The Unz Review: An Alternative Media Selection
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Pigmentation is one of the few complex traits in the post-genomic era which has been amenable to nearly total characterization. The reason for this is clear in hindsight. As far back as the 1950s (see The Genetics of Human Populations) there were inferences made using human pedigrees which suggested that normal human variation on this... Read More
"Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword." -Matthew 10:34 "There were giants in the earth in those days...when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were... Read More
Dienekes has a post up highlighting a preprint out of Pontus Skoglund's group. It is titled Ancient genomes mirror mode of subsistence rather than geography in prehistoric Europe. It doesn't seem to be online (fingers crossed that it shows up linked at Haldane's Sieve soon). In any case I am not surprised by the broad... Read More
It's an exciting time for those interested in the evolutionary genomics of the dog. In 2010 a big SNP-array paper came out, Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication. Today we're going whole genome, which is important because many of the SNP-arrays are ascertained on domestic dogs (i.e., they are... Read More
Yesterday I pointed to a paper which was interesting enough, but didn't pass the smell test in relation to other evidence we have (at least in my opinion!). A primary concern was the fact that uniparental (male and female lineages) show a peculiar distribution of variation in comparison to autosomal genetic variation (i.e., the vast... Read More
Since John Hawks already hit it I don't have much to add about the dog-starch-adaptation-paper in Nature, The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet. I'm impressed at the yield from the sample sizes that they had, but as John alludes to this area of study has huge possibilities. The authors... Read More
The above image, and the one to the left, are screenshots from my father's 23andMe profile. Interestingly, his mtDNA haplogroup is not particularly common among ethnic Bengalis, who are more than ~80% on a branch of M. This reality is clear in the map above which illustrates the Central Asian distribution my father's mtDNA lineage.... Read More
I mentioned this in passing on my post on ASHG 2012, but it seems useful to make explicit. For the past few years there has been word of research pointing to connections between the Khoisan and the Cushitic people of Ethiopia. To a great extent in the paper which is forthcoming there is the likely... Read More
A few weeks ago I alluded to the controversy around proposition 37. This was the GMO labeling law proposal. Many life scientists in California opposed this law. One aspect of this issue is that it is an area where the Left may be stated to be "anti-science." This is why this was highlighted in Science... Read More
I cropped the image above from the paper Inference of Population Structure using Dense Haplotype Data. The main reason was emphasize the distinctiveness of the Sardinian cluster, on the bottom right. As you can see this population exhibits a lot of coancestry across individuals. This isn't too surprising, Sardinia is an island, and islands are... Read More
There's a new ancient DNA paper out which examines the maternal lineage and the autosomal background of two individuals extracted from a Spanish site dated to 7,000 years before the present. That is, during the European Mesolithic. In other words, these are the last wave of Iberian hunter-gatherers before agriculture. I have placed the PCA,... Read More
Community differentiation and kinship among Europe’s first farmers (via Dienekes): I have already stated on this weblog that we will probably begin to discern a rather strong pattern soon of an interleaved genetic pattern across Eurasia and Africa where we can infer that populations in an expansionary demographic phase absorbed a host of other groups... Read More
Halford Mackinder's conceptualization of the world With the recent publication of the paper on the archaeogenetics of Neolithic Sweden I feel like we're nearing a precipice. That precipice overlooks lands of great richness, filled with hope. It's nothing to fear. It is in short a total re-ordering of our conception of the recent human past,... Read More
A new paper in Science has just been published which in its broad outlines has been described in conference presentations. When examining the autosomal genetic variation of three individuals of the hunter-gatherer Pitted Ware Culture (PWC), and one of the agriculturalist Funnel Beaker Culture (TRB), the authors found that the two groups were sharply differentiated.... Read More
One model for the spread of the agricultural way of life into Europe is of inexorable "demic diffusion" via a "wave of advance" of farming populations met by a land surplus. Conceptually and analytically it's an elegant model. It's also fundamentally methodologically individualistic, and so in keeping with the spirit of the age. There's no... Read More
There's a new paper in AJHG which caught my eye, The Basque Paradigm: Genetic Evidence of a Maternal Continuity in the Franco-Cantabrian Region since Pre-Neolithic Times (ungated). The first thing you need to know about this paper is that it focuses on only the direct maternal lineage of Basques via the mtDNA. In some ways... Read More
Once Hidden by Forest, Carvings in Land Attest to Amazon’s Lost World: For some scholars of human history in Amazonia, the geoglyphs in the Brazilian state of Acre and other archaeological sites suggest that the forests of the western Amazon, previously considered uninhabitable for sophisticated societies partly because of the quality of their soils, may... Read More
Over at Scientific American Eric Michael Johnson has a very long post up, The Case of the Missing Polygamists. It is a re-post of something he already published at Psychology Today a few years ago. Though provisionally a review of Sex at Dawn, Johnson covers a lot of ground, and also has extensive quotations from... Read More
Dienekes has an important post up, The womb of nations: how West Eurasians came to be. He outlines a scenario where a rapid expansion of a farming population has overlain much of Western Eurasia, atop aboriginal substrata. A few years ago you'd have laughed at such a model, mostly due to the authority of archaeologists... Read More
Ancient DNA suggests the leading role played by men in the Neolithic dissemination: Some notes: - Otzi the Iceman is G2a.
Dienekes has a long post, the pith of which is expressed in the following: This does not seem to be totally implausible on the face of it. But it seems likely that any "West Asian" component is going to be much closer genetically to an "Ancestral European" mix than they were to "Ancestral South Indians,"... Read More
In light of the recent results in human evolutionary history some readers have appealed to me to create some sort of clearer infographic. There's a lot to juggle in your head when it comes to the new models and the errors and uncertainties in estimates derived from statistical inference. Words are not always optimal, and... Read More
Over at A Replicated Typo they are talking about a short paper in Science, Mother Tongue and Y Chromosomes. In it Peter Forster and Colin Renfrew observe that "A correlation is emerging that suggests language change in an already-populated region may require a minimum proportion of immigrant males, as reflected in Y-chromosome DNA types." But... Read More
The figure to the left is from a new paper in Science, When the World’s Population Took Off: The Springboard of the Neolithic Demographic Transition. It reports the findings from 133 cemeteries in the northern hemisphere in regards to the proportion of 5-19 year old individuals. When calibrated to period when agriculture was introduced into... Read More
As many of you know when you have two adjacent demes, breeding populations, they often rapidly equilibrate in gene frequencies if they were originally distinct. There are plenty of good concrete examples of this. The Hui of China are Muslims who speak local Chinese dialects. The most probable root of this community goes back to... Read More
Back when this sort of thing was cutting edge mtDNA haplogroup J was a pretty big deal. This was the haplogroup often associated with the demic diffusion of Middle Eastern farmers into Europe. This was the "Jasmine" clade in Seven Daughters of Eve. A new paper in PLoS ONE makes an audacious claim: that J... Read More
I just finished reading a review of the literature since 1984 on the bioarchaeology of the transition to agriculture. Stature and robusticity during the agricultural transition: Evidence from the bioarchaeological record: The population explosion that followed the Neolithic revolution was initially explained by improved health experiences for agriculturalists. However, empirical studies of societies shifting subsistence... Read More
The Pith: the spread of domestic rice may be a function not of the spread of rice per se, as much as a specific narrow set of genes which confer domestication to disparate rice lineages. This has been a big month for rice. At least for me. Despite my background as a rice-eater I've generally... Read More
The Pith: What makes rice nice in one varietal may not make it nice in another. Genetically that is.... Rice is edible and has high yields thanks to evolution. Specifically, the artificial selection processes which lead to domestication. The "genetically modified organisms" of yore! The details of this process have long been of interest to... Read More
Seriously, sometimes history matches fiction a lot more than we'd have expected, or wished. In the early 2000s the Oxford geneticist Bryan Sykes observed a pattern of discordance between the spatial distribution of male mediated ancestry on the nonrecombinant Y chromosome (NRY) and female mediated ancestry in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). To explains this he... Read More
The Pith: Over the past 10,000 years a small coterie of farming populations expanded rapidly and replaced hunter-gatherer groups which were once dominant across the landscape. So, the vast majority of the ancestry of modern Europeans can be traced back to farming cultures of the eastern Mediterranean which swept over the west of Eurasia between... Read More
About five months ago I read Peter Bellwood's First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Bellwood's thesis is simple: that the first adopters of farming entered into a period of rapid demographic expansion and by and large replaced non-farming groups. The populations which dominate the world today in this model are then the descendants of... Read More
Randy McDonald just pointed me to a 2008 paper in AJHG, Japanese Population Structure, Based on SNP Genotypes from 7003 Individuals Compared to Other Ethnic Groups: Effects on Population-Based Association Studies. It speaks to an issue I brought up earlier in my post, Sons of the farmers, the story of Japan, which describes the ethnogenesis... Read More
Credit: David Shankbone The more and more I see fine-scale genomic analyses of population structure across the world the more and more I believe that the "stylized" models which were in vogue in the early 2000s which explained how the world was re-populated after the last Ice Age (and before) were wrong in deep ways.... Read More
President William Howard Taft It is the best of times, it is the worse of times. On the one hand the medical consequences of human genomics have been underwhelming. This is important because this is the ultimate reason that much of the basic research is funded. And yet we've learned so much. The genetic architecture... Read More
Ancient Egyptian farmer ploughing a field Recently several weblogs have pointed to a new working paper on the role of plough-based agriculture vs. hoe-based agriculture in shaping cultural expectations about male and female labor force participation specifically, and the differentiation of gender roles more generally. My first reaction was: "doesn't everyone know this already?" I... Read More
The cockroach as we know it has been around for ~140 million years. That's a rather long run. The evolutionary design of the cockroach seems to be well suited to avoiding obsolescence; it's withstood the test of time. I suspect that the particular example of the roach is often used to illustrate the blindness of... Read More
The German magazine Der Spiegel has a rather thick new article out reviewing the latest research which is starting to reintroduce the concept of mass folk wanderings into archaeology. The title is How Middle Eastern Milk Drinkers Conquered Europe. In the story you get a good sense of the recent revision of the null model... Read More
I've been interested in the transition toward agriculture, and its relationship to human health, for a while. There seem to have been two dominant paradigms in anthropology over the past century. The first is that agriculture spread because it was superior. Farmers were not as poor or ill-fed as hunter-gatherers. More recently, there has been... Read More
Razib Khan
About Razib Khan

"I have degrees in biology and biochemistry, a passion for genetics, history, and philosophy, and shrimp is my favorite food. If you want to know more, see the links at"