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Elephasantiquus

Ewen Callaway reports from a conference in England, Elephant history rewritten by ancient genomes:

Modern elephants are classified into three species: the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and two African elephants — the forest-dwellers (Loxodonta cyclotis) and those that live in the savannah (Loxodonta africana). The division of the African elephants, originally considered a single species, was confirmed only in 2010.

Scientists had assumed from fossil evidence that an ancient predecessor called the straight-tusked elephant (Paleoloxodon antiquus), which lived in European forests until around 100,000 years ago, was a close relative of Asian elephants.

In fact, this ancient species is most closely related to African forest elephants, a genetic analysis now reveals. Even more surprising, living forest elephants in the Congo Basin are closer kin to the extinct species than they are to today’s African savannah-dwellers. And, together with newly announced genomes from ancient mammoths, the analysis also reveals that many different elephant and mammoth species interbred in the past.


Palkopoulou and her colleagues also revealed the genomes of other animals, including four woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) and, for the first time, the whole-genome sequences of a Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) from North America and two North American mastodons (Mammut americanum).

The researchers found evidence that many of the different elephant and mammoth species had interbred. Straight-tusked elephants mated with both Asian elephants and woolly mammoths. And African savannah and forest elephants, who are known to interbreed today — hybrids of the two species live in some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo and elsewhere — also seem to have interbred in the distant past. Palkopoulou hopes to work out when these interbreeding episodes happened.

15x coverage. This is awesome. And incredible.

 
• Category: Science • Tags: Genomics 
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  1. African savannah and forest elephants, who are known to interbreed today — hybrids of the two species live in some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo and elsewhere — also seem to have interbred in the distant past.

    What definition of “species” are they using for this?

    • Replies: @Vic
    Must be a social construct!
  2. The African Forest Elephant has noticeably straight tusks. It’s like the Clouded Leopard, which has the proportionately huge teeth and skull shape of the Sabre Toothed Tiger.

  3. @Michael Watts

    African savannah and forest elephants, who are known to interbreed today — hybrids of the two species live in some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo and elsewhere — also seem to have interbred in the distant past.
     
    What definition of "species" are they using for this?

    Must be a social construct!

    • Replies: @terryt
    The definition of 'species' has always been a social construct. As far as I know there is no absolute definition of 'species' that holds true for all groups.
  4. Which species/subspecies of elephant did Hannibal use to cross the Alps? I have always thought that he used a now-extinct species of North African elephant, but perhaps I’ve been misinformed.

  5. What definition of “species” are they using for this?

    It should be something along the lines of modern humans and Neanderthals as we now know that modern humans and Neanderthals were able to and did interbreed and give birth to fertile offspring but are still commonly defined as different species.

  6. I’m still hoping/waiting for sequencing for Toxodon and Macrauchenia, as it would definitively answer a question that mammal paleontologists have been arguing about for generations – what the hell South American “ungulates” really are. IIRC last year there was a study of collagen sequences which found them to be a sister group to modern Perissodactyla, but I’m guessing that collagen sequences are not as accurate.

  7. @Vic
    Must be a social construct!

    The definition of ‘species’ has always been a social construct. As far as I know there is no absolute definition of ‘species’ that holds true for all groups.

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