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Citation: Skoglund, Pontus, et al. "Genomic Diversity and Admixture Differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian Foragers and Farmers." Science 344.6185 (2014): 747-750.

Citation: Skoglund, Pontus, et al. “Genomic Diversity and Admixture Differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian Foragers and Farmers.” Science 344.6185 (2014): 747-750.

We are Whigs, whether we want to be or not. History moves in one direction, and that direction is associated with progress. Progress being something we would recognize as associated with ourselves in some fashion. Ergo, the “mystery” of the evacuation of Greenland by Scandinavians in the 1400s. Today that mystery seems to be solved to the satisfaction of most. With the waning of the Medieval Warm Period the Scandinavian agro-pastoral economic system of production was not a viable form of subsistence at high latitudes. Greenland got less green. In contrast the Greenland Inuit’s ancestors, the Thule culture, were eminently well prepared for the shift in climatic regimes. In a previous more Eurocentric age the curiosity was that a European society which was advanced enough to receive bishops from Rome could be replaced by hunter-gatherers in sealskin canoes.

440px-Saami_Family_1900Of course many peoples would not have been shocked, the ancients were well aware of the concept of societies falling from states of greater complexity or social elaboration to ones of simplicity, as a matter of necessity (see: Dark Age Greece). It was in Europe where the Age of Discovery transformed into the industry & science driven era of European colonialism, that gave us the idea that the world was ascending up a ladder of development evermore, under the aegis of the white race. Cases where Europeans gave ground to non-Europeans, and ones in an earlier mode of production in a historical determinist sense (i.e., societies moving through modes of production in sequence), would certainly raise eyebrows in a culture where the Garden of Eden had been turned into a legend and Greek myths of ages of Gold giving way to Silver and Bronze were seen as anthropological curiosities.

Obviously things have changed a great deal, but the shadow of the Whig, and the vision of eternal progress haunts us. Scratch a Critical Race theorist, and you get James Mill. A Whiggish and Eurocentric perspective colors our own perceptions of the past, even if we live in an age of the critique of all things Western and white. Most especially thees sorts of biases are a problem when it comes to prehistory, when we don’t even have to bother to twist and interpret the past’s words to fit our preconceptions. We can simply impute upon it because it is mute. In this blog I have been talking about the impact ancient DNA has had upon our understanding, and the impact it will have. But the inferences we make are only as good as our interpretative framework. The researchers who are working at the cutting edge of the field understand they aren’t explaining everything. Rather, they are attempting to construct some broad sketches which can serve as a scaffold for more specific detailed understanding of events which transpired before history.

Citation: Cramp, Lucy JE, et al. "Neolithic dairy farming at the extreme of agriculture in northern Europe."

In Proceedings of the Royal Society B there is a paper which explores the dynamics of the transition from hunting & gathering to farming as the dominant way of life in Finland, Neolithic dairy farming at the extreme of agriculture in northern Europe. As you can see in the map to the left Finland spans the same latitudes as southern Greenland. Only its position along the western maritime fringe of Eurasia moderates the conditions so as to make agriculture marginally viable. The paper takes as a starting point what we know in general about the transition to farming in the far northeast of Europe. It came late. Around ~2500 BC. It was associated with the Corded Ware culture. Though such suppositions are fraught with uncertainty, believe that the Corded Ware were the first early Indo-Europeans in Northern Europe. The hunter-gatherers preceding the Corded Ware were of the Comb Cermic culture. The culture relatives of these people in Scandinavia were the Pitted Ware culture.

The basic results of the paper are easy to understand from a non-specialist perspective. Around ~2500 BC there was a very rapid shift to agro-pastoralism utilizing dairy from a predominantly marine diet. This correlates with the switch from Comb Ceramic hunter-gatherers, who were specifically reliant on marine animals in much of Finland, to the Corded Ware people. Later it seems that marine organisms made something of a comeback in the diet of the peoples of Finland, and a culturally more synthetic society emerged, with elements from the Comb Ceramic and the Corded Ware.

This should be somewhat familiar. Genetically it seems that in Northern Europe the arrival of agriculture was heralded by a demographic and culture eruption, which was eventually synthesized with the local substrate. If you read ancient DNA papers Scandinavians today are genetically an admixture of farmers and hunter-gatherers, with perhaps a modest bias toward the latter. The figure at the top of the post illustrates that the Pitted Ware populations seem to be genetically distinct from modern Northern Europeans, and in particular Finns. The same goes for the first farmer populations in the north. They were either emulsified in the still dominant hunter-gatherer demographic substrate, or, they experienced a major die off.

A simple model, implied in this paper, is that the modern Finns are a synthesis of the Corded Ware agro-pastoralists and indigenous hunter-gatherers populations. One can then envisage an admixture shock ~2500 BCE, and the past 5,000 years have been an equilibration. Obviously most people will immediately wonder though about the fact that Finns speak a Uralic language. And more specifically a Finno-Permian language. There have long been arguments about whether the Finns, in a cultural sense, are primal to Northern Europe. This plays out in the context of the fact that non-Indo-European languages in Europe always get special attention. What we do know from high density SNP data, as well as earlier Y chromosomal work, is that Finnic peoples seem to have a connection to populations in Siberia. By this, I do not mean the Ancestral North Eurasians. Rather, a population with affinities to modern Northeast Asians. If the Pitted Ware genetic results can be generalized to the Comb Ceramic people, and I do think they can be, then the Siberian admixture in Finns post dates 2500 BC. Since this element is not found in most populations descended from the Corded Ware (the ones where it is found, the Russians, have historical reasons for likely admixture from Asian populations, or, were Russified Finns), I doubt it is from the Corded Ware. Rather, the most likely scenario involves Finnic peoples moving into the population, and adding themselves as a dominant cultural element. The modern Indo-European language spoken in Finland by natives is Swedish, which arrived during the Common Era. With Swedish cultural hegemony and some colonization broad coastal zones of modern Finland are dominated by ethnic Swedes. But if the model I’m outlining above is corrected then Swedish is not the first dominant Indo-European language in Finland. Rather, an earlier Indo-European speaking population were absorbed by the Finns.

Swedish hegemony over Finland after 1200 was to a large extent a function of the fact that Swedes were a post-tribal population which were in the early states of constructing a nation-state. In Finland they encountered a tribal population which was easy to dominate, and integrated into a Swedish Baltic zone of rule. One ultimate basis of the Swedish superiority in domains of statecraft and social mobilization is probably economic, in that the ecology of Sweden was marginally more favorable to agriculture than that of Finland. The Finnish tribes were operating closer to the margins of subsistence, and at a lower limit of population density enforced by Malthusian strictures. But like the Thule conquest of Greenland I suspect the success of the Finnic tribes from the margins of Siberia is the very fact that they were masters of the cultural adaptations necessary for survival on the sub-arctic littoral of Eurasia. The Corded Ware people were like the Greenlanders of their era, agro-pastoralists who attempted to transfer a southern way of life in totality, but who ultimately were transformed and superseded.

 
• Category: Science • Tags: Finland 
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  1. Post-agriculture arrival of hunter-gatherer Finnic tribes is an intriguing idea, a one somewhat testable by linguistic means since it would have resulted in borrowed vocabulary in later Finnish, not shared by their linguistic kin further East and South-East. I don’t think that there is evidence of that, but I’m going to double-check.

    The very Northern location of Finland, though, is a rare exception among the historically attested Finno-Ugric peoples of Europe, who tend to occupy more hospitable latitudes (from the Finns closest kin, Estonians and Livs, and to the middle-Volga Basin Finno-Ugric peoples, the original inhabitants of today’s European Russia). Ancient Indo-European borrowings in Finno-Ugric were thought to have come from proto-Indo-Iranian but may be at least partly accounted for by another, unknown branch of proto-Indo-European, and it necessitates an area of historic contact smewhere at the fringes of Eastern European steppes.

    So it seems that the Finns, if they weren’t already there by the times of ag transition, could have come from much closer locales to the South-East, rather than directly from Northern Asia.

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  2. Eugene Helimski “The southern neighbours of Finno-Ugrians: Iranians or an extinct branch of Aryans (‘Andronovo Aryans’)?

    If equated with Andronovo, then this contacts must have occured about 2000-1500 BCE, possibly as far East as Southern Ural Mountains / Souther Siberia

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  3. Marks says:

    Some comments here.

    Finno-Permic or specifically Baltic Finnic languages were until last century spoken in as far south as Latvia and are still spoken in Estonia. Saami is not Baltic Finnic and was spoken in Southern and Central Finland before Finnish, getting pushed to the north less than a thousand years ago. Latvians and Estonians autosomally resemble Lithuanians and Poles,and were obviously much more effected by Corded Ware than Finland, yet those areas were also converted to Baltic Finnic from whatever was spoken there before.

    The inhabitants of Finland before arrival of Uralic languages, whomever they were, would have been replaced by proto-Saami and their hunter-gatherer culture, not Baltic Finns who in turn replaced the Saamis much later as they did to inhabitants of Northwest Russia, Estonia and at least Northern parts of Latvia.

    Finland differs from Latvia and Estonia somewhat autosomally both due to drift, and due to Saamis (probably totally absent in Latvia and Southern Estonia) getting assimilated to some degree, latter probably explaining the stronger Siberian signatures too. However, the last part in “The figure at the top of the post illustrates that the Pitted Ware populations seem to be genetically distinct from modern Northern Europeans, and in particular Finns” is wrong. On the PCA, we need to remember first that the position of the Pitted Ware samples is affected by projection, and secondly LSFIN sample is actually the closest to them in dimension 1 which contains the most variation.

    Saamis are more distant from the Pitted Ware samples, but Saamis are not genetically Finns any more than Maris are genetically Russians. The PCA and shared drift graphic from the same Skoglund et al study shows this clearly. Finns as shown in the graph are not more distant from the Pitted Ware sample than Swedes or Balts and in fact thus belong to the group of Northern Europeans that shares the most with them, but Saamis (the yellow spot in Northern Sweden) are clearly different. https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B9o3EYTdM8lQcXFFOGZHMGN5STg/edit?pli=1

    Same relationship between Finns and mesolithic Europeans is visible in this IBS-comparison with the mesolithic La Braña man from Iberia.
    It’s impossible to know spoken language from ancient DNA, but I don’t believe Corded Ware in Finland necessarily meant Indo-European was spoken there before, especially widely, before Saami either – or that Finnish Corded Ware was even genetically the same as the one in, say, Poland. Known Corded Ware DNA is all taken from sites outside Finland and typically R1a, with R1a making a considerable contribution to all those areas still. Finnish R1a appears in small numbers, is mostly recent Swedish or Balto-Slavic influence, and Western Finland’s (where Finnish Corded Ware was concentrated) old Y-DNA is mainly I1-L258 and N1c1-L1022. Neither of those is associated with continental Corded Ware, or any modern or historical Indo-European peoples, but neither are they found in Russian Finno-Ugrics, never mind Nenets or other Siberians, who belong to various different non-ancestral branches of N1c (like Z1936 or L666) and have only little I of any kind, primarily from Russian admixture.

    Finally, East Eurasian signatures might be older in Northeast Europe than Corded Ware culture or language families spoken there in modern times. mtDNA C was present in Karelia more than 7000 years ago in Oleni Ostrov, as well as East Eurasian physical features according to Soviet anthropologists, but unfortunately aDNA in those remains has not been autosomally analyzed.

    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0087612

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  4. B and B says:

    Figure from Skoglund (2014) is nice and neat, both racially and zoogeographically. PC1 separates the Saharo-Arabian region from the Palearctic proper and PC2 separates the western and eastern Palearctic. Makes sense if <0.05 or so on this axis is read as a 'pure' European with minimal Mongoloid admixture.

    Scandinavian HGs are a substrate 'under' the living people of the Baltic (including the Germanic Swedes). The single Chalcolithic farmer is effectively a contemporary central Italian. The Neolithic Scandinavian farmers, despite their northern location, are the contemporary southwest Europeans (Pyreneans & Iberians.) Even the plot of MA1 makes some intuitive sense.

    To be honest the scattergram seems altogether way too neat to be true.

    Coon interpreted the pre-Neolithic substrate in later Scandinavia as a 'large, square-jawed brachycephalic type' from the south, going as far as to compare 'Neolithic' Scandinavian HGs with Ofnet and Afalou. Whereas earlier in the Mesolithic an 'Upper Palaeolithic European survival' Coon named as 'Brunn' was typical in Scandinavia. He wrote that 'a strong concentration of unreduced Brünn and Borreby types' exists in Sweden opposite the continent.

    Food-producing Neolithic Scandinavians were 'Long Barrow' or 'Megalithic' – moving up the Atlantic facade – with a Corded racial influence.

    Needs more Mesolithic samples because I suspect the HG substrate in Scandinavia is at least as much Mesolithic German as native Scandinavian.

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  5. re: saami. they differ from finns in having elevated siberian. see the paper i linked to. pretty clear.

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    • Replies: @B and B
    Saami are odd and though they clearly derive partly from an ultimately Mesolithic stock in the region, same as everyone else around there, they are racially distinct from the Baltic Finns (and must've picked up their Uralic language from them.) Russian anthros hold them to be cranially distinct not only from the type of the living Baltic Finns but also the local people of Mesolithic phenotype, who they do not identify with the contemporary Saami.

    The living Saami should be interpreted as predominatly Caucasoid/Europoid but presenting a strong, late Siberian strain from the east, I don't see what the fuss is.
  6. Marks says:

    Saami also display odontometric continuity with mesolithic Karelian Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov samples with mtDNA C.

    http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1003296

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02436411

    Another reason why I think the siberian signatures in Northeast Europe are not post-Neolithic but much older and predating things like Corded Ware. Neolithic South Swedish DNA does not really tell about genetics of people a thousand miles to the northeast during the same period.

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  7. saami mtDNA convince me that there’s been predominant (>50%) continuity in north europe from the mesolithic. my model is that the dominant cultural element re: finno-permian arrived with a group that had the siberian ancestry. looking at permian groups that group doesn’t have to be mostly east asian, just enough admixture to be distinctive.

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  8. Marks says:

    The thing is, there are two culturally and linguistically different finno-permic groups that arrived at the region at certain points. The Saamis and the Baltic Finns (including Estonians, Finns and Livonians). The Saamis are also genetically distinct enough with unique mtDNA composition, high Siberian and being much more distant from the Pitted Ware Swedes than Finns and Estonians, and Germans or Russians for that matter. What were the original Baltic Finns like genetically? This is an unknown quality. Present Finns are highly drifted due to a founder effect and have assimilated some Saami during their replacement while Estonians and Northern Latvians (who assimilated the Livonians) have not, and this makes using modern Finns to deduce that matter akin to using white South Africans as the primary reference in deducing what Anglo-Saxons were like. In this, undue importance is maybe given to Finland because presently it has a larger population and more prominence than Estonia, which was not the case in the Middle Ages.

    Then there is the question of mesolithic genetics in the area. If there were siberian-like elements then (evidence there were: mesolithic Karelia had east eurasian mtDNA lacking in mesolithic remains of more southern regions and Saami-like physical traits in remains, autosomal DNA would be conclusive) they predate anything Corded Ware in the region by millennia. Harder to say about languages, but it’s probable that they’d predate Finno-Permic and Indo-European too.

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  9. ohwilleke says: • Website

    The definitively east Asian contribution to Finnish Saami DNA is 5%-8% in autosomal DNA as the source linked indicates, and the mtDNA contribution from East Asia is about 7% mtDNA Z (an Northeast Asian clade) in Finnish Saami, in addition to some mtDNA D5. One of the mtDNA Z subclades in the Saami is mtDNA mutation rate dated to about 2000-3000 years BP. This would be a similar amount of demic influence to the Turks in Anatolia.

    It also seems likely to me that the Saami went directly from a Mesolithic derived Comb Ceramic culture to a Uralic culture, while other Finns, further South where agriculture was more viable, experienced the intermediate phase of a Corded War influenced culture from ca. 2500 BCE until the Finnish Bronze Age.

    The archaeological event that makes the most sense as a Uralic arrival in Finland is the Finnish Bronze age which is linked to Northern and Eastern Russia around 1500 BCE, although some linguists argue for a date as late as the Finnish Iron Age (ca. 500 BCE) which is marked by less discontinuity and less clear geographic origins. By 0 CE, Finnish cultural influences have turned to Rome and Western Europe and before 1500 BCE, a Corded Ware derived and Finnish influenced archaeological culture prevails.

    Both of these data points, by the way, tend to disfavor the hypothesis advanced by several notable linguists including Swadesh (1962), Fortescue (1998) and Holst (2005) that Uralic is part of the same macro-linguistic family as Eskimo-Aleut. The timing and DNA evidence would be a better fit for the second wave Paleo-Eskimo Dorset people whom the Thule replaced.

    I have discussed the points raised in this post at greater depth at my own blog: http://dispatchesfromturtleisland.blogspot.com/2014/08/finland-from-its-prehistory-to-modern.html

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  10. B and B says:
    @Razib Khan
    re: saami. they differ from finns in having elevated siberian. see the paper i linked to. pretty clear.

    Saami are odd and though they clearly derive partly from an ultimately Mesolithic stock in the region, same as everyone else around there, they are racially distinct from the Baltic Finns (and must’ve picked up their Uralic language from them.) Russian anthros hold them to be cranially distinct not only from the type of the living Baltic Finns but also the local people of Mesolithic phenotype, who they do not identify with the contemporary Saami.

    The living Saami should be interpreted as predominatly Caucasoid/Europoid but presenting a strong, late Siberian strain from the east, I don’t see what the fuss is.

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  11. Davidski says: • Website

    Corded Ware couldn’t have attempted to transfer a southern way of life in totality to Northern Europe, because they weren’t from southern Europe and didn’t live that type of life.

    They were Eastern Europeans (probably with very high levels of ANE ancestry and R1a) who learned a few things from the early European farmers moving up via the Balkans, and tried to adapt that to Northern Europe, within a mixed subsistence economy of pastoralism, hunting and some farming.

    David Anthony has a PDF online which explains how the early farmers and their Eastern European neighbors interacted in what is now Ukraine, before the latter pushed west during the late Neolithic, probably in part as the Corded Ware culture.

    https://www.academia.edu/3535031/Migration_in_archaeology_the_baby_and_the_bathwater

    This is very likely why Indo-European culture and R1a (and perhaps also R1b) didn’t appear in Europe until after the Neolithic.

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  12. B and B says:

    Corded racial type was under Angels types D, or Nordic-Iranian, as D3. The distribution of his types D correlates roughly with frequencies of R1b suggesting a movement out of Asia into Europe. Although race typology gets straw manned a lot, the distributions seem to show an intuitive relationship between the haplogroup and the cranial form.

    Because of different systems it can be difficult to compare typologists’ systems. But to the Soviet school their Caspian race was important whereas to someone like Coon it was dismissed as an intermediate between the Corded Europeans and the Iranians of the plateau. This Caspian race is not only associated today with IE speakers, and those former speakers of IE now speaking Turkic, but also with surviving regional non-IE languages such as Burushaski and Dagestani. Maybe giving a clue to the languages of the ‘Nordic family’ before PIE was first spoken on the steppe, with its clear similarities to both Uralic and the languages of the Caucasus, then on the frontier between these two culture areas of western Asian pastoralists and the eastern European forest folk.

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  13. Like many of the people who commented previously said, it is good to point out that Finns arrived from the Baltic region, not from Siberia. The people close to the Uralic Urheimat, such as Mordvins, do not have high Siberian admixture either, just around 5-10%, similar to what Finns have.

    The Siberian genes probably comes from an Arctic route, and the Saami might have been the ones who brought much of it to Finland, or it was already present in Scandinavia. Northern Uralic people may thus have helped spread Siberian genes, but they may also have diluted them.

    So I think the Siberian migration should be seen as separate from the Uralic expansion. In any case the Siberian component in Northern Europe is very interesting, it peaks among people close to the Arctic.

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  14. compare typologists’ systems.

    yes. let’s talking about the typologists. not very informative or illuminating as taxonomy.

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    • Replies: @B and B
    Necessary though if youre trying to make sense of data from different sources. Sadly the lack of fixed terminology means the differences need explaining when you aren't just quoting a single source.

    And Davidski,

    Sorry I was thinking of R1a not R1b. It was an error. R1a peaks in the right places and seems to be of Iranian or Central Asian origin judging by where the paragroup turns up.

    http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R-M420#/image/File:Distribution_Haplogroup_R1a_Y-DNA.svg

    R1a is fairly easy but any attempt to match R1b with other data like craniometry or languages has to take into account its presence in subsaharan Africa, not an easy thing to achieve though it was obviously brought down there by western Eurasian people.
  15. Using the analogue of Greenland to explain what (may have) happened in Finland has a major issue, which others have touched upon.

    In Greenland the Norse were not just culturally, but largely speaking genetically, replaced by a hunter-gatherer people. While I don’t think I’ve seen any genetic studies which have focused on modern day Greenland Inuit, I’ve seen a few admixture runs. They are highly admixed, but much of this is likely due to the more recent colonial interaction with Denmark.

    In contrast, as others have noted, Finns are overwhelmingly West Eurasian in orientation – not too different from nearby Indo-European groups other than a relatively small percentage of their DNA which is Siberian in origin. Clearly this admixture comes from points east – as does likely their language. The question is when.

    If you’re talking about a language shift where the population mostly maintains genetic continuity, you’re talking about a process of elite dominance. There are plenty of historical examples where pastoral groups have managed to impress their language on more populous farmers – in some cases, like Hungarians, with essentially no genetic trace. But the the Finnic groups were not pastoralists, just plain hunter-gatherers, and thus had no clear military advantage.

    That’s not to say that it didn’t happen. It very well may have. The high levels of the European lactose tolerance gene variant in Finland seem to suggest that Indo-Europeans did settle there in significant numbers, rather than a native Finnic population which took up agro-pastoralism when it came along. But without the advantages of pastoralism, it’s hard for me to see how nomads would transfer their culture onto farmers without transferring a large proportion of their genome as well. Maybe it was similar to modern-day Turks, who only have a small proportion of East Asian because their ancestors had been admixing through Central Asia for a few centuries already. It will be interesting to see if the date of admixture can be nailed down more – probably not for Finns in particular due to how drifted they are, but perhaps it is possible using other nearby Finnic groups.

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  16. #15, like descendants of LBK, i think a lot of farmers just died. probably due to inclement conditions. or, like many of the scandinavians they decamped. i assume there were still pristine WHG beyond the farming zones which the finnic groups assimilated.

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    • Replies: @Scandinavian
    The Uralic Urheimat is actually in the Volga region, so the Uralic-speaking populations radiated from this territory, which you speculate had "pristine WHG" (and probably also ANE). As many Uralic populations today show similarities to ancient WHG and ANE samples in genetic tests, you are probably right.

    Further up in the Arctic there were probably also Siberian groups which the Uralic speakers assimilated.
  17. Kamran says:

    Karl, how do we know the finnic groups migrating west weren’t pastoralists? Isn’t it plausible that they were armed with bronze and may have overpowered locals armed with stone weapons?

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  18. Marks says:

    “But the the Finnic groups were not pastoralists, just plain hunter-gatherers, and thus had no clear military advantage. ”

    This is likely true for proto-Saami, yet nonetheless they managed to spread in Southern Finland and stayed there until recently (last millennium) before getting pushed out by Finns, and the area is loaded with Saamic toponyms. If previous farming/pastoral groups there were supplanted, it would have been done by Saamis when they arrived.

    For Baltic Finns a pure hunter-gatherer culture is less likely given the language group’s prevalence not just in Finland but in Estonia and Livonia, which were more hospitable to agriculture and more populated during the Neolithic and Bronze Age (assuming they did not arrive there earlier they had to dominate these settlements).

    The Saami interaction with preceding populations is interesting because despite having clearly inhabited old Corded Ware-related areas in Finland, Saamis have very low amounts of lactase-persistence alleles, lower than for example Udmurts living in the Volga-Ural region (who have them in amounts comparable to the French) and much lower than Finns.
    For example, rs4988235 T-allele frequency in Eastern Finns, the least tolerant Finnish group, is 56%, while it is 17% in Saamis.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707613585 (table 2)

    It’s also interesting that Erzya and Moksha who are genetically much closer to presumably heavily Corded Ware influenced Balto-Slavic core than Finns (see below) have much less lactase persistence alleles. Estonians also have slightly less of them. I wonder if whoever brought Y-DNA I1-L258 – absent in Southern Baltic and Volga-Ural region – to Finland has more to do with modern Finnish frequencies of these alleles than Corded Ware/Indo-European R1-related influence from the south.
    http://bga101.blogspot.com/2012/01/eurogenes-north-euro-clusters-phase-2.html

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  19. ohwilleke says: • Website

    It is worth recognizing that the pre-agricultural people of Finland would not have been predominantly terrestrial, nomadic hunter-gatherers.

    Instead, in this context, as in the context of the Japanese Jomon people and some of the Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest, they would have been fisherman and shell fish gatherers who also gathered plant matter to eat, who supplemented their diets with some terrestrial hunting. They would also have been relatively sedentary. Like the Jomon, and unlike the early Neolithic peoples of the Fertile Crescent, they also developed pottery before they adopted either farming or herding.

    This form of maritime hunting and gathering, while not technically involving either the farming of domesticated plants or the herding of domesticated animals, allowed for a lifestyle that was more like that of early farmers than traditional nomadic terrestrial hunter-gatherers, and as a result, the Finnish people at the time of first Neolithic contact probably had an edge relative to their terrestrial hunter-gatherer counterparts in Continental Europe.

    The fact that most of Finland is marginal in terms of climate for the kind of agriculture conducted by early European farmers also probably gave the indigenous Finnish population an edge vis-a-vis the first farmers.

    Indeed, farming remained unreliable and marginal in Finland much latter on. Burials from the period 575 CE to 800 CE in Finland showed definite signs of malnourishment. At the Leväluhta burial site in that time period, for example, the average height of a man was 5’2″ and that of a woman was 4’10″.

    A famine from 1696-1699 CE killed a third of the Finnish population (followed by a war induced period of battle deaths, famine and disease that killed half of the people who survived the original famine from 1700-1721 CE). Thus, famines and related unrest killed twice as many people in a generation as the Black Plague in Continental Europe. There is good reason to think that the Finnish population might not have recovered nearly so completely were it not for the fact that the potato was introduced after the 1750s.

    Poor harvests again in Scandinavia in the 19th century were a push factor that motivated large scale emigration to places like the United States.

    We also know as a matter of historical fact that a significant share of the agricultural activity from the Viking era (ca. 800-1025 CE) onward was conducted by Germanic colonists from other parts of Scandinavia (especially Sweden), rather than native Finns.

    Written history doesn’t begin in Finland until the 12th century and is patchy at first, but Finland’s agriculture no doubt took a serious hit during the Little Ice Age and in multiple earlier eras when the region had climate hiccups.

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  20. Davidski says: • Website

    B&B,

    I’m sure you’ve heard of the R1a found among the Corded Ware remains from Eulau, eastern Germany.

    To add to that, here’s a cluster tree based on mtDNA from Brandt et al. 2013.

    Corded Ware is CWC.

    If you’re desperate to match R1b and Western Europeans to a late Neolithic culture, try Bell Beaker. They carried R1b and their mtDNA was very Atlantic fringe.

    In any case, Angel and old school typology in general have nothing to offer in this context.

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  21. B and B says:
    @Razib Khan
    compare typologists’ systems.

    yes. let's talking about the typologists. not very informative or illuminating as taxonomy.

    Necessary though if youre trying to make sense of data from different sources. Sadly the lack of fixed terminology means the differences need explaining when you aren’t just quoting a single source.

    And Davidski,

    Sorry I was thinking of R1a not R1b. It was an error. R1a peaks in the right places and seems to be of Iranian or Central Asian origin judging by where the paragroup turns up.

    http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R-M420#/image/File:Distribution_Haplogroup_R1a_Y-DNA.svg

    R1a is fairly easy but any attempt to match R1b with other data like craniometry or languages has to take into account its presence in subsaharan Africa, not an easy thing to achieve though it was obviously brought down there by western Eurasian people.

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  22. jaakkeli says:

    - Most Baltic-Finns, Saamis and Komis all have recent (and ongoing) Siberian admixture from the migration of the Nenets back to Europe. Not a mystery. Most Saamis still just look like Europeans.

    - The ancient Siberian (MA1) in this graph is not East Asian, it’s West Eurasian. MA1 is ancestral to Europeans but not East Asians! It’s another amazing contradiction with the really exotic link in Finns, haplogroup N, which is of fairly recent Far Eastern Asian origin and probably the last haplogroup in all of Eurasia that should show up with MA1 ancestry. If, say, the N migration to Europe ~10k years ago picked up this MA1-like ancestry somewhere in Siberia and brought it to Europe then Siberia is already where N got disassociated from “East Asianness”.

    The high MA1 ancestry in N-heavy Balts and Finns just seems to tell us that N got separated from East Asian ancestry thousands of years before there were Finno-Ugric languages. Estonians and Balts don’t even seem to have a Mongoloid component despite N. It’s even possible that proto-Finno-Ugric people were less Mongoloid than Finns.

    (In other words, you just saw “Siberian” close to Finnish without realizing that this Siberian is nothing like today’s Siberians and actually a West Eurasian ancestor.)

    - Finns are (were) culturally Finno-Ugric, Saamis are something else. Maris, Udmurts and Mordvins are clear (very) distant kin of Finns who believed in many of the same gods, customs and so on but Saamis are something unique. Saami customs don’t have a match in Siberia, either, or in any other people anywhere.

    Also, historically Saamis haven’t been simply hunter-gatherers. Saami farmers just assimilated to Finns. Saamis only survived unassimilated in Lapland and in Lapland you can only hunt, gather or herd so…

    - Mordvinic languages at the Volga are closer to Baltic-Finnic/Saami than to their neighbours and lineages are largely shared. Mordvins don’t look very different from Finns if you realize that they have some Iranic and Turkic admixture and Finns have some others. Finns are not unusual at all in a Finno-Ugric context and there are Finnish-looking people among all Finno-Permians.

    If there was some swap from Mongoloid to European looks it happened far in the past and somewhere at the Volga, the Western expansive Finno-Saami-Mordvinic branch just looks mostly European as do the formerly Mordvinic/Baltic-Finnic Russians in rural areas that the colonization and later assimilation left behind. Finno-Permian peoples actually look much closer to each other than expected from language distance and the lack of contact between groups. Groups like Germanic and Slavic didn’t even exist when Mordvinic and Baltic-Finnic split.

    - Ugric speakers on the other hand often have nothing in common with even other Ugric speakers as Ugric spread partly as a lingua franca in Siberia. We can identify formerly Yenisean etc groups by linguistics, customs or just asking the people who they are and genetics is matching that work perfectly.

    - Those Ugric Siberians who do have N1c1 in common with Finno-Permians also tend to have clearly European haplogroups and physically part-European features, dragged deep into Siberia which is just as striking as N in Finns, especially now that we can see that it isn’t Russian admixture. This is a good match with the Volga homeland. There is just a dumb focus on N in Finns and no one writing about how weird it is that this and that Siberian tribe has mtDNA from Europe.

    - N is even weirder in Finns than just being something northern Siberian. N is a relatively new split off from Southeast Asia and it’s as much of an out-of-place end-of-ice-age invader in Siberia as it is in Europe. In Siberia N1c1 is found in Finno-Ugric, Turkic and Yukaghir speakers, Yukaghir being the one paleo-Siberian language that’s potentially and likely related to Finno-Ugric and Indo-European and also a known invader in its current territory. Finno-Ugric is definitely not from northern Siberia and Yakuts are migrants as well. N1c1 evaporates from northern Siberia entirely when you look at which peoples have N1c1 (the recent migrants) and which don’t (paleo-Siberians, Amerindians).

    Saying that Finns have a connection to northern Siberians is a bit like saying that English people have a connection to Americans. Sure, but not native Americans.

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  23. Marks says:

    Nenets are far too recent in their present western range (less than a thousand years old) and few in number to have genetically influenced any European population beyond Izhemski Komi and some Russian settlers east of Archangelsk, and the difference in appearence between Nenets and these groups is still drastic (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/adventure-travel/europe/russia-reindeer-gretel-ehrlich.html). Perhaps they also influenced the moribund Saami groups of Eastern Kola, but that’s less clear.

    Saami as mediators of Siberian affinities to populations that have interacted with them (North Russians, Finns and Scandinavians) makes sense, but at a much earlier date given the likely East Eurasian influence in mesolithic Karelia (mtDNA C, physical features resembling modern Saami) and the very clear one in 3500ya Kola Peninsula (mtDNA C and also Z and D).

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  24. @Razib Khan
    #15, like descendants of LBK, i think a lot of farmers just died. probably due to inclement conditions. or, like many of the scandinavians they decamped. i assume there were still pristine WHG beyond the farming zones which the finnic groups assimilated.

    The Uralic Urheimat is actually in the Volga region, so the Uralic-speaking populations radiated from this territory, which you speculate had “pristine WHG” (and probably also ANE). As many Uralic populations today show similarities to ancient WHG and ANE samples in genetic tests, you are probably right.

    Further up in the Arctic there were probably also Siberian groups which the Uralic speakers assimilated.

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  25. Davidski says: • Website

    B&B,

    It seems R is an Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) steppe marker from way back, so the Near East is more likely a sink rather than a source when it comes to R1a. In any case, the current spotty distribution of R1a-M420* isn’t particularly relevant to the origins of the Indo-Europeans, Yamnaya, Corded Ware, or Indo-Iranians.

    What is relevant is the rapid R1a-M417 branching event that seems to have taken place from the late Neolithic (aka. Chalcolithic or Copper Age) onwards. This is when the presently North Sea-specific R1a-CTS4385 broke away from the European/Asian R1a-Z645, which then broke up into the Eastern European R1a-Z282 and Asian R1a-Z93, which then dominated much of Eurasia from Scandinavia to South Siberia and South India via a myriad of younger subclades.

    All of this happened very quickly, so whoever was involved must’ve been very mobile for their time, and so the best candidates are the archeological cultures of the western and Ural steppes, which left plenty of horse remains, evidence of horse domestication, and the remains of chariots.

    So there’s really no need to look to the Near East to find the origins of Corded Ware and Eastern European R1a, especially as all of the Near Eastern ancestry carried by present-day Eastern Europeans can be explained by gene flow from early European farmers (EEF), who in all likelihood didn’t carry any sort of Y-HG R. Thus, again, the best candidates for the source of all of the R1a in Europe today are groups like the Samara, Khvalynsk and later Yamnaya nomads, who were probably a mix of ANE, WHG and EEF, of currently unknown proportions.

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