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World Values Survey

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With all the geopolitical tumult and news I was a bit curious to see what The World Values Survey could tell us about public opinion in Egypt and Tunisia. Unfortunately, Tunisia hasn’t been in any of their surveys, though Egypt has. So I thought it might be interesting to compare the USA, Sweden, Turkey, Egypt, and Iraq, for wave 5, which occurred in the mid-2000s. The main thing I took away from the exercise is to reflect that Americans are a more equivocal people than I had expected. Many of the questions have a 1 to 10 scale, and I’m providing the most extreme answers. So the low fractions for Americans for some questions point to a relative moderation on some topics…which is kind of weird when you are asking whether “People choosing their leaders is an essential characteristic of democracy.” Since that’s the definition of democracy broadly construed anything below a 10 out of 10 seems strange to me.


(Control + should increase font-size if it is too small)

USA Sweden Turkey Egypt Iraq
Religion “very important” 47 9 75 95 96
Politics “very important” 11 16 13 9 37
Family life “very important” 95 92 99 98 96
Most people can be trusted 39 68 5 19 41
Satisfied with life (10 out of 10) 7 12 21 11 3
Great deal of control of life (10 out of 10) 17 16 24 14 9
Men have more right to job than women 7 2 53 89 84
Trust family completely 73 94 95 96 -
Approve of woman as single parent 52 49 9 2 -
University more important for boy than girl 1 0 7 26 25
Government ownership of business should be increased (10 out of 10) 1 2 12 25 22
Hard work brings better life (10 out of 10) 19 8 21 52
Great deal of confidence in armed forces 35 4 67 34
Great deal of confidence in police 17 13 36 - -
Great deal of confidence in government 5 3 28 - 31
Very good for political system to have strong leader 7 4 23 8 11
Very good to have democratic system 45 76 57 79 55
Complete agree, too much science, not enough faith 12 4 20 14
Religious authorities interpreting laws is an essential characteristic of democracy 2 0 11 48 19
People choosing their leaders is an essential characteristic of democracy 56 79 48 79 58
Protecting civil liberties is an essential characteristic of democracy 44 66 44 57 47
Women having sames rights as men is an essential characteristic of democracy 57 84 57 51 27
Cheating on taxes always justifiable 2 1 0 1
Accepting bribe always justifiable 1 0 0 0 1
Homosexuality always justifiable 15 61 1 - -
Abortion always justifiable 7 37 2 - 1
Divorce always justifiable 12 47 5 9 1
Don’t trust at all people of other religion 5 3 30 22 -
Don’t trust at all people of other nationality 5 2 29 40 -
(Republished from Discover/GNXP by permission of author or representative)
 
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A party, the Sweden Democrats, is about to enter the Swedish parliamanent which is described in this way in Wikipedia:

The party has its origins in the nationalist movement Bevara Sverige Svenskt (“Keep Sweden Swedish”)…During the mid 1990s, the party leader Mikael Jansson strove to make the party more respectable, modelling it after other “euronationalist” parties, most prominently the French National Front. This policy continues to be followed by the present leader Jimmie Åkesson. This effort included ousting openly extremist members.

Yes. More respectable by modeling itself on the National Front. Here’s a bit about the organization which eventually grew into the Sweden Democrats:

Bevara Sverige Svenskt (“Keep Sweden Swedish”) was a Swedish nationalist movement based in Stockholm and is a slogan used by various Swedish nationalist parties. The stated objective of the BSS movement, and the aim of the slogan, was to initiate a debate in order to reduce immigration from non-European countries and repatriate non-ethnic Swedes.

The Swedes, and the world, are shocked. Should they be? From what I can tell the Social Democratic Party of Sweden no longer has a hegemonic grip on Sweden’s politics. But the core working class base of such coalitions is shrinking because of economic restructuring throughout the developed world, with the remnants often defecting to Right-populism. Today Gunnar Mydral would have to look to writing a book about his own nation, which has about the same foreign born proportion as the USA (though that is a touch deceptive as many of these are other Scandinavians or Finns).

This prompted me to look in the World Values Survey. Specifically, the last wave which started around 2005. One thing you notice in the survey is that Swedes are very politically correct, even compared to their Nordic neighbors. I have read that the ecological awareness imputed to Native Americans in part because of the Noble Savage idea has actually resulted in a real shift and striving by many Native Americans to actually implement those ideals. Sometimes I wonder if the Swedes are so “progressive” and “forward thinking” in surveys because everyone always pats them on the back for being progressive and forward thinking. Sweden sure is the least sexist and nativist nation in the WVS.


There are two questions which ask about job preference in times of scarcity. First, “Employers should give priority to (nation) people than immigrants,” and second, “Men should have more right to a job than women.” There are three responses: agree, disagree, neither. Let’s code agree = 1, disagree = -1, and neither as 0. Weight by proportion and get an index of “nativism” and “sexism” within the population. If you get a score of -1, that would mean everyone was nativist or sexist. If you get 0, that would indicate perfect balance. 0.5, a touch on the nativist or sexist side. The plot below has sexism on the x-axis, and nativism on the y-axis.

natsex

Though I think racism is more taboo than sexism internationally (if Saudis explicitly treated blacks in their nation as they do women there would be a natural boycott. One of the reasons the Saudis banned slavery in 1960 had to do with protests which they kept encountering in the civilized world). But sexism is more taboo than nativism (I think there are important reasons for the rank order, but that’s not a matter for this post). The correlation between nativism and sexism is ~0.76, so variation in sexism explains 58% of the variation in nativism. As you can see Sweden is a definite outlier.

Note: don’t attach too much normative baggage to my use of the terms “sexist” and “nativist.” They seemed compact and communicated the underlying sentiments.

Here are the raw values:

Men should get preference in jobs over women
Country Agree Disagree Neither
Sweden 2.10% 94.10% 3.80%
Andorra 4.40% 89.90% 5.70%
Ethiopia 6.00% 85.60% 8.40%
Norway 6.50% 88.60% 5.00%
United States 6.80% 66.40% 26.80%
New Zealand 8.00% 72.60% 19.40%
Finland 9.60% 81.50% 8.80%
Netherlands 12.50% 81.40% 6.20%
Serbia 12.50% 63.10% 24.30%
Slovenia 13.60% 73.50% 13.00%
Australia 13.90% 64.70% 21.40%
Canada 14.30% 77.90% 7.80%
Great Britain 16.20% 76.10% 7.70%
Spain 17.40% 76.00% 6.60%
Peru 17.70% 72.80% 9.50%
Germany 17.80% 66.80% 15.40%
France 18.10% 73.80% 8.10%
Guatemala 19.10% 72.30% 8.60%
Hong Kong 21.60% 44.20% 34.30%
Uruguay 21.90% 69.30% 8.90%
Italy 22.00% 59.20% 18.80%
Switzerland 22.10% 62.90% 15.00%
Brazil 22.30% 64.10% 13.60%
Bulgaria 24.20% 52.60% 23.20%
Mexico 25.30% 67.60% 7.00%
Trinidad 25.30% 65.70% 8.90%
Rwanda 25.30% 64.20% 10.50%
Japan 27.10% 17.90% 55.00%
Argentina 27.70% 60.00% 12.30%
Chile 30.20% 46.30% 23.50%
Poland 30.80% 51.00% 18.20%
Thailand 32.30% 40.60% 27.20%
Ukraine 32.50% 44.70% 22.80%
Zambia 33.60% 51.50% 15.00%
Romania 35.20% 40.90% 23.90%
South Korea 36.50% 26.40% 37.10%
Cyprus 36.50% 46.40% 17.10%
Russia 36.60% 43.70% 19.70%
South Africa 37.10% 49.50% 13.40%
Moldova 38.10% 39.00% 22.90%
Viet Nam 40.80% 37.70% 21.50%
China 42.30% 32.70% 25.10%
Taiwan 43.60% 36.00% 20.40%
Malaysia 49.00% 15.20% 35.70%
Morocco 50.80% 33.20% 16.00%
India 51.40% 20.50% 28.10%
Burkina Faso 52.30% 34.80% 12.90%
Georgia 52.50% 26.10% 21.40%
Turkey 53.30% 29.80% 16.90%
Ghana 53.60% 37.40% 8.90%
Indonesia 55.40% 36.20% 8.40%
Mali 62.40% 22.80% 14.80%
Iran 69.40% 16.50% 14.10%
Jordan 88.20% 7.90% 3.90%
Egypt 89.10% 4.30% 6.60%
Natives should get preference in jobs over immigrants
Country
Sweden 11.80% 79.90% 8.30%
Andorra 29.80% 53.20% 17.00%
Norway 34.70% 57.30% 8.00%
Netherlands 40.10% 49.80% 10.20%
Canada 40.90% 46.10% 13.10%
Australia 41.60% 36.40% 21.90%
France 42.10% 46.40% 11.50%
Serbia 44.70% 28.80% 26.40%
Switzerland 48.00% 35.50% 16.50%
New Zealand 51.90% 29.30% 18.80%
Great Britain 52.90% 36.40% 10.60%
Ethiopia 54.70% 29.30% 16.00%
Finland 54.90% 30.80% 14.30%
United States 55.40% 20.00% 24.60%
Germany 55.70% 27.90% 16.40%
Spain 57.70% 34.20% 8.10%
Thailand 61.20% 16.80% 22.10%
Japan 62.70% 6.10% 31.20%
Italy 63.90% 19.10% 17.00%
Turkey 64.40% 23.20% 12.40%
Romania 65.10% 14.60% 20.30%
China 66.00% 13.70% 20.40%
Ukraine 69.90% 16.20% 13.90%
Burkina Faso 71.70% 18.80% 9.50%
Argentina 71.90% 17.40% 10.70%
Hong Kong 72.30% 3.80% 23.90%
Uruguay 72.50% 21.30% 6.30%
Rwanda 72.60% 18.00% 9.40%
Slovenia 73.70% 15.00% 11.30%
Viet Nam 74.30% 10.80% 14.90%
Mexico 74.80% 19.60% 5.60%
India 75.20% 6.10% 18.70%
Moldova 75.50% 8.50% 15.90%
Bulgaria 76.60% 14.70% 8.70%
Zambia 77.00% 11.40% 11.60%
South Africa 78.30% 11.00% 10.70%
Cyprus 78.60% 12.20% 9.20%
South Korea 78.90% 2.40% 18.70%
Guatemala 79.60% 10.20% 10.30%
Chile 79.80% 7.50% 12.70%
Brazil 81.40% 9.50% 9.10%
Russia 81.40% 9.00% 9.60%
Poland 81.60% 8.40% 10.00%
Peru 82.20% 12.50% 5.30%
Mali 83.80% 7.10% 9.10%
Trinidad 84.00% 10.80% 5.30%
Morocco 84.90% 5.60% 9.50%
Ghana 85.20% 8.60% 6.10%
Malaysia 86.10% 2.10% 11.80%
Georgia 87.00% 4.50% 8.60%
Indonesia 87.40% 5.50% 7.10%
Iran 89.00% 5.40% 5.60%
Taiwan 91.00% 3.80% 5.20%
Egypt 97.90% 0.20% 1.90%
Jordan 98.50% 0.80% 0.70%
(Republished from Discover/GNXP by permission of author or representative)
 
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I am currently reading Eliza Griswold’s The Tenth Parallel: Dispatches from the Fault Line Between Christianity and Islam. The first half of the book is about Africa, and much of that is given to religious conflict in Nigeria. Africa’s most populous nation happens to be split down the middle religiously, with a Muslim north and a Christian south, meeting in the “Middle Belt” to contest. Griswold describes a very competitive religious marketplace.

One thing I was curious about though: are the religious conflicts in Nigeria simply due to coalitional fissures, or deep substantive divergences which track the religious differences? To illustrate, if Muslims and Christians share a village, then Christians who slaughter pigs in public places because pork is their primary protein source will likely have tensions with Muslims, who as a matter of substance object to pig slaughter which might pollute the landscape (this is a problem in parts of Southeast Asia where Muslims live downstream from Christians). In contrast, if you have economic difficulties in a region, and it is fractured ethnically or religiously, trivial tensions may quickly exploded into violence. In other words, in the second case religion is just a “quick & dirty” coalitional marker around which inevitable conflicts are going to swirl (in Mauritius Muslim Indo-Mauritians play a “wild card” role between Christian Creoles and Hindu Indo-Mauritians, despite greater substantive religious affinity with the Christians and greater cultural and racial affinity with the Hindus).

To answer this question I looked at the World Values Survey. For Nigeria there was data from 1995 and 2000, so I combined them to increase my sample size. Additionally, I wanted to focus on the Yoruba ethnic group, which is religiously divided between Muslims and Christians. In the WVS the religious categories actually break down further among the Christians, and I selected Pentecostals and Protestants for the Yoruba because of the large N for these groups, along with Muslims. Additionally, I selected Hausa Muslims as a comparison. The Hausa are an overwhelmingly Muslim northern ethnic group, while the Yoruba are a religiously pluralistic southern group (the Igbo of the southeast are as Christian as the Hausa are Muslim).

Please note that the survey was taken during a period of military rule by Hausa strongmen. I included only a subset of questions. You can follow to link to do your own queries.

Mus = Muslim, Pent = Pentecostal, Prot = Protestant. Some cells for Pentecostals are missing because for some questions all Protestants were aggregated together.

Question Hausa Mus Yoruba Mus Yoruba Pent Yoruba Prot
% Lower Class 51 34 22 23
% Completed University 6.5 12 36 23
% No Children 35 38 40 47
% Married 59 55 63 48
% Male 54 54 45 50
% Politics Very Important 39 20 12 21
% Work Very Important 89 94 96 91
% Religion Very Important 97 90 90 90
% Would not like people of difference race as neighbors 28 25 13 30
% Would not like immigrants as neighbors 28 20 12 15
% Would not like Muslims as neighbors 5.2 4 10 15
% Would not like homosexuals as neighbors 81 90 90 84
% Would not like people of a different religion as neighbors 36 14 20
% Totally satisfied with life (1-10 scale) 22 8 14 8
% Totally satisfied with financial situation (1-10 scale) 16 6 6 5
%Men should have more right to job than women 74 60 47 54
% Natives should have more right to job than immigrants 87 87 87 84
Mean, Ideal # of children 5.8 4.5 4 4
% A woman needs children to be fulfilled 81 93 96 93
% Disapprove of woman has single parent 89 76 92 77
% One should enjoy sexual freedom 23 16 9 11
% Marriage is outdated 18 19 11 13
% Agree strongly that men make better political leaders 63 56 44 51
% Agree strongly that university is more important for boy 46 22 12 21
% Very important that a woman is educated 80 76 82
% We need radical change in society 27 32 28 38
% Need larger income differences as incentives (1-10 scale) 21 25 41 15
% Gov. ownership of business should be increased (1-10 scale) 31 21 21 9
% The gov. should take more responsible (1-10 scale) 31 40 44 27
% Competition is harmful (1-10 scale) 7.2 8.2 1.8 14
% success is matter of luck and connections (1-10 scale) 12 13 4 13
% Wealth grows so there’s enough for everyone (1-10 scale) 28 17 29 28
% A great deal of confidence in armed forces 47 14 8 12
% A great deal of confidence in police 40 10 4 10
% A great deal of confidence in government 41 6 2 12
% A great deal of confidence in justice system 36 11 10 8
% A great deal of confidence in women’s movement 30 17 18 18
Mean, self position Left-Right (1-10) 6 4.9 5.5 4.7
Mean, rating of political system (1-10) 3.8 2.8 2.3 2.3
% Very satisfied with how democracy develops 28 13 15
% Favors open borders for immigrants 19 33 14 32
% Willing to fight for country 83 60 55 38
% There is a lot of respect for individual human rights 25 14 12
% Scientific advances will help 84 85 79 88
% A religious person 97 97 98 95
% God is very important in life (1-10) 88 92 93 86
% Get comfort and strength from religion 99 99 98
% Attend religious services more than once a week 72 85 58 60
% Raised religiously 97 97 93 90
% Believe in God 100 99 100 100
% Believe in Life After Death 87 80 86 86
% Believe in Hell 91 93 98 95
% Believe in Sin 85 97 98 95
% Believe in Devil 96 98 99 100
% Religious institutions give moral answers 85 69 71
% Agree strongly people atheists are unfit for public office 65 63 58
% Homosexuality never justifiable (1-10) 81 84 91 81
% Cheating on taxes never justifiable (1-10) 66 69 79 60
% Prostitution never justifiable (1-10) 77 85 90 79
% Abortion never justifiable (1-10) 78 83 82 72
% Divorce never justifiable (1-10) 55 64 74 56
% Very proud of nationality 78 66 57 60

And here’s a correlation matrix:

Hausa Mus Yoruba Mus Yoruba Pent Yoruba Prot
Hausa Mus * 0.94 0.9 0.93
Yoruba Mus * * 0.97 0.98
Yoruba Pent * * * 0.97

The Yoruba and Hausa have a high degree of agreement irrespective of religion, but there does seem to be a tendency for the Yoruba to agree across the religious divide. On the political questions I think the historical context is important. Additionally, it seems that the Pentecostals are the most religiously conservative and enthusiastic of these groups. Because the Hausa tend to be culturally Muslim (though there are a large minority of Hausa Christians in the sample) as a matter of course I was not totally surprised that they were not as zealous as one presumes Muslims to be.

(Republished from Discover/GNXP by permission of author or representative)
 
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One of the “theories” I’ve had for a long time is that the smaller a proportion of a society’s population atheists are, the stranger and more deviant they are going to be. A reason I came to this position is that read an account by an atheist American scientist who had some interactions with Soviet religious dissidents during the Cold War. His position was that in many ways American atheists and Soviet religious dissidents exhibited similarities in terms of personality, likely because they were generally not conformists. One of the peculiarities of the massive re-confessionalization of Russian society after the fall of the Soviet Union is the reality that these Communist era dissidents are now being marginalized in many congregations by recent converts who had a background as apparatchiks in the old regime, and were sometimes even actively involved in persecuting their current coreligionists! In any case, what about my hypothesis? Do I have any evidence for it? Not in any substantive manner. So I thought it might be interesting to look in the World Values Survey, naturally. How do attitudes of atheists and religious people vary within a society as a function of the proportion of each group?

I limited the sample to males, because men are more secular on average and exhibit more variance between nations. Additionally, because so many nations have very few atheists I put a lower bound of N = 20 for “convinced atheists.” I mollified my own concerns about such a low N with the hope that if an N in a society is that low, the atheists may be strange enough indeed that their deviation from the social median may still swamp the noise. As before, the means for a class were calculated. So, the mean political self position of atheists and the religious is on a 1-10 scale. Below are are the charts for the results of a set of questions which exhibit a 1-10 level of agreement along a spectrum. The position is less important than the difference. First is a simple scatterplot which shows the attitudes of both the religious and atheists by nation. The expectation is a strong correlation between the religious and atheists, because most of the variation is naturally between nations. The second chart shows the difference between the two groups, “Religious persons” and “Convinced Atheists.” I excluded those who were “Not religious” from the sample (so those who don’t consider themselves religious, but neither are they professed atheists). Lastly, I plotted the difference between atheists and the religious as function of the ratio of religious to atheists. So, for example, the ratio of religious to atheists for Iraq is very high, atheists are a small minority (though to my surprise the N was large enough to stay above the threshold I put). In China the number of convinced atheists and religious are at parity, though those who are without religion and are not atheists are a plural majority.

Looking at these results I’m going to withdraw my model.

* For the “justifiable” questions 1 = never, 10 = always.
* Competition is good = 1, competition is harmful = 10.
* 1 = everything determined by fate, 10 = people shape their fates.
* 1 = gov. more responsibility, 10 = individual more responsibility.
* 1 = incomes more equal, 10 = we need larger differences for incentives.
* 1 = private ownership should be increased, gov. ownership should be increased.
* 1 = science makes world worse off, 10 = better off.
* 1 = Left, 10 = Right.

(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: Data, World Values Survey 
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(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: Religion, World Values Survey 
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Update: See below….

The World Values Survey has a lot of data broken down by subjective social class. One of these asks how many children an individual has. So I thought it might be of interested to inspect WVS 5, generally taken around 2005, and compare differences by class in term of children. Of course there might be differences in the age breakdowns of the different classes, so that controlling for age there might be greater differences than evident. But as a coarse I thought it would be of interest. Because the data is in proportions I added up the percentage with 3 or more children in class (above replacement). For a few selected nations I calculated the mean for each class (I used WVS 3 and 4 to supplement).*

I didn’t go into this with any particular hypothesis or expectation, but I’m going to explore particular questions in future posts….

Date below.

% Who have 3 or more children by class (WVS 5)
Upper middle Lower middle Working Lower
Italy 12.2 13.2 13.7 26.7
Spain 14.4 14.2 26 53.9
Canada 26.2 27.3 33 26.1
Japan 22 23.1 21.7 25.6
South Africa 23.2 26.3 29.3 34.9
Australia 28.8 35.5 35.6 51.6
Sweden 22.6 19.6 23.1 19.2
Argentina 15.2 24.6 35.4 49.7
Finland 24.1 26.2 24.3 23.2
South Korea 13.3 21.8 31.8 28.3
Poland 11 21.2 23.9 31.7
Chile 28 33.3 46.4 47.3
India 40.6 44.2 45.3 59.3
Bulgaria 6.9 4.7 7 22.8
Romania 11.4 15.3 21.6 36.4
China 17.3 22.4 26.7 30.9
Taiwan 24.3 28 43.2 64.5
Turkey 22.5 32 31.4 54.6
Ukraine 3.2 7.8 8 9.6
Peru 29.9 28.7 37.3 53.2
Ghana 21.9 28.1 30.5 41.5
Moldova 12.2 15 26.4 26.5
Georgia 10.9 16.7 24.8 26
Indonesia 29.7 31.1 32.8 43.4
Vietnam 32.9 31.9 34.5 38.4
Serbia 10.3 8.1 10.5 14.5
Egypt 43.9 52.4 57.7 61.8
Morocco 22.7 40.3 44.8 48
Jordan 68.8 71.9 63.5 61.8
Iraq 48.8 45.8 53.2 52.5
Trinidad 24.7 30.2 32 48
Malaysia 29.8 34.1 28.1 41.4
Burkina Faso 27.9 33.4 39.9 44.7
Ethiopia 16.7 10.7 18.7 17.8
Mali 50.3 45.7 57.7 62.5
Rwanda 31.8 42.7 43 44.3
Zambia 18.3 26.5 22.9 39.7
Germany 15.6 19.1 22.6 21.7
WVS 3 & 4
Finland 23.2 24.1 16.8 26.7
Norway 23.6 23.9 25 27.3
Sweden 20.3 19 23.3 24.7

Mean number of children by class

WVS 5 Upper middle Lower middle Working Lower
Sweden 1.58 1.55 1.62 1.56
Finland 1.76 1.64 1.6 1.53
Italy 1.12 1.3 1.25 1.69
Spain 1.23 1.27 1.89 2.57
Canada 1.7 1.74 2.07 1.88
Japan 1.55 1.72 1.59 1.05
South Korea 1.35 1.72 1.85 1.86
Argentina 1.23 1.61 2.24 2.61
WVS 3 & 4 Upper middle Lower middle Working Lower
Finland 1.44 2.45 1.72 1.79
Norway 1.64 1.66 1.73 1.65
Sweden 1.47 1.42 1.67 1.63
Spain 1.31 1.48 1.73 2.15
Argentina 1.29 1.81 2.35 2.77
Canada 1.66 2.01 1.97 1.87
Japan 1.41 1.69 1.59 1.59
United States 1.76 1.6 1.77 N < 50, omitted

Mean # of children USA from GSS, whites age 50 and over (year 2000 and after)

Graduate degre Bachelor Junior College High School Less than High School
1.95 2.12 2.41 2.48 3.07

Readers with insights about a specific nation (because you actually know something, not rank speculation) are welcome to clarify. I was struck by the differences between Scandinavia and southern Europe. Interestingly, both Chile and Argentina exhibit the southern European pattern.

Update: Mean fertility by subjective class isn’t too hard to calculate. But the formatting is kind of crappy, so I put the table here. All from WVS 5. Remember that the N’s for “Upper Class” are almost always very small, so I’d ignore those. I’m pretty sure that the survey sample for many Third World countries are of higher SES than the population median, so don’t get too trusting of the specific numbers, but rather how the rank orders relate to each other up and down the social ladder.

Note: CSV file.

* I should have calculated the mean for each nation, but it’s rather tedious.

(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: World Values Survey 
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The World Values Survey Wave 5 has several questions about how much people trust others. In particular, one question asks about religion and another nationality. There are four responses:

-Trust completely
-Trust a little
-Not trust very much
-Not trust at all

In the WVS there are proportions for each class for many nations. I took each proportion, and multiplied them by a number where:

-Trust completely = 3
-Trust a little = 2
-Not trust very much = 1
-Not trust at all = 0

So that if 100% did not trust at all the number would add to 0, and if 100% trusted complete it would add to 4. Naturally most nations fell in between with a range. I assumed that there would be a strong correlation between the two values. It was very strong, as evidenced by the charts below.

OK, so how does religious trust related to how important people think is in their own lives? Again, there are four categories, from very important to not important at all. Again weighting the proportions so that 4 = very important and 0 = not important at all. So how about religious trust vs. religion important?

No need to label, there’s just no relationship. Weird. I also drilled down for selected nations to see if there was a relationship within the nations in regards to trust (both kinds here) and how important religion was. Not really. In fact, in many nations the least religious trusted those of other religions the least, so it might be expressing a general anti-religious sentiment. As an anecdote I friend whose husband was French one commented how secular French have a distrust of religion in general, and view non-traditional religions with particular distaste, viewing them as cults (non-traditional as in evangelical Protestantism, Hare Krishna, etc.).

The raw data….

Religious Trust National Trust Religion Important
Sweden 2.03 2.08 1.09
France 1.99 2.01 1.26
Great Britain 1.87 1.86 1.36
Mali 1.85 1.7 2.89
Finland 1.85 1.77 1.48
United States 1.81 1.75 2.1
Canada 1.8 1.76 1.76
Australia 1.74 1.77 1.29
Switzerland 1.72 1.76 1.4
Andorra 1.71 1.8 0.98
South Africa 1.7 1.42 2.58
Rwanda 1.67 1.31 2.35
Argentina 1.63 1.56 1.88
Trinidad 1.6 1.48 2.64
Burkina Faso 1.55 1.42 2.8
Ghana 1.5 1.14 2.88
Taiwan 1.42 1.16 1.52
Poland 1.4 1.37 2.32
Brazil 1.4 0.86 2.39
Netherlands 1.38 1.35 1.04
Spain 1.37 1.41 1.24
India 1.36 1.12 2.27
Ethiopia >1.36 1.13 2.73
South Korea 1.35 1.11 1.5
Bulgaria 1.35 1.34 1.53
Indonesia 1.32 1.2 2.93
Georgia 1.31 1.56 2.77
Germany 1.29 1.28 1.08
Ukraine 1.27 1.34 1.6
Zambia 1.26 0.95 2.71
Italy 1.26 1.31 2.04
Malaysia 1.23 0.87 2.76
Chile 1.21 1.09 2.05
Thailand 1.16 1.01 2.5
Russia 1.15 1.21 1.44
Vietnam 1.15 1 1.2
Slovenia 1.11 1.12 1.32
Romania 1.1 1.08 2.46
Jordan 1.05 1 2.94
Mexico 1.02 0.84 2.41
Turkey 1.01 1 2.64
Cyprus 1 1.03 2.29
Moldova 0.98 1.18 1.98
Morocco 0.91 0.91 2.89
Peru 0.89 0.68 2.21
China 0.89 0.8 0.82
(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: World Values Survey 
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TGGP has a post up where he looks at attitudes toward polygyny in predominantly Muslim nations. The question is:

To what extent do you agree or disagree with men having more than one wife? Do you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree?

I decided to break-down by religion in those nations which had a large non-Muslim population. Results below.

Bangladesh Indonesia Jordan Nigeria Pakistan Egypt
Muslim Hindu Muslim Roman Catholic Muslim Roman Catholic Muslim Protestant Shia Sunni Muslim Christian
Agree strongly 1.5 1.9 3 0 5.7 1.8 53.5 12.9 0 0 2.6 1.8
Agree 3.9 1.9 16.8 4.6 13.8 0 20.5 9.6 1.7 1 8 1.8
Neither 12.2 5.6 10.4 3.1 10.2 3.1 7.8 9.8 3.5 4 9.5 1.8
Disagree 48.2 50.5 44 40 17 7.7 8.6 27.2 25 40.6 79.7 94.6
Strongly disagree 34.2 40.2 25.7 52.3 53.3 87.4 9.5 40.4 69.8 54.4 0.1 0

Update: Above I only posted those Muslim nations with large enough religious minorities for there to be comparisons. Here are the frequencies who “strongly agree” + “agree” with men having more than one wife for all the nations:

Algeria – 43
Bangladesh – 5.5
Indonesia – 18.7
Iran – 11.5
Iraq – 47.1
Jordan – 18.7
Morocco – 37.5
Nigeria – 39.4
Pakistan – 1.1
Saudi Arabia – 42.1
Turkey – 15.6
Egypt – 10.3

(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: Religion, World Values Survey 
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The World Values Survey has a question of the form:

Some people believe that individuals can decide their own destiny, while others think that it is impossible to escape a predetermined fate. Please tell me which comes closest to your view on this scale on which 1 means “everything in life is determined by fate,” and 10 means that “people shape their fate themselves.”

Below the fold are the percentages in selected nations which picked “10,” which is basically the least fatalistic position.

People Shape Their Fate Themselves
Mexico 50.5
Peru 45.5
Jordan 35.3
Argentina 33.7
Vietnam 28.4
Chile 28.1
Trinidad 27.3
Brazil 25.6
Slovenia 22.3
Iran 21.9
China 21.2
Cyprus 20.9
Indonesia 18.9
Zambia 18.7
Sweden 18.5
Georgia 18.2
South Africa 17
Turkey 16.2
Moldova 15.7
Andora 15.6
Ghana 15.3
Australia 14.7
South Korea 14.5
Taiwan 14.4
Romania 13.8
USA 13.7
Ukraine 13.5
Canada 13.2
Spain 12
Brukina Faso 11.2
Germany 11
Japan 10.7
Bulgaria 10.4
Ethiopia 10.3
Poland 9.6
Switzerland 9.6
Thailand 9.5
Serbia 8.7
Malaysia 8.1
Mali 8
Italy 7.6
Finland 6.7
Rwanda 5.3
Egypt 1.3
Morocco 0.5
(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: World Values Survey 
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I looked at data from the World Values Survey in terms of the actual proportion of those in the age group 30-49 for various countries who have 2 or fewer children, vs. those in that age group who thought 2 or fewer was the ideal number. I aggregated Wave 3 and Wave 4 surveys, so the times range from 1995 to 2002. Data, etc., below.

Proportions surveyed for those in age group 30-49

2 or fewer children 2 or fewer children “ideal” Difference between actual and ideal
Bangladesh 43.9 90.1 -46.2
India 43.5 74.7 -31.2
Vietnam 58.3 85.2 -26.9
Iran 52.8 73 -20.2
Turkey 48.7 63.9 -15.2
China 82.9 93.3 -10.4
Peru 54.3 62.3 -8
Mexico 46.2 53.2 -7
Taiwan 53.9 59.4 -5.5
Egypt 34.4 37.2 -2.8
El Salvador 46.8 48.3 -1.5
Czech 80.5 81.9 -1.4
Great Britain 77 78.2 -1.2
Puerto Rico 57.4 58.2 -0.8
Uruguay 64.1 64.3 -0.2
Venezuela 50.7 50.7 0
Germany 84.2 83.9 0.3
Romania 82.1 81.8 0.3
Slovakia 75.4 71.1 4.3
Azerbaijan 64 57.4 6.6
Brazil 62.6 55.9 6.7
Morocco 58.1 50.5 7.6
Chile 61.8 53.9 7.9
USA 70 61.1 8.9
Switzerland 80.5 71.2 9.3
Bulgaria 88.7 79.2 9.5
Argentina 55.8 46.3 9.5
Albania 62.1 52.5 9.6
Australia dnum="1033;" align="right">70.6 60.9 9.7
Spain 82.3 72.5 9.8
Indonesia 48.1 37.8 10.3
Colombia 62.6 51.4 11.2
South Africa 58.4 47 11.4
Hungary 80.2 68.5 11.7
Iraq 28.8 16.9 11.9
Belarus 91.4 79 12.4
Ukraine 88.2 75.6 12.6
Pakistan 53.7 39.8 13.9
Russia 89.6 75.2 14.4
Poland 69.3 54.8 14.5
Jordan 26 11.5 14.5
Philippines 39.6 23.5 16.1
Canada 75.1 58.5 16.6
Finland 75.3 58.3 17
Sweden 74.6 57.2 17.4
Uganda 31.5 12.4 19.1
Saudi Arabia 39.4 20.1 19.3
South Korea 81.6 61.9 19.7
Slovenia 84.2 64 20.2
New Zealand 66.7 46.3 20.4
Zimbabwe 34.7 11.3 23.4
Macedonia 82.4 56.9 25.5
Singapore 79.9 54.4 25.5
Dominican Republic 48.9 23.3 25.6
Tanzania 43.1 17.4 25.7
Kyrgyzstan 49 21.9 27.1
Lithuania 85 57.7 27.3
Moldova 71.5 43.6 27.9
Armenia 64.9 36.8 28.1
Bosnia 81.9 53.4 28.5
Estonia 85.4 55.3 30.1
N
igeria
37.3 5.7 31.6
Croatia 82.3 46.4 35.9
Japan 77.5 41.5 36
Latvia 83.3 46 37.3
Serbia 79.4 39.9 39.5
Georgia 78.3 18.6 59.7

Now a chart, here’s how you’d read it:

Top of the Y axis = low fertility in the 30-49 age group (lots of people with 2 or fewer children)

To the right of the X axis = nations with low fertility preferences in the 30-49 age group (lots of people who think 2 or fewer children is the ideal)

The line represents X = Y. So nations above the line are those where there is more ideal preference for children than the reality, while nations below the line there is more reality, so to speak, than the ideal.

There seems to be a situation where in many nations people want more children than they are having. That is, their avowed preference is greater than what is revealed by their behavior. There are general clusters. The “breeder nations,” where people do have many children, but want even more, and the other set where populations are underperforming even their mild expectations. No surprise that the post-Communist nations are in the second category, but interestingly the East Asian nations of Japan and South Korea fall into this range. Interestingly, these are also nations which tend to be rather secular for their social conservatism from a Western perspective. Georgia is not a typo, though I wouldn’t be surprised there was a problem with the data (it might be coded or entered incorrectly).

Then there are nations where people have more children than they want. Iran has some specific historical conditions which can explain this. During the Iran-Iraq War the Iranian leadership was pro-natalist, but in its wake they have strongly encouraged family planning. Iran is now a sub-replacement nation when it comes to fertility. Vietnam and India have experienced economic turnarounds of late due to their relatively late entrance into the game of globalization. These surveys occurred around the year 2000, about 10 years into both of their liberalization programs. One might be seeing the outcomes of earlier norms overlain upon new mores due to international media. Finally, as far as Bangladesh goes, it is an ethnically and religiously homogeneous nation, so there isn’t a national imperative whereby ethnic groups worry about other groups outbreeding them. Additionally, it is very, very, crowded. There are many poor African nations, but aside from Rwanda and Burundi, all of them are far below the Malthusian parameters when it comes to primary production in relation to Bangladesh.

(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: Culture, World Values Survey 
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Below when I compared the Nordic countries and Italy on a host of variables, I noted in the comments that it was rather amusing that 99% of the people in Bangladesh asserted that bribery was never justifiable, while only 69% of Swedes did. More specifically, the World Values Survey simply asked if bribery was ever justifiable, and there 10 options, with 0 = never justifiable and 10 = always justifiable. So 99% of the Bangladeshis chose 0, while only 69% of Swedes did. Plotting the 2008 Corruptions Perceptions Index scores from Transparency International against the proportion who chose 0, bribery is never justifiable, resulted in this:

Here’s the raw data:

Bribery Never Justifiable CPI
Sweden 68.5 9.3
Singapore 76.6 9.2
Denmark 92.9 9.2
Finland 79.7 9
Netherlands 72.6 8.9
Iceland 87.1 8.9
Canada 80.3 8.7
Luxembourg 70.8 8.3
Austria 72.3 8.1
Germany 64.6 7.9
Great Britain 67.4 7.7
USA 80 7.3
Japan 83 7.3
Belgium 67.7 7.3
Chile 70.9 6.9
France 67.1 6.9
Slovenia 73.5 6.7
Estonia 66.9 6.6
Spain 71.9 6.5
Portugal 73.7 6.1
Israel 86.1 6
Malta 94.2 5.8
Puerto Rico 89.8 5.8
Korea 80.2 5.6
Czech Republic 51.4 5.2
Jordan 96.4 5.1
Hungary 53.3 5.1
Slovakia 39.4 5
Latvia 74.4 5
South Africa 61.1 4.9
Lithuania 66.7 4.8
Italy 79.3 4.8
Greece 64.4 4.7
Poland 76.8 4.6
Turkey 93.7 4.6
Croatia 79.1 4.4
Romania 80.2 3.8
Bulgaria 77.6 3.6
Peru 72.7 3.6
Mexico 72.5 3.6
China 83.4 3.6
Macedonia 86.7 3.6
Saudi Arabia 77 3.5
Morocco 97.7 3.5
Serbia 85.4 3.4
Albania 53 3.4
India 85 3.4
Algeria 88.6 3.2
Bosnia 85.5 3.2
Tanzania 92.1 3
Argentina 92 2.9
Nigeria 63.3 2.9
Moldova 49.2 2.9
Egypt 94 2.8
Vietnam 93.5 2.7
Uganda 72.6 2.6
Indonesia 82.5 2.6
Pakistan 91.9 2.5
Ukraine 64.1 2.5
Iran 93.3 2.3
Philippines 39.5 2.3
Russia 70.3 2.1
Bangladesh 99 2.1
Belarus 39.3 2
Venezuela 75.1 1.9
Kyrgyzstan 73.4 1.8
Zimbabwe 91.9 1.8
Iraq 84.6 1.3

Eastern Europeans and Filipinos are at least honest about their “pragmatism.”

(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: Culture, Data, World Values Survey 
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Over the years several Finnish readers (OK, one specific Finnish reader) has made the repeated claim that some of the stereotypes that Americans have of politically correct (Fenno)-Scandinavians is actually typical of Sweden, and not Finland, or even the other Nordic countries. As I’ve been poking around The World Values Survey I think there is something to this. There are some sets of questions where the Swedes give much more “Politically Correct” answers than Finns, or even other Nordics. I note that the answers are Politically Correct because I’m not necessarily saying that the answers someone gives on a survey necessarily translates into the same magnitude of public policy difference. The World Values Survey happens to have Denmark, Sweden and Finland (at least the Four-wave Aggregate of the Values Studies which I’m using). I decided to post responses to a large range of questions (obviously a finite set) for these three nations, as well as Italy as European outgroup. Many of the responses were as you would expect; the Nordic countries are more openly secular than Italy. The fact that Italians were more hostile to the idea of living next to large families also was not surprising, at least judging from what I’ve heard of how they view the French as breeders. On the other hand, there are a host of questions where Sweden is the outgroup, and another set where Sweden and Denmark are relatively close, with Finland approaching Italy in social outlooks. Finally, many of the results reinforce an interesting point that was clear when I looked at Hong Kong: socialist nations often exhibit some fatigue at the extent of the nanny state, while nations with thinner social safety nets have a more positive attitude toward future extension of the welfare state. Since the results below are a finite subset I invite readers to go in and explore The World Values Survey themselves.

Note: Sample sizes are around 1,000 for each nation. Additionally the surveys were done in 1999 to 2001.

Denmark Finland Italy Sweden
Family very important 87.1 80 90 89.5
Politics very important 8.1 3.7 8 11.4
Religion very important 7.9 13.8 33 10.7
Very happy 45.1 24.3 18.4 36.7
Mentions good manners as important child quality 72.4 89.8 74.8 70.3
Mentions independence as important child quality 80.7 57.6 41.1 68.8
Mentions hard work as important child quality 2.1 12 36.1 3.9
Mentions tolerance and respect as important child quality 87.3 82.7 75 92.5
Mentions thrift as important child quality 9.6 22.6 34.7 30.5
Mentions religious faith as important child quality 8.2 15.7 31.4 4.9
Mentions unselfishness as important child quality 55.8 20.8 41.4 32.7
Mentions obedience as important child quality 14.4 30.2 27.8 12.7
Approve abortion when woman not married 81.4 59.1 38.8 89.8
Approve abortion if no more children wanted 72.5 52.3 31 85
Spend time with friends weekly 60.1 60.3 61.9 66.5
Spend time with people at sport, cultural or communal organization 27.3 43.6 55.4 38.5
LIGN="LEFT">Frequently discusses politics with friends 24.9 7.4 12.9 19.4
Belong to social welfare organization 6.5 10.4 6.4 20.8
Belong to human rights organization 4.1 5.9 2.8 15
Belong to environmental group 13.1 4.5 3.8 11.3
Would not like to have criminal neighbor 30.6 39.4 47.4 33
Would not like to have neighbor of different race 7.4 12.4 15.6 2.5
Would not like to have neighbor who is heavy drinker 36.1 51 40.4 33.2
Would not like to have neighbor who is Muslim 16.3 19.3 17.2 9
Would not like to have neighbor who is immigrant 10.6 13 16.5 2.8
Would not like to have neighbor who has AIDS 5.8 20.9 31 6.7
Would not like to have neighbor who is drug addict 59.7 75.3 54.6 60.4
Would not like to have neighbor who is homosexual 8 21.3 28.7 6.1
Would not like to have neighbor who is a Jew 2.5 8.6 12.9 2.1
Would not like to have neighbor who is Gypsy 15.3 44.3 55.6 19.9
Would not like to have neighbor who is Left-wing extremist 9.2 13.3 28.2 23
Would not like to have neighbor who is Right-wing extremist 20.4 17.8 30 47.8
Would not like to have large families as neighbors 4.4 7.5 13.9 4.1
Most people can be trusted 66.5 58 32.6 66.3
Strongly agree with increasing taxes to prevent pollution 22.1 8 6.5 28.2
Agree men should have jobs when they are scarce 6.2 9.9 27 2.3
Agree employers should give priority to natives over immigrants 34.3 65.3 61.4 11.3
Strongly agree that people should not have to work if they don’t want to 2.3 5.5 4.8 2
Agree that child needs home with father and mother 66.9 60.4 92.4 60.1
Approve of woman as single parent TD> 52.3 53.6 27.5 31.7
Agree strongly that women want children and home 3 9.6 17 9.1
Disagree strongly that women want children and home 27.2 8.9 3.3 27.3
Agree marriage is outdated 15 18 17 20.4
Agree strongly that long-term relationship necessary to be happy 15.1 8.7 20.1 11.7
Faithfulness very important for successful marriage 84.3 81.6 84.1 88.5
Respect & appreciation very important for successful marriage 84.7 85.7 90.2 93.9
Religious beliefs very important for successful marriage 12.7 15.3 23.4 12.9
Agreement on politics very important for successful marriage 1.7 4.2 7.2 5.9
Understanding & tolerance very important for successful marriage 79.3 69 81.4 87.2
Children very important for successful marriage 36 54.7 58.2 58.9
Agree strongly that being a housewife just as fulfilling 13.8 30.4 12.6 17
Disagree strongly that being a housewife just as fulfilling 9.8 2.4 7.7 14.1
Eliminating very big income inequalities very important 10.1 30.5 34.9 17.9
Eliminating very big income inequalities not at all important 23.8 3.9 6.3 7.3
Guaranteeing basic needs for all very important 48.3 68.6 70.4 71.3
Guaranteeing basic needs for all not at all important 5.1 0.9 1.1 1.4
More emphasis on technology in future good thing 61.9 54.9 64.5 35.3
More emphasis on the individual in future good thing 93.3 89.7 92.4 89.7
More emphasis on respect for authority in future good thing 38.2 39.2 51.3 22.2
More emphasis on family life in future good thing 95.3 94.9 92.3 78.1
The government should take more responsibility (10) 1.3 3.1 12.2 1.8
People should take more responsibility (0) 11.4 11.7 8.6 14.7
Competition is good (0) 13.8 10.8 18.7 17.9
Competition is harmful (10) 2.3 2.4 4.4 0.8
State should control firms 3.7 2.4 8.5 2
Private sector should have freedom to run firms 13.2 9 15.3 14.9
A great deal of confidence in the United Nations 9.2 5.2 18.2 14.2
Emphasis on freedom over equality 69.4 53.1 39.7 61.6
Concerned with living conditions of immigrants 4.3 3.3 6.6 7.1
Prepared to help immigrants – Absolutely yes 5.6 2.7 6 10.7
Prepared to help sick & disabled – Absolutely yes 19.4 15.4 19.1 28.2
Prepared to help immediate family – Absolutely yes 58.8 53 50.2 78.8
Let anyone come (Open Borders) 7.4 10.3 9.7 16.3
Strict limits to immigration 66.1 51.9 38.3 28.7
Immigrants should maintain distinct customs & traditions 23.4 32 59.7 36
Religious person 76.5 66.6 85.8 38.9
Clear guidelines about what is good & evil 10.4 29.3 26.4 15.8
Attend religious services once a week 2 3.2 30.3 3.3
Believe in God – No 31.1 17.5 6.5 46.6
Believe in reincarnation – No 82.7 81.6 82.2 78
Do you believe lucky charm protects? – Definitely not 65.4 60.4 68.6 61.5
Baptism important? – Yes 65.3 84.3 89 59.8
Church wedding important? – Yes 63 82.7 84.9 62.4
Funeral with religious services important? – Yes 79.9 89.8 89.4 77.6
Politics who don’t believe in God unfit for office – Strongly Disagree 60.3 22 15.3 47.5
Cheating on taxes never justifiable 65.6 52.9 <
/TD>
56.6 50.7
Accepting bribe never justifiable 92.9 79.9 79.3 68.5
Suicide never justifiable 51.1 41.1 62.2 28.8
Divorce never justifiable 7 3.1 18.5 2.1
Lying never justifiable 60.7 40.3 50.7 41.4
Adultery never justifiable 67.1 52.5 50.7 50.5
Throwing away litter never justifiable 79.8 51.4 73.8 43.8
Casual sex never justifiable 46.3 33.8 48.5 26.6
Very proud of nationality 48 56.1 39.3 41.4
(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: Finn Baiting, World Values Survey 
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Over at ScienceBlogs I have a post which highlights the bizarre likelihood that in China atheists are actually some more hostile to the precepts of godless Communism than the religious. I talked to Michael Vassar about this and he thought it was curious that Chinese atheists are probably among the segments of the world population most likely to appreciate the non-zero sum power of capitalism and economic growth. Well, I guess Mao and the Cultural Revolution would do that to you, right? In any case, in the World Values Survey there is a question about income inequality, here 0 = Incomes Should Be Made More Equal, and 10 = We need larger income differences as incentives. Below the fold are a selection of nations with the proportions of those in the 15-29 age ranges who agree with a “10″ when it comes to income inequality.

France 4.7
Great Britain 5.2
Italy 3.7
United States 5.3
Canada 6.4
Japan 6.2
Australia 4.8
Sweden 2.9
Finland 3.1
South Korea 12
Poland 11.9
Brazil 16.7
Slovenia 5.4
Romania 8.7
China 14.7
Taiwan 12.9
Ukraine 21.4
Russia 34.4
Thailand 9.8
Serbia 13.8
New Zealand 6.4
Hong Kong 1.7

Hong Kong, by the way, had the population which was most averse to income inequality….

(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Economics, Science • Tags: Economics, World Values Survey 
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It turns out that the World Values Survey has a decent web interface, rather like the GSS. As an exercise I thought I would compare 4 nations when it came to religious attitudes, the United States, Sweden, South Korea and Japan. The United States because most readers are American. Sweden because it is the apotheosis of European secularity. Japan because it is generally presumed to be an apathetic non-Western nation when it comes to religion. And South Korea, which sends more Christianity missionaries than any nation aside from the United States. The data for South Korea are usually a revelation for Americans, as we are conditioned by the dominant role of conservative Protestantism among our own ethnic Korean population, it is somewhat of a surprise when digging into the data to note that Korea is a much more secular nation than the United States.

BASE=4531
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Religious person A religious person 44.9 % 26.5 % 30.9 % 38.9 % 82.5 %
Not a religious person 41.4 % 59.7 % 37.7 % 54.4 % 16.0 %
A convinced atheist 13.7 % 13.8 % 31.4 % 6.7 % 1.4 %
Total 4531 (100%) 1186 (100%) 1198 (100%) 968 (100%) 1180 (100%)
BASE=4586
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
How important is God in your life Not at all important 13.7 % 12.6 % 12.2 % 28.9 % 3.7 %
2 7.6 % 9.8 % 8.1 % 11.4 % 1.7 %
3 9.1 % 13.1 % 10.6 % 11.0 % 2.1 %
4 4.9 % 3.7 % 7.0 % 7.7 % 1.8 %
5 11.2 % 11.6 % 17.2 % 12.2 % 3.8 %
6 10.1 % 21.6 % 8.1 % 6.1 % 3.9 %
7 7.2 % 9.2 % 7.5 % 5.6 % 6.1 %
8 7.6 % 8.7 % 7.3 % 5.4 % 8.6 %
9 5.5 % 2.8 % 6.1 % 2.8 % 9.9 %
Very important 23.1 % 6.9 % 15.9 % 9.0 % 58.3 %
Total 4586 (100%) 1194 (100%) 1198 (100%) 996 (100%) 1198 (100%)
Base for mean 4586 1194 1198 996 1198
Mean 5.8 5.0 5.5 4.1 8.5
Standard Deviation 3.21 2.65 2.99 2.97 2.45
BASE=3874
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Get comfort and strength from religion No 44.8 % 64.9 % 32.9 % 66.8 % 20.4 %
Yes 55.2 % 35.1 % 67.1 % 33.2 % 79.6 %
Total 3874 (100%) 950 (100%) 856 (100%) 895 (100%) 1173 (100%)
BASE=4661
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
lass="StatCruTitVarIzq">Statement: good and evil Clear guidelines about what is good and evil 30.7 % 19.2 % 37.0 % 15.8 % 49.2 %
Depends upon circumstances at the time 64.4 % 69.3 % 63.0 % 81.0 % 46.6 %
Disagree with both 4.9 % 11.5 % - 3.2 % 4.2 %
Total 4661 (100%) 1277 (100%) 1199 (100%) 999 (100%) 1186 (100%)
BASE=4614
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Belong to religious denomination No 35.4 % 55.6 % 36.8 % 24.2 % 21.5 %
Yes 64.6 % 44.4 % 63.2 % 75.8 % 78.5 %
Total 4614 (100%) 1267 (100%) 1196 (100%) 1015 (100%) 1136 (100%)
BASE=4752
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
How often do you attend religious services More than once a week 8.0 % 1.7 % 13.1 % 0.5 % 16.4 %
Once a week 12.9 % 2.4 % 17.1 % 3.3 % 28.8 %
Once a month 9.3 % 8.3 % 8.0 % 5.6 % 15.1 %
Only on special holy days/Christmas/Easter days 19.9 % 43.2 % 11.2 % 10.6 % 10.5 %
Once a year 14.3 % 22.1 % 6.9 % 21.4 % 7.0 %
Less often 15.5 % 13.8 % 27.6 % 13.2 % 7.5 %
Never practically never 19.9 % 8.6 % 16.0 % 45.6 % 14.8 %
Total 4752 (100%) 1343 (100%) 1198 (100%) 1013 (100%) 1198 (100%)
BASE=4384
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Moments of prayer, meditation… No 41.5 % 60.1 % 41.1 % 56.0 % 10.7 %
Yes 58.5 % 39.9 % 58.9 % 44.0 % 89.3 %
Total 4384 (100%) 1229 (100%) 954 (100%) 1004 (100%) 1198 (100%)
BASE=4602
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Politicians who don´t believe in God are unfit for public office Agree strongly 6.3 % 2.3 % 2.9 % 1.7 % 17.8 %
Agree 9.1 % 5.5 % 7.4 % 2.3 % 20.5 %
Neither agree or disagree 31.0 % 50.8 % 30.5 % 11.5 % 26.0 %
Disagree 32.5 % 26.1 % 41.9 % 37.0 % 27.3 %
Strongly disagree 21.1 % 15.3 % 17.2 % 47.5 % 8.5 %
Total 4602 (100%) 1328 (100%) 1074 (100%) 1010 (100%) 1190 (100%)
dding="1" border="1" cellspacing="0">
BASE=4651
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Religious leaders should not influence how people vote Agree strongly 28.6 % 33.0 % 25.0 % 34.3 % 22.3 %
Agree 40.5 % 41.2 % 44.4 % 33.9 % 41.5 %
Neither agree or disagree 16.2 % 20.4 % 19.1 % 10.2 % 14.1 %
Disagree 10.8 % 3.5 % 8.4 % 14.4 % 18.3 %
Strongly disagree 3.8 % 1.9 % 3.1 % 7.3 % 3.8 %
Total 4651 (100%) 1326 (100%) 1122 (100%) 1009 (100%) 1194 (100%)
BASE=4540
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Better if more people with strong religious beliefs in public office Agree strongly 6.9 % 1.4 % 6.3 % 2.1 % 17.6 %
Agree 14.8 % 3.9 % 18.0 % 6.7 % 31.0 %
Neither agree or disagree 29.0 % 31.6 % 36.2 % 21.3 % 26.5 %
Disagree 30.4 % 36.3 % 28.2 % 38.3 % 19.2 %
Strongly disagree 18.8 % 26.7 % 11.3 % 31.6 % 5.7 %
Total 4540 (100%) 1324 (100%) 1028 (100%) 1003 (100%) 1185 (100%)
BASE=4607
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Religious leaders should not influence government Agree strongly 24.1 % 33.1 % 20.6 % 24.4 % 17.0 %
Agree 34.7 % 39.2 % 36.7 % 27.4 % 34.0 %
Neither agree or disagree 23.0 % 22.0 % 30.3 % 20.3 % 19.7 %
Disagree 14.1 % 4.0 % 9.7 % 21.1 % 23.6 %
Strongly disagree 4.1 % 1.7 % 2.7 % 6.8 % 5.7 %
Total 4607 (100%) 1320 (100%) 1103 (100%) 995 (100%) 1189 (100%)
BASE=4718
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Justifiable: cheating on taxes Never justifiable 68.8 % 83.5 % 74.7 % 50.7 % 62.1 %
2 11.1 % 6.2 % 11.6 % 17.1 % 11.0 %
3 6.7 % 4.0 % 6.1 % 10.0 % 7.4 %
4 3.1 % 1.5 % 2.1 % 5.4 % 4.0 %
5 4.4 % 2.4 % 2.8 % 8.3 % 5.0 %
6 1.9 % 0.7 % 1.0 % 2.5 % 3.7 %
7 1.1 % 0.1 % 0.5 % 2.4 % 1.9 %
8 1.0 % 0.3 % 0.3 % 2.1 % 1.5 %
9 0.4 % 0.2 % 0.3 % 0.5 % 0.9 %
Always justifiable 1.3 % 1.2 % 0.7 % 1.0 % 2.4 %
Total 4718 (100%) 1312 (100%) 1199 (100%) 1009 (100%) 1198 (100%)
Base for mean 4718 1312 1199 1009 1198
Mean 1.9 1.5 1.6 2.4 2.3
Standard Deviation 1.81 1.40 1.38 2.01 2.20
BASE=4724
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Justifiable: someone accepting a bribe Never justifiable 78.4 % 83.0 % 80.2 % 68.5 % 80.0 %
2 8.7 % 5.1 % 10.3 % 13.0 % 7.4 %
3 4.7 % 3.9 % 4.7 % 7.3 % 3.6 %
4 2.3 % 1.6 % 1.8 % 3.4 % 2.8 %
5 2.6 % 3.3 % 1.6 % 2.8 % 2.6 %
6 1.0 % 1.1 % 0.3 % 1.4 % 1.2 %
7 0.7 % 0.2 % 0.5 % 1.4 % 0.7 %
8 0.7 % 0.8 % 0.1 % 1.2 % 0.7 %
9 0.3 % 0.2 % 0.3 % 0.1 % 0.4 %
Always justifiable 0.7 % 0.9 % 0.4 % 1.0 % 0.6 %
Total 4724 (100%) 1314 (100%) 1199 (100%) 1013 (100%) 1198 (100%)
Base for mean 4724 1314 1199 1013 1198
Mean 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.8 1.6
Standard Deviation 1.46 1.48 1.14 1.68 1.48
BASE=4553
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Justifiable: homosexuality Never justifiable 31.8 % 29.8 % 52.7 % 8.7 % 31.6 %
2 5.6 % 5.7 % 9.8 % 2.8 % 3.6 %
3 6.0 % 9.2 % 7.3 % 2.8 % 4.1 %
4 4.4 % 5.3 % 4.6 % 2.4 % 4.7 %
5 13.6 % 15.8 % 11.9 % 10.0 % 16.1 %
6 7.5 % 12.0 % 3.0 % 3.3 % 11.1 %
7 4.2 % 4.1 % 3.8 % 4.3 % 4.6 %
8 5.8 % 6.6 % 3.5 % 8.4 % 5.3 %
9 3.5 % 2.2 % 1.0 % 6.6 % 4.7 %
Always justifiable 17.6 % 9.4 % 2.3 % 50.6 % 14.1 %
Total 4553 (100%) 1200 (100%) 1199 (100%) 978 (100%) 1177 (100%)
Base for mean 4553 1200 1199 978 1177
Mean 4.8 4.4 2.8 7.7 4.8
Standard Deviation 3.40 2.98 2.44 3.07 3.25
BASE=4607
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Justifiable: abortion Never justifiable 22.3 % 14.6 % 36.9 % 5.4 % 29.7 %
2 7.0 % 7.4 % 10.8 % 1.7 % 7.0 %
3 8.5 % 12.4 % 10.2 % 4.2 % 6.2 %
4 6.0 % 7.6 % 7.1 % 3.2 % 5.5 %
5 16.6 % 21.3 % 17.1 % 11.8 % 15.4 %
6 9.9 % 14.6 % 4.8 % 7.7 % 12.2 %
7 6.4 % 6.2 % 5.5 % 8.3 % 5.8 %
8 8.2 % 8.7 % 3.8 % 14.1 % 7.1 %
9 3.7 % 2.6 % 2.2 % 8.1 % 2.9 %
Always justifiable 11.4 % 4.5 % 1.7 % 35.4 % 8.1 %
Total 4607 (100%) 1224 (100%) 1199 (100%) 993 (100%) 1191 (100%)
Base for mean 4607 1224 1199 993 1191
Mean 4.9 4.7 3.4 7.4 4.4
Standard Deviation 3.02 2.50 2.46 2.72 2.97
BASE=4630
Weight [with split ups]
Country/region
Total Japan Republic of Korea Sweden United States
Justifiable: divorce Never justifiable 9.3 % 5.5 % 21.0 % 2.1 % 7.5 %
2 3.8 % 2.8 % 7.7 % 1.3 % 2.8 %
3 5.8 % 6.5 % 8.1 % 2.0 % 6.2 %
4 5.9 % 5.3 % 7.2 % 4.8 % 6.1 %
5 20.0 % 19.3 % 23.7 % 12.2 % 23.7 %
6 12.0 % 16.5 % 8.1 % 6.4 % 15.9 %
7 7.9 % 6.7 % 7.7 % 8.0 % 9.4 %
8 10.7 % 12.1 % 6.9 % 14.0 % 10.3 %
9 6.1 % 5.8 % 4.8 % 8.9 % 5.4 %
Always justifiable 18.5 % 19.5 % 4.9 % 40.3 % 12.6 %
Total 4630 (100%) 1233 (100%) 1198 (100%) 1004 (100%) 1195 (100%)
Base for mean 4630 1233 1198 1004 1195
Mean 6.1 6.4 4.6 7.8 5.9
Standard Deviation 2.81 <
/td>
2.62 2.70 2.42 2.53

The data are open to many interpretations. You can actually do more fine-grained analysis, but I’ll leave that for the readers. I would say:

1) South Koreans are more religious than the Japanese, but also just as starkly they are more polarized. Look at the first table and how many Koreans asserted that they were convinced atheists, as opposed to the more mellow Japanese and Swedes. Japan and Sweden are clearly more secular than South Korea, but since religious controversy isn’t a feature of their public life, atheism vs. theism is less of an issue.

2) From a Western perspective the American & Swedish data are rather easy to interpret. The high rates of Swedish affiliation despite their secularity is simply due to the history of the established Lutheran church in that nation (only recently disestablished last I checked), and the customary attachment which most Swedes have to the institution. Aside from that, Sweden is secular and the United States not so much. South Korea and Japan are harder to interpret. Despite being very secular Japan is obviously rather conservative when it comes to many social mores, and Korea exhibits the same tendency. Rather than pinning down a specific explanation it is important to note that the role of institutional organized religion has been relatively marginal in these two societies until recently, and what role it did play was of low prestige compared to that in Western societies. In fact it can be argued that South Korea is simultaneously becoming a more religious and liberal society.

3) Despite the fact that Sweden has high rates of nominal affiliation to the Lutheran church, ceremonial and ritual religion seems to be a more common feature of the lives of the Japanese.

(Republished from GNXP.com by permission of author or representative)
 
• Category: Science • Tags: Religion, World Values Survey 
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Razib Khan
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