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    Expansion of modern humans out of Africa and within Africa. Mellars (2006). When we discuss the origins of modern humans, the term ‘Out of Africa’ is a bit misleading. Our common ancestors came not from Africa as a whole but from a relatively small area somewhere in East Africa. Beginning around 80,000 years ago, this...
  • @lesigh
    Seriously? I get that this is a white supremacist site where people are so backwards-thinking that they probably think males are smarter than females because of the larger brains on average, but you couldn't even bother to find out that neural connectivity and number of cortical folds matter more than size?

    There's no devolution. Neanderthals had larger brains, yes, but intraspecies brain size comparisons are meaningless unless they are of a very large value (meaning that severe retardation of development has occurred). Size in specific regions can be important, but in those regions (frontal lobe), Neanderthals were inferior. They also had fewer cortical folds, meaning less white matter and connectivity, and smoother but larger brains are less intelligent.

    Groups that exclusively interbred died off, there is no human on this planet that isn’t a hybrid from modern human species mixing with archaic humans species in a pattern that resembles a family tree and and all humans carry genetic mutations from archaic human species that existed well before any modern humans that have been found to have emerged from ethiopia in africa. A mutation in a west african gene is unique as it shows a mutation tied to archaic human species existing well beyond a million years ago.

    The hard pill for you to swallow is that “black people” or “africans” aren’t the first human species to inhabit the earth, black african’s history is just like white european peoples history…..the same just a tiny bit different and older, but not as original as so much misplaced pride would indicate. The oldest skull excavated in Bethlehem is that of a hybrid genetic mixture of modern and archaic humans.

    I didn’t write this to beef with you or correct you, just some food for thought. There is no absolute truth that anyone can crystallize into simple facts, there is only the layers of truth leading to the highest available truth any individual can perceive based on his/her knowledge and intellect at a given point in his/her mental development. Bottom line…..we are all continuously learning and developing from birth to death, and when we stop at some artificial or premature maximum we stop growing and kill off any future of evolutionary development.

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  • I will probably irritate somebody but whatever. Madame Blavatsky wrote of what were referred to as root races and their sub-races(genetic variants), one root race finally receding as another emerged but with a good period of overlap that allowed interaction and which passed DNA for the survival of the newer root race . She learned much of her knowledge of this in India and noted “race” was not meant as it is currently understood and that current humans are all members of the same root race, sprung from a single source. I read a lot on the subject and it doesn’t seem to be such a secret, just a secret hiding in plain sight but which one(self inclined individuals) must take the initiative to look around to see what there really is on the subject from various sources and find some common threads. This seems consistent with nature. If you look backwards its hard to see, look at is a tree in which a main upward reaching branch which represents humans evolution to this point and the trunk our beginning. As the main branch first splits, only one will continue on as the main branch…and our main branch has survived by mixing DNA to pass on mutation beneficial to future survival of humans and isolation and inbreeding are the branches which dead end along the way. Kinda gives meaning to the biblical passages about cutting off the dead branch and casting it into the fire or being cut off from the tree of life. huh?
    I saw a documentary using archaeology and geneticists confirming that humans today are hybrids of as of yet an unknown number of mixtures of human species over millions and perhaps hundreds of millions of years.

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  • @Anonymous
    It sounds like people are finally starting to care more about science then being politically correct. Yes, African's seem to be the original species on earth, that evolved for millions of years, and are still connected to the primates. Is there much variation or evolution from them though? the evolutionary tree seems "on shaky ground" based on a cave they found with 5 homo erectus skeletons with a lot of variety. Found seperately, they all would have been called different species. If we call all in the homo line homo erectus, other then the big brained Neanderthal (brain size being highly connected to IQ) One might say that any before Neanderthal were homo erectus for millians of years. (Not called humans.) So any homo erectus who didn't interbreed with the Neanderthal, would not make cro magnon, called modern man. Those in the Canary Islands are thought to represent pure cro Magnon stock, and they are an obvious mix of white and black. Thus,it fits that is two species mixing started a very primitive modern man like them, that the Neanderthal would be the original modern man, and like the brain size shows, we have de-evolved by interbreeding. . .it is a deep and controversial theory, but I would love some descussion on it. Check out a very indepth and connected theory on the Neanderthal here, http://passionateproject.blogspot.com/2014/05/all-about-hybrid-neanderthal-named-adam.html and one on the homo erectus here. http://passionateproject.blogspot.com/2014/05/all-about-africans-original-earthly.html

    Seriously? I get that this is a white supremacist site where people are so backwards-thinking that they probably think males are smarter than females because of the larger brains on average, but you couldn’t even bother to find out that neural connectivity and number of cortical folds matter more than size?

    There’s no devolution. Neanderthals had larger brains, yes, but intraspecies brain size comparisons are meaningless unless they are of a very large value (meaning that severe retardation of development has occurred). Size in specific regions can be important, but in those regions (frontal lobe), Neanderthals were inferior. They also had fewer cortical folds, meaning less white matter and connectivity, and smoother but larger brains are less intelligent.

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    • Replies: @TJG
    Groups that exclusively interbred died off, there is no human on this planet that isn't a hybrid from modern human species mixing with archaic humans species in a pattern that resembles a family tree and and all humans carry genetic mutations from archaic human species that existed well before any modern humans that have been found to have emerged from ethiopia in africa. A mutation in a west african gene is unique as it shows a mutation tied to archaic human species existing well beyond a million years ago.

    The hard pill for you to swallow is that "black people" or "africans" aren't the first human species to inhabit the earth, black african's history is just like white european peoples history.....the same just a tiny bit different and older, but not as original as so much misplaced pride would indicate. The oldest skull excavated in Bethlehem is that of a hybrid genetic mixture of modern and archaic humans.

    I didn't write this to beef with you or correct you, just some food for thought. There is no absolute truth that anyone can crystallize into simple facts, there is only the layers of truth leading to the highest available truth any individual can perceive based on his/her knowledge and intellect at a given point in his/her mental development. Bottom line.....we are all continuously learning and developing from birth to death, and when we stop at some artificial or premature maximum we stop growing and kill off any future of evolutionary development.
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  • Andaman Islanders. Related peoples once inhabited the coastal regions of southern, southeastern, and eastern Asia. The past year brought two major advances: the long awaited sequencing of the Neanderthal genome and the genetic sequencing of an another archaic human, the Denisovans of East Asia, whose existence had previously been unsuspected. The bottom line comes down...
  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:
    @Tod
    It sounds like Skhul-Qafzeh hominins were an awful lot more like modern humans than Denisovans.

    Sub-Saharan Africans and Melanesians have been able to adapt to garden agriculture and flourish after contact with the outside world in a way many aboriginal people have not.

    The complex farming trade systems of Papua and the giant longest lasting aquaculture trade farm of the Gundimartja people in Southern Victoria, (budji jim)8 000 years of constant production. Show that Aboriginal and Melanesia people developed farming without outside contact. Also there is an underestimation of the wild farming practiced by nomadic people’s.

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  • Purported Yeti scalp at Khumjung Monastery (source). Has DNA been retrieved from it for the Oxford-Lausanne Collateral Hominid Project? Over a year ago, geneticist Bryan Sykes launched the Oxford-Lausanne Collateral Hominid Project: The aim was to retrieve DNA from alleged remains of Yeti, Bigfoot, and the like. At the time, I was skeptical that anything...
  • This is something we need to take into consideration.

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  • East Africa, 60,000 to 80,000 years ago. The relative stasis of early humans was being shaken by a series of population expansions. The last one went global, spreading out of Africa, into Eurasia and, eventually, throughout the whole world (Watson et al., 1997). Those humans became us. This expansion took place at the expense of...
  • A group than merely reduced the level of intra-group aggression could have less mortality and more numbers, and doom all the the other groups even if the the nicey- nicey group were relatively pacifistic toward other groups. Better to be genes of a cave wimp in the nicey-nicey (and hence flourishing) group that the genes of a big boss man in a relatively dwindling group (where only the strong are respected).

    Maybe what C &H say is correct for early CroMagnons (who I believe are supposed to have used thrusting not throwing spears). But there is a lot of difference in the robustness of the skeleton between CroMagnons and Magdelenian hunters (and women and men).

    I think the steppe tundra sexual selection hypothesis can be pushed further; tools get developed by paying attention to what others are doing and showing others what to do. To me that is intra -group communication, which is not only more like the bonobos’ than the common chimps’ behaviour, it’s more like women’s behaviour than men’s.

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  • Sean,

    I don’t know about modern humans being less warlike. There does seem to be a cognitive difference, with Neanderthals relying more on domain-specific hardwired algorithms. Cochran and Harpending wrote about this point in one of their outtakes:

    “Our favorite hypothesis is that Neanderthals and other archaic humans had a fundamentally different kind of learning than moderns. One of the enduring puzzles is the near-stasis of tool kits in early humans – as we have said before, the Acheulean hand-axe tradition last for almost a million years and extended from the Cape of Good Hope to Germany, while the Mousterian lasted for a quarter of a million years. Somehow these early humans were capable of transmitting a simple material culture for hundreds of thousands of years with little change. More information was transmitted to the next generation than in chimpanzees, but not as much as in modern humans. At the same time, that information was transmitted with surprisingly high accuracy. This must be the case, since random errors in transmission would have caused changes in those tool traditions, resulting in noticeable variation over space and time – which we do not see.

    It looks to us as if toolmaking in those populations was, to some extent, innate: genetically determined. Just as song birds are born with a rough genetic template that constrains what songs are learned, early humans may have been born with genetically determined behavioral tendencies that resulted in certain kinds of tools. Genetic transmission of that information has the characteristics required to explain this pattern of simple, near-static technology, since only a limited amount of information can be acquired through natural selection, while the information that is acquired is transmitted with very high accuracy.”

    http://isteve.blogspot.ca/2009/01/neanderthals.html

    Peltast,

    Not that I know of. The consensus seems to be that Ashkenazi Jews are about half Middle Eastern and half European by origin. Strangely enough, their European origin looks more Italian than Slavic (I suspect “Italian” is a proxy for the European population that existed along the Rhone valley over a thousand years ago, this having been one of the main areas of Jewish settlement).

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  • Animals in Europe may well have been a lot easier to hunt that the ones in Africa, which had evolved with human predation. The Falkland Islands wolf – ‘foolish dog o’ the south’ was easy to kill because in had no fear. Cro magnons were oversized bull necked thugs, and to me they look like they evolved where the main problem was not getting the groceries, but fighting for females.

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  • @Sean
    By my way of thinking, the hulking barrel chested Cro Magnons with their enormous heads seem adapted to being big boss man rather than fiddling about with tools, and they were not replaced--the later Europeans were their descendants. Brian Hare /Bruce Hood's theory is that there was a process similar to wolf domestication into domestic dog or the Russian fox domestication experiment, and it made the Europeans progressively smarter. The sharpest reduction in size was during the Magdalenian.

    Well thank you Sean not only for the ideas to chew on but the cite to some apparent authors to look into.

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  • @TomB
    I have read a modest amount about evolution (lots of the Gould books included), and with that reservation noted about it, as with this piece by Mr. Frost, one of the most interesting aspects of it doesn't seem explored much, despite what appears (again, to me at least) to be its huge importance.

    I'm not sure exactly how to define it, but that relatively unremarked upon aspect seems to me to be the lack of attention paid to the ... social/cultural contribution to evolution in the form of intra-species aggression.

    That is, while Mr. Frost here so typically talks so much (if not almost exclusively) about the evolution of physiological adaptations and how no doubt crucial they are to evolutionary success, look at what happened, say, to the neanderthals.

    After all for a long long time they seem to have had plenty of adaptations to do well and spread wide.

    But what seems to have happened to them? Did they lose their adaptations? No. Unlikely. Indeed the logic of natural selection would argue that if anything they gained some.

    Instead of course their demise seems to be tied to the influx of more advanced humanoids, and its very difficult for me to believe that what happened to the neanderthals en masse wasn't their being essentially massacred by their new neighbors. Just like Mr. Frost off-handedly mentions the reasonable proposition that archaic humans in Africa might have persisted longer than others elsewhere because of a better ability to "fend off" their more modern wanna-be new neighbors.

    Or perhaps as another possible example the eradication of the Dorset arctic people with the influx of the more modern Innuit. With the former not even seeming to be in all that direct a competition with the Innuit for resources given that they seem to have been far more sea-based focused than the early Innuit at least.

    Moreover this dynamic also seems to resonate with what we see in social animals, often to absolutely characteristic degree: One wolf pack gets too big for its territory and splits and one part moves elsewhere and there it doesn't just compete "fairly" for the resources there, instead what does one inevitably see but fierce battles to the death. Genocidal in nature really.

    Since this implicates matters of psychological mentality and instincts and emotions I suppose this ventures ultimately into the realm of socio-biology/evolutionary psychology. But, nevertheless, I can't help but believe that it is *just*as important a part of the evolutionary story of what we see today as the story of the evolution of physiological adaptations to environment.

    I.e., with many species, the reason they are here today is that not only because they are to some successful degree physiologically adapted to their environment, but also only because they were conquerers essentially. They didn't just "outcompete" their relatives in the sense of being better hunter-gatherers or even farmers: They slaughtered out the others.

    And again, that this is *just* as important a part of the story as the physiological adaptations to environment have been for many species.

    If so seems to say something very deep and profound about our nature since one can hardly imagine that we are one of the species that this dynamic did not work its will with.

    By my way of thinking, the hulking barrel chested Cro Magnons with their enormous heads seem adapted to being big boss man rather than fiddling about with tools, and they were not replaced–the later Europeans were their descendants. Brian Hare /Bruce Hood’s theory is that there was a process similar to wolf domestication into domestic dog or the Russian fox domestication experiment, and it made the Europeans progressively smarter. The sharpest reduction in size was during the Magdalenian.

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    • Replies: @TomB
    Well thank you Sean not only for the ideas to chew on but the cite to some apparent authors to look into.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • I have read a modest amount about evolution (lots of the Gould books included), and with that reservation noted about it, as with this piece by Mr. Frost, one of the most interesting aspects of it doesn’t seem explored much, despite what appears (again, to me at least) to be its huge importance.

    I’m not sure exactly how to define it, but that relatively unremarked upon aspect seems to me to be the lack of attention paid to the … social/cultural contribution to evolution in the form of intra-species aggression.

    That is, while Mr. Frost here so typically talks so much (if not almost exclusively) about the evolution of physiological adaptations and how no doubt crucial they are to evolutionary success, look at what happened, say, to the neanderthals.

    After all for a long long time they seem to have had plenty of adaptations to do well and spread wide.

    But what seems to have happened to them? Did they lose their adaptations? No. Unlikely. Indeed the logic of natural selection would argue that if anything they gained some.

    Instead of course their demise seems to be tied to the influx of more advanced humanoids, and its very difficult for me to believe that what happened to the neanderthals en masse wasn’t their being essentially massacred by their new neighbors. Just like Mr. Frost off-handedly mentions the reasonable proposition that archaic humans in Africa might have persisted longer than others elsewhere because of a better ability to “fend off” their more modern wanna-be new neighbors.

    Or perhaps as another possible example the eradication of the Dorset arctic people with the influx of the more modern Innuit. With the former not even seeming to be in all that direct a competition with the Innuit for resources given that they seem to have been far more sea-based focused than the early Innuit at least.

    Moreover this dynamic also seems to resonate with what we see in social animals, often to absolutely characteristic degree: One wolf pack gets too big for its territory and splits and one part moves elsewhere and there it doesn’t just compete “fairly” for the resources there, instead what does one inevitably see but fierce battles to the death. Genocidal in nature really.

    Since this implicates matters of psychological mentality and instincts and emotions I suppose this ventures ultimately into the realm of socio-biology/evolutionary psychology. But, nevertheless, I can’t help but believe that it is *just*as important a part of the evolutionary story of what we see today as the story of the evolution of physiological adaptations to environment.

    I.e., with many species, the reason they are here today is that not only because they are to some successful degree physiologically adapted to their environment, but also only because they were conquerers essentially. They didn’t just “outcompete” their relatives in the sense of being better hunter-gatherers or even farmers: They slaughtered out the others.

    And again, that this is *just* as important a part of the story as the physiological adaptations to environment have been for many species.

    If so seems to say something very deep and profound about our nature since one can hardly imagine that we are one of the species that this dynamic did not work its will with.

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    • Replies: @Sean
    By my way of thinking, the hulking barrel chested Cro Magnons with their enormous heads seem adapted to being big boss man rather than fiddling about with tools, and they were not replaced--the later Europeans were their descendants. Brian Hare /Bruce Hood's theory is that there was a process similar to wolf domestication into domestic dog or the Russian fox domestication experiment, and it made the Europeans progressively smarter. The sharpest reduction in size was during the Magdalenian.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Anyway, maybe modern humans’ intelligence had something to do with them having less need to be fearful, or aggressive.

    I doubt it. The first signs of human culture (cavepaintings, music instruments and sculptures) are from Europe, where humans and Neanderthals were competing with each other.

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  • Hey Peter, its true that jews have a high rate of neanderthal genes?

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  • There was someone a while back who posted a comment on E&P with a link to study of chimp society. It said the males had expanded chests and looked scared apart from the boss chimp. I have read the boss chimp tends to bash up females so he and his pals can mate with her. Chimps are known to make war on neighbouring chimps too. For chimps avoiding violence from rival males and rival groups seems to have been a salient problem.

    Bonobos:”Bonobos are much more likely to keep the peace by offering a sexual favor, whereas a chimpanzee’s first instinct is to secure dominance through battle. In chimp groups, the highest-ranking male is the only one allowed to mate with the females, but in bonobo cultures, everyone has sexual freedom”.

    So the adaptations of the archaic-ancestry humans might have been more like chimps (where there is ever present risk of violence adaptation to it would be useful), while modern humans were more like bonobos. There is a belief that bonobos would not be able to survive around chimps, but bonobo don’t have to deal with chimps as bonobos only live in the resource rich and isolated bend of the Congo basin. Bonobos are really smart Bonobo Stone Tools as Competent as Ancient Human?. Genius ape Kanzi.

    Anyway, maybe modern humans’ intelligence had something to do with them having less need to be fearful, or aggressive.

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  • Expansion of modern humans out of Africa and within Africa. Mellars (2006). When we discuss the origins of modern humans, the term ‘Out of Africa’ is a bit misleading. Our common ancestors came not from Africa as a whole but from a relatively small area somewhere in East Africa. Beginning around 80,000 years ago, this...
  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    It sounds like people are finally starting to care more about science then being politically correct. Yes, African's seem to be the original species on earth, that evolved for millions of years, and are still connected to the primates. Is there much variation or evolution from them though? the evolutionary tree seems "on shaky ground" based on a cave they found with 5 homo erectus skeletons with a lot of variety. Found seperately, they all would have been called different species. If we call all in the homo line homo erectus, other then the big brained Neanderthal (brain size being highly connected to IQ) One might say that any before Neanderthal were homo erectus for millians of years. (Not called humans.) So any homo erectus who didn't interbreed with the Neanderthal, would not make cro magnon, called modern man. Those in the Canary Islands are thought to represent pure cro Magnon stock, and they are an obvious mix of white and black. Thus,it fits that is two species mixing started a very primitive modern man like them, that the Neanderthal would be the original modern man, and like the brain size shows, we have de-evolved by interbreeding. . .it is a deep and controversial theory, but I would love some descussion on it. Check out a very indepth and connected theory on the Neanderthal here, http://passionateproject.blogspot.com/2014/05/all-about-hybrid-neanderthal-named-adam.html and one on the homo erectus here. http://passionateproject.blogspot.com/2014/05/all-about-africans-original-earthly.html

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    • Replies: @lesigh
    Seriously? I get that this is a white supremacist site where people are so backwards-thinking that they probably think males are smarter than females because of the larger brains on average, but you couldn't even bother to find out that neural connectivity and number of cortical folds matter more than size?

    There's no devolution. Neanderthals had larger brains, yes, but intraspecies brain size comparisons are meaningless unless they are of a very large value (meaning that severe retardation of development has occurred). Size in specific regions can be important, but in those regions (frontal lobe), Neanderthals were inferior. They also had fewer cortical folds, meaning less white matter and connectivity, and smoother but larger brains are less intelligent.
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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    Unknown Sub-Saharan African hominin

    In 2011 Michael Hammer et al. at the University of Arizona studied DNA from two African hunter-gatherer groups, the Biaka Pygmies, the San and the West African agricultural Mandinka people.
    They concluded that roughly 2% of the genetic material found in these modern African populations was inserted into the human genome approximately 35,000 years ago. They also concluded these sequences must have come from a now-extinct member of the Homo genus that broke away from the modern human lineage around 700,000 years ago.

    In 2012 another study was done by Sarah Tishkoff et al. at the University of Pennsylvania. They tested 3 sub-Saharan African populations – Pygmies from Cameroon and the Hadza and Sandawe, both from Tanzania. The team found signs that the ancestors of the hunter-gatherers bred with different species of hominins, probably more than 40,000 years ago

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaic_human_admixture_with_modern_Homo_sapiens#Unknown_Sub-Saharan_African_hominin

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  • What we FALSIFY here is the strong out-of-Africa hypothesis
    that everyone comes from the same population,” Dr. Paabo

    http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/07/science/07neanderthal.html?_r=0

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  • Remains of archaic hominins from southwest China (Curnoe et al, 2012). They were around when villages and towns were arising in the Middle East. Recent findings have confirmed the ‘Out of Africa’ model of human origins, but only in part. The model diverges from actual prehistory on two main points. One is that modern humans...
  • Peter,

    Is the Siberian image that van Deusen and yourself refer to as 'monkey' the same as, overlapping with or distinct from the 'chuchunaa' and 'mulen' images?

    The Siberian 'wildman' image I am familiar with seems to represent anatomically and culturally modern human hunter foragers, not a monkey.

    http://w11.zetaboards.com/bonesandbehaviours/topic/8937220/1/

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  • Purported Yeti scalp at Khumjung Monastery (source). Has DNA been retrieved from it for the Oxford-Lausanne Collateral Hominid Project? Over a year ago, geneticist Bryan Sykes launched the Oxford-Lausanne Collateral Hominid Project: The aim was to retrieve DNA from alleged remains of Yeti, Bigfoot, and the like. At the time, I was skeptical that anything...
  • According to Jeff Meldrum the Lishu hominin is also under study.

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  • What happened with the DNA testing of the Longlin-Maludong people?

    Good question! They were known to exist in China during the time the paleo-Indians crossed the Bering Strait.

    With recent discovery of Denisova, we should not be surprised that some other hominid may have followed the paleo-Indians to North America.

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  • What happened with the DNA testing of the Longlin-Maludong people?

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    Sykes is doing this project in conjunction with the Museum of Lausanne in Switzerland. I recall Bernard Heuvelmans donated his collection to the Museum of Lausanne in 1999 before is death. Heuvelmans was known as the father of cryptozoology.

    Perhaps the Museum of Lausanne found something from Heuvelmans collection and Sykes is expanding on it?

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  • I'd say it's more likely that Sykes has been travelling in connection with some film project or other, but that's just a guess. I'd love for him to find something.

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    There are various species of snub-nosed monkeys in southern China and northern SE Asia. These snub-nosed monkeys resemble East Asians. Is it possible that East Asians evolved from them or are related to them? That an archaic hominin related to the snub nosed monkeys interbred with East Asians? Would this be consistent with any multiregional theories?

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  • What about the Caucasus or Hindukush?

    Or South America – there's no saying it has to be hominin DNA to be interesting.

    Peter, have you any idea where the samples might be taken from.

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  • Deer species of SE Asia were still being discovered in the 90's. Pygmy chimps were last to be discovered.
    A lot more likely than a ten foot snowbeast, would be 'Smallfoot', an ultra-cautious Homo floresiensis like species that browsed in the rain-forest. Yeti-nother possibility is that the samples are phonies and actually of modern humans, but of a human in North America who had previously unknown DNA, like that Y chromosome from Cameroon that is 70% older than any other in modern humans.

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  • Anon,

    Endogamy seems to be culturally mediated, although I wouldn't rule out some kind of imprinting, e.g., by a suckling infant on its mother's face. I recently referreed a paper that argues for an imprinting effect.

    Sean,

    To be honest, I'm a Bigfoot-skeptic. Such a creature would need a reasonably large breeding population to perpetuate itself, as well as a large contiguous habitat. Surely we would have caught one by now.

    Yet Bryan Sykes is a reputable geneticist and he seems to have found something, unless I'm reading too much between the lines.

    Anon,

    I'm more open to the idea that archaic hominins have survived in Asia, at least until recent times. But there's no record of Gigantopithecus (or other hominids/hominins) in North America.

    Jay Cooney,

    I can hardly wait!! ;)

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  • Something does seem to possibly be afoot, but we'll have to wait for this fall to see. Thanks for referencing my article :)

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  • Wasn't Bigfoot already discovered to have lived up to about 100,000 years ago?

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigantopithecus

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  • If there is anything but abominably negative results, I would think the samples are very old, and not from an archaic human of North America. I've read there were giant bears in north America and no trees to escape up. For something alive in the last millennium, Tibet has to be a better bet.

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    Is There an Own-Race Preference in Attractiveness?

    Even in multicultural nations interracial relationships and marriages are quite
    rare, one reflection of assortative mating. A relatively unexplored factor that could explain
    part of this effect is that people may find members of their own racial group more attractive
    than members of other groups. We tested whether there is an own-race preference in
    attractiveness judgments, and also examined the effect of familiarity by comparing the
    attractiveness ratings given by participants of different ancestral and geographic origins to
    faces of European, East Asian and African origin. We did not find a strong own-race bias in
    attractiveness judgments, but neither were the data consistent with familiarity, suggesting
    an important role for other factors determining the patterns of assortative mating observed.

    http://epjournal.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/EP11855872.pdf

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  • Andaman Islanders. Related peoples once inhabited the coastal regions of southern, southeastern, and eastern Asia. The past year brought two major advances: the long awaited sequencing of the Neanderthal genome and the genetic sequencing of an another archaic human, the Denisovans of East Asia, whose existence had previously been unsuspected. The bottom line comes down...
  • Thought the fossils from Ethiopia of Homo Sapiens (IDATU?) were 200,000 years old.

    Is there any chance that some homo sapiens evolved outside of Africa? and that they interbred with some line of modern homo sapiens sapiens?

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  • Just horsing around? Or is there also a political message? It’s year’s end, and to date I’ve written nothing on the three themes I promised to blog about back in January. One reason was the need to comment on certain unforeseen events, like Phil Rushton’s death and the confirmation that Europeans became white-skinned long after...
  • Peter what do you think of the part about the paekchong outcastes of Korea in 'Chinese Outcasts: Discrimination and Emancipation in Late Imperial China' by Anders Hansson?

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  • Expansion of modern humans out of Africa and within Africa. Mellars (2006). When we discuss the origins of modern humans, the term ‘Out of Africa’ is a bit misleading. Our common ancestors came not from Africa as a whole but from a relatively small area somewhere in East Africa. Beginning around 80,000 years ago, this...
  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    Now they found out an African American man had archaic Y DNA lineage from 338,000 years ago that predates modern homo sapient. What do we make of that? I'm sure more of this will be found in modern humans. I don't like that we get politically correct about science. It does not help anyone and does not help us understand our human journey. According to Cambridge University, Africans were a bunch of different hominids that melted together at times and also mixed with modern homo sapient. It is not true that Africans did not mix with the people of east Africa. Those people went to Eurasia, but also back into Africa never having mixed with Neanderthals. We all have that predominant East African DNA, but then we also have mixed with different hominids.

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  • Remains of archaic hominins from southwest China (Curnoe et al, 2012). They were around when villages and towns were arising in the Middle East. Recent findings have confirmed the ‘Out of Africa’ model of human origins, but only in part. The model diverges from actual prehistory on two main points. One is that modern humans...
  • Just horsing around? Or is there also a political message? It’s year’s end, and to date I’ve written nothing on the three themes I promised to blog about back in January. One reason was the need to comment on certain unforeseen events, like Phil Rushton’s death and the confirmation that Europeans became white-skinned long after...
  • Anon, "Race starts at extended family and works outwards." But I know young women who are very close to their families and yet are with men of a different race.

    In countries like S.Korea, the US bases are indirectly preventing the independent self defence, and the type of nationalist politics that goes with it. If the US was to begin losing ground they'd just change the rules like Nixon did when he deregulated capital in 1970.

    Britain had the first workers movements it's the most advanced (decrepit) state in the world, the native society is dissolving away. If there is some kind of meaningful backlash it will be in France, which is where all kinds of political tendencies and movements have appeared first. (It doesn't have any US bases.)

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  • It's a shame about the burakunim. They do sound like a perfect test case for all sorts of ideas.

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    "You seem to hold a Marxist materialist view of historical and economic development. This is kind of odd in light of your general focus on genes and biology."

    Race starts at extended family and works outwards. That may be less obvious to the average white person than it is to the disproportionately sociopathic elites.

    .
    "Um-am I reading the communist manifesto here?"

    When capital was tied to land it was less portable. When capital was tied to minimum levels of training, education and infrastructure it was less portable. The greater the portability of wealth the greater the temptation to steal it.

    Similar to why historically pastoralist peoples are likely to be more violent.

    .
    "The stakes are so high now that Superpower America will not, could not, permit any state to roll back globalisation. Not even a marginal one. The instant a country starts to show signs of wanting to defect from the global system, the West will 'go nuclear' in a rhetorical sense, and identify the state as 'radical nationalist' and then fascist (ie mark it for destruction)."

    Except it's not really the west. Its America with Britain tagging along and ultimately it's not America and Britain it's the bankers of New York and London who own the politicians and ironically it's the globalized banking system which is destroying America's superpower status which in turn is allowing countries to break away from the globalized system enforced by that superpower status.

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  • They probably looked like Khoisans (Bushmen, Hottentots), but a lot bigger.

    Great Andamanese might be useful, as they at least show up with no Denisova admixture

    http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter13/Ongecouple.jpg

    http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter13/pla13-1.jpg

    http://www.teluguone.com/tmdbuserfiles/jarawa-extinction(1).jpg

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  • Difference Maker,

    WASPs have an obsessive desire to be "moral." This was a highly adaptive setup when morality was defined by tradition. Unfortunately, that's no longer the case. When circumstances change, an adaptive trait can become maladaptive.

    Anon (and others),

    I don't believe genes are everything. Human behavior is multidimensional, with inputs not only from genetic predispositions but also from present and past cultural environments and from the economic system.

    I've never been a full-fledged Marxist. I used to consider myself a "Marxisant", i.e., someone who drew inspiration from Marxism while recognizing its deficiencies. I then became increasingly disillusioned. When the Cold War ended, I felt that Marxism deserved to be tossed onto the trash heap of history.

    Today, I feel differently. Marxism helped to keep capitalism honest, and the Cold War deterred both superpowers from engaging in military adventurism. The current unipolar world is bringing out the worst features of capitalsm — and of those political regimes that fall under its influence.

    Jimmy,

    Try:

    L. Cohen (2012). The 20th Century Decline in the Private Cost to Women of Non-Marital Sex: Causes and Consequences

    http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2170522

    Anon,

    They probably looked like Khoisans (Bushmen, Hottentots), but a lot bigger.

    Sykes,

    The current world-system is decomposing at its periphery. China and Russia (which were never fully integrated into it) are increasingly able to go their own way. The situation is different for places like South Korea and Greece, which cannot easily leave this system and yet are finding the status quo more and more intolerable. It looks like we are moving toward a new bipolar world, with a Eurasian power bloc coalescing around Russia and China.

    That in itself will be manageable. The problem lies in the willingness of the Western power bloc to abandon its global aims. It also lies in desperate 2nd-tier countries (like North Korea) that will try to instrumentalize this unstable situation.

    Sean,

    You're ruining my Christmas holidays with all of these interesting leads!

    Caribou Casell,

    Thanks! There'll be more to come in 2013. As for the Mayan calendar, the Mayans never did predict the end of the world on this date. It's simply the end of an era.

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  • Um-am I reading the communist manifesto here??

    No. Marx never cared about the national identities of host societies. If anything, he approved of international capitalism's erosion of national identities as a stepping stone to world communism.

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  • Z?u g?u, the Pusan and Masan demonstrations were in 1979. The protesters were a cross section of young people, not just students.

    Okamoto Minoru sent paratroopers in, and they killed many; he demanded that protests be suppressed "even if it cost 30,000 lives." Kim Jae-gyu acted like a true Korean.

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  • "In late capitalism, the elites are no longer restrained by ties of national identity and are thus freer to enrich themselves at the expense of their host society. This clash of interests lies at the heart of the globalist project:"

    Um-am I reading the communist manifesto here??

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    n 1979 repression sparked an uprising in the city of Kwangju. The US re-enforced its forces in S.Korea and held the ring while Park Chung-hee sent in his army 'special forces' to restore order by shooting, bayoneting, clubbing and beating protesters to death.

    That uprising was in 1980. Park Chung-hee was assassinated in 1979 by the head of the Korean CIA. Some say that he was assassinated with the tacit approval of the US because they feared he would "go rogue" and seek nukes and greater independence.

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  • Soon after taking power in 1961 Park Chung-hee initiated a nationwide program to reduce the birthrate. There was still a little bit of a youth bulge to be got over. In 1979 repression sparked an uprising in the city of Kwangju. The US re-enforced its forces in S.Korea and held the ring while Park Chung-hee sent in his army 'special forces' to restore order by shooting, bayoneting, clubbing and beating protesters to death. here. Park Chung-hee is remembered fondly by many older South Koreans (who increasingly outnumber the young ones of course). Park Chung-hee's daughter ascends to presidency. There won't be meaningful unrest (beyond grumbling) there aren't enough young people in South Korea for anything else. It's already game over there, and in the West too.

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  • Mr Frost — thank you v. much for some v. interesting posts. Yr series on Greece was excellent and I'll be re-reading this post too. Merry Xmas and, if Mayan prophecies don't intervene, I hope you carry on the good stuff, and gene-stuff (and g-stuff), in 2013.

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  • Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in familial longevity: the Leiden Longevity Study."These results cast doubt on the causal nature of previously reported associations between low levels of vitamin D and age-related diseases and mortality."

    The life-history trade-off between fertility and child survival.

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    The stakes are so high now that Superpower America will not, could not, permit any state to roll back globalisation. Not even a marginal one. The instant a country starts to show signs of wanting to defect from the global system, the West will 'go nuclear' in a rhetorical sense, and identify the state as 'radical nationalist' and then fascist (ie mark it for destruction).

    The US led global project is to remove substantive issues from political manifestos (or even discussion). Local allegiance, even the family, will be dismantled through 'rights'. Liberal legalism refuses to accept that any legitimate rights of native workers in democratic countries can conflict with the rights of 'migrants' to those countries.

    Yes this is what is so dangerous. Civilization has controlled men in order to maintain its monopoly on violence (Peter has written about "genetic pacification"). This has generally been counter-balanced (up until recently in the West) with institutionalized patriarchy and "sexism" against women. The only way to not counter-balance this with sexism against women is to take control of reproduction ala Aldous Huxley's Brave New World. This appears to mean that it's a race against time for the West to go totally eusocial, with total, amoral, warfare against the developing world and against defectors in the developed world before their sexism conquers by sheer force of demography.

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    Native workers in advanced countries can't affect the political system because business, media and academic types with their hands on the levers of power won't listen to people who are clannish, prone to violence, lack intellectuality and are not particularly bright.

    Judging by their behavior and track record, it would seem that the "business, media and academic types with their hands on the levers of power" are the ones that are "clannish, prone to violence, lack intellectuality and are not particularly bright."

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    North Koreans regard South Koreans as irredeemably corrupt and are appalled at non-Korean immigrants, whom they regard as subhuman.

    I don't think it's really accurate to say that the North Koreans regard non-Koreans as "subhuman". The North Koreans seem to have a "nationalities" view that was common in the Communist bloc. This sort of view was also common in the pre-WW2 West. If anything, the Communist "nationalities" view is less "racist" and relatively more egalitarian than the kinds of more rigid views that prevailed in the pre-WW2 West since while different nationalities are affirmed, the differences among them are attributed to being on different stages of "socialist development" or some such.

    But today, any nationalism is regarded by the dominant worldview in the West as being automatically hostile, "racist", etc.

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  • There is a source of within-species adaptation to novel selection pressure though the rare individual in whom (though environmental stress) some piece of junk DNA has come through to expression.

    S. Korea is certainly where the globalisation yoke is going to weigh most heavily. ‘Replacement Migration’, or why everyone’s going to have to live in Korea.
    The pay off for the elites has become greater. Nowak on networks of cooperation here. He says the point at which the system grows so wealth is maximized, is also where defection can most easily bring the whole system down.

    The stakes are so high now that Superpower America will not, could not, permit any state to roll back globalisation. Not even a marginal one. The instant a country starts to show signs of wanting to defect from the global system, the West will 'go nuclear' in a rhetorical sense, and identify the state as 'radical nationalist' and then fascist (ie mark it for destruction).

    The US led global project is to remove substantive issues from political manifestos (or even discussion). Local allegiance, even the family, will be dismantled through 'rights'. Liberal legalism refuses to accept that any legitimate rights of native workers in democratic countries can conflict with the rights of 'migrants' to those countries.

    Native workers in advanced countries can't affect the political system because business, media and academic types with their hands on the levers of power won't listen to people who are clannish, prone to violence, lack intellectuality and are not particularly bright.

    Lets face it, working people are 'Burakumin' in the eyes of those who run the show.

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  • It is clear that there are several sets of stable behavioral complexes that depend on the circumstances (eg, the presence of strong state actors etc.)

    It is also clear that the elites want a WorldGov because they imagine that it is in their interests.

    We shall see what comes to pass.

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  • North Koreans regard South Koreans as irredeemably corrupt and are appalled at non-Korean immigrants, whom they regard as subhuman.

    Reunification might prove to be problematic for modern South Korean culture. More so because China has made it clear that reunification under South Korean leadership will not be permitted. China will annex North Korea first. So, any reunification will have to be under North Korean leadership, hopefully some what moderated.

    Now that North Korea has an ICBM that can reach literally any target on the earth, Northern conquest of the South is at least conceivable. The US will not give up LA or Chicago or NYC for Seoul.

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  • Quote: "Europeans became white-skinned long after their ancestors had arrived in Europe."

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UI2cNs6m4cQ

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  • I wonder, how did Africans look before archaic admixtures.

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  • Dr. Frost,

    It's off topic. I would appreciate if you could tell me where to find wide information and literature on variations of mating system of Millennials compared to the Boomers and Generation X, differences on dating and courtship patterns, the influence by the time period, social conditions and constructs, genetic factors, cultural norms, and institutional structures that surround mating market,etc. I need bibliography on this theme. Thanks.

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    I think I know what you meant, Anon. If you meant the notion that history operates according to iron laws, and capitalism will destroy itself and be replaced by a socialist utopia, then I don't think Peter thinks that. Do you?

    Like I said, I don't think you understand what was meant by "Marxist materialism". It doesn't mean that Peter actually subscribes to Marxism and its specific predictions.

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  • "Marxist materialism" has a specific meaning. It doesn't mean what you think it means.

    I think I know what you meant, Anon. If you meant the notion that history operates according to iron laws, and capitalism will destroy itself and be replaced by a socialist utopia, then I don't think Peter thinks that. Do you? Peter was just saying something that happens to coincide with some notions voiced by Marx. Capitalism probably won't produce equilibrium. I just don't understand the problem you have with Peter's suggesting that have a market economy affects people's behavior in certain ways. That's all Anon.

    And my comment was more about economics and biology in general. Even if we acknowledge that Marx said some things that sometimes coincide with actual trends, we can still understand that biology and genes play a role.

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    The “modern” gene variants are still present in the gene pool, and if they’re any better they will progressively displace their archaic counterparts through natural selection.

    It very much depends on the selective environment.

    If the archaic strategy is better, than an archaic variant will introgress to a hybrid population.

    If the modern strategy is better, than a modern variant will introgress to a hybrid population.

    What kind of selective environment was Eurasia, what kind was Africa, what kind was Australasia?

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  • Silly Anon, genes and biology are also material aspects of this world. You can't use genes and biology alone to explain things just as you cannot use economics alone to do the same. Peter knows this.

    "Marxist materialism" has a specific meaning. It doesn't mean what you think it means.

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    "You seem to hold a Marxist materialist view of historical and economic development. This is kind of odd in light of your general focus on genes and biology."

    Silly Anon, genes and biology are also material aspects of this world. You can't use genes and biology alone to explain things just as you cannot use economics alone to do the same. Peter knows this.

    In fact, a good definition of "economics" should include genes and biology. In fact, "economics should be a sub-category of biology, since economics is the study of a particular kind of animal.

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    In late capitalism, the elites are no longer restrained by ties of national identity and are thus freer to enrich themselves at the expense of their host society.

    You seem to hold a Marxist materialist view of historical and economic development. This is kind of odd in light of your general focus on genes and biology.

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  • Of course, looking over the failings of WASP society, one may wish that people could be immunized against its vulnerabilities, in short, that people could be different.

    And, if we imagine a sort of hypothetical supermen pairings, these are easily hybridization events, ones that may lead to something better.

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  • Archaic admixture
    "Might be"… "progressively"

    These are not the words I want to hear purporting the benefits of admixture.

    We may (or may not) pat ourselves on the back as being largely immune against the hybridization. But I look with no optimism on a future mixed world, not least because the introgressed variants will inevitably begin to infiltrate up the classes. Even accounting for assortative mating, these new hybrids have no reason to be as great as such children might have been.

    After all, evolution, as we should know, does not have to select for the smartest, the bravest, the fastest, the handsomest, the noblest.

    Evil indeed must the one in favor of admixture think this world, and "his" people

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  • Expansion of modern humans out of Africa and within Africa. Mellars (2006). When we discuss the origins of modern humans, the term ‘Out of Africa’ is a bit misleading. Our common ancestors came not from Africa as a whole but from a relatively small area somewhere in East Africa. Beginning around 80,000 years ago, this...
  • Superb. I know it well — negroes are not human.

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  • Andaman Islanders. Related peoples once inhabited the coastal regions of southern, southeastern, and eastern Asia. The past year brought two major advances: the long awaited sequencing of the Neanderthal genome and the genetic sequencing of an another archaic human, the Denisovans of East Asia, whose existence had previously been unsuspected. The bottom line comes down...
  • I saw that show on Hobbits, and they proved very clearly to me that the remains were Australopithecus Afarensis the same as LUCY our alleged missing link in Africa. Whats wrong? Not ready to admit all races and humans on earth didn't evolve from black africans in the shortest time span imaginable and then populated an entire planet in an incredibly short time span? Yeah because it didn't happen that way.

    That documentary on 'the hobbits' also showed the find of SEVERAL Australopithecus skulls & almost completely full skeletons found in GEORGIA and were at least 2 million years old, that also proves that our common NON HUMAN ancestor was already out of Africa MILLIONS of years ago, which makes a hell of a lot more sense.

    Inuits in Alaska have not changed in 10,000 years, they have not lightened or turned blonde or blue eyed or into a different race.

    Because things like that take MILLIONS of years.

    Even the monkeys in Asia have epicanthal FOLDS, and you think some blacks just walked over there and turned chinese ? BULL SHIT

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  • How did archaic humans evolve into the different populations of Homo sapiens we see today? The answer has long divided anthropologists. Some opt for the ‘out-of-Africa’ model; others for the multiregional model. According to the out-of-Africa model, we all descend from a small group that existed some 100,000 to 80,000 years ago somewhere in eastern...
  • Expansion of modern humans out of Africa and within Africa. Mellars (2006). When we discuss the origins of modern humans, the term ‘Out of Africa’ is a bit misleading. Our common ancestors came not from Africa as a whole but from a relatively small area somewhere in East Africa. Beginning around 80,000 years ago, this...
  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    Never ceases to amaze me how liberal zealot college types ignore reality & logic, and look for any tiny piece of evidence to support their 'politically correct' theories. Why does a logically & practical thinking person who disagrees with these rac & evolutionary theories have to be a racist? All your theories are just that…but my thought is based on historical fact. First off, it doean't hurt my 'racist' feelings to know Europeans are not 'pure homo sapiens'…that is simply a word..the facts are pure Africans (homo sapiens) are further back in evolutionary time…you even state that,,,thus, they are physical stronger (closer to apes in time), while pure Europeans (your hybreds) are more intelligent, as they do not need to be physically stronger to adapt…they use technology,,,i.e. intelligence. Nothing complicated here. Early Egyptian civilation was advanced because the upper class were decendents of meditterranean types, Romans were expotentially more advanced than any African culture. Europeans had gun powder, ocean going ships, castles, etc…while the most advance African cultures were basically still in straw hut with spears…and this was well before colonialization. To negate one of your examples,,,Greeks fought among each other, so they had to develope technoilogies is a ridiculous theory, as certainly Africans fought more violently against each other …and still do within their own nation.Call me what you want..you 'sugar coating the reality'…while I am presenting logic with no bias.

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  • Remains of archaic hominins from southwest China (Curnoe et al, 2012). They were around when villages and towns were arising in the Middle East. Recent findings have confirmed the ‘Out of Africa’ model of human origins, but only in part. The model diverges from actual prehistory on two main points. One is that modern humans...
  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    Moreover, hominid fossils in China share the same facial features: comparatively flat faces, a larger angle between the nose and the forehead, a flat nose bridge, rectangular eye sockets and forward-projecting cheekbones. All these features are absent in Africans

    http://johnhawks.net/explainer/laboratory/race-cranium

    "Cranial features and race

    Shape of the eye orbits, viewed from the front. Africans tend to a more rectangular shape, East Asians more circular, Europeans tend to have an “aviator glasses'' shape."

    In terms of nose bridge flatness, African nasal bones are pretty flat compared to European nasal bones. Difference with Asians is that the flatness comes from very reduced depth and slightly reduced width, while flatness for Africans comes from increased width and slightly reduced depth. So Asian nasal bones look flatter in profile, despite having similar kind of angle (not sure who has a flatter nasal angle).

    Be interesting to check whether the nose flatness of these hominids comes from having a shallow nose or a broad nose.

    Not sure how to assess angle between nose and forehead – there is a trend in hominids across time to have a more vertical and less retreating forehead. Also "comparatively flat faces"? If you ignore the correlation with projecting cheekbones, then it seems like that's a reduction in prognathism, and that happens everywhere over time (someplaces more, some less) as well.

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  • Yes an interesting subject. I've lived in China for 45 years and studied ancient Chinese skeletons, from the holocene to present time. I would say that the only difference between the Chinese (and most phenotypes from East Asia), relates to the emergence of the mongoloid body plan, and especially the unique features of the mongoloid skull. Of course, the dramatic effect of a dominant grain diet (rice) and 1,828 famines over the past 2,000 years, have turbocharged the effect of neoteny on the mongoloids and especially southern mongoloids, with expreme child like facial features, reduced stature, and in most cases a postcranial skeleton with a body plan of a 12 year old child. Surely such extreme selection pressure presents issues about the idea that modern Chinese evolved, as a different species, to that of Europeans and Africans. In this sense the initial "Multi-regional Theory" of modern human has a problem.

    For anyone wanting to study the Chinese phenotype, I recommend Han Kangxin a retired physical anthropologist from Beijing, who has studied hundreds of Central Asian and East Asian modern human skeletons, and, with his wife (a paleoanthropologist) has a passion for Peking Man. In Prof Han's own words – The Chinese could not have evolved from Peking Man because of so many morphology differences, such as the chin, flat brow and small brain. Of course, the Peking Man fossils (in fact all Homo Erectus skeletons from China), are, real fossils, with no bone, and as such no DNA. Thus, unlike the Neanderthal and Denisovan, which although considered fossils, due to their age, are actually bone, there is no way of proving whether H. Erectus, through DNA, is related to modern humans.

    Personally, I believe H. Erectus in China had a full body of hair and was not as erect, nor had the hand dexterity of modern humans, even our most archaic relatives. Basically, they were really archaic and as such maybe a little too different for mixed breeding to have occurred, with modern Homo sapiens. Of course, this does not mean that interbreeding did not occur with say H. Erectus and the Denisovans, or other homind species which arrived and made Central and East Asia home, 1 million to maybe 200,000 years ago.

    By the way, the Denisovan finger used to extract DNA from, has not and will never prove, whether this species had a chin, thick eyebrow ridges or a flat face with a large frontal cortex.

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  • Rather foolish comments I made there, thanks for setting me right.

    "Instead, the data can be most parsimoniously explained if the Denisova gene flow occurred in Southeast Asia itself. Thus, archaic Denisovans must have lived over an extraordinarily broad geographic and ecological range, from Siberia to tropical Asia."

    That entails accepting Denisovians were able to adapt to the challenges of survival over a huge north-south range. Siberia's climate was different back I believe, but it's still pretty far north. It suggests a highly troubling use of brainpower for technological innovation.

    A 'parsimonious' explanation should not accept Denisovians could independently evolve advanced capacities not too different from contemporaneous modern human capacities. That is is half way accepting a key tenet of the multiregional hypothesis I think.

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  • Ben,

    Perhaps, but it's too easy to see Neanderthals in ancient myths. It would be useful if we could relate certain Neanderthal traits (e.g., reddish head and body hair) to stories about wild men in European myths and folklore.

    Sean,

    Shovel-shaped incisors are also present in many Africans, specifically Khoisans and Bantu. This seems to be an archaic trait that has been lost in some modern human groups but not in others.

    The archaic admixture in Melanesians matches the archaic DNA from the Denisova cave in Siberia.

    Olave d'Estienne,

    It's a nice idea, but I would not choose May 2. That choice seems like a putdown of people who celebrate May 1. In most countries, May 1 (and not Labor Day) is the workers' holiday.

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  • When should HBD Day occur?

    Read the proposal and vote in the poll my blog.

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  • The Chinese are very good at earth sciences and things requiring concrete observations. Carlton Coon noted that modern Asians have certain features, such as being flat faced and the plane of their forehead, in common with the archiacs of their region. Is Nanjing Man the ancestor of the modern Chinese? "One of the puzzles that the out-of-Africa theory needs to account for is the prevalence of shovel-shaped front teeth among the modern Chinese population. Dr. Xing Song says the distinctively-shaped teeth are prevalent in the Mongoloid race in East Asia. [...] According to Xing, these peculiarly shaped teeth were inherited in a continuous line from early Chinese hominids. About 80 percent of Chinese have such upper front teeth in contrast to only 5 percent of Europeans and 10 percent of Africans. Xing says this is strong evidence of the continuity of human evolution in China.

    Moreover, hominid fossils in China share the same facial features: comparatively flat faces, a larger angle between the nose and the forehead, a flat nose bridge, rectangular eye sockets and forward-projecting cheekbones. All these features are absent in Africans"

    100% independent evolution in China (which would make the Chinese a different species)is most unlikely. But I think when there are such notable archaic-modern similarities with only 4% Neanderthal admixture found, a rethink is called for. In relation to China at least.

    "Denisovans must have lived over an extraordinarily broad geographic and ecological range, from Siberia to tropical Asia"
    You sound a little doubtful. Could there have been still unknown archaics to the south of the Siberian Denisovans.

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  • Also Peter…do you think there is any chances that oral transmission of neanderthal sightings could account for the constant references to 'giants' and inbreedings between giants and humans, in the nordic mythology?

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  • hmm, right…it cannot look like a complete monkey either. I mean Neanderthals had tools, so i gave him a primitive spear, so people who witnessed him must have recognized that he was also somehow human. I don't know…you think he was very hairy on the face?
    Lots of hairy monkeys are not very hairy on the face, proportionaly…

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  • Sean,

    There is a longstanding belief among the Chinese that their origins in East Asia are very ancient. The multiregional model is popular in China because it supports that belief.

    Rev Right,

    Perhaps. I suspect that Eurasians have the least admixture, but I could be wrong.

    Ben,

    Why no hair on the Neanderthal's face?

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  • I had some fun with 3d renderings:

    [IMG]http://i42.tinypic.com/2a8gga9.jpg[/IMG]

    How I see an european neanderthal:
    [IMG]http://i41.tinypic.com/14ilevp.jpg[/IMG]

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  • "modern humans picked up archaic admixture as they spread out of Africa and into Eurasia."

    What current population has the least amount of archaic admixture? Are there any realtively pure 'modern' human populations? Ethiopians?

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  • GNXP: The evolution of the human face post says – "some of the individual loci have a strong enough effect that it’s visible by eye!" (It's interesting about pigmentation too.)

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  • Xinzhi Wu says "There is a morphological mosaic between H. s. erectus and H. s. sapiens in China. The existence of common features and the morphological mosaic suggest continuity of human evolution in China."

    For the features to be similar would that not take more than a few % ? Unless there is some advantage to a certain shape of skull and teeth. It seems unlikely 4% archaic ancestry led to regional archaic features coming though in modern population. If 4% was enough for the archaic features to show through, then why did that happen only in East Eurasia?

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  • “Neanderthal” admixture seems to be higher in West Africans than in East Africans. How come? (Source) When modern humans began their expansion from a small core somewhere in East Africa, the continent probably had several different archaic populations. It now seems that one of them was related to the Neanderthals in Europe. In an ongoing...
  • ***Even Cavalli-Sforza didn't begin to cite it until the 1990s (apparently in response to pressure from his academic milieu).***

    Yes, I recall your excellent series of posts discussing the "evolution of Cavalli-Sforza" :)

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  • Kiwiguy,

    Lewontin's study is more popular among social anthropologists than among physical anthropologists. Even Cavalli-Sforza didn't begin to cite it until the 1990s (apparently in response to pressure from his academic milieu).

    Ben,

    No, not if by "selectively" you mean "through natural selection." We see this archaic admixture at gene loci that are close to selective neutrality, i.e., they seem to sit on the chromosome and do nothing.

    On theoretical grounds, I would expect to see more archaic admixture in sub-Saharan Africans than in other humans. There are two reasons:

    1. Archaics were physically and behaviorally more similar to modern humans in Africa, so there should have been fewer barriers to intermixture.

    2. Contact between modern humans and archaics went on for a longer time in Africa than elsewhere. In Europe, the transition lasted about 15,000 years. In Africa, it was more like 40,000 years.

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  • R. Dawkins and others apparently believe that Chimps are basically some old Autralopithecus forms that choose to go back in the trees. So it would be interesting to compare the genome of the two, i am curious to know if the chimps 'lost' some australopithecus genes in the process.

    By analogy, is it possible that all homo sapiens had originally the same amount of archaic DNA (from different archaics), but those who stayed in Africa selectively lost some archaic DNA while those who migrated lost other archaic DNA?

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  • OT. Peter, I thought you'd find this discussion thread on GNXP of interest.

    It started with Razib asking that social scientists stop citing Lewontin's Fallacy, and later an anthropologist blogger Jason Antrosio asked readers to consider the 2009 issue of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology titled “Race Reconciled: How Biological Anthropologists View Human Variation. Razib has subsequently provided a link to view the papers referred to.

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  • Insightful,

    Paabo simply assumed that sub-Saharan Africans had no Neanderthal admixture. He used their genome as a benchmark for zero archaic admixture.

    A theoretical model is only as good as the assumptions built into it.

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  • In 2010, Svante Paabo told us of the Neanderthal admixture in Eurasians. He also did tests on Yoruba and Khoisan (san bushmen) in Africa and determined they had none. Now, we hear that the Yoruba have more neanderthal admixture than an East African population called the Luhya. My question is what was done in 2012 to now yield Yoruban neanderthal admixture that escaped Svante in 2010?

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  • Modern humans entered the Americas from northern Eurasia. As they entered tropical environments farther south, they had to evolve new genetic adaptations from scratch. They no longer had the ones their remote forbearers had back in Africa. (Source) OK, so modern humans have archaic admixture, and the degree of admixture seems to be highest among...
  • Sean,

    Well, yes, but the level of Neanderthal admixture is only slightly higher in Europeans than in Asians. That seems to suggest that most of the introgression happened when modern humans began to spread into the Middle East.

    Anon,

    There was no barrier to gene flow from southwestern France to Manchuria. The absence of barriers, together with the lack of large sedentary populations, would have maintained a single breeding population.

    Anon,

    The remaining 85% came from modern humans.

    We don't really know the answer to your second question for any human population. You may have heard the figure of 98% genetic similarity between chimps and humans, but that refers only to gene sequences (or amino acid sequences). In theory, every single human gene could be 2% different from its chimp counterpart. And a 2% difference can greatly affect the way a gene functions.

    Ben,

    Yes, shamanism is the usual explanation.

    Neanderthals had a diet that was low in sugar. They also died fairly young. Their bodies may even have been programmed to die at a younger age.

    What did they die of? Accidents of various sorts, probably. The same is true for modern hunter-gatherers. A few are lucky to live to old age, but most don't.

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  • 'La grotte du sorcier' depicts 2 humanoids
    http://www.donsmaps.com/sorcier.html
    The 'head with a bestial face' could be an animal or a human elongated face. Altamira has the 'Bird man', Lascaux its own sorcerer etc. All this suggests the Chamans were often wearing dead animal heads or skulls for their ceremonies.

    For the Neanderthals, at la Chapelle aux Saints
    http://www.donsmaps.com/chapelleauxsaints.html
    There is an excellent reconstitution of a Neanderthal with his face projected forward and almost no neck, The reconstitution from marcellin Boule keeps an African allure, to me. These guys didn't even get any tooth decay! From this site, here is their bill of health:
    " No vitamin deficiency
    No nutritional deficiency
    Absence of tooth decay
    No unknown diseases
    Little trauma
    No traces of surgery or skull surgery
    No osteoporosis or other age related diseases because they most often die before these signs appear.. "

    What did they died of then?

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  • Peter Frost wrote: "..sub-Saharan Africans, who have as much as 15% archaic admixture…."

    What fill up the remaining 85%?

    How much (in %) of sub-Saharan Africans genes do they share with chimpanzees?

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    From southwestern France to Manchuria, there is an unbroken corridor of lowlying grassland. Even within historic times, people freely moved back and forth within this zone, e.g., Huns, Turco-Tartars, Mongols.

    This was before horses and the wheel, though.

    It's hard to believe there would be a single breeding population between SW France and Beringia maintained by people traveling by foot.

    Are you suggesting that people regularly walked back and forth between SW France and Beringia?

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  • I kind of get the impression it's the highly derived West European Neanderthals, the ones with the seriously large (and peculiarly shaped) brains, that Gregory Cochran thinks provided the useful introgression, not the 'generalized' Neanderthals found elsewhere. If the western European Neanderthals were so different( see HERE) maybe only a minimal number of matings with modern humans occurred, but with western European Neanderthals of special traits. That could have been enough for the brain capacity boost. Anyway Amerindians wouldn't have the western European Neanderthal alleles. So they should have been very far behind.

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  • Anon,

    From southwestern France to Manchuria, there is an unbroken corridor of lowlying grassland. Even within historic times, people freely moved back and forth within this zone, e.g., Huns, Turco-Tartars, Mongols.

    It was the glacial maximum, with the creation of ice caps along the Urals and glacial lakes along the Ob River that restricted east-west gene flow through this corridor. After the ice age, this decrease in gene flow was further reduced by a trend toward farming and sedentarization in both Europe and East Asia.

    Ben,

    I'm going from memory here, but I remember seeing French cave paintings that seemed to depict creatures with human faces and furry bodies. The interpretation was that these were imaginary creatures.

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  • "Modern humans might have painted pictures of Neanderthals. We may not be recognizing these pictures for what they really are"

    Well, maybe but they were pretty good at painting, better than at sculpting. Here is a link that shows many venuses along with a long alphabetical list of caves and painting sites on the left. If you go to "Chauvet" the oldest ~40 000 years old cave in France, you won't see any obvious neanderthal figures.

    http://www.donsmaps.com/venus.html

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  • Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    But this simply reflects the fact that prior to 20,000 BP a single breeding population extended from southwestern France to Beringia.

    How is that possible?

    SW France and Beringia are basically at the furthest, opposite ends of Eurasia.

    It seems more plausible that people from SW France sailed along the north Atlantic to the Americas.

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  • Ben,

    Modern humans might have painted pictures of Neanderthals. We may not be recognizing these pictures for what they really are.

    Sean,

    The degree of Neanderthal introgression is about the same for Europeans and Amerindians. It seems to have happened at a very early point in time, perhaps within a zone of hybridization that covered parts of the Middle East and even northeast Africa.

    Anon,

    I believe that the earliest humans in the Americas were physically and culturally similar to the Solutreans of Western Europe. But this simply reflects the fact that prior to 20,000 BP a single breeding population extended from southwestern France to Beringia. It was only after the glacial maximum that west and east Eurasians became different from each other.

    Anon,

    Yes, I read that post by John Hawkes. It looks like measurement of Neanderthal admixture is also picking up Afro-archaic admixture. This is consistent with my argument that Afro-archaic admixture is higher in western and southern Africans than in eastern Africans (because modern humans spread out from an epicenter somewhere in eastern Africa).

    On the other hand, if the Afro-archaics were simply a southern variety of Neanderthal, we might all be a lot more Neanderthal than I previously thought.

    Matt,

    Non-tropical farming is qualitatively different from tropical farming. Tropical farming is largely women's work. The men play a secondary role and spend much of their energy fighting over women. War itself is seen as a means of gaining sexual access to women. It is this male-male rivalry that drives natural selection for increased male size and robustness.

    You don't get this evolutionary sequence with non-tropical farming. Women cannot farm on their own. They need assistance from men for food procurement, especially in winter. It's a very different set-up.

    The Afro-archaics seem to have been fairly large, i.e., Boskop man. In any case, I'm not sure this point is relevant to the issue of archaic introgression. Modern humans might have got genes that better mobilize testosterone, for instance. Genes for increased stature were probably not a serious evolutionary constraint. You can go from pygmy to Dinka in a few thousand years if the selection pressure is strong enough.

    Greg,

    Feel free to enlighten me.

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  • Broken Hill (Kabwe) skull. In Africa, very archaic hominins persisted into recent times. Were archaic hominins still roaming over parts of Africa when farming villages began to form in the Middle East? I raised this question in my last post. But others are now raising it too: A new convert to this view is the...
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  • Modern humans entered the Americas from northern Eurasia. As they entered tropical environments farther south, they had to evolve new genetic adaptations from scratch. They no longer had the ones their remote forbearers had back in Africa. (Source) OK, so modern humans have archaic admixture, and the degree of admixture seems to be highest among...
  • How to Think Like a Neandertal. It is a very silly book, published this year.

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  • You really need to keep up with the literature.

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