] …

    Read More
    • Replies: @Megalophias
    That study you cited compares light-eyed Caucasians to dark-eyed East Asians and so is confounded to the point of being useless. Do you have any real data?
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  54. Calogero says:

    Black athletes dominate SOME sports. You only need watch the current Olympics to see that there are plenty of sports with few or even no black participants.

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  55. Jon Entine has a post up, Usain Bolt’s Olympic gold proves again why no Asian, white – or East African – will ever be crowned world’s fastest human

    I always like to read articles by Jon Entine, but the title of one uses inconsistent terms for different biological races. Either he should use terms of geographic origin:

    Usain Bolt’s Olympic gold proves again why no Asian, European or East African will ever be crowned world’s fastest human

    or if he wants to use skin coloration, then he should use more realistic colors (which sound ludicrous):

    Usain Bolt’s Olympic gold proves again why no brown, yellow, pink or bronze will ever be crowned world’s fastest human

    I think most Americans prefer to use “white” instead of “European” because the latter imply that “whites” are non-native immigrants just like Asians and Africans.

    “Caucasian” is a legacy term, which I’m sure that most Americans don’t understand and don’t know where Caucasus is.

    Another explanation is that it’s perceived as politically correct to say “white”, but not for different skin colorations.

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  56. Psmith says:
    @Erik Sieven
    "My impression of their wiki pages was that swimming records are still being broken all the time" sorry for being off-topic, but what really makes me wonder is how they break weight lifting records all the time. Actually I find this a little bit frightening. These women and men lift weights above their head nobody should lift for the sake of their health. Yet they lift even heavier weights all the time. When will this end?

    1. To a first approximation, they don’t. The IWF has reshuffled the weight classes a couple of times to wipe out the old records from back when there was little or no effective drug testing, but the all-time best performances mostly occurred 1984-1992.

    2. Elite competitive sports are not healthy and never have been. See Arrhichion, Phidippides, etc.

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  57. @FKA Max
    I guess this is to be expected from the NY Times:

    Blue eyes are increasingly rare in America - Americas - International Herald Tribune

    With the exception of an increased risk of macular degeneration (blue eyes are at greater risk) , eye color is biologically indicative of almost nothing. Boys are 3 percent to 5 percent likelier to have blue eyes than girls, but beyond that it's a non-issue -- physiologically speaking. The cultural implications are another story.
     

    - http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/18/world/americas/18iht-web.1018eyes.3199975.html?_r=0

    This study was published in 2007, shortly after the above article was published, but still: Influence of eye colors of Caucasians and Asians on suppression of melatonin secretion by light. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17332164


    About half of Americans born at the turn of the 20th century had blue eyes, according to a 2002 Loyola University study in Chicago. By mid-century that number had dropped to a third. Today only about one 1 of every 6 Americans has blue eyes, said Mark Grant, the epidemiologist who conducted the study.
     
    What kind of effect does and will this have on the pioneering and ''New Frontier'' spirit of the United States of America?

    Space was a “new frontier,” a “new sea” in the next great age of discovery. The conquest of space, a historic and strategic imperative, would challenge Americans to show their greatness and would signal national prestige and global leadership. Invoking the competition of the space race, the speech nevertheless transcended the Cold War by emphasizing a romantic and visionary national quest. It stressed how practical and technological greatness could mix with the noblest goals of human aspiration.
     

    - http://www.nasa.gov/topics/history/features/john_f_kennedy.html#.V7YuKTWsQSU

    PS: In my above comment, there was a *by* too many. It was just supposed to say: ... evidence by Dr Lendon H. Smith M.D. [1921-2001] ...

    That study you cited compares light-eyed Caucasians to dark-eyed East Asians and so is confounded to the point of being useless. Do you have any real data?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    jason malloy looked at blue vs brown eyed white kids in NLSY. no differences. after that i stopped paying attention to this stuff.
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  58. @Megalophias
    That study you cited compares light-eyed Caucasians to dark-eyed East Asians and so is confounded to the point of being useless. Do you have any real data?

    jason malloy looked at blue vs brown eyed white kids in NLSY. no differences. after that i stopped paying attention to this stuff.

    Read More
    • Replies: @FKA Max
    Did he control for TV/computer usage and city dwelling, Mr. Khan?

    Large effects emerged, however, when season and latitude were taken into account. Although dark-eyed subjects showed greater eveningness and later sleep phase throughout the year, the effect was most pronounced at latitudes <35 N in winter
     
    - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276058175_Effect_of_Iris_Pigmentation_and_Latitude_on_Chronotype_and_Sleep_Timing

    The problem with higher eveningness scores in dark-eyed persons is, that artificial light has somewhat distorted study results.

    Outdoor light at night (LAN) is correlated with eveningness in adolescents. Vollmer C1, Michel U, Randler C.


    Adolescents living in brightly illuminated urban districts had a stronger evening-type orientation than adolescents living in darker and more rural municipalities. Time spent on electronic screen media use-a source of indoor light at night-is also correlated with eveningness, as well as intake of stimulants, age, and puberty status, and, to a lesser degree, type of school and time of sunrise.
     
    - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214237

    Across the nation, four out of five whites live outside of the cities and 86 percent of whites live in neighborhoods where minorities make up less than 1 percent of the population. In contrast, 70 percent of Blacks and Latinos live in the cities or inner-ring suburbs. - http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-03-08.htm

    Nielsen report confirms blacks watch more TV than any other group [37%] http://thegrio.com/2013/09/27/nielsen-report-confirms-blacks-watch-more-tv-than-any-other-group/


    Asian youths scored similarly to whites but were found to spend almost three hours a day using a computer recreationally - more than double the amount of time black and white children spent on their computers.
     
    - http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2001098/Black-minority-children-watch-50-cent-TV-day-whites-90-sets-bedrooms--study-finds.html

    If light-eyed whites lived in cities at the same rate and were to use their computers and TVs at the same rate as dark-eyed Asians, Hispanics, and Asians do, I am sure their eveningness scores would be higher, and thus their total hours/minutes of sleep per day would be fewer, because their wake-up time would probably not change much, because they are more sensitive to dawnlight, due to their light iris pigmentation.

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  59. FKA Max says:
    @Razib Khan
    jason malloy looked at blue vs brown eyed white kids in NLSY. no differences. after that i stopped paying attention to this stuff.

    Did he control for TV/computer usage and city dwelling, Mr. Khan?

    Large effects emerged, however, when season and latitude were taken into account. Although dark-eyed subjects showed greater eveningness and later sleep phase throughout the year, the effect was most pronounced at latitudes <35 N in winter

    - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276058175_Effect_of_Iris_Pigmentation_and_Latitude_on_Chronotype_and_Sleep_Timing

    The problem with higher eveningness scores in dark-eyed persons is, that artificial light has somewhat distorted study results.

    Outdoor light at night (LAN) is correlated with eveningness in adolescents. Vollmer C1, Michel U, Randler C.

    Adolescents living in brightly illuminated urban districts had a stronger evening-type orientation than adolescents living in darker and more rural municipalities. Time spent on electronic screen media use-a source of indoor light at night-is also correlated with eveningness, as well as intake of stimulants, age, and puberty status, and, to a lesser degree, type of school and time of sunrise.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214237

    Across the nation, four out of five whites live outside of the cities and 86 percent of whites live in neighborhoods where minorities make up less than 1 percent of the population. In contrast, 70 percent of Blacks and Latinos live in the cities or inner-ring suburbs.http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-03-08.htm

    Nielsen report confirms blacks watch more TV than any other group [37%] http://thegrio.com/2013/09/27/nielsen-report-confirms-blacks-watch-more-tv-than-any-other-group/

    Asian youths scored similarly to whites but were found to spend almost three hours a day using a computer recreationally – more than double the amount of time black and white children spent on their computers.

    - http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2001098/Black-minority-children-watch-50-cent-TV-day-whites-90-sets-bedrooms–study-finds.html

    If light-eyed whites lived in cities at the same rate and were to use their computers and TVs at the same rate as dark-eyed Asians, Hispanics, and Asians do, I am sure their eveningness scores would be higher, and thus their total hours/minutes of sleep per day would be fewer, because their wake-up time would probably not change much, because they are more sensitive to dawnlight, due to their light iris pigmentation.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    you post too many links.

    i can use google scholar too.

    , @FKA Max
    I just wanted to add one more bit of information to this discussion, and then I will let it rest, since I tend to get a little carried away and overly obsessed on this particular topic. Thank you for your patience, Mr. Khan:
    Phase delaying the human circadian clock with a single light pulse and moderate delay of the sleep/dark episode: no influence of iris color
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2722576/

    One limitation of this study, which is a possible source of variability in these data, is that we did not measure light exposure history, which influences the magnitude of subsequent light-induced phase delays [32]. Similar large individual differences have been reported in other phase shifting studies (e.g. [8,12,24,32]), some of which either controlled for or measured light exposure history. It is theoretically also possible that light exposure history was systematically different for subjects with blue or brown irises, such that one group was exposed to more light than the other group, thereby confounding the group differences in the magnitude of the phase delay. A further limitation of this study is the relatively small sample size, since small differences in the magnitude or the variability of phase shifts between subjects with different iris colors might be observed with the greater statistical power that a larger sample size provides.
     
    Also, to bring back the discussion to athletics, there is an instance where the NY Times admitted, that not all athletes are created equal:
    Hitters With Blue Eyes Are Wary About Glare
    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/25/sports/baseball/in-baseball-blue-eyed-hitters-are-wary-of-glare.html?_r=0

    Hamilton was recently informed by the Rangers’ medical staff that because of his blue eyes, he has more difficulty filtering out glare than players with darker irises, and that could explain the disparity in his offensive production from day games to night games.
     
    PS: Typo in my above comment. It was supposed to say: ...at the same rate as dark-eyed African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians do...
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  60. @FKA Max
    Did he control for TV/computer usage and city dwelling, Mr. Khan?

    Large effects emerged, however, when season and latitude were taken into account. Although dark-eyed subjects showed greater eveningness and later sleep phase throughout the year, the effect was most pronounced at latitudes <35 N in winter
     
    - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276058175_Effect_of_Iris_Pigmentation_and_Latitude_on_Chronotype_and_Sleep_Timing

    The problem with higher eveningness scores in dark-eyed persons is, that artificial light has somewhat distorted study results.

    Outdoor light at night (LAN) is correlated with eveningness in adolescents. Vollmer C1, Michel U, Randler C.


    Adolescents living in brightly illuminated urban districts had a stronger evening-type orientation than adolescents living in darker and more rural municipalities. Time spent on electronic screen media use-a source of indoor light at night-is also correlated with eveningness, as well as intake of stimulants, age, and puberty status, and, to a lesser degree, type of school and time of sunrise.
     
    - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214237

    Across the nation, four out of five whites live outside of the cities and 86 percent of whites live in neighborhoods where minorities make up less than 1 percent of the population. In contrast, 70 percent of Blacks and Latinos live in the cities or inner-ring suburbs. - http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-03-08.htm

    Nielsen report confirms blacks watch more TV than any other group [37%] http://thegrio.com/2013/09/27/nielsen-report-confirms-blacks-watch-more-tv-than-any-other-group/


    Asian youths scored similarly to whites but were found to spend almost three hours a day using a computer recreationally - more than double the amount of time black and white children spent on their computers.
     
    - http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2001098/Black-minority-children-watch-50-cent-TV-day-whites-90-sets-bedrooms--study-finds.html

    If light-eyed whites lived in cities at the same rate and were to use their computers and TVs at the same rate as dark-eyed Asians, Hispanics, and Asians do, I am sure their eveningness scores would be higher, and thus their total hours/minutes of sleep per day would be fewer, because their wake-up time would probably not change much, because they are more sensitive to dawnlight, due to their light iris pigmentation.

    you post too many links.

    i can use google scholar too.

    Read More
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  61. FKA Max says:
    @FKA Max
    Did he control for TV/computer usage and city dwelling, Mr. Khan?

    Large effects emerged, however, when season and latitude were taken into account. Although dark-eyed subjects showed greater eveningness and later sleep phase throughout the year, the effect was most pronounced at latitudes <35 N in winter
     
    - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276058175_Effect_of_Iris_Pigmentation_and_Latitude_on_Chronotype_and_Sleep_Timing

    The problem with higher eveningness scores in dark-eyed persons is, that artificial light has somewhat distorted study results.

    Outdoor light at night (LAN) is correlated with eveningness in adolescents. Vollmer C1, Michel U, Randler C.


    Adolescents living in brightly illuminated urban districts had a stronger evening-type orientation than adolescents living in darker and more rural municipalities. Time spent on electronic screen media use-a source of indoor light at night-is also correlated with eveningness, as well as intake of stimulants, age, and puberty status, and, to a lesser degree, type of school and time of sunrise.
     
    - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214237

    Across the nation, four out of five whites live outside of the cities and 86 percent of whites live in neighborhoods where minorities make up less than 1 percent of the population. In contrast, 70 percent of Blacks and Latinos live in the cities or inner-ring suburbs. - http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-03-08.htm

    Nielsen report confirms blacks watch more TV than any other group [37%] http://thegrio.com/2013/09/27/nielsen-report-confirms-blacks-watch-more-tv-than-any-other-group/


    Asian youths scored similarly to whites but were found to spend almost three hours a day using a computer recreationally - more than double the amount of time black and white children spent on their computers.
     
    - http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2001098/Black-minority-children-watch-50-cent-TV-day-whites-90-sets-bedrooms--study-finds.html

    If light-eyed whites lived in cities at the same rate and were to use their computers and TVs at the same rate as dark-eyed Asians, Hispanics, and Asians do, I am sure their eveningness scores would be higher, and thus their total hours/minutes of sleep per day would be fewer, because their wake-up time would probably not change much, because they are more sensitive to dawnlight, due to their light iris pigmentation.

    I just wanted to add one more bit of information to this discussion, and then I will let it rest, since I tend to get a little carried away and overly obsessed on this particular topic. Thank you for your patience, Mr. Khan:
    Phase delaying the human circadian clock with a single light pulse and moderate delay of the sleep/dark episode: no influence of iris color

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2722576/

    One limitation of this study, which is a possible source of variability in these data, is that we did not measure light exposure history, which influences the magnitude of subsequent light-induced phase delays [32]. Similar large individual differences have been reported in other phase shifting studies (e.g. [8,12,24,32]), some of which either controlled for or measured light exposure history. It is theoretically also possible that light exposure history was systematically different for subjects with blue or brown irises, such that one group was exposed to more light than the other group, thereby confounding the group differences in the magnitude of the phase delay. A further limitation of this study is the relatively small sample size, since small differences in the magnitude or the variability of phase shifts between subjects with different iris colors might be observed with the greater statistical power that a larger sample size provides.

    Also, to bring back the discussion to athletics, there is an instance where the NY Times admitted, that not all athletes are created equal:
    Hitters With Blue Eyes Are Wary About Glare

    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/25/sports/baseball/in-baseball-blue-eyed-hitters-are-wary-of-glare.html?_r=0

    Hamilton was recently informed by the Rangers’ medical staff that because of his blue eyes, he has more difficulty filtering out glare than players with darker irises, and that could explain the disparity in his offensive production from day games to night games.

    PS: Typo in my above comment. It was supposed to say: …at the same rate as dark-eyed African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians do

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  62. Denver says:

    We’re afraid to talk about it because: Jimmy “the Greek” Snyder.

    He talked about it long ago and was fired from his job and run out of polite society.

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  63. notanon says:
    @Stephen R. Diamond
    So, intelligence is heritable because it isn't highly adaptive. This would seem to refute Pumpkin Person, who claims intelligence is the very ability to adapt to circumstances.

    from post #2

    “subject to strong continuous unidirectional selection”

    I missed the key word “unidirectional” the first time.

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  64. Robert Ford says: • Website
    @toto
    FWIW Jon Entine is making a bit of an ass of himself on Twitter right now.

    https://twitter.com/surt_lab/status/766028942520180736

    https://twitter.com/JonEntine/status/765735190329253888

    wow, this guy is a dick! how did i miss him? does he have good judgment or just a contrarian? seems right up my alley

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  65. @RCB
    Had a similar thought re swimming vs. track, recently.

    My impression of their wiki pages was that swimming records are still being broken all the time, where as sprinting records aren't (although the men's 400m from 1999 was just broken!). Seems to me that everyone tries running at some point: if you've got the potential to be an olympic-caliber runner, you're going to know it, almost regardless of where you live. Not the case with swimming.

    The implication is that Usain Bolt probably truly is the fastest human ever (well, since we've been paying attention), but some unknown guy out there in the world probably would have been a better swimmer than Michael Phelps.

    It was only a few years ago that swimmers adopted new suits that significantly lowered drag in the water. The recent crash of world records has probably been because of that.

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