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With all the geopolitical tumult and news I was a bit curious to see what The World Values Survey could tell us about public opinion in Egypt and Tunisia. Unfortunately, Tunisia hasn’t been in any of their surveys, though Egypt has. So I thought it might be interesting to compare the USA, Sweden, Turkey, Egypt, and Iraq, for wave 5, which occurred in the mid-2000s. The main thing I took away from the exercise is to reflect that Americans are a more equivocal people than I had expected. Many of the questions have a 1 to 10 scale, and I’m providing the most extreme answers. So the low fractions for Americans for some questions point to a relative moderation on some topics…which is kind of weird when you are asking whether “People choosing their leaders is an essential characteristic of democracy.” Since that’s the definition of democracy broadly construed anything below a 10 out of 10 seems strange to me.


(Control + should increase font-size if it is too small)

USA Sweden Turkey Egypt Iraq
Religion “very important” 47 9 75 95 96
Politics “very important” 11 16 13 9 37
Family life “very important” 95 92 99 98 96
Most people can be trusted 39 68 5 19 41
Satisfied with life (10 out of 10) 7 12 21 11 3
Great deal of control of life (10 out of 10) 17 16 24 14 9
Men have more right to job than women 7 2 53 89 84
Trust family completely 73 94 95 96 -
Approve of woman as single parent 52 49 9 2 -
University more important for boy than girl 1 0 7 26 25
Government ownership of business should be increased (10 out of 10) 1 2 12 25 22
Hard work brings better life (10 out of 10) 19 8 21 52
Great deal of confidence in armed forces 35 4 67 34
Great deal of confidence in police 17 13 36 - -
Great deal of confidence in government 5 3 28 - 31
Very good for political system to have strong leader 7 4 23 8 11
Very good to have democratic system 45 76 57 79 55
Complete agree, too much science, not enough faith 12 4 20 14
Religious authorities interpreting laws is an essential characteristic of democracy 2 0 11 48 19
People choosing their leaders is an essential characteristic of democracy 56 79 48 79 58
Protecting civil liberties is an essential characteristic of democracy 44 66 44 57 47
Women having sames rights as men is an essential characteristic of democracy 57 84 57 51 27
Cheating on taxes always justifiable 2 1 0 1
Accepting bribe always justifiable 1 0 0 0 1
Homosexuality always justifiable 15 61 1 - -
Abortion always justifiable 7 37 2 - 1
Divorce always justifiable 12 47 5 9 1
Don’t trust at all people of other religion 5 3 30 22 -
Don’t trust at all people of other nationality 5 2 29 40 -
(Republished from Discover/GNXP by permission of author or representative)
 
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Whenever I blog religion and atheism I brace for a bunch of uninformed comments. Everyone has an opinion, but few seem genuinely interested in digging for data, or reading about the history of religion, and the empirical realities of the phenomenon. If you are an exception to this trend, you’re awesome, and more power to you. Seeing the responses around the blogosphere to some of my posts it is immediately obvious that people don’t make recourse to the GSS, WVS, or The Religious Landscape Survey, let alone read books like In Gods We Trust or The Reformation. I could go on, but there are so many data sources, and proportionally so little interest in relation to the broader enthusiasm for opining on the topic.

As an aside, in my previous post I alluded to the fact that atheism is not a white thing. I didn’t lay it out explicitly, but far too much of commentary on power dynamics and human affairs is locked into the age of white supremacy. There are Chinese mining towns all over Africa, and we’re still fixated on the legacies of the mustachioed men of yore. Some new thought is needful.

In any case, whenever I post on atheism or religion the data comes calling to me, and begs me to revisit it. Questions, questions. I’m always curious if I can find something new, a twist, a novel inference. So I decided to look for patterns in the WVS wave 5 in regards to the well known phenomenon of male excess in the area of atheism. The data are country-by-country. Below are some plots. The asked was if one was a religious person, and I’m looking at those who asserted they were “convinced atheists.”

[nggallery id=19]

The first plots aren’t super interesting. What you’re seeing is that absolute differences in percentage of atheists by sex increase as the percentage of atheists increase. The variance of the latter explains 75% of the variance in the former. Rather, it is better to look at the ratio of males to females. That’s in the third plot. Comparing that to the percent of atheists in the fourth plot you see an interesting trend: the maximum ratio seems to be at low, but not trivial, levels of atheism. As atheism becomes more common in society the sex ratio abates, though it does not disappear. The last plot has a log-scale to show the pattern more clearly. Note that I had to remove some nations from the ratio list because there were basically no atheists, period.

Here are the raw data tables:

Total Male Female
Country Atheist Religious Not Religious Atheist Religious Not Religious Atheist Percent difference Ratio
Romania 0.6% 90.5% 8.4% 1.1% 95.9% 4.0% 0.1% 1.0% 11.00
Guatemala 0.8% 68.5% 30.0% 1.5% 75.7% 24.1% 0.2% 1.3% 7.50
Poland 1.4% 92.5% 4.9% 2.6% 96.4% 3.2% 0.4% 2.2% 6.50
Ethiopia 0.4% 78.9% 20.6% 0.6% 83.4% 16.5% 0.1% 0.5% 6.00
Chile 3.2% 56.2% 38.1% 5.6% 72.4% 26.5% 1.1% 4.5% 5.09
United States 3.6% 65.1% 28.9% 6.0% 78.6% 20.1% 1.2% 4.8% 5.00
Indonesia 0.3% 82.5% 17.1% 0.4% 86.9% 13.0% 0.1% 0.3% 4.00
Trinidad 0.5% 81.3% 18.0% 0.7% 86.9% 12.9% 0.2% 0.5% 3.50
Italy 2.7% 82.8% 13.0% 4.1% 93.1% 5.7% 1.2% 2.9% 3.42
Spain 7.4% 36.6% 51.8% 11.6% 53.9% 42.5% 3.6% 8.0% 3.22
Peru 1.4% 77.4% 20.4% 2.2% 86.4% 12.9% 0.7% 1.5% 3.14
Ukraine 3.0% 71.5% 23.7% 4.8% 88.0% 10.4% 1.6% 3.2% 3.00
Uruguay 7.6% 45.0% 43.2% 11.8% 65.4% 30.3% 4.3% 7.5% 2.74
Turkey 0.5% 79.6% 19.6% 0.8% 85.5% 14.2% 0.3% 0.5% 2.67
Colombia 0.5% 75.5% 23.7% 0.8% 84.4% 15.3% 0.3% 0.5% 2.67
Cyprus 2.1% 49.7% 47.1% 3.1% 71.7% 27.0% 1.3% 1.8% 2.38
Argentina 2.3% 72.5% 24.2% 3.2% 88.8% 9.8% 1.4% 1.8% 2.29
South Africa 1.2% 73.1% 25.2% 1.6% 89.4% 9.9% 0.7% 0.9% 2.29
Bulgaria 5.3% 57.1% 35.5% 7.5% 69.4% 27.3% 3.3% 4.2% 2.27
Finland 3.1% 51.3% 44.4% 4.3% 68.3% 29.8% 1.9% 2.4% 2.26
Japan 13.7% 21.6% 59.2% 19.3% 26.4% 64.6% 9.0% 10.3% 2.14
Malaysia 2.3% 87.4% 9.4% 3.2% 90.7% 7.8% 1.5% 1.7% 2.13
Serbia 4.0% 83.3% 11.4% 5.3% 87.7% 9.8% 2.6% 2.7% 2.04
Russia 4.4% 61.6% 32.3% 6.1% 83.2% 13.8% 3.0% 3.1% 2.03
Iran 0.1% 80.7% 19.1% 0.2% 86.6% 13.3% 0.1% 0.1% 2.00
Norway 6.8% 30.5% 60.5% 9.0% 52.3% 43.1% 4.6% 4.4% 1.96
Netherlands 7.5% 50.8% 39.2% 9.9% 62.9% 32.0% 5.1% 4.8% 1.94
Slovenia 9.8% 66.2% 20.5% 13.3% 77.8% 15.2% 7.0% 6.3% 1.90
Canada 6.6% 60.8% 30.5% 8.7% 72.1% 23.3% 4.6% 4.1% 1.89
Moldova 1.0% 75.8% 23.0% 1.3% 91.4% 7.8% 0.7% 0.6% 1.86
Hong Kong 5.4% 19.8% 73.2% 7.0% 34.1% 62.1% 3.8% 3.2% 1.84
France 17.1% 42.0% 35.6% 22.3% 51.5% 36.3% 12.3% 10.0% 1.81
Andorra 14.2% 40.1% 42.0% 18.0% 56.9% 32.9% 10.1% 7.9% 1.78
Sweden 17.2% 26.4% 52.0% 21.6% 40.6% 46.6% 12.8% 8.8% 1.69
South Korea 28.6% 23.0% 41.4% 35.6% 37.1% 41.3% 21.7% 13.9% 1.64
New Zealand 7.0% 43.3% 48.2% 8.5% 55.1% 39.7% 5.2% 3.3% 1.63
Germany 19.2% 36.7% 39.5% 23.7% 48.6% 36.5% 14.9% 8.8% 1.59
Iraq 2.7% 54.3% 42.5% 3.2% 55.1% 42.8% 2.1% 1.1% 1.52
Burkina Faso 1.6% 90.8% 7.3% 1.9% 92.2% 6.6% 1.3% 0.6% 1.46
Mexico 2.9% 70.6% 26.0% 3.4% 80.0% 17.6% 2.4% 1.0% 1.42
Viet Nam 23.6% 32.2% 40.7% 27.1% 46.6% 33.6% 19.8% 7.3% 1.37
Taiwan 16.8% 40.1% 40.5% 19.4% 40.4% 45.4% 14.2% 5.2% 1.37
China 17.9% 20.7% 58.7% 20.7% 22.8% 61.7% 15.6% 5.1% 1.33
Switzerland 7.9% 59.8% 31.2% 9.0% 69.0% 24.0% 7.0% 2.0% 1.29
Great Britain 10.4% 42.4% 46.0% 11.6% 54.5% 36.3% 9.3% 2.3% 1.25
Australia 9.9% 46.8% 42.8% 10.4% 56.2% 34.4% 9.5% 0.9% 1.09
Mali 0.4% 97.5% 2.1% 0.4% 97.8% 1.8% 0.4% 0.0% 1.00
India 2.5% 74.4% 23.2% 2.4% 82.7% 14.6% 2.7% -0.3% 0.89
Brazil 1.2% 84.7% 14.2% 1.1% 91.1% 7.6% 1.3% -0.2% 0.85
Thailand 0.2% 35.4% 64.5% 0.1% 35.5% 64.3% 0.3% -0.2% 0.33
Rwanda 0.1% 93.5% 6.5% 0.0% 94.9% 5.0% 0.1% -0.1% 0.00
Egypt 0.0% 90.1% 9.9% 0.0% 95.1% 4.9% 0.0% 0.0% #DIV/0!
Morocco 0.0% 91.3% 8.7% 0.0% 92.3% 7.7% 0.0% 0.0% #DIV/0!
Jordan 0.1% 88.7% 11.1% 0.2% 95.6% 4.4% 0.0% 0.2% #DIV/0!
Georgia 0.3% 94.3% 5.1% 0.6% 98.6% 1.4% 0.0% 0.6% #DIV/0!
Ghana 0.5% 91.3% 7.7% 1.0% 91.8% 8.2% 0.0% 1.0% #DIV/0!
Zambia 0.5% 88.0% 11.0% 1.0% 91.1% 8.9% 0.0% 1.0% #DIV/0!
(Republished from Discover/GNXP by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: Atheism, Culture, Data Analysis, Religion, WVS 
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Update: After watching the videos of what went down at the cultural festival I seem to have unwittingly slandered the Act 17 missionaries. They behaved well and were obviously unjustly arrested. Their YouTube site is testimony to the reality though that they’re pretty shallow and obnoxious in some contexts, but that’s frankly not atypical for this sort of evangelical Christian from where I stand. I apologize for engaging in stereotyping in this case, because my expectations were out of line with what I saw on the tapes (though their attempt at apologia is stereotypically laughable, and the goonish response of some of the Muslim youth to Act 17′s antics unfortunately predictable).

Ed Brayton points to a resolution of a case of aggressive and seemingly obnoxious Christian missionaries being arrested for “public disturbance”. Ed observes:

Those four Christian missionaries I wrote about who were arrested for disorderly conduct and breach of the peace while preaching at the Dearborn International Arab Festival in June were acquitted by a jury on Friday. That’s the right result, but frankly the charges should have been dismissed by the judge in the first place.

Nabeel Qureshi of Virginia, Negeen Mayel of California and Paul Rezkalla and David Wood, both of New York, were acquitted of breach of peace, 19th District Court officials in Dearborn said after the verdict. Mayel was found guilty of failure to obey a police officer’s order.

[my emphasis - R]

That last result is still a bit disturbing because the order she was given was an unlawful one. The officer had no legitimate reason to give her the order to stop videotaping what was going on and therefore she should not be held liable for violating that order.

Unfortunately, the mayor of the town continues to be confused about the legal realities….

I’ve only followed the case casually. From what I can gather it seems that these preachers were sort you find around college campuses, or sometimes in downtown areas of big cities. Going by stereotypes of how objectionable Middle Eastern Muslims tend to find proselytization by Christians in their own countries I assume that this sort of behavior would result in a public disturbance, because this sort of preaching tends to be “in your face” and confrontational. The politician is behaving in the craven manner politicians are wont to behave. That’s why we have the Bill of Rights. And I say we in particular to the readers of this weblog, we tend to be irreligious and unloved by the public. If for example I simply stood on a street corner in some small American towns and kept shouting “there is no God” in a monotone voice I suspect I’d attract attention, hostility, and perhaps threaten public disturbance. But all I’d be doing was stating my simple belief.

In any case, enough commentary. How about if the shoe was on the other foot? In the last iteration of the GSS, in 2008, they had a question: SPKMSLM: Now consider a Muslim clergyman who preaches hatred of the United States. If such a person wanted to make a speech in your community preaching hatred of the United States, should he be allowed to speak, or not? Here are the results by demographic:


Demographic Ban preaching by Anti-American Muslim in community
Male 51
Female 65
Northeast 57
Midwest 56
South 63
West 56
White 56
Black 70
Hispanic 74
Protestant 62
Catholic 65
Jewish 68
No religion 42
No High School Diploma 82
High School 62
Junior College 57
Bachelor 45
Graduate 30
Dumb (Wordsum 0-4) 75
Average (Wordsum 5-8) 61
Smart (Wordsum 8-10) 34
Atheist and agnostic 30
Know god exists 68
Bible Word of God 76
Bible Inspired Word 55
Bible Book of Fables 38
Liberal 45
Moderate 62
Conservative 61
Democrat 56
Independent 66
Republican 59

Can I get some hallelujahs for the Bill of Rights and elites who will defend them? If you’re curious why “moderates” and “Independents” are as intolerant, or more so, than conservatives and Republicans, I think it’s because they’re generally stupid, and stupid people in particular are suspicious of deviations in speech and thought. Ideologues tend to be brighter. There is more than a dimes worth of difference.

Now that we’ve established that Americans are probably hypocrites, I recall that The Future of Religion reported that excepting Seventh Day Adventists the more fundamentalist a person was the more likely they were to support banning missionaries from non-Christian religions in the USA. In other words, preaching for me but not for thee. How does trust of other religious correlate with religiosity? Let’s look at it internationally. The WVS has a question about how important religion is in your life, very important, rather important, not very important, and not at all important. I constructed an index of religiosity by recoding these responses into numbers and multiplying by weights. So, 50%*3 + 25%*2 + 10%*1 + 15%* 0 = 2.1. 3 would be 100% who say that religion is very important, 0 would 100% not important at all. There is also a question about trusting people of “another religion.” The answers were trust completely, trust a little, not trust very much, and not trust at all. I constructed an index of trust of other religions in the same manner. On the X axis I placed religiosity, and on the Y axis trust of other religions. Here’s the scatterplot with r-squared:

rel1

There’s really no relation here. Only 10% of Y can be explained by variation in X. But, rescaling a bit we can generate quadrants of values. I now label the nations as well:

reltrust2

As you can see Muslim nations can be trusting or not trusting of other religions. One of the main issues with international perceptions of Islam is that we take Middle Eastern Islam as the normative Islam, and Middle Eastern Muslims tend to be among the most religiously intolerant people in the world, along with Chinese, and well as assorted group from the Orthodox Christian world. In contrast, as you can see with Mali and Burkina Faso, African Muslims are more tolerant of pluralism. As I have noted before, Senegal is more than 90% Muslim, but the “father of the nation” was a Roman Catholic. In contrast, Boutros (the equivalent of Peter) Boutros-Ghali’s political career always had an implicit glass-ceiling because he was a Coptic Christian, even though Christians are about the same percentage of the population in Egypt. Now, if Egyptian religious liberals would have the same heft and authority when they said “but in Senegal Muslims do….” or “in Indonesia they practice Islam….” as when Pakistani or Indonesian religious conservatives did when they stated “in Arabia….”, we’d be in a better place. But as it is, I do think it is a little misleading to state that “only 20% of the world’s Muslims are Arab.” That 20% “counts” more than the 30% which is South Asian.

Here’s the raw data….


Trust of other religions
Country Trust completely Trust a little Not trust very much Not trust at all Weighted index
Sweden 16.40% 72.40% 8.70% 2.60% 2.03
New Zealand 23.60% 59.90% 10.80% 5.70% 2.01
France 29.00% 48.70% 14.70% 7.60% 1.99
Norway 14.70% 64.80% 16.40% 4.00% 1.90
Great Britain 11.50% 69.40% 13.60% 5.50% 1.87
Mali 23.60% 44.50% 25.20% 6.70% 1.85
Finland 12.20% 64.60% 19.00% 4.20% 1.85
United States 6.10% 73.40% 16.00% 4.50% 1.81
Canada 5.10% 74.70% 14.90% 5.20% 1.80
Australia 6.00% 67.00% 22.20% 4.70% 1.74
Switzerland 5.30% 65.60% 24.60% 4.60% 1.72
Andorra 3.20% 72.80% 15.40% 8.60% 1.71
South Africa 14.80% 48.60% 27.90% 8.70% 1.70
Rwanda 5.30% 61.90% 27.40% 5.40% 1.67
Argentina 11.80% 51.00% 25.40% 11.80% 1.63
Trinidad 6.40% 56.90% 26.80% 9.90% 1.60
Burkina Faso 13.50% 41.90% 30.20% 14.40% 1.55
Uruguay 12.70% 44.60% 24.30% 18.40% 1.52
Ghana 12.20% 40.60% 32.00% 15.20% 1.50
Taiwan 1.80% 44.90% 46.50% 6.80% 1.42
Serbia 4.30% 42.20% 43.30% 10.10% 1.41
Poland 1.70% 47.60% 39.90% 10.90% 1.40
Brazil 5.70% 44.60% 33.60% 16.10% 1.40
Netherlands 2.70% 43.00% 44.20% 10.10% 1.38
Spain 7.50% 39.70% 35.20% 17.60% 1.37
India 12.60% 32.70% 32.80% 22.00% 1.36
Ethiopia 12.00% 27.70% 44.50% 15.90% 1.36
South Korea 3.90% 37.80% 48.10% 10.20% 1.35
Bulgaria 4.50% 40.30% 41.30% 14.00% 1.35
Indonesia 1.60% 38.30% 50.80% 9.20% 1.32
Georgia 3.00% 36.10% 49.60% 11.20% 1.31
Germany 1.50% 41.30% 42.70% 14.50% 1.30
Ukraine 5.70% 33.10% 43.50% 17.70% 1.27
Zambia 8.70% 30.80% 38.30% 22.20% 1.26
Italy 0.70% 40.40% 43.00% 16.00% 1.26
Malaysia 2.20% 33.30% 50.20% 14.20% 1.23
Chile 4.10% 32.90% 43.30% 19.70% 1.21
Egypt 3.50% 35.70% 38.70% 22.10% 1.21
Thailand 5.00% 23.70% 53.40% 17.90% 1.16
Russia 2.30% 33.90% 40.40% 23.40% 1.15
Vietnam 1.00% 26.90% 58.20% 13.90% 1.15
Slovenia 4.60% 23.60% 49.90% 21.90% 1.11
Romania 2.40% 28.20% 46.00% 23.50% 1.10
Jordan 4.90% 27.40% 35.40% 32.30% 1.05
Mexico 4.50% 27.80% 32.50% 35.30% 1.02
Turkey 2.40% 26.00% 42.00% 29.60% 1.01
Cyprus 1.90% 25.80% 42.90% 29.40% 1.00
Moldova 1.20% 25.00% 44.10% 29.60% 0.98
Morocco 1.20% 21.30% 45.00% 32.40% 0.91
Peru 2.30% 23.20% 35.60% 38.90% 0.89
China 1.90% 15.60% 51.90% 30.60% 0.89
Importance of religion in life
Very important Rather important Not very important Not important at all Weighted index
Egypt 95.40% 4.20% 0.20% 0.20% 2.95
Jordan 94.50% 5.20% 0.20% 0.20% 2.94
Indonesia 94.70% 4.10% 0.90% 0.30% 2.93
Morocco 90.60% 7.90% 1.30% 0.30% 2.89
Mali 90.20% 8.60% 0.90% 0.30% 2.89
Ghana 90.40% 7.50% 1.70% 0.40% 2.88
Burkina Faso 84.30% 12.20% 2.70% 0.70% 2.80
Georgia 80.20% 17.00% 1.90% 0.90% 2.77
Malaysia 80.50% 15.50% 3.30% 0.70% 2.76
Ethiopia 81.00% 13.20% 3.80% 2.00% 2.73
Zambia 77.50% 16.70% 4.60% 1.20% 2.71
Trinidad 76.80% 13.00% 7.90% 2.30% 2.64
Turkey 74.70% 16.60% 6.20% 2.50% 2.64
South Africa 70.30% 20.20% 6.50% 3.00% 2.58
Thailand 56.30% 37.90% 5.40% 0.40% 2.50
Romania 58.00% 32.50% 7.20% 2.40% 2.46
Mexico 59.00% 26.10% 11.50% 3.40% 2.41
Brazil 50.60% 40.40% 6.20% 2.70% 2.39
Rwanda 38.90% 56.90% 4.10% 0.10% 2.35
Poland 47.80% 39.00% 10.40% 2.80% 2.32
Cyprus 54.10% 27.20% 12.10% 6.60% 2.29
India 51.40% 29.30% 13.90% 5.50% 2.27
Peru 49.60% 26.70% 18.90% 4.80% 2.21
United States 47.40% 24.20% 19.70% 8.70% 2.10
Chile 39.90% 33.50% 18.40% 8.20% 2.05
Italy 34.40% 41.70% 17.00% 6.80% 2.04
Moldova 31.80% 41.20% 20.40% 6.60% 1.98
Argentina 33.40% 32.00% 24.00% 10.60% 1.88
Serbia 25.70% 40.90% 26.80% 6.60% 1.86
Canada 32.00% 27.10% 25.30% 15.60% 1.76
Ukraine 18.30% 38.80% 27.70% 15.20% 1.60
Bulgaria 18.90% 31.90% 32.20% 17.00% 1.53
Taiwan 12.40% 39.30% 35.80% 12.50% 1.52
South Korea 21.20% 25.80% 34.50% 18.60% 1.50
Finland 17.60% 27.50% 40.60% 14.30% 1.48
Russia 13.70% 35.10% 32.50% 18.70% 1.44
Uruguay 22.80% 23.20% 27.80% 26.20% 1.43
Switzerland 17.20% 28.30% 31.70% 22.80% 1.40
Great Britain 21.00% 19.70% 33.90% 25.40% 1.36
Slovenia 15.30% 27.60% 31.00% 26.10% 1.32
Australia 19.50% 19.70% 31.40% 29.30% 1.29
France 13.00% 27.90% 30.70% 28.40% 1.26
Spain 14.90% 24.20% 31.10% 29.80% 1.24
Vietnam 7.20% 25.60% 47.60% 19.60% 1.20
New Zealand 17.30% 18.50% 30.70% 33.60% 1.20
Norway 10.50% 22.20% 41.30% 26.00% 1.17
Sweden 9.30% 20.10% 40.90% 29.80% 1.09
Germany 11.20% 22.70% 29.00% 37.00% 1.08
Netherlands 12.50% 19.00% 28.40% 40.20% 1.04
Andorra 8.00% 21.20% 31.30% 39.50% 0.98
China 6.70% 15.20% 31.00% 47.10% 0.82
(Republished from Discover/GNXP by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: Culture, Data Analysis, GSS, Religion, WVS 
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One hypothesis I have held is that there is a cultural gap in the United States whereby the West Coast and the Northeast are more “European” than the rest of the nation. So you have ideas crop up like Jesusland. I decided to see if I could compare European nations and American subregions using the WVS, Eurobarometer and GSS. I looked at two issues:

1) Belief in God
2) Nationalism

These two had equivalent questions in the 2000s for the WVS & GSS. I created an index of religiosity whereby:

Atheists & agnostic = 0
Higher Power = 1
Theist = 2

And:
Very Proud of Country = 3
Somewhat Proud of Country = 2
Not Very Proud = 1
Not Proud at All = 0

On these two traits I don’t see much of a Blue America + Europe clade….

Note: Limited GSS results to the 2000s.

(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: GSS, WVS 
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Razib Khan
About Razib Khan

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