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    The Eurogenes blog is running a fundraiser. I chipped in mostly to support his continued blogging. I don't agree with everything he posts, but the site is a good and valuable resource. "Genome blogging" hasn't gotten as far as I'd have thought it would have in 2010, mostly because the initial burst of enthusiasm wasn't...
  • My Malaysian sister-in-law claims Malaysians are Aryan. That they came over the sea from India to Sumatra and jave and then to Malaysia. But then Malaysian racial politics is a minefield.

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  • It's been exactly three years since I moved on from Discover. Change is timeless. So I thought it would be a good time to announce the move to another project today. Until further notice this is my last post as a blogger at Unz Review. Just as when I left Discover, this shouldn’t impact regular...
  • Shame. I discovered this place thanks to you.

    I’ll be sure to follow up on your future ventures.

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  • The Eurogenes blog is running a fundraiser. I chipped in mostly to support his continued blogging. I don't agree with everything he posts, but the site is a good and valuable resource. "Genome blogging" hasn't gotten as far as I'd have thought it would have in 2010, mostly because the initial burst of enthusiasm wasn't...
  • @Razib Khan
    it's a pulse admixture happened 1 to 2 thousand years ago. but yeah. also, the south asian ancestry spills over into burma.

    Dear Razib Khan,

    Do Southeast Asians such as Burmese, Cambodians, Malays and Thais have minor ANI/West Eurasian ancestry and how much? I ask this because I notice SE Asians usually score quite substantial South Asian component in ADMIXTURE calculators. So I wonder if they have very minor ANI/West Eurasian that comes with the South Asian component or is their “South Asian” component just ASI/ASI-like?

    I will appreciate your generous reply to my inquiry.

    Thank you very much and best regards,
    Qagan

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  • It's been exactly three years since I moved on from Discover. Change is timeless. So I thought it would be a good time to announce the move to another project today. Until further notice this is my last post as a blogger at Unz Review. Just as when I left Discover, this shouldn’t impact regular...
  • Hey there. Tip from SEO world, probably best to reference your desired URL as “www….” Technical type people often prefer the non www version, but people all over the web will insert www when linking to you. In terms of building link popularity it’s best to align with what most people do naturally. You can do redirects to push people to where you prefer, but end of day, it’s just more advantageous to adopt convention of masses, use redirects for smaller number of “technical” people. Also while sites in development, you might consider still recommending your http://www.domain.com but forward that as needed, to where ever your interim posts are going. Get all the links possible to your domain. ZoneEdit offers free DNS forwarding I believe if your registrar doesn’t.

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  • @Question
    Pseudonymously or using his actual name?

    u can guess.

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    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • If you follow Y genealogy you know that the distribution of R1ba2 exhibits a peculiar pattern. R1b is the most common haplgroup in Western Eurasia, and shares a deep common ancestry with R1a. It seems to have risen to high frequencies in Europe only during the Bronze Age, though has been found in earlier periods....
  • Into Africa: the levantine main lineage radiated throughout the world in a series of waves. The latest wave replaced all but a few archaic lineages in Africa, and it is ideologically driven folly to say those archaic lineages are the main branch from which we all descend.

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  • It's been exactly three years since I moved on from Discover. Change is timeless. So I thought it would be a good time to announce the move to another project today. Until further notice this is my last post as a blogger at Unz Review. Just as when I left Discover, this shouldn’t impact regular...
  • @Razib Khan
    he is :-) you just don't know it's him.

    Pseudonymously or using his actual name?

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    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    u can guess.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • The Eurogenes blog is running a fundraiser. I chipped in mostly to support his continued blogging. I don't agree with everything he posts, but the site is a good and valuable resource. "Genome blogging" hasn't gotten as far as I'd have thought it would have in 2010, mostly because the initial burst of enthusiasm wasn't...
  • A French guy on the Anthrogenica forum has improved on the results of Eurogenes’ already great K15 analysis with this mapping tool:

    http://gen3553.pagesperso-orange.fr/ADN/K15.htm

    It would be nice if he could write software that would place the user’s square automatically, but all the same these results are the most accurate I’ve gotten. They placed me exactly on the correct blue square.

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  • It's been exactly three years since I moved on from Discover. Change is timeless. So I thought it would be a good time to announce the move to another project today. Until further notice this is my last post as a blogger at Unz Review. Just as when I left Discover, this shouldn’t impact regular...
  • Your webpage is still buggy. It’s pretty minor now, but I’m going to detail it. First of all, the top-level razib.com doesn’t link to razib.com/wordpress. Second, wordpress doesn’t seem to link to local copies, even though they exist. But most of them are truncated, so it’s not clear that you’d want to promote them. Third, the list of posts at the top level diverges from the list of posts at wordpress. One way it diverges is that it uses feedburner links, while wordpress has direct links. The other way it diverges is that it is behind. There is a post visible on feedburner, but not in syndication at razib.com, even though it is available at wordpress.

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  • @Bill P
    Thanks for the encouraging words. Part of the reason I had to take a break was simple economics, and part time. Kids are really a handful, especially when they're little. But they do grow up pretty fast.

    So I think the time when I can put some solid days into writing will arrive in due course. I still have plenty of ideas, and aside from time that's all I really need to get started.

    Bellingham is far from ideal. It's pretty dreary, the local economy is dominated by retail (Canadian shoppers) and Western Washington University, and it's pretty much in lockstep with Seattle politically. That said, the rent is comparatively cheap, it's close to my older kids and it's only about a five minute drive to get out in the country where there's a whole different world. From Seattle these days you have to drive for nearly an hour to get to that world.

    Honestly, I miss Seattle, but I'm disgusted by what it's become. Nostalgia prevails when I think of it. If I were you, I'd get out as often as possible, but I can't say there's much going on in the rest of the state. I'm hoping, perhaps in vain, that the new administration might make some effort to reverse the huge gains cities have made at the expense of the rest of the country. If so, maybe the cities will become more livable and the countryside less depressed.

    Mr. Price,

    Send me a private message on twitter. @euneaux

    Maybe we can get together and I can invite you to dinner sometime.
    I’ve driven around Bellingham a couple of times to get hiking and I’ll probably be around Mt Baker for X-Country Skiing in the next weeks.

    You’ve been all over the world and have got some interesting perspectives. Would love a chance to meet.

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  • @Twinkie
    Thanks for all the fish!

    And so long!

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  • @Nathan Taylor
    Seems like you had twitter account @gnxp back in 2009 to push your blog posts.
    https://twitter.com/gnxp

    No reason not to revive that account as a blog feed twitter account once you move to new site.

    Overall probably not worth the trouble. Very marginal in terms of page views. But suspect people who follow that kind of account tend to be high value readers (maybe they just want the posts for high SNR). I read a lot of ben thompson on tech, and also follow his blog posts via his twitter feed
    https://twitter.com/stratechery

    So it's common enough.

    But I think RSS far more important for power readers.

    One downside is confusion on who to follow on twitter. You or gnxp. Maybe makes more sense to name the twitter account something like @gnxp_blogfeed to make it more explicit.

    Anyway. Enjoy your writing. Keep it up.

    i don’t have access to that account. it fwds to an email address i can’t recognize for password reset. i think i used some third party to create that twitter account.

    anyway, i made one, gnxp_posts

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  • @Razib Khan
    Any chance of your creating twitter account that is only notifications of new posts, Razib? Thanks!



    good idea.

    Seems like you had twitter account @gnxp back in 2009 to push your blog posts.

    https://twitter.com/gnxp

    No reason not to revive that account as a blog feed twitter account once you move to new site.

    Overall probably not worth the trouble. Very marginal in terms of page views. But suspect people who follow that kind of account tend to be high value readers (maybe they just want the posts for high SNR). I read a lot of ben thompson on tech, and also follow his blog posts via his twitter feed

    https://twitter.com/stratechery

    So it’s common enough.

    But I think RSS far more important for power readers.

    One downside is confusion on who to follow on twitter. You or gnxp. Maybe makes more sense to name the twitter account something like @gnxp_blogfeed to make it more explicit.

    Anyway. Enjoy your writing. Keep it up.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    i don't have access to that account. it fwds to an email address i can't recognize for password reset. i think i used some third party to create that twitter account.

    anyway, i made one, gnxp_posts
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Pseudonymic Handle
    Good luck!
    Could you make a last post here when your new site is finally up?

    Could you make a last post here when your new site is finally up?

    yes. good idea. i’ll do that.

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  • @quamuri
    Any chance of your creating twitter account that is only notifications of new posts, Razib? Thanks!

    Been thinking about creating a “Razib’s greatest hits” sort of page, with links to all your best posts over the years… it would be a lot of work though. Perhaps other commenters could help compile it?
     
    This would be valuable in its own right but also (a) to help fight linkrot, (b) if organized with an analytical index, to bring new readers to years of past insights, and (c) to keep people pointed at the most thorough/summative posts, rather than the ones most deeply anchored in search engines. It's especially important since GNXP is in some ways unique; when a clique of blogs go into hivemind mode they start ritually linking to one another's best posts over and over again, so the clique becomes auto-indexing.

    Any chance of your creating twitter account that is only notifications of new posts, Razib? Thanks!

    good idea.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Nathan Taylor
    Seems like you had twitter account @gnxp back in 2009 to push your blog posts.
    https://twitter.com/gnxp

    No reason not to revive that account as a blog feed twitter account once you move to new site.

    Overall probably not worth the trouble. Very marginal in terms of page views. But suspect people who follow that kind of account tend to be high value readers (maybe they just want the posts for high SNR). I read a lot of ben thompson on tech, and also follow his blog posts via his twitter feed
    https://twitter.com/stratechery

    So it's common enough.

    But I think RSS far more important for power readers.

    One downside is confusion on who to follow on twitter. You or gnxp. Maybe makes more sense to name the twitter account something like @gnxp_blogfeed to make it more explicit.

    Anyway. Enjoy your writing. Keep it up.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Thin-Skinned Masta-Beta
    Mr. Khan,

    Have enjoyed reading your work, even if a dilettante layman like myself has precious little constructive to contribute to the discussion. Good luck with the new endeavor. I agree that the souls on Twitter may even have a thinner skin than I and it's probably doomed. Not everyone can handle depth, intensity and directness. Although to avoid provoking the drama queens I'm getting better at crimestop as time goes by.

    Mr. Price,

    I've missed your work at your former place The Spearhead. I'm sure I'm not the only one who appreciated your tough, thoughtful but sensitive treatment of various issues of interest.

    Don't know what to tell you on writing, but you do have some skill at it. Maybe you could limit your commitment to it? Is it really necessary to be as dedicated managing and moderating community comments as say Steve Sailer does? I can't imagine how he avoids burnout and meltdown like happened to Andrew Sullivan.

    Don't know if you are active in any other fora but would be interested in maybe joining the conversation.

    @euneaux (you can find me on twitter if interested)

    PS I hope you're flourishing around B'ham with your new and old families.
    I'm rapidly losing my soul like all the others here and turning into a dried up bitter man here on N. Beacon Hill, perhaps not too far from your ol' stomping ground. I don't know if I need to adjust my attitude or just get out before I've completely lost my soul like all these other zombies here.

    Thanks for the encouraging words. Part of the reason I had to take a break was simple economics, and part time. Kids are really a handful, especially when they’re little. But they do grow up pretty fast.

    So I think the time when I can put some solid days into writing will arrive in due course. I still have plenty of ideas, and aside from time that’s all I really need to get started.

    Bellingham is far from ideal. It’s pretty dreary, the local economy is dominated by retail (Canadian shoppers) and Western Washington University, and it’s pretty much in lockstep with Seattle politically. That said, the rent is comparatively cheap, it’s close to my older kids and it’s only about a five minute drive to get out in the country where there’s a whole different world. From Seattle these days you have to drive for nearly an hour to get to that world.

    Honestly, I miss Seattle, but I’m disgusted by what it’s become. Nostalgia prevails when I think of it. If I were you, I’d get out as often as possible, but I can’t say there’s much going on in the rest of the state. I’m hoping, perhaps in vain, that the new administration might make some effort to reverse the huge gains cities have made at the expense of the rest of the country. If so, maybe the cities will become more livable and the countryside less depressed.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Thin-Skinned Masta-Beta
    Mr. Price,

    Send me a private message on twitter. @euneaux

    Maybe we can get together and I can invite you to dinner sometime.
    I've driven around Bellingham a couple of times to get hiking and I'll probably be around Mt Baker for X-Country Skiing in the next weeks.

    You've been all over the world and have got some interesting perspectives. Would love a chance to meet.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • You will definitely be missed, Razib. Just make sure to keep throwing out a Robert E. Howard reference now n’ then, wherever you go. ;-)

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  • Best of luck with the new ventures.

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  • @SepiaMan
    Joe Q: It's a reflection of the state of affairs in America that Ron Unz will host Razib but New York Times won't! As a leftist, I am very concerned with these developments.

    I may be overstating this (I left the US almost 6 years ago), but Unz.com (writers and commenters collectively) seems to reflect today’s America a lot more closely than the New York Times does. The Gray Lady seems to have pushed herself into a silo. Trump’s victory would not have been anywhere as shocking to the typical Unz.com visitor as it would have been to the typical NYTimes reader. That said, hopefully the move from here will raise Razib’s reputation among the liberal intelligentsia; his reporting and commentary deserves to go out to a wider audience.

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    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Mr. Khan,

    Have enjoyed reading your work, even if a dilettante layman like myself has precious little constructive to contribute to the discussion. Good luck with the new endeavor. I agree that the souls on Twitter may even have a thinner skin than I and it’s probably doomed. Not everyone can handle depth, intensity and directness. Although to avoid provoking the drama queens I’m getting better at crimestop as time goes by.

    Mr. Price,

    I’ve missed your work at your former place The Spearhead. I’m sure I’m not the only one who appreciated your tough, thoughtful but sensitive treatment of various issues of interest.

    Don’t know what to tell you on writing, but you do have some skill at it. Maybe you could limit your commitment to it? Is it really necessary to be as dedicated managing and moderating community comments as say Steve Sailer does? I can’t imagine how he avoids burnout and meltdown like happened to Andrew Sullivan.

    Don’t know if you are active in any other fora but would be interested in maybe joining the conversation.

    @euneaux (you can find me on twitter if interested)

    PS I hope you’re flourishing around B’ham with your new and old families.
    I’m rapidly losing my soul like all the others here and turning into a dried up bitter man here on N. Beacon Hill, perhaps not too far from your ol’ stomping ground. I don’t know if I need to adjust my attitude or just get out before I’ve completely lost my soul like all these other zombies here.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Bill P
    Thanks for the encouraging words. Part of the reason I had to take a break was simple economics, and part time. Kids are really a handful, especially when they're little. But they do grow up pretty fast.

    So I think the time when I can put some solid days into writing will arrive in due course. I still have plenty of ideas, and aside from time that's all I really need to get started.

    Bellingham is far from ideal. It's pretty dreary, the local economy is dominated by retail (Canadian shoppers) and Western Washington University, and it's pretty much in lockstep with Seattle politically. That said, the rent is comparatively cheap, it's close to my older kids and it's only about a five minute drive to get out in the country where there's a whole different world. From Seattle these days you have to drive for nearly an hour to get to that world.

    Honestly, I miss Seattle, but I'm disgusted by what it's become. Nostalgia prevails when I think of it. If I were you, I'd get out as often as possible, but I can't say there's much going on in the rest of the state. I'm hoping, perhaps in vain, that the new administration might make some effort to reverse the huge gains cities have made at the expense of the rest of the country. If so, maybe the cities will become more livable and the countryside less depressed.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Good to see you’re keeping it up. I hope you know how many guys are out there who barely have time to keep up with the advances in knowledge but nonetheless are very interested. It’s a real service you’re performing in that way. Honestly, though, my favorite part of your writing is your cultural observation. Good stuff. I hope you include that in the new format.

    Best wishes on the new endeavor.

    -Bill Price

    PS I’m a bit envious and want to start writing again myself. I keep telling myself “soon, when the baby’s bigger and I have a more secure position at work,” but it’s starting to feel like an excuse. Might as well jump in. We only have one shot at this, after all.

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  • All the very best to you, and much success for your new project, Mr Khan!

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  • Any chance of your creating twitter account that is only notifications of new posts, Razib? Thanks!

    Been thinking about creating a “Razib’s greatest hits” sort of page, with links to all your best posts over the years… it would be a lot of work though. Perhaps other commenters could help compile it?

    This would be valuable in its own right but also (a) to help fight linkrot, (b) if organized with an analytical index, to bring new readers to years of past insights, and (c) to keep people pointed at the most thorough/summative posts, rather than the ones most deeply anchored in search engines. It’s especially important since GNXP is in some ways unique; when a clique of blogs go into hivemind mode they start ritually linking to one another’s best posts over and over again, so the clique becomes auto-indexing.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    Any chance of your creating twitter account that is only notifications of new posts, Razib? Thanks!



    good idea.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Good luck!
    Could you make a last post here when your new site is finally up?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    Could you make a last post here when your new site is finally up?



    yes. good idea. i'll do that.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Joe Q: It’s a reflection of the state of affairs in America that Ron Unz will host Razib but New York Times won’t! As a leftist, I am very concerned with these developments.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Numinous
    I may be overstating this (I left the US almost 6 years ago), but Unz.com (writers and commenters collectively) seems to reflect today's America a lot more closely than the New York Times does. The Gray Lady seems to have pushed herself into a silo. Trump's victory would not have been anywhere as shocking to the typical Unz.com visitor as it would have been to the typical NYTimes reader. That said, hopefully the move from here will raise Razib's reputation among the liberal intelligentsia; his reporting and commentary deserves to go out to a wider audience.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • You have been my favorite blogger since I started to read your work in 2003, and I will follow your writing wherever you go, hopefully for many years to come. I deeply appreciate all you’ve done to bring science and history to the layman. Can’t wait to see what you do with the new site.

    I know you are a very busy person, but do you think you might write a book someday? You’ve mentioned before how the pace of scientific research goes so fast that books or magazine articles can get outdated pretty quickly. But it would be nice to collect your writing in a more permanent form, and maybe also have another way to introduce non-blog-reading people to your work too.

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  • Good luck with your new site, Razib. I too was always a bit perplexed at how you fit in with Unz Review, which seems to otherwise be at a pretty low intellectual level.

    Feedly is great, but Inoreader is also worth checking out, for those who were fans of the old Google Reader.

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  • Will definitely follow you at the new place. I have been following you since at least 2004 (maybe earlier). I think you are one of the more misunderstood people on the internet. Of course, blogging on places like Unz does not help either. You clearly are not a race baiter and nor are your commenters and so you were always out of place here.

    Have learnt a LOT from you over the years. Good luck!

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  • Have always been a avid reader of your blog/articles, will continue to do so in your new venue.

    I am looking forward to the new site, sounds exciting!

    Congratulations and good luck!

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  • You are one of the best things on the internet. I look forward to the new site.

    (BTW: I have read five books you recommended. Some I probably would have read eventually; some I only knew of because of you. They were all worth the time.)

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  • Good luck with your new projects.

    Much of your stuff is sadly over my head in detail, but I’ve taken what I could from it over the past few years and that has been plenty.

    I look forward to more.

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  • Best of luck! I’ve been following you from Sepia Mutiny back in the mid-2000s, and will continue to do so wherever you move. Not least because of your no-nonsense moderation style :D

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  • Good look with your new endeavour. Wish you well.

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  • @Walter Sobchak
    Good luck Razib. I have added your link to my feed reader*.

    I can't say that I will miss the rest of Unz, which has seemed to me to be a swamp of alt-right and hard left, with a sprinkling of anti-semitic commenters.


    *https://feedly.com/ -- It is my replacement for the old, and still mourned Google Reader. Feedly is good, and there is an app version for your phones and tablets.

    yep, i have feedly pro. it’s great.

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  • If you follow Y genealogy you know that the distribution of R1ba2 exhibits a peculiar pattern. R1b is the most common haplgroup in Western Eurasia, and shares a deep common ancestry with R1a. It seems to have risen to high frequencies in Europe only during the Bronze Age, though has been found in earlier periods....
  • I’m reminded of the Mediterranean like ancient skeletons in the southern Sahara iirc

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  • It's been exactly three years since I moved on from Discover. Change is timeless. So I thought it would be a good time to announce the move to another project today. Until further notice this is my last post as a blogger at Unz Review. Just as when I left Discover, this shouldn’t impact regular...
  • Good luck Razib. I have added your link to my feed reader*.

    I can’t say that I will miss the rest of Unz, which has seemed to me to be a swamp of alt-right and hard left, with a sprinkling of anti-semitic commenters.

    *https://feedly.com/ — It is my replacement for the old, and still mourned Google Reader. Feedly is good, and there is an app version for your phones and tablets.

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    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    yep, i have feedly pro. it's great.
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  • @Yudi
    Excited to see GNXP making a comeback, since I discovered you after you started moving away from it.

    Been thinking about creating a "Razib's greatest hits" sort of page, with links to all your best posts over the years... it would be a lot of work though. Perhaps other commenters could help compile it?

    i’d appreciate it. i think i’ve written in the range of 5 million words now over all these years?

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  • Good luck

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  • Sorry to see you go, will be bad for the unz review obviously. Anyway, good luck with your new project.

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  • The Eurogenes blog is running a fundraiser. I chipped in mostly to support his continued blogging. I don't agree with everything he posts, but the site is a good and valuable resource. "Genome blogging" hasn't gotten as far as I'd have thought it would have in 2010, mostly because the initial burst of enthusiasm wasn't...
  • @Davidski
    Correction: Onge sits better than Dai. Onge disappears when Ulchi is dropped, but the fit is horrible.

    Karitiana
    Ulchi 64.65
    AfontovaGora3 33.3
    Andamanese_Onge 1.9
    Dai 0.15

    Karitiana
    Ulchi 64.7
    AfontovaGora3 33.25
    Andamanese_Onge 2.05

    Karitiana
    AfontovaGora3 58.2
    Dai 41.8
    Andamanese_Onge 0

    That’s interesting. Assuming Ulchi has the amount of ANE and Onge/Dai that the papers propose (using MA-1, AG2 and EHG), the last fit indicates more ANE than the first two.

    Does qpAdm for Karitiana and Ulchi as mixes of AG3 & Dai or Onge work using Mbuti, Ust_Ishim, Papuan, Kostenki14 and Bichon as outgroups?

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  • It's been exactly three years since I moved on from Discover. Change is timeless. So I thought it would be a good time to announce the move to another project today. Until further notice this is my last post as a blogger at Unz Review. Just as when I left Discover, this shouldn’t impact regular...
  • Good luck with your new site!

    I have to say though I’m surprised it took this long. To be honest, it was never clear to me why you were on unz.com in the first place. I’m a big fan of some of the writers here (Sailer and Derbyshire especially), but you were never political like that, and didn’t benefit from the association. And frankly, some of the other people who get published here are plain nuts! You may not be able to pick your family, but you can pick your friends, and you can pick the people you are associated with online. I look forward to meeting your new online family!

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  • @Anatoly Karlin
    Sorry to see you go Razib but best of luck with your new project!

    I would love to learn more about Reader. Any plans to expand it into a system for open peer review and/or a citations manager?

    the former, yes. don’t know about latter.

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  • Sorry to see you go Razib but best of luck with your new project!

    I would love to learn more about Reader. Any plans to expand it into a system for open peer review and/or a citations manager?

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    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    the former, yes. don't know about latter.
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  • Thanks, and good luck. See you on the other side.

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  • Has been great to read your stuff here

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  • @Lord Jeff Sessions

    Also, honestly I’m not sure that Twitter will be around in its current form in another five years
     
    Yeah, it's curious what's going to happen with "gab.ai". Currently 90% of the people on there are alt-right, but I think it's conceivable that there could be some sort of right wing twitter that slowly gets created if there is too much censorship. I guess we'll see in a couple of years. Also, good luck and I'll see you over at this new place. :)

    If enough right wingers move to Gab, eventually leftist will move there, too, to debate.

    But for it to be viable, nonpolitical things need to move there, too, and they need to find a way of making money, at least to cover their costs.

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  • You were among the more valuable contributors, so it’s a pity. Good luck for the new site!

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  • The Eurogenes blog is running a fundraiser. I chipped in mostly to support his continued blogging. I don't agree with everything he posts, but the site is a good and valuable resource. "Genome blogging" hasn't gotten as far as I'd have thought it would have in 2010, mostly because the initial burst of enthusiasm wasn't...
  • Razib,

    If you are inclined to do so, you should post your coordinates for the ten dimensions.

    I’ve been working on a modelling setup that works for all of Eurasia, and will post the results at Eurogenes (and some other places), this weekend/early next week. I think you’ll be pleased with what you see. So far, people from peninsular South Asia are getting excellent models, the ASI proportions make total sense.

    Although, it is totally fine if you don’t do so.

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  • I spruced up my personal website recently. It was getting sort of cluttered. Also, the new theme should look better on mobile. Not sure how long Twitter will be around, but as long as it's around, make sure to follow me. Got my copy of The Atheist Muslim: A Journey from Religion to Reason. I'm...
  • Razib,

    Not particularly, but the article did present some graphs that seem to buttress their case, especially from 1940 to 1970.

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  • It's been exactly three years since I moved on from Discover. Change is timeless. So I thought it would be a good time to announce the move to another project today. Until further notice this is my last post as a blogger at Unz Review. Just as when I left Discover, this shouldn’t impact regular...
  • Excited to see GNXP making a comeback, since I discovered you after you started moving away from it.

    Been thinking about creating a “Razib’s greatest hits” sort of page, with links to all your best posts over the years… it would be a lot of work though. Perhaps other commenters could help compile it?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    i'd appreciate it. i think i've written in the range of 5 million words now over all these years?
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  • Time flies I suppose. And I just pestered feedly to get the unz feeds working again!

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  • @Mike
    Cool, look forward to the new site. Also, if you can convince Godless Capitalist to return to writing/blogging in some capacity that would be great :-)

    he is :-) you just don’t know it’s him.

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    • Replies: @Question
    Pseudonymously or using his actual name?
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Cool, look forward to the new site. Also, if you can convince Godless Capitalist to return to writing/blogging in some capacity that would be great :-)

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    he is :-) you just don't know it's him.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Thanks for all the fish!

    Read More
    • Replies: @RW
    And so long!
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • I spruced up my personal website recently. It was getting sort of cluttered. Also, the new theme should look better on mobile. Not sure how long Twitter will be around, but as long as it's around, make sure to follow me. Got my copy of The Atheist Muslim: A Journey from Religion to Reason. I'm...
  • @Riordan
    Razib,

    Don't know if you would be able to respond since your leaving soon, but have you seen Jeff Guo's recent piece in the Washington Post?

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/11/19/the-real-secret-to-asian-american-success-was-not-education/?utm_term=.5aee766ae3ac

    did that piece make sense to you? total mishmash. also ignores causality issues.

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    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Razib,

    Don’t know if you would be able to respond since your leaving soon, but have you seen Jeff Guo’s recent piece in the Washington Post?

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/11/19/the-real-secret-to-asian-american-success-was-not-education/?utm_term=.5aee766ae3ac

    Read More
    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    did that piece make sense to you? total mishmash. also ignores causality issues.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • It's been exactly three years since I moved on from Discover. Change is timeless. So I thought it would be a good time to announce the move to another project today. Until further notice this is my last post as a blogger at Unz Review. Just as when I left Discover, this shouldn’t impact regular...
  • Also, honestly I’m not sure that Twitter will be around in its current form in another five years

    Yeah, it’s curious what’s going to happen with “gab.ai”. Currently 90% of the people on there are alt-right, but I think it’s conceivable that there could be some sort of right wing twitter that slowly gets created if there is too much censorship. I guess we’ll see in a couple of years. Also, good luck and I’ll see you over at this new place. :)

    Read More
    • Replies: @reiner Tor
    If enough right wingers move to Gab, eventually leftist will move there, too, to debate.

    But for it to be viable, nonpolitical things need to move there, too, and they need to find a way of making money, at least to cover their costs.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Well, I can say it has been a pleasure to interact with you here at Unz.com and I look forward to keeping up with your new venues.

    Peace.

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    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • If you follow Y genealogy you know that the distribution of R1ba2 exhibits a peculiar pattern. R1b is the most common haplgroup in Western Eurasia, and shares a deep common ancestry with R1a. It seems to have risen to high frequencies in Europe only during the Bronze Age, though has been found in earlier periods....
  • Chadic probably postdated Cushitic

    The model that makes sense to me is that Cushitic predates Chadic. If Y-DNA R1b-V88 were part of the founding population of Cushitic people, it would be present in Cushitic populations in more than trace amounts, which it is not. Chadic men, meanwhile lack both Y-DNA T and Y-DNA E1b1b in significant amounts. From a Y-DNA perspective, they are true outsiders. They picked up Cushitic wives and were influenced by Cushitic languages without leaving a genetic legacy in East Africa – the whole proto-Chadic community left for Lake Chad together.

    There is really no otherwise way to understand a Chadic language origin that makes any sense. No place that R1b-V88 could have come from would have been within the range of the Afro-Asiatic languages at any point in history and they are associated with any other language group, so they must have experienced language shift to Chadic. Chadic was probably a result of substrate influences of Y-DNA R1b-V88 men acquiring Cushitic as a second language and changing that language in the process.

    Y-DNA T was probably an earlier Neolitic arrival to Afro-Asiatic Africa

    Phylogeny and geography, taken together, clearly put the origins of Y-DNA T outside of Africa.

    One of the distinctive Y-DNA haplogroup in a lot of Cushitic populations is Y-DNA T and that clade almost certainly back migrated via the Levant and down the Nile to Ethiopia and Somalia, and had much more of a demographic impact all of the way up and down the Nile basin. The Gate of Tears route from Arabia for Y-DNA T in Africa is strongly disfavored because clades of Y-DNA T in Arabia have TMRCA of about 1,600 years ago v. 11,000ish for those in Egypt and East Africa which most Y-DNA T in Africa is found.

    The Wikipedia survey of the frequency of Y-DNA T in Africa when I last looked showed 108 instances within Afro-Asiatic populations surveyed (mostly Egypt, Ethiopia and Somolia) and 26 instances of non-Afro-Asiatic peoples with 19 of those instances in three populations: 15 (of 256) individuals in the Spanish Canary Islands that trace roots to North Africa and were almost surely settled by Berbers during the Roman era, 6 (of 34) individuals in the Bantu speaking South African Lemba who claim to have have Jewish roots (which genetics tends to confirm), and 3 (of 17) of the Niger-Congo speaking Fulbe in Northern Cameroon right on the Afro-Asiatic and Niger-Congo population boundary in Africa.

    There were only seven other individuals in all of Africa with Y-DNA T in all of the populations that have been surveyed (and the Wikipedia list is while not a complete set of the literature, a summary of a very good share of the entire literature) out of 134 African surveyed with Y-DNA T in all. There were three isolated cases in small Bantu populations, and four involving small percentages in Nilotic populations, and each of these trace outliers was in samples mostly on the Eastern Coast of Africa which would have been exposed to Y-DNA T rich Somolians in the sea trade or near the Western boundary of Afro-Asiatic populations that are relatively rich in Y-DNA T.

    But, there are some Cushitic populations with little or no Y-DNA T, so Y-DNA T doesn’t make a good source population for the Cushitic language either.

    While hard data implies that it is possible that Y-DNA T conceivably could have arrived Mesolithic migrants, a narrative in which Y-DNA T is one of the clades present in the first population to bring the Fertile Crescent Neolithic package to Sudan, Ethiopia and Somolia via the Nile makes a lot more sense, even though this compresses the time frame for their arrival to no more than 700 years prior to the R1b-V88 proto-Chadic men. And, it also looks like that Y-DNA T wave, like the Y-DNA R1b-V88 wave, was male dominated, because there aren’t corresponding West Asian/SW Asian mtDNA clades in the places where Y-DNA T is found in Africa of the right time depth.

    There are two main back migrating mtDNA lineages in Afroasiatic language speaking areas: mtDNA M1 and mtDNA U6. But the time depth of these clades in Africa is far too great (well into the Upper Paleolithic) and there are absent pretty much everywhere outside of Africa that Y-DNA T is found. Gonzalez et al. 2007 suggest that Afroasiatic speakers may have dispersed from East Africa carrying the subclades M1a and U6a1 but that would still have been pre-Neolithic, and mtDNA U6 is predominantly in places where Y-DNA T is not found within Africa.

    Another thing that makes Y-DNA T seem more plausible as a Neolithic rather than Mesolithic arrival in Africa is that Y-DNA T is a secondary Y-DNA component (after Y-DNA G) in the first wave Neolithic populations of Europe including ancient DNA from early Neolithic Anatolia and LBK populations in Germany.

    What About The Natufians?

    Of course, we know that the Natufians weren’t the source of the Y-DNA T men in the Nile Basin and East Africa either, as ancient DNA shows them as an overwhelmingly Y-DNA E-Z830 (which is ancestral to E1b1b-M123) population. But, a lot of Afro-Asiatic people do have a lot in common genetically with the Natufians. And, all of the Y-DNA T rich populations are also rich in Y-DNA E1b1b.

    Natufians were present in the Levant before the Neolithic era. They were a Mesolithic people and their Y-DNA was mostly pre-E1b1b. Many of their descendants stayed put into the Neolithic. There also isn’t evidence that people with African mtDNA L3 (xM xN) were ever common in the Levant, even in the Mesolithic. (The Natufians are a very plausible candidate for the proto-Semitic language sub-family speakers.)

    All populations speaking Afro-Asiatic languages except the Chadic language speakers have significant frequencies of E1b1b-M123:

    Cushitic 32–81%
    Egyptian languages 36–60%
    Berber languages 40–91%
    Semitic languages 7–29%
    Omotic languages 50%

    In the case of Cushitic and Egyptian languages, much of the balance is Y-DNA T (which is also found in Semitic people in the Near East and the Jewish diaspora and in Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia).

    A significant balance of the Semitic language speakers today have Y-DNA J1c3, formerly known as “J1e”, and this is actually a more common paternal lineage than E1b1b in most Semitic speaking populations. But, Y-DNA J1 is strongly associated with low land Middle Eastern origins (highland people in the Near East tend to be more Y-DNA J2) and Y-DNA J1c3 apparently spread from the Middle East into today’s Semitic populations after the original dispersion of Afroasiatic (particularly in light of the Natufian ancient DNA).

    There is also linguistic and genetic evidence that Berber languages and Berber ethnogenesis has a fairly shallow time depth (it may be younger than Chadic).

    E1b1b seems to have deep origins in Africa. Y-DNA haplogroup E is the dominant black African haplogroup (excluding Khoisan and Pygmy populations) with E1b1a (particularly associated with West Africa), E1a (particularly in West Africa and Sudan) and E2 (pan African, but especially Eastern and Southern Africa) are particularly common. There have been proposals for Y-DNA haplogroup E as back migrations, but I find them highly implausible.

    Specific E1b1b subhaplogroups have associations with different groups of Afro-Asiatic speakers. E1b1b1b (E-V257) is associated with Berbers. E1b1b1c1 (E-M34) is mostly Semitic. E1b1b1d (E-V6), E1b1b1f (E-V42), E1b1b1g (E-V92), and E1b1b2 (E-V16/E-M281) are all associated with Ethiopia. E1b1b1e* is found in Southern and Eastern Africa. Based upon diversity and phylogeny roots for Y-DNA E1b1b in Ethiopia or the vicinity seem likely.

    All of this suggests that Afro-Asiatic was a language group that expanded no later than the Mesolithic era before agriculture came along and spread beyond Africa into the Levant at its furthest extent, and the data is not a good fit for Y-DNA T men or Y-DNA R1b-V88 men in the Neolithic being the source of either Afro-Asiatic languages in general or Cushitic languages is particular.

    This is pretty impressive. The population of Egypt increased 100 fold with the Neolithic Revolution and there is little doubt that the Neolithic Revolution’s spread from the Levant to Africa had to have at least some demic component. The fact that the indigenous language family rather than the language family of the Neolithic package bearing newcomers managed to remain dominant is remarkable. But, this seems like a more plausible theory than the alternative that Afro-Asiatic languages had a Near Eastern origin which is not a good fit to some of the key facts we know.

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    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • The Eurogenes blog is running a fundraiser. I chipped in mostly to support his continued blogging. I don't agree with everything he posts, but the site is a good and valuable resource. "Genome blogging" hasn't gotten as far as I'd have thought it would have in 2010, mostly because the initial burst of enthusiasm wasn't...
  • @Shaikorth


    Once you pass critical mass nothing changes.

    The challenge with PCA is not to let highly drifted populations hijack the analysis.
     

    There probably is always going to be a drift dimension at some point even if it's not among the most important ones (for example, one defined by modern Natives, not East Asians/Onge or ANE which are their likely ancestral populations). Even the East Asian dimension could be a "drift dimension" if Lazaridis' "Onge-ANE"-type models turns out correct. But using multiple dimensions quite demonstrably produces models that look fitting. My reply to ohwilleke was to note just two dimensions can give odd impressions (like Native Americans as modern European + East Asian).

    What makes you think it’s off the mark at all?

    Karitiana are modeled as East Asian, MA1 and Onge in latest scientific literature.

    That’s essentially the same thing as my model, except I’m using the more relevant AfontovaGora3 and probably the more relevant Ulchi.

     

    We don't have the actual Beringian mixing populations yet so "not really off the mark" should be viewed as a compliment in this case. It's probably how the scientists working on this stuff consider their present models, though I don't think there's going to be much change with more relevant samples. They've been occasionally using AG2 and EHG instead of MA-1 as ANE but the results aren't wildly different. Since we're on this issue, does this show Onge-like stuff Skoglund & co found in Karitiana if you use AG3, Dai and Onge as sources?

    Correction: Onge sits better than Dai. Onge disappears when Ulchi is dropped, but the fit is horrible.

    Karitiana
    Ulchi 64.65
    AfontovaGora3 33.3
    Andamanese_Onge 1.9
    Dai 0.15

    Karitiana
    Ulchi 64.7
    AfontovaGora3 33.25
    Andamanese_Onge 2.05

    Karitiana
    AfontovaGora3 58.2
    Dai 41.8
    Andamanese_Onge 0

    Read More
    • Replies: @Shaikorth
    That's interesting. Assuming Ulchi has the amount of ANE and Onge/Dai that the papers propose (using MA-1, AG2 and EHG), the last fit indicates more ANE than the first two.

    Does qpAdm for Karitiana and Ulchi as mixes of AG3 & Dai or Onge work using Mbuti, Ust_Ishim, Papuan, Kostenki14 and Bichon as outgroups?
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Davidski

    What I said about number of samples affecting the positioning of said samples applies to all PCA’s, it isn’t a personal criticism.
     
    Once you pass critical mass nothing changes.

    The challenge with PCA is not to let highly drifted populations hijack the analysis.

    I don’t think your Karitiana result is really off the mark.
     
    What makes you think it's off the mark at all?

    Karitiana are modeled as East Asian, MA1 and Onge in latest scientific literature.

    That's essentially the same thing as my model, except I'm using the more relevant AfontovaGora3 and probably the more relevant Ulchi.

    Dai sits better with these two, although Onge works too. Let's see what happens when latest scientific literature starts using AfontovaGora3 and close relatives, instead of MA1.

    Once you pass critical mass nothing changes.

    The challenge with PCA is not to let highly drifted populations hijack the analysis.

    There probably is always going to be a drift dimension at some point even if it’s not among the most important ones (for example, one defined by modern Natives, not East Asians/Onge or ANE which are their likely ancestral populations). Even the East Asian dimension could be a “drift dimension” if Lazaridis’ “Onge-ANE”-type models turns out correct. But using multiple dimensions quite demonstrably produces models that look fitting. My reply to ohwilleke was to note just two dimensions can give odd impressions (like Native Americans as modern European + East Asian).

    What makes you think it’s off the mark at all?

    Karitiana are modeled as East Asian, MA1 and Onge in latest scientific literature.

    That’s essentially the same thing as my model, except I’m using the more relevant AfontovaGora3 and probably the more relevant Ulchi.

    We don’t have the actual Beringian mixing populations yet so “not really off the mark” should be viewed as a compliment in this case. It’s probably how the scientists working on this stuff consider their present models, though I don’t think there’s going to be much change with more relevant samples. They’ve been occasionally using AG2 and EHG instead of MA-1 as ANE but the results aren’t wildly different. Since we’re on this issue, does this show Onge-like stuff Skoglund & co found in Karitiana if you use AG3, Dai and Onge as sources?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Davidski
    Correction: Onge sits better than Dai. Onge disappears when Ulchi is dropped, but the fit is horrible.

    Karitiana
    Ulchi 64.65
    AfontovaGora3 33.3
    Andamanese_Onge 1.9
    Dai 0.15

    Karitiana
    Ulchi 64.7
    AfontovaGora3 33.25
    Andamanese_Onge 2.05

    Karitiana
    AfontovaGora3 58.2
    Dai 41.8
    Andamanese_Onge 0
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Shaikorth
    What I said about number of samples affecting the positioning of said samples applies to all PCA's, it isn't a personal criticism. This has been demonstrated in studies:

    http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000686

    http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article/figure/image?id=info%3Adoi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000686.g003&size=large

    Coincidence or not, C resembles the common "V" shape of a global PCA done on human populations.

    If the sample sizes are not even there will be a shift compared to a PCA that has even sampling.
    But it doesn't necessarily mean a model using multiple dimensions produces "wrong" results even if sample sizes are "uneven". I don't think your Karitiana result is really off the mark.

    What I said about number of samples affecting the positioning of said samples applies to all PCA’s, it isn’t a personal criticism.

    Once you pass critical mass nothing changes.

    The challenge with PCA is not to let highly drifted populations hijack the analysis.

    I don’t think your Karitiana result is really off the mark.

    What makes you think it’s off the mark at all?

    Karitiana are modeled as East Asian, MA1 and Onge in latest scientific literature.

    That’s essentially the same thing as my model, except I’m using the more relevant AfontovaGora3 and probably the more relevant Ulchi.

    Dai sits better with these two, although Onge works too. Let’s see what happens when latest scientific literature starts using AfontovaGora3 and close relatives, instead of MA1.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Shaikorth


    Once you pass critical mass nothing changes.

    The challenge with PCA is not to let highly drifted populations hijack the analysis.
     

    There probably is always going to be a drift dimension at some point even if it's not among the most important ones (for example, one defined by modern Natives, not East Asians/Onge or ANE which are their likely ancestral populations). Even the East Asian dimension could be a "drift dimension" if Lazaridis' "Onge-ANE"-type models turns out correct. But using multiple dimensions quite demonstrably produces models that look fitting. My reply to ohwilleke was to note just two dimensions can give odd impressions (like Native Americans as modern European + East Asian).

    What makes you think it’s off the mark at all?

    Karitiana are modeled as East Asian, MA1 and Onge in latest scientific literature.

    That’s essentially the same thing as my model, except I’m using the more relevant AfontovaGora3 and probably the more relevant Ulchi.

     

    We don't have the actual Beringian mixing populations yet so "not really off the mark" should be viewed as a compliment in this case. It's probably how the scientists working on this stuff consider their present models, though I don't think there's going to be much change with more relevant samples. They've been occasionally using AG2 and EHG instead of MA-1 as ANE but the results aren't wildly different. Since we're on this issue, does this show Onge-like stuff Skoglund & co found in Karitiana if you use AG3, Dai and Onge as sources?
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • If you follow Y genealogy you know that the distribution of R1ba2 exhibits a peculiar pattern. R1b is the most common haplgroup in Western Eurasia, and shares a deep common ancestry with R1a. It seems to have risen to high frequencies in Europe only during the Bronze Age, though has been found in earlier periods....
  • @ohwilleke
    It is beyond dispute that R1b-V88 is strongly associated with the Chadic language. And, over 7,200 years, of course, there would be some seepage to neighboring populations (indeed, the remarkable thing is not how much seepage there has been, but how little).

    There is also very good (genetic and linguistic) reason to believe that some early Chadic people were Nilo-Saharans who experienced language shift, and that Chadic is genetically derived from Northern Cushitic languages as speakers of those languages have an mtDNA affinity with Chadic people involving mtDNA L3f.

    The real mystery is how and why R1b-V88 people got from the European steppe at the time that herding arrive there (around 6000 BCE, the same time that it arrived in Egypt, or perhaps a few centuries earlier), to the Fertile Crescent and beyond to the Nile, then down the Nile to the Blue Nile and from there to Northern Ethiopia sometime prior to 5300 BCE (allowing 100 years to take local Cushitic wives and then to travel as nomadic pastoralists upstream along the Blue Nile to the junction with the Yellow Nile and over the ridge in the Lake Chad endorheic basin where Chadic ethnogenesis was completed), without leaving much of a trace anywhere in between.

    What didn't the Natufians do this?

    The 8.2 kiloyear climate event is a plausible push, but why not stop sooner? Did they just keep going until they found people who didn't insist they move along?

    Yes, Sub-Saharan V88 is associated with Chadic now (and everyone around that region), but was it associated with a possible Chadic-Cushitic origin, or with original Afroasiatics? This is a bit like “was R1b-M269 associated with the ancestral language family of the Basques”? Cushitics don’t show much V88, the samples from this study have none.

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  • The Proto-Chadic people, by the way, were not Natufians as we can now discern from ancient DNA. Per Wikipedia:

    According to ancient DNA analyses conducted by Lazaridis et al. (2016) on six Natufian skeletal remains from present-day northern Israel, the Natufians carried the Y-DNA haplogroup E-Z830, which is ancestral to the E1b1b-M123 paternal clade. One Natufian individual was also found to belong to the N1b mtDNA haplogroup. In terms of autosomal DNA, these Natufians carried high frequencies of the Basal Eurasian component, but were slightly distinct from the northern Anatolian populations that contributed to the peopling of Europe.

    citing Lazaridis, Iosif; et al., “The genetic structure of the world’s first farmers” (biorxiv 17 June 2016).

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  • The Eurogenes blog is running a fundraiser. I chipped in mostly to support his continued blogging. I don't agree with everything he posts, but the site is a good and valuable resource. "Genome blogging" hasn't gotten as far as I'd have thought it would have in 2010, mostly because the initial burst of enthusiasm wasn't...
  • @Davidski

    PCA and ADMIXTURE are similar in that number of samples, not just their type, has an effect on the result, complicating interpretation.
     
    Your post in irrelevant to this PCA.

    Use the 10 PCs and you will get accurate models.

    What I said about number of samples affecting the positioning of said samples applies to all PCA’s, it isn’t a personal criticism. This has been demonstrated in studies:

    http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000686

    http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article/figure/image?id=info%3Adoi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000686.g003&size=large

    Coincidence or not, C resembles the common “V” shape of a global PCA done on human populations.

    If the sample sizes are not even there will be a shift compared to a PCA that has even sampling.
    But it doesn’t necessarily mean a model using multiple dimensions produces “wrong” results even if sample sizes are “uneven”. I don’t think your Karitiana result is really off the mark.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Davidski

    What I said about number of samples affecting the positioning of said samples applies to all PCA’s, it isn’t a personal criticism.
     
    Once you pass critical mass nothing changes.

    The challenge with PCA is not to let highly drifted populations hijack the analysis.

    I don’t think your Karitiana result is really off the mark.
     
    What makes you think it's off the mark at all?

    Karitiana are modeled as East Asian, MA1 and Onge in latest scientific literature.

    That's essentially the same thing as my model, except I'm using the more relevant AfontovaGora3 and probably the more relevant Ulchi.

    Dai sits better with these two, although Onge works too. Let's see what happens when latest scientific literature starts using AfontovaGora3 and close relatives, instead of MA1.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • fulcrum

    Read More
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • If you follow Y genealogy you know that the distribution of R1ba2 exhibits a peculiar pattern. R1b is the most common haplgroup in Western Eurasia, and shares a deep common ancestry with R1a. It seems to have risen to high frequencies in Europe only during the Bronze Age, though has been found in earlier periods....
  • @Shaikorth
    Looks like the authors lean towards the idea that R1b-V88 isn't related to Afro-asiatic language, contra some other studies.

    R1b-V88 was previously found in Central and West Africa and was associated with a mid-Holocene migration of Afro-asiatic speakers through the central Sahara into the Lake Chad Basin. In the populations we examined, we found R1b in the Toubou and Sara, who speak Nilo-Saharan languages, and also in the Laal people, who speak an unclassified language. This suggests that R1b penetrated Africa independently of the Afro-asiatic language spread or passed to other groups through admixture.
     
    And of course, many AA-speakers more distant from Chad don't have much in the way of V88.
    Anatolian/Levantine Neolithic as the first Eurasian backflow makes sense in any case. Eventually accompanied by Iranian Neolithic-like ancestry in the east and north.

    It is beyond dispute that R1b-V88 is strongly associated with the Chadic language. And, over 7,200 years, of course, there would be some seepage to neighboring populations (indeed, the remarkable thing is not how much seepage there has been, but how little).

    There is also very good (genetic and linguistic) reason to believe that some early Chadic people were Nilo-Saharans who experienced language shift, and that Chadic is genetically derived from Northern Cushitic languages as speakers of those languages have an mtDNA affinity with Chadic people involving mtDNA L3f.

    The real mystery is how and why R1b-V88 people got from the European steppe at the time that herding arrive there (around 6000 BCE, the same time that it arrived in Egypt, or perhaps a few centuries earlier), to the Fertile Crescent and beyond to the Nile, then down the Nile to the Blue Nile and from there to Northern Ethiopia sometime prior to 5300 BCE (allowing 100 years to take local Cushitic wives and then to travel as nomadic pastoralists upstream along the Blue Nile to the junction with the Yellow Nile and over the ridge in the Lake Chad endorheic basin where Chadic ethnogenesis was completed), without leaving much of a trace anywhere in between.

    What didn’t the Natufians do this?

    The 8.2 kiloyear climate event is a plausible push, but why not stop sooner? Did they just keep going until they found people who didn’t insist they move along?

    Read More
    • Replies: @Shaikorth
    Yes, Sub-Saharan V88 is associated with Chadic now (and everyone around that region), but was it associated with a possible Chadic-Cushitic origin, or with original Afroasiatics? This is a bit like "was R1b-M269 associated with the ancestral language family of the Basques"? Cushitics don't show much V88, the samples from this study have none.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • The Eurogenes blog is running a fundraiser. I chipped in mostly to support his continued blogging. I don't agree with everything he posts, but the site is a good and valuable resource. "Genome blogging" hasn't gotten as far as I'd have thought it would have in 2010, mostly because the initial burst of enthusiasm wasn't...
  • @Shaikorth
    Some things, like the location of the Native Americans in a continuum between modern Europe and East Asia along dimensions (PC’s) 1 and 2 are a feature of the method. They would be more removed from that continuum if further PC’s were shown. In fact, depending on sampling, Native Americans might not be there even along dimensions 1/2 – an example of this happening can be seen in one global PCA included in Lazaridis et al. 2014 supplements. If there were enough Papuans or Native Americans, they would be at the end of PC 2 instead of East Asians, in this analysis they “peak” in other PC’s from 3 onwards.

    PCA and ADMIXTURE are similar in that number of samples, not just their type, has an effect on the result, complicating interpretation. More on that here if you’re interested: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/07/28/066431

    PCA and ADMIXTURE are similar in that number of samples, not just their type, has an effect on the result, complicating interpretation.

    Your post in irrelevant to this PCA.

    Use the 10 PCs and you will get accurate models.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Shaikorth
    What I said about number of samples affecting the positioning of said samples applies to all PCA's, it isn't a personal criticism. This has been demonstrated in studies:

    http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000686

    http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article/figure/image?id=info%3Adoi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000686.g003&size=large

    Coincidence or not, C resembles the common "V" shape of a global PCA done on human populations.

    If the sample sizes are not even there will be a shift compared to a PCA that has even sampling.
    But it doesn't necessarily mean a model using multiple dimensions produces "wrong" results even if sample sizes are "uneven". I don't think your Karitiana result is really off the mark.

    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @ohwilleke

    Like a colossus I look east, and I look west, and stand athwart Eurasia bridging the gap.
     
    No self-esteem problems for this blogger, no siree! ;)

    About the PCA map.

    * I find it interesting how central the Native American populations are within the Siberian cluster. I would have expected it to be more shifted towards the East Asian side.

    * Query if the cluster from Europe to Siberia to East Asia represents an group of non-Africans sourced in an ancestral Northern route population, while the cluster from Europe to South Asia to Sahul represents a group of non-Africans sourced in an ancestral Southern route population.

    Could the Southern route population would be marginally closer to the African direction of the axis, perhaps because it was a bit earlier than a northern route migration?

    * It is also notable how compact the East Asian population is in PCA phase space compared to the South Asian population, even though both have comparable total population numbers and comparable geographic extent.

    * The key seems to indicate that Southeast Asians are not represented in the data set. Presumably they would be somewhere between South Asians and East Asians.

    * Looks like you could fully reproduce the PCA in quite a bit of detail with admixture blends of four eigenvector populations (Sub-Saharan African, European, East Asian, Sahul).

    * It is also interesting how much of the PCA phase space is completely empty. Tiger Woods would have a spot on the chart a huge distance from every single one of the reference populations somewhere roughly in the middle of both axes.

    I find it interesting how central the Native American populations are within the Siberian cluster. I would have expected it to be more shifted towards the East Asian side.

    This is not a typical Global PCA. That’s why you can get accurate ancient and recent ancestry proportions from the 10 PCs, even for highly drifted populations.

    Karitiana Indians come out like this.

    Ulchi 64.45
    AfontovaGora3 34.2
    Dai 1.35

    And Kalash…

    Iran_Neolithic:I1945 38.6
    Paniya 20.2
    Yamnaya_Samara:I0357 17.4
    Afanasievo:RISE509 16.55
    Andronovo:RISE505 3.8
    Iran_Late_Neolithic:I1671 3.45
    Iran_Hotu:I1293 0

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  • If you follow Y genealogy you know that the distribution of R1ba2 exhibits a peculiar pattern. R1b is the most common haplgroup in Western Eurasia, and shares a deep common ancestry with R1a. It seems to have risen to high frequencies in Europe only during the Bronze Age, though has been found in earlier periods....
  • This is consistent with autosomal data from Tishkoff et al, “The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans” 22(324) Science 5930 (May 2009) which concluded that:

    We observe the highest proportion of the “Nilo-Saharan AAC [ed. ancestral autosomal genetic component]” in the southern/central Sudanese populations (Nuer, Dinka, Shilluk, Nyimang), with decreasing frequency from northern Kenya (e.g. Pokot) to northern Tanzania (Datog, Maasai). From K = 5-13 [ed. refering to the number of ancestral components], all Nilo-Saharan speaking populations from Kenya, Tanzania, southern Sudan, and Chad cluster with west-central Afroasiatic Chadic speaking populations.

    These results are consistent with linguistic and archeological data, suggesting a possible common ancestry of Nilo-Saharan speaking populations from an eastern Sudanese homeland within the past ~10,500 years, with subsequent bi-directional migration westward to Lake Chad and southward into modern day southern Sudan, and more recent migration eastward into Kenya and Tanzania ~3,000 ya (giving rise to Southern Nilotic speakers) and westward into Chad ~2,500 ya (giving rise to Central Sudanic speakers).

    A proposed migration of proto-Chadic Afroasiatic speakers ~7,000 ya [5000 B.C.E.] from the central Sahara into the Lake Chad Basin may have caused many western Nilo-Saharans to shift to Chadic languages. Our data suggest that this shift was not accompanied by large amounts of Afroasiatic gene flow. Analyses of mtDNA provide evidence for divergence ~8,000 ya [6,000 B.C.E.] of a distinct mtDNA lineage present at high frequency in the Chadic populations and suggest an East African origin for most mtDNA lineages in these populations.”

    It is also consistent with the conclusions of a Cherny (2009) on Chadic mtDNA (which doesn’t bracket the time frame very closely):

    Within the Afro-Asiatic language phylum, the Chadic branch is linguistically close to the East African Cushitic branch although they are separated by ~2,000 km of territory in which different Semitic and Nilo-Saharan peoples live today. We show that only northern Cushitic groups from Ethiopia and Somalia are genetically close to Chadic populations. Thus, the archaeologically and linguistically supported route of proto-Chadic pastoralists via Wadi Howar [the remnant of the ancient Yellow Nile, a tributary of the Nile from about 8000 to 1000 BCE] to the Chad Basin may have genetic support.

    The mtDNA distributions in Northeastern, Eastern and Central Africa tend to follow regional patterns except for one mtDNA L3f clade particular to Chadic peoples and derived from a Cushitic clade (the Cushitic people overwhelmingly live in Ethiopia), and the Chadic languages have relatively stronger linguistic links to Cushitic within the Afro-Asiatic language family than to other Afro-Asiatic languages.

    A 2010 paper on Y-DNA R1b-V88 comes up with a consistent date range whose midpoint is very close to the archaeological data discussed in another paper:

    A worldwide phylogeographic analysis of the R1b haplogroup provided strong support to the Asia-to-Africa back-migration hypothesis. The analysis of the distribution of the R-V88 haplogroup in >1800 males from 69 African populations revealed a striking genetic contiguity between the Chadic-speaking peoples from the central Sahel and several other Afroasiatic-speaking groups from North Africa. The R-V88 coalescence time was estimated at 9.2-5.6 [corrected] kya, in the early mid Holocene. We suggest that R-V88 is a paternal genetic record of the proposed mid-Holocene migration of proto-Chadic Afroasiatic speakers through the Central Sahara into the Lake Chad Basin, and geomorphological evidence is consistent with this view.

    From Cruciani, et al., “Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages.” Eur J Hum Genet. 2010 Jul;18(7):800-7. Epub 2010 Jan 6.

    In terms of dates the most convincing input comes from a 2008 paper: Sereno PC, Garcea EAA, Jousse H, et al. “Lakeside cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 years of Holocene population and environmental change.” PLoS One. 2008;3:e2995.

    Approximately two hundred human burials were discovered on the edge of a paleolake in Niger that provide a uniquely preserved record of human occupation in the Sahara during the Holocene (~8000 B.C.E. to the present). Called Gobero, this suite of closely spaced sites chronicles the rapid pace of biosocial change in the southern Sahara in response to severe climatic fluctuation. Two main occupational phases are identified that correspond with humid intervals in the early and mid-Holocene, based on 78 direct AMS radiocarbon dates on human remains, fauna and artifacts, as well as 9 OSL dates on paleodune sand.

    The older occupants have craniofacial dimensions that demonstrate similarities with mid-Holocene occupants of the southern Sahara and Late Pleistocene to early Holocene inhabitants of the Maghreb. Their hyperflexed burials compose the earliest cemetery in the Sahara dating to ~7500 B.C.E. These early occupants abandon the area under arid conditions and, when humid conditions return ~4600 B.C.E., are replaced by a more gracile people with elaborated grave goods including animal bone and ivory ornaments.

    The principal significance of Gobero lies in its extraordinary human, faunal, and archaeological record, from which we conclude the following:

    1.The early Holocene occupants at Gobero (7700–6200 B.C.E.) were largely sedentary hunter-fisher-gatherers with lakeside funerary sites that include the earliest recorded cemetery in the Sahara.
    2.Principal components analysis of craniometric variables closely allies the early Holocene occupants at Gobero with a skeletally robust, trans-Saharan assemblage of Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene human populations from the Maghreb and southern Sahara.
    3.Gobero was abandoned during a period of severe aridification possibly as long as one millennium (6200–5200 B.C.E).
    4.More gracile humans arrived in the mid-Holocene (5200–2500 B.C.E.) employing a diversified subsistence economy based on clams, fish, and savanna vertebrates as well as some cattle husbandry.
    5.Population replacement after a harsh arid hiatus is the most likely explanation for the occupational sequence at Gobero.
    6.We are just beginning to understand the anatomical and cultural diversity that existed within the Sahara during the Holocene.

    The Neolithic revolution appears in Egypt around 6000 B.C.E. and the Egyptian historic record goes back to about 3100 B.C.E., so these dates would be in a pre-historic period in Egypt, after it had adopted farming and herding, but before it had adopted writing, which explains why there is no historical record of their migration.

    Identifying the proto-Chadic people with the humans who arrived at Gobero on the shores of Lake Chad around 5200 B.C.E. is a good fit for all of the data. And genetics and archaeology also tell us a lot about how they got to their final destination.

    Proto-Chadic men (with Y-DNA R1b-V88) took Cushitic women as wives (probably no earlier than about 6000 B.C.E. when herding reaches Egypt) and then migrated West to Lake Chad where they arrive around 5200 BCE.

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  • The Eurogenes blog is running a fundraiser. I chipped in mostly to support his continued blogging. I don't agree with everything he posts, but the site is a good and valuable resource. "Genome blogging" hasn't gotten as far as I'd have thought it would have in 2010, mostly because the initial burst of enthusiasm wasn't...
  • @ohwilleke

    Like a colossus I look east, and I look west, and stand athwart Eurasia bridging the gap.
     
    No self-esteem problems for this blogger, no siree! ;)

    About the PCA map.

    * I find it interesting how central the Native American populations are within the Siberian cluster. I would have expected it to be more shifted towards the East Asian side.

    * Query if the cluster from Europe to Siberia to East Asia represents an group of non-Africans sourced in an ancestral Northern route population, while the cluster from Europe to South Asia to Sahul represents a group of non-Africans sourced in an ancestral Southern route population.

    Could the Southern route population would be marginally closer to the African direction of the axis, perhaps because it was a bit earlier than a northern route migration?

    * It is also notable how compact the East Asian population is in PCA phase space compared to the South Asian population, even though both have comparable total population numbers and comparable geographic extent.

    * The key seems to indicate that Southeast Asians are not represented in the data set. Presumably they would be somewhere between South Asians and East Asians.

    * Looks like you could fully reproduce the PCA in quite a bit of detail with admixture blends of four eigenvector populations (Sub-Saharan African, European, East Asian, Sahul).

    * It is also interesting how much of the PCA phase space is completely empty. Tiger Woods would have a spot on the chart a huge distance from every single one of the reference populations somewhere roughly in the middle of both axes.

    Some things, like the location of the Native Americans in a continuum between modern Europe and East Asia along dimensions (PC’s) 1 and 2 are a feature of the method. They would be more removed from that continuum if further PC’s were shown. In fact, depending on sampling, Native Americans might not be there even along dimensions 1/2 – an example of this happening can be seen in one global PCA included in Lazaridis et al. 2014 supplements. If there were enough Papuans or Native Americans, they would be at the end of PC 2 instead of East Asians, in this analysis they “peak” in other PC’s from 3 onwards.

    PCA and ADMIXTURE are similar in that number of samples, not just their type, has an effect on the result, complicating interpretation. More on that here if you’re interested: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/07/28/066431

    Read More
    • Replies: @Davidski

    PCA and ADMIXTURE are similar in that number of samples, not just their type, has an effect on the result, complicating interpretation.
     
    Your post in irrelevant to this PCA.

    Use the 10 PCs and you will get accurate models.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Like a colossus I look east, and I look west, and stand athwart Eurasia bridging the gap.

    No self-esteem problems for this blogger, no siree! ;)

    About the PCA map.

    * I find it interesting how central the Native American populations are within the Siberian cluster. I would have expected it to be more shifted towards the East Asian side.

    * Query if the cluster from Europe to Siberia to East Asia represents an group of non-Africans sourced in an ancestral Northern route population, while the cluster from Europe to South Asia to Sahul represents a group of non-Africans sourced in an ancestral Southern route population.

    Could the Southern route population would be marginally closer to the African direction of the axis, perhaps because it was a bit earlier than a northern route migration?

    * It is also notable how compact the East Asian population is in PCA phase space compared to the South Asian population, even though both have comparable total population numbers and comparable geographic extent.

    * The key seems to indicate that Southeast Asians are not represented in the data set. Presumably they would be somewhere between South Asians and East Asians.

    * Looks like you could fully reproduce the PCA in quite a bit of detail with admixture blends of four eigenvector populations (Sub-Saharan African, European, East Asian, Sahul).

    * It is also interesting how much of the PCA phase space is completely empty. Tiger Woods would have a spot on the chart a huge distance from every single one of the reference populations somewhere roughly in the middle of both axes.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Shaikorth
    Some things, like the location of the Native Americans in a continuum between modern Europe and East Asia along dimensions (PC’s) 1 and 2 are a feature of the method. They would be more removed from that continuum if further PC’s were shown. In fact, depending on sampling, Native Americans might not be there even along dimensions 1/2 – an example of this happening can be seen in one global PCA included in Lazaridis et al. 2014 supplements. If there were enough Papuans or Native Americans, they would be at the end of PC 2 instead of East Asians, in this analysis they “peak” in other PC’s from 3 onwards.

    PCA and ADMIXTURE are similar in that number of samples, not just their type, has an effect on the result, complicating interpretation. More on that here if you’re interested: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/07/28/066431

    , @Davidski

    I find it interesting how central the Native American populations are within the Siberian cluster. I would have expected it to be more shifted towards the East Asian side.
     
    This is not a typical Global PCA. That's why you can get accurate ancient and recent ancestry proportions from the 10 PCs, even for highly drifted populations.

    Karitiana Indians come out like this.

    Ulchi 64.45
    AfontovaGora3 34.2
    Dai 1.35

    And Kalash...

    Iran_Neolithic:I1945 38.6
    Paniya 20.2
    Yamnaya_Samara:I0357 17.4
    Afanasievo:RISE509 16.55
    Andronovo:RISE505 3.8
    Iran_Late_Neolithic:I1671 3.45
    Iran_Hotu:I1293 0
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Marcus
    Well Bengal is where the Mongolid and Caucasoid traits start to intermix, right? Of course phenotype =/ genotype.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakma_people
    Coincidentally I recently read something like this http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/manipuri-woman-alleges-racism-harassment-at-delhi-airport-s-immigration-desk/story-yoylKApQWGqZRGJwjRNFQM.html

    The entire northeastern population gets abused in Delhi. Correction, all women get abused in Delhi. Correction again, the abuse starts when the train from Assam enters Bihar. Something about women wearing pants, etc. etc. Bimaru is a curse on India.

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  • @Marcus
    Well Bengal is where the Mongolid and Caucasoid traits start to intermix, right? Of course phenotype =/ genotype.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakma_people
    Coincidentally I recently read something like this http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/manipuri-woman-alleges-racism-harassment-at-delhi-airport-s-immigration-desk/story-yoylKApQWGqZRGJwjRNFQM.html

    it’s a pulse admixture happened 1 to 2 thousand years ago. but yeah. also, the south asian ancestry spills over into burma.

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    • Replies: @Qagan
    Dear Razib Khan,

    Do Southeast Asians such as Burmese, Cambodians, Malays and Thais have minor ANI/West Eurasian ancestry and how much? I ask this because I notice SE Asians usually score quite substantial South Asian component in ADMIXTURE calculators. So I wonder if they have very minor ANI/West Eurasian that comes with the South Asian component or is their "South Asian" component just ASI/ASI-like?

    I will appreciate your generous reply to my inquiry.

    Thank you very much and best regards,
    Qagan

    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Well Bengal is where the Mongolid and Caucasoid traits start to intermix, right? Of course phenotype =/ genotype.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakma_people

    Coincidentally I recently read something like this http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/manipuri-woman-alleges-racism-harassment-at-delhi-airport-s-immigration-desk/story-yoylKApQWGqZRGJwjRNFQM.html

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    • Replies: @Razib Khan
    it's a pulse admixture happened 1 to 2 thousand years ago. but yeah. also, the south asian ancestry spills over into burma.
    , @vijay
    The entire northeastern population gets abused in Delhi. Correction, all women get abused in Delhi. Correction again, the abuse starts when the train from Assam enters Bihar. Something about women wearing pants, etc. etc. Bimaru is a curse on India.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • Went to Z & Y in San Francisco recently. Second time. Still have to give Mala in Houston better marks. A friend who has been to both agrees. Been busy working recently. But obviously a lot is going on in science and non-science....
  • @iffen
    Neither do I – except their rotten governments.

    Not anymore! :)

    Ha ha! The Trump doth triumph!

    I anxiously await his metamorphosis into Shai Hulud and his plotting our future firmly on the Golden Path!

    “‘The problem of leadership is inevitably: Who will play god?’ Paul Muad’Dib”

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God_Emperor_of_Dune

    Peace.

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  • @Talha
    Hey Twinkie,

    I don’t harbor any hostility toward Anglophone countries
     
    Neither do I - except their rotten governments. But I was more talking on a personal level, if you ever find yourself in a walk-twenty-paces-turn-and-fire scenario with an Anglo that underestimates you - totally to your advantage.

    I forgot all bout the Japanese going crazy in the Pacific theater and rampaging over Malaysia, Indonesia, etc. You may be onto something with the kinds of immigrants they received from those places. Maybe if there were more Triad running around, we'd have Godfather-like movies in popular culture defining the perception.

    Peace.

    Neither do I – except their rotten governments.

    Not anymore! :)

    Read More
    • Replies: @Talha
    Ha ha! The Trump doth triumph!

    I anxiously await his metamorphosis into Shai Hulud and his plotting our future firmly on the Golden Path!

    "'The problem of leadership is inevitably: Who will play god?' Paul Muad'Dib”
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God_Emperor_of_Dune

    Peace.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Twinkie

    I say let them keep their delusions – they won’t know what hit ‘em when it does.
     
    I don't know exactly what you mean, but I don't harbor any hostility toward Anglophone countries. I am, dare I say, fond of them.

    Anybody that has read into (even partially) the martial history of China and Japan should know these are foolish notions.
     
    Martial history is typically elite history and may be unreflective of the general population. Also, Japan has not done well in shooting sports. It has had only one gold medal in Olympic shooting (Korea has had 7 while China has had over 20).

    Possibly because it’s because Anglos are the ones that militarily dominated those East Asian countries – French were too busy in Africa, Spaniards were all over the place but not China and Japan. A whiff of ‘rule, rule Britannia’…
     
    That explanation is unsatisfactory, to say the least. Many nations participated in the colonial domination of China (see the troops that suppressed the Boxer Rebellion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion#/media/File:Boxer2y.jpg). In fact, the German Foreign Office edited Kaiser Wilhelm II's embarrassing "Hun speech" (http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/503_Wilhelm%20II_Hun%20Speech_84.pdf)... which some blame for the atrocities and looting that followed: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion#Occupation.2C_looting_and_atrocities

    Japan was not militarily dominated by anybody until the Pacific War, and even then only by the might of the United States. Britain, France, and the Netherlands all suffered humiliations when the Japanese ran amok in the early part of the war. The Fall of Singapore, in particular, was the most shameful defeat Great Britain suffered in modern history.

    My suspicion is that the asexual Asian nerd stereotype is strong in the Anglophone countries due to the size and particular selection of immigrants from East Asia they received. Other European countries with far fewer East Asians tend to exoticize them and sometimes ascribe to them a different set of traits.

    Hey Twinkie,

    I don’t harbor any hostility toward Anglophone countries

    Neither do I – except their rotten governments. But I was more talking on a personal level, if you ever find yourself in a walk-twenty-paces-turn-and-fire scenario with an Anglo that underestimates you – totally to your advantage.

    I forgot all bout the Japanese going crazy in the Pacific theater and rampaging over Malaysia, Indonesia, etc. You may be onto something with the kinds of immigrants they received from those places. Maybe if there were more Triad running around, we’d have Godfather-like movies in popular culture defining the perception.

    Peace.

    Read More
    • Replies: @iffen
    Neither do I – except their rotten governments.

    Not anymore! :)
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Talha
    Hey Twinkie,

    there is this persistent stereotype that East Asians are coke bottle glasses-wearing nerds who can’t shoot well
     
    I say let them keep their delusions - they won't know what hit 'em when it does. Anybody that has read into (even partially) the martial history of China and Japan should know these are foolish notions.

    that stereotype seems to be limited largely to Anglophone countries
     
    Possibly because it's because Anglos are the ones that militarily dominated those East Asian countries - French were too busy in Africa, Spaniards were all over the place but not China and Japan. A whiff of 'rule, rule Britannia'...

    Peace.

    I say let them keep their delusions – they won’t know what hit ‘em when it does.

    I don’t know exactly what you mean, but I don’t harbor any hostility toward Anglophone countries. I am, dare I say, fond of them.

    Anybody that has read into (even partially) the martial history of China and Japan should know these are foolish notions.

    Martial history is typically elite history and may be unreflective of the general population. Also, Japan has not done well in shooting sports. It has had only one gold medal in Olympic shooting (Korea has had 7 while China has had over 20).

    Possibly because it’s because Anglos are the ones that militarily dominated those East Asian countries – French were too busy in Africa, Spaniards were all over the place but not China and Japan. A whiff of ‘rule, rule Britannia’…

    That explanation is unsatisfactory, to say the least. Many nations participated in the colonial domination of China (see the troops that suppressed the Boxer Rebellion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion#/media/File:Boxer2y.jpg). In fact, the German Foreign Office edited Kaiser Wilhelm II’s embarrassing “Hun speech” (http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/503_Wilhelm%20II_Hun%20Speech_84.pdf)… which some blame for the atrocities and looting that followed: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion#Occupation.2C_looting_and_atrocities

    Japan was not militarily dominated by anybody until the Pacific War, and even then only by the might of the United States. Britain, France, and the Netherlands all suffered humiliations when the Japanese ran amok in the early part of the war. The Fall of Singapore, in particular, was the most shameful defeat Great Britain suffered in modern history.

    My suspicion is that the asexual Asian nerd stereotype is strong in the Anglophone countries due to the size and particular selection of immigrants from East Asia they received. Other European countries with far fewer East Asians tend to exoticize them and sometimes ascribe to them a different set of traits.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Talha
    Hey Twinkie,

    I don’t harbor any hostility toward Anglophone countries
     
    Neither do I - except their rotten governments. But I was more talking on a personal level, if you ever find yourself in a walk-twenty-paces-turn-and-fire scenario with an Anglo that underestimates you - totally to your advantage.

    I forgot all bout the Japanese going crazy in the Pacific theater and rampaging over Malaysia, Indonesia, etc. You may be onto something with the kinds of immigrants they received from those places. Maybe if there were more Triad running around, we'd have Godfather-like movies in popular culture defining the perception.

    Peace.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Twinkie

    Snipers often don’t fit the assumed archetype
     
    Actually the stereotype of a sniper is usually that of a somewhat physically dimunitive, unassuming person who blends in well - in other words, they don't look like Arnold Schwarzenegger in "Commando" or any number of other freakishly large and muscular movie tough guys. A friend of mine is a retired SF sniper. He's about 5' 7" on a good day and slightly built. He is a great shooter, to be sure, but his fieldcraft is truly amazing.

    And the following point is somewhat tangentially related to John Massey's earlier comment about Sing not fitting "the mythical image of the big bronzed Anzac," but it's something I found odd. For some reason, in the Anglosphere, there is this persistent stereotype that East Asians are coke bottle glasses-wearing nerds who can't shoot well... which is odd given that East Asians dominate several international shooting sports. For example, of the last four men to win Olympic gold medals in 10m air pistol, three were Chinese or Korean. The fourth, the latest winner, was Vietnamese (he beat out a Brazilian national, Felipe Wu, who won silver).

    And that stereotype seems to be limited largely to Anglophone countries (minus Canada) while other Europeans don't appear to harbor it. I did some training with Norwegians at one point, and those guys assumed that I was the best shooter in my team, probably because of my ethnicity (the rest of the team was all white).

    Hey Twinkie,

    there is this persistent stereotype that East Asians are coke bottle glasses-wearing nerds who can’t shoot well

    I say let them keep their delusions – they won’t know what hit ‘em when it does. Anybody that has read into (even partially) the martial history of China and Japan should know these are foolish notions.

    that stereotype seems to be limited largely to Anglophone countries

    Possibly because it’s because Anglos are the ones that militarily dominated those East Asian countries – French were too busy in Africa, Spaniards were all over the place but not China and Japan. A whiff of ‘rule, rule Britannia’…

    Peace.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Twinkie

    I say let them keep their delusions – they won’t know what hit ‘em when it does.
     
    I don't know exactly what you mean, but I don't harbor any hostility toward Anglophone countries. I am, dare I say, fond of them.

    Anybody that has read into (even partially) the martial history of China and Japan should know these are foolish notions.
     
    Martial history is typically elite history and may be unreflective of the general population. Also, Japan has not done well in shooting sports. It has had only one gold medal in Olympic shooting (Korea has had 7 while China has had over 20).

    Possibly because it’s because Anglos are the ones that militarily dominated those East Asian countries – French were too busy in Africa, Spaniards were all over the place but not China and Japan. A whiff of ‘rule, rule Britannia’…
     
    That explanation is unsatisfactory, to say the least. Many nations participated in the colonial domination of China (see the troops that suppressed the Boxer Rebellion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion#/media/File:Boxer2y.jpg). In fact, the German Foreign Office edited Kaiser Wilhelm II's embarrassing "Hun speech" (http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/503_Wilhelm%20II_Hun%20Speech_84.pdf)... which some blame for the atrocities and looting that followed: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion#Occupation.2C_looting_and_atrocities

    Japan was not militarily dominated by anybody until the Pacific War, and even then only by the might of the United States. Britain, France, and the Netherlands all suffered humiliations when the Japanese ran amok in the early part of the war. The Fall of Singapore, in particular, was the most shameful defeat Great Britain suffered in modern history.

    My suspicion is that the asexual Asian nerd stereotype is strong in the Anglophone countries due to the size and particular selection of immigrants from East Asia they received. Other European countries with far fewer East Asians tend to exoticize them and sometimes ascribe to them a different set of traits.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Twinkie
    I have no opinion on Derek Black's musical ability, whatever his genre. My "pity" comment was regarding what appears to me to be his swaying from one extreme to another. When people do a dramatic shift as he did, it tends not to put their former associations in disrepute. It would have been better if he had disavowed white supremacism and then continued on his life as more-or-less a normal person (perhaps get his Ph.D. in medieval history and become an academic) rather than someone who seems like a wannabe-black social justice warrior.

    Hey Twinkie,

    Can’t argue with that logic. He’s young, maybe it’s just a phase – he might just calibrate into the normal spectrum in a few years after having lived on the flip side of the coin.

    Peace.

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    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @John Massey
    Billy Sing was 5'5" - same height as my daughter.

    A movie has just been released about the female Russian sniper Liudmyla Pavlychenko, one of the most successful snipers of all time. According to Wikipedia, the Red Army had 2,000 female snipers in WWII, of whom only 500 survived the war.

    Hey JM,

    Reminds me of the female snipers of the Chechen insurgency, dubbed the ‘White Widows’.

    Peace.

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  • Tad Williams has a new book set in Osten Ard, The Heart of What Was Lost. At only 224 pages it seems more like a novella compared to what he produced for his original series. The last of that of that trilogy, Memory, Sorrow, and Thorn, To Green Angel Tower, weighed in at more than...
  • I am still waiting for you to review Seven Eves.

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  • Went to Z & Y in San Francisco recently. Second time. Still have to give Mala in Houston better marks. A friend who has been to both agrees. Been busy working recently. But obviously a lot is going on in science and non-science....
  • @John Massey
    Billy Sing was 5'5" - same height as my daughter.

    A movie has just been released about the female Russian sniper Liudmyla Pavlychenko, one of the most successful snipers of all time. According to Wikipedia, the Red Army had 2,000 female snipers in WWII, of whom only 500 survived the war.

    According to Wikipedia, the Red Army had 2,000 female snipers in WWII, of whom only 500 survived the war.

    I take the Red Army propaganda about its female combatants, snipers included, with a giant grain of salt. Communists had a thing for egalitarianism – including that of the sexes – and had a penchant for heroic pronouncements about the supposed battle performances of their female revolutionary comrades. Most of them was so much hot air.

    I might have mentioned before that I have trained a fairly large number of people in shooting. By far, women had the best attitudes. Most were initially apprehensive, but generally listened well, followed directions well, and were careful. It was easy to make most them decent shooters in short order (the hardest female to train was my own wife, who already had existing shooting experience before I taught her – so she had a lot of bad habits that were hard to break). Usually once females get over the flinching and anticipating recoil, they do well.

    Most men were not so cooperative. Most had TV knowledge of gun handling (which is far worse than no knowledge) and refused to be taught until sufficiently embarrassed. However, the ones who were naturally gifted and/or learned well turned out to be superb shooters, far better than any female I trained.

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  • @Talha

    He was a small, skinny man with a notable East Asian cast to his appearance, and just didn’t fit the mythical image of the big bronzed Anzac.
     
    Snipers often don't fit the assumed archetype - the "White Death" stood at about the same height as my wife:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simo_H%C3%A4yh%C3%A4

    Peace.

    Snipers often don’t fit the assumed archetype

    Actually the stereotype of a sniper is usually that of a somewhat physically dimunitive, unassuming person who blends in well – in other words, they don’t look like Arnold Schwarzenegger in “Commando” or any number of other freakishly large and muscular movie tough guys. A friend of mine is a retired SF sniper. He’s about 5′ 7″ on a good day and slightly built. He is a great shooter, to be sure, but his fieldcraft is truly amazing.

    And the following point is somewhat tangentially related to John Massey’s earlier comment about Sing not fitting “the mythical image of the big bronzed Anzac,” but it’s something I found odd. For some reason, in the Anglosphere, there is this persistent stereotype that East Asians are coke bottle glasses-wearing nerds who can’t shoot well… which is odd given that East Asians dominate several international shooting sports. For example, of the last four men to win Olympic gold medals in 10m air pistol, three were Chinese or Korean. The fourth, the latest winner, was Vietnamese (he beat out a Brazilian national, Felipe Wu, who won silver).

    And that stereotype seems to be limited largely to Anglophone countries (minus Canada) while other Europeans don’t appear to harbor it. I did some training with Norwegians at one point, and those guys assumed that I was the best shooter in my team, probably because of my ethnicity (the rest of the team was all white).

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    • Replies: @Talha
    Hey Twinkie,

    there is this persistent stereotype that East Asians are coke bottle glasses-wearing nerds who can’t shoot well
     
    I say let them keep their delusions - they won't know what hit 'em when it does. Anybody that has read into (even partially) the martial history of China and Japan should know these are foolish notions.

    that stereotype seems to be limited largely to Anglophone countries
     
    Possibly because it's because Anglos are the ones that militarily dominated those East Asian countries - French were too busy in Africa, Spaniards were all over the place but not China and Japan. A whiff of 'rule, rule Britannia'...

    Peace.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Talha
    Hey Twinkie,

    Don't knock it man - the White boys can bring it!

    One of the absolute best on-your-feet-free-styling I have ever heard:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XAu1WVtD1Xc

    Peace.

    I have no opinion on Derek Black’s musical ability, whatever his genre. My “pity” comment was regarding what appears to me to be his swaying from one extreme to another. When people do a dramatic shift as he did, it tends not to put their former associations in disrepute. It would have been better if he had disavowed white supremacism and then continued on his life as more-or-less a normal person (perhaps get his Ph.D. in medieval history and become an academic) rather than someone who seems like a wannabe-black social justice warrior.

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    • Replies: @Talha
    Hey Twinkie,

    Can't argue with that logic. He's young, maybe it's just a phase - he might just calibrate into the normal spectrum in a few years after having lived on the flip side of the coin.

    Peace.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @Talha

    He was a small, skinny man with a notable East Asian cast to his appearance, and just didn’t fit the mythical image of the big bronzed Anzac.
     
    Snipers often don't fit the assumed archetype - the "White Death" stood at about the same height as my wife:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simo_H%C3%A4yh%C3%A4

    Peace.

    Billy Sing was 5’5″ – same height as my daughter.

    A movie has just been released about the female Russian sniper Liudmyla Pavlychenko, one of the most successful snipers of all time. According to Wikipedia, the Red Army had 2,000 female snipers in WWII, of whom only 500 survived the war.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Twinkie

    According to Wikipedia, the Red Army had 2,000 female snipers in WWII, of whom only 500 survived the war.
     
    I take the Red Army propaganda about its female combatants, snipers included, with a giant grain of salt. Communists had a thing for egalitarianism - including that of the sexes - and had a penchant for heroic pronouncements about the supposed battle performances of their female revolutionary comrades. Most of them was so much hot air.

    I might have mentioned before that I have trained a fairly large number of people in shooting. By far, women had the best attitudes. Most were initially apprehensive, but generally listened well, followed directions well, and were careful. It was easy to make most them decent shooters in short order (the hardest female to train was my own wife, who already had existing shooting experience before I taught her - so she had a lot of bad habits that were hard to break). Usually once females get over the flinching and anticipating recoil, they do well.

    Most men were not so cooperative. Most had TV knowledge of gun handling (which is far worse than no knowledge) and refused to be taught until sufficiently embarrassed. However, the ones who were naturally gifted and/or learned well turned out to be superb shooters, far better than any female I trained.
    , @Talha
    Hey JM,

    Reminds me of the female snipers of the Chechen insurgency, dubbed the 'White Widows'.

    Peace.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • I began playing video games as a child after the crash of 1983. At the time I wasn't aware of the tumult in the culture and the technology scene that that had caused. Video games were just fun, not the it thing I suppose. Perhaps as an analogy it would be like getting online in...
  • @Tobus
    Didn't Nintendo have some kind of finger in the Pokemon Go pie?

    Indirectly, yes, but it would ultimately amount to approximately 10% of the revenue. That 10% is through the stake they own in The Pokémon Company.

    That said, the (indirect) impact of the game on the sales of the Nintendo 3DS and the Pokémon games there have had a much larger impact on the bottom line. Pokémon Sun/Moon, for instance, has managed to sell more during its launch week than any other game Nintendo has published, in the United Kingdom. That represents more than double what the last main series entries did.
    In fact, the entire reason the 3DS is actually up year-on-year despite the weakest Q2/Q3 software lineup it had since 2011 is entirely because of Pokémon Go. Given the Black Friday sales the 3DS has received in the US this year, I wouldn’t be surprised to see 3DS sales this year beat that of the past three years.

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  • @anonitron1
    Nah, the handheld console market is basically the only profit driver Nintendo still has going for it and it has a near monopoly in that space. Getting people to pay for smartphone games is still an iffy proposition.

    Also, get your brother an Android phone and load it with all the old Nintendo games it can hold. Not only will he be getting something genuinely useful (a phone!) there'll be one less piece of plastic kitsch cluttering up his living room.

    Didn’t Nintendo have some kind of finger in the Pokemon Go pie?

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    • Replies: @tamako
    Indirectly, yes, but it would ultimately amount to approximately 10% of the revenue. That 10% is through the stake they own in The Pokémon Company.

    That said, the (indirect) impact of the game on the sales of the Nintendo 3DS and the Pokémon games there have had a much larger impact on the bottom line. Pokémon Sun/Moon, for instance, has managed to sell more during its launch week than any other game Nintendo has published, in the United Kingdom. That represents more than double what the last main series entries did.
    In fact, the entire reason the 3DS is actually up year-on-year despite the weakest Q2/Q3 software lineup it had since 2011 is entirely because of Pokémon Go. Given the Black Friday sales the 3DS has received in the US this year, I wouldn't be surprised to see 3DS sales this year beat that of the past three years.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • I spruced up my personal website recently. It was getting sort of cluttered. Also, the new theme should look better on mobile. Not sure how long Twitter will be around, but as long as it's around, make sure to follow me. Got my copy of The Atheist Muslim: A Journey from Religion to Reason. I'm...
  • In 2010, four ancient samples were sequenced, he reported. Twenty or 30 more were sequenced in 2014. “In 2015, things went into hyper-drive, and several hundred samples were sequenced,” said Reich. “We’ve sequenced more than 1,000 samples in our own lab—there’s not enough time to publish” all the data they are collecting.

    https://nihrecord.nih.gov/newsletters/2016/10_21_2016/story1.htm

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  • Went to Z & Y in San Francisco recently. Second time. Still have to give Mala in Houston better marks. A friend who has been to both agrees. Been busy working recently. But obviously a lot is going on in science and non-science....
  • @Twinkie

    The white flight of Derek Black
     
    I don't recall, but I read elsewhere that he now has a black girl friend, sports dreadlocks, and is making a go of it as a rap artist.

    Pity. There is a rather wide spectrum of lifestyles betwen that and being a front man for StormFront.

    Hey Twinkie,

    Don’t knock it man – the White boys can bring it!

    One of the absolute best on-your-feet-free-styling I have ever heard:

    Peace.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Twinkie
    I have no opinion on Derek Black's musical ability, whatever his genre. My "pity" comment was regarding what appears to me to be his swaying from one extreme to another. When people do a dramatic shift as he did, it tends not to put their former associations in disrepute. It would have been better if he had disavowed white supremacism and then continued on his life as more-or-less a normal person (perhaps get his Ph.D. in medieval history and become an academic) rather than someone who seems like a wannabe-black social justice warrior.
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • @John Massey
    I have known about Billy Sing since I was a young teenager, because I loved Idriess' writing and avidly devoured everything he ever published. But I would guess very few Australians knew of Sing or acknowledged him as any kind of Australian war hero. He was a small, skinny man with a notable East Asian cast to his appearance, and just didn't fit the mythical image of the big bronzed Anzac. His efforts were recognised by the Australian military at the time, but he was soon forgotten after the war. And yes, he did die in impoverished obscurity.

    I was first pleased when I heard that a TV series about him was being planned, but then outraged when they cast Anglo-Australian actors in the parts of Billy and his father. There was some criticism voiced by the Australian Chinese community, but the producers just fobbed it off with some bullshit about how they didn't have a big enough budget to go looking for actors of more authentic appearance. Disgusted, I made a point of not watching the series. It seems to have made little impression - I certainly didn't see any critical acclaim of it, but then I didn't go looking.

    Just colour me appalled by the whole embarrassing mess.

    He was a small, skinny man with a notable East Asian cast to his appearance, and just didn’t fit the mythical image of the big bronzed Anzac.

    Snipers often don’t fit the assumed archetype – the “White Death” stood at about the same height as my wife:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simo_H%C3%A4yh%C3%A4

    Peace.

    Read More
    • Replies: @John Massey
    Billy Sing was 5'5" - same height as my daughter.

    A movie has just been released about the female Russian sniper Liudmyla Pavlychenko, one of the most successful snipers of all time. According to Wikipedia, the Red Army had 2,000 female snipers in WWII, of whom only 500 survived the war.
    , @Twinkie

    Snipers often don’t fit the assumed archetype
     
    Actually the stereotype of a sniper is usually that of a somewhat physically dimunitive, unassuming person who blends in well - in other words, they don't look like Arnold Schwarzenegger in "Commando" or any number of other freakishly large and muscular movie tough guys. A friend of mine is a retired SF sniper. He's about 5' 7" on a good day and slightly built. He is a great shooter, to be sure, but his fieldcraft is truly amazing.

    And the following point is somewhat tangentially related to John Massey's earlier comment about Sing not fitting "the mythical image of the big bronzed Anzac," but it's something I found odd. For some reason, in the Anglosphere, there is this persistent stereotype that East Asians are coke bottle glasses-wearing nerds who can't shoot well... which is odd given that East Asians dominate several international shooting sports. For example, of the last four men to win Olympic gold medals in 10m air pistol, three were Chinese or Korean. The fourth, the latest winner, was Vietnamese (he beat out a Brazilian national, Felipe Wu, who won silver).

    And that stereotype seems to be limited largely to Anglophone countries (minus Canada) while other Europeans don't appear to harbor it. I did some training with Norwegians at one point, and those guys assumed that I was the best shooter in my team, probably because of my ethnicity (the rest of the team was all white).
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc.
  • I began playing video games as a child after the crash of 1983. At the time I wasn't aware of the tumult in the culture and the technology scene that that had caused. Video games were just fun, not the it thing I suppose. Perhaps as an analogy it would be like getting online in...
  • @Anonymous
    TurboGrafx was a product's name, not the brand of it.

    Arch-smart guys, many of them however, already had computers in the 80s and 90s. The more intelligence-taxing games were made for the computers.

    Smart guys and average nerds had video game consoles. Their games were hard too, compared to today's mainstream games.

    Parents hated video games. They made their offspring bad students, and asocial, they feared.

    The lucky others enjoyed life as young.

    Today the "lucky ones" spend their day time enslaved by small portable device screens and the Internet, their mind engorged in a vortex of mediocrity and cultural noise.

    As for nerds and arch-nerds, I wonder how many under-20 people are, for example, Unz readers.

    I was big into the TurboGrafx-16 as a kid. I got absolutely everything related to it, including the drive for the CD-ROM games (which was way ahead of its time, even if the games were not that good) and the TurboExpress which could take the small, card-sized cartridges of the regular consol. Of course the platform bombed, which meant I (or rather, my parents, at that age) wasted tons of money. I was burned enough by it that I stopped console gaming entirely by 1991 or so and shifted to PC gaming. I ultimately found I didn’t really like action games (I was much more into adventure games, or later on turn-based strategy and western-style CRPGS) so consoles ended up being a poor fit for me.

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  • @Anonymous
    TurboGrafx was a product's name, not the brand of it.

    Arch-smart guys, many of them however, already had computers in the 80s and 90s. The more intelligence-taxing games were made for the computers.

    Smart guys and average nerds had video game consoles. Their games were hard too, compared to today's mainstream games.

    Parents hated video games. They made their offspring bad students, and asocial, they feared.

    The lucky others enjoyed life as young.

    Today the "lucky ones" spend their day time enslaved by small portable device screens and the Internet, their mind engorged in a vortex of mediocrity and cultural noise.

    As for nerds and arch-nerds, I wonder how many under-20 people are, for example, Unz readers.

    I’m surrounded by those “lucky ones” in a (Computer) engineering course. I have to say that it feels both oddly comforting and disconcerting to be the only one in the room who isn’t panicking or making hay about knowing nothing about the topics on an exam about sequential logic circuits.
    While I can’t claim to be entirely separate from them, for I do join in occasionally as to not be completely isolate, I do have to wonder how they maintain this.

    I’ve been recommending specific authors in the Unz Review, though, to friends who are at least receptive to what goes here. I know of only one other person who was receptive to Trump’s electoral victory in my college, so it may be imagined that they are few and far between, but they do exist. I just have to help them keep their heads above water.

    I have gotten into the realm of Grand Strategy in the past few months. I particularly recommend a game like Europa Universalis IV to jump into the genre, though even at game can take at least a dozen hours to get used to. Paradox Interactive has done a great job of making any nation – bar Byzantium – a viable contender to become a great empire by the end of the game. Of course, there are always mods to change the experience when it does get stale.
    A runner-up would be Darkest Hour, dated it may be. It’s a great introduction to wargames, and the mods for it are fantastic, too, if rather easy to break. By “break,” I mean forcing scenarios like a Mongolia eating most of Siberia if Russia gets into a civil war. The events system in the game is rather rigid.

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  • I spruced up my personal website recently. It was getting sort of cluttered. Also, the new theme should look better on mobile. Not sure how long Twitter will be around, but as long as it's around, make sure to follow me. Got my copy of The Atheist Muslim: A Journey from Religion to Reason. I'm...
  • @Razib Khan
    Yeah. Cf how Protestant norms have impacted American Catholics and Jews. Reform Judaism , for example, can be read as a “Protestantized” version of Judaism.



    reform judaism went pretty far in this direction. many non-reform jews complained that reform temples felt like protestant churches (with organs?). also, reform disavowed jewish nationhood in the 19th century. but over the past generation reform has become more 'traditionalist,' including embracing nationhood and such. i think part of it is that jews don't need to compromise with a very dominant xtian mainstream culture anymore.

    Many parts of the Reform Jewish service were expressly modelled on church worship. The early Reformers admired the pageantry / majesty / decorum of Christian religious services — traditional Jewish services are chaotic and free-wheeling by comparison.

    There were places (mostly Europe, in the 19th c., IIRC) where Reform Jews observed their principal day of worship on Sunday — for the same reason.

    I think the move back to traditionalism in Reform Judaism is partly due to lack of a “need to compromise” as Razib mentions — the other side of this coin is a renewed desire to affirm a sort of cultural or religious identity, and a recognition that Reform Judaism as it was being practiced in the mid-20th century typically led directly to disaffiliation or assimilation.

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  • I too am having issues with the RSS feed. In my case I think I’m subscribed to the Razib Khan Total Feed or something. Lately it is kicking out old articles (from late 2015) as “new”. Not sure what is going on.

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  • If you follow Y genealogy you know that the distribution of R1ba2 exhibits a peculiar pattern. R1b is the most common haplgroup in Western Eurasia, and shares a deep common ancestry with R1a. It seems to have risen to high frequencies in Europe only during the Bronze Age, though has been found in earlier periods....
  • In my opinion when the Sahara was green there was bi-directional gene-flow. Chad, Algeria/Tunisia/Libya, and Sardinia all have several variants of R-V88 plus African Y-DNA haplogroup A, etc. Plus the highest frequency HLA haplotype in Sardinians among various populations across the whole island is A30-Cw5-B18-DR3-DQ2, which is a very disequilibrated haplotype shared with Berbers, Chadic speakers [eg Podoko or Ouldeme], Senegalese Mandenka, Ghanaians, and Sudanese. The haplotype has several recombinants in Africa, and the alleles which the haplotype is composed from are all found at highest frequency and diversity in the African populations, indicating that the haplotype originated in Africa and not Sardinia.

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  • Went to Z & Y in San Francisco recently. Second time. Still have to give Mala in Houston better marks. A friend who has been to both agrees. Been busy working recently. But obviously a lot is going on in science and non-science....
  • @Twinkie

    Just dabbling in giving back something in the tone that I see in some of your comments about and toward me.
     
    I feel like the next response is going to be "That's what you are, but what am I?" In other words, the conversation has degenerated into the personal, and that's not productive. I am going to refrain from commenting on your comments. It would be nice if you reciprocated.

    when our enemies are making a mistake

    Okay, but I want to point out that this helps our enemies.

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  • I spruced up my personal website recently. It was getting sort of cluttered. Also, the new theme should look better on mobile. Not sure how long Twitter will be around, but as long as it's around, make sure to follow me. Got my copy of The Atheist Muslim: A Journey from Religion to Reason. I'm...
  • @Triumph104
    Thanks. I'm not religious and get all my biblical knowledge from television and radio evangelists. I never heard what you are saying. I could never be a Christian, believe something to be true for decades, only to have someone post a link showing that I'm in error.

    I knew a woman who was a Seventh Day Adventist. She found a guy that she was interested in dating/marrying and wanted to know if he was open to conversion. He told her that the requirement to observe the Sabbath was abolished in Colossians 2:16-17. After verifying what he told her, she was so disillusioned that she became an atheist.

    https://gotquestions.org/Sabbath-keeping.html

    believe something to be true for decades… she was so disillusioned that she became an atheist.

    This is not unusual, people fall off their turtle every day.

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  • So I have an Amazon referrer account. I've had one since 2003. Pretty much I use it to get money when people buy books (or other items) through links here. It's a non-trivial, though not princely, sum of money. Especially since it's passive. These are books I've read and want to talk about anyhow (usually...
  • @Twinkie

    fetish for owning books
     
    I have the same impulse. For me, digital books are very unsatisfying. I love the smell of old books, the texture of the paper, and the act of turning pages back and forth, especially if there are maps and drawings. It's delightful to give and receive books that are signed with personal messages, and to rediscover those messages years later.

    I have an extensive personal library of books on history, especially military history that are stacked on floor-to-ceiling shelves. They are in the second largest room in my house. Some days, my children and I get lost in it rummaging through the bookcases pulling out this book or that all the while having conversations about the topics in the books.

    To put another way, digital books feel like medicine while bound books feel like sumptuous meals.

    To put another way, digital books feel like medicine while bound books feel like sumptuous meals.

    Mmmm-mmmm! Well said!

    Peace.

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