The Unz Review: An Alternative Media Selection
A Collection of Interesting, Important, and Controversial Perspectives Largely Excluded from the American Mainstream Media
 James Fulford Archive
The Haymarket Martyrs, and Other Riot Lies
🔊 Listen RSS
Email This Page to Someone

 Remember My Information


Bookmark Toggle AllToCAdd to LibraryRemove from Library • BShow CommentNext New CommentNext New ReplyRead More
ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
These buttons register your public Agreement, Disagreement, Troll, or LOL with the selected comment. They are ONLY available to recent, frequent commenters who have saved their Name+Email using the 'Remember My Information' checkbox, and may also ONLY be used three times during any eight hour period.
Ignore Commenter Follow Commenter
Search Text Case Sensitive  Exact Words  Include Comments
List of Bookmarks

The recent rioting by “antifascists” attacking people who believe in free speech, Trump supporters, and actual members of the Dissident Right, has led to a lot of hard lying in the MSM, mostly blaming the victims. [20 arrested, 11 injured in Trump-related rallies in downtown Berkeley, Mercury News, April 17, 2017]. It’s not a new phenomenon.

Outside of the US, labor doesn’t march on Labor Day but instead on May Day, an international celebration of (a) Labor and (b) far Left politics, including communism and anarchism. But May Day is actually a commemoration of something that happened inside the United States, on May 4, 1886: a number of Chicago policemen, attempting to break up a riot led by foreign anarchists, were met with a home-made anarchist bomb, and gunfire from armed rioters.

The conviction of eight of the anarchist leaders has long been considered a miscarriage of justices, and is generally taught as such in textbooks. Some were later pardoned by liberal governor John Peter Altgeld, who thought them not guilty.

A memorial to the murdered police (the statue at right) was blown up twice in the 1970s, by Bill Ayers’s Weather Underground.

There’s also a memorial to the “Haymarket Martyrs” (i.e. the convicted and executed murderers) erected in a German cemetery in a suburb of Chicago in 1893.

No one has ever thought of blowing it up.

You notice I referred to the hanged men as “the murderers” above. That was not the historical consensus for most of my life—for most of everybody’s life—but it may be in the future.

In National Review, John J. Miller (with whom we’ve had disagreements in the past) published a story about Timothy Messer-Kruse [Email him] a conventional liberal historian, who had an interesting experience when he was explaining the received view of this incident:

Timothy Messer-Kruse doesn’t remember her name, but the question she asked in his college classroom a dozen years ago changed his career—and now it may revolutionize everything historians thought they knew about a hallowed event in the imagination of the American Left. “In my courses on labor history, I always devoted a full lecture to Haymarket,” says Messer-Kruse, referring to what happened in Chicago on the night of May 4, 1886. He would describe how a gathering of anarchists near Haymarket Square turned into a fatal bombing and riot. Although police never arrested the bomb-thrower, they went on to tyrannize radical groups throughout the city, in a crackdown that is often called America’s first Red Scare. Eight men were convicted of aiding and abetting murder. Four died at the end of a hangman’s noose. Today, history books portray them as the innocent victims of a sham trial: They are labor-movement martyrs who sought modest reforms in the face of ruthless robber-baron capitalism.

As Messer-Kruse recounted this familiar tale to his students at the University of Toledo in 2001, a woman raised her hand. “Professor,” she asked, “if what it says in our textbook is true, that there was ‘no evidence whatsoever connecting them with the bombing,’ then what did they talk about in the courtroom for six weeks?”

The question stumped Messer-Kruse. “It had not occurred to me before,” he says.

What Happened At Haymarket? A Historian Challenges A Labor-History Fable , February 11, 2013

It seemed not to have occurred to anyone—except the 1886 police, prosecutors, witnesses, judges and juries, who found the defendants guilty.

After looking for the answer in standard histories from 1936 and 1984, and getting no help, according to Miller

“Messer-Kruse discovered that the Library of Congress and the Chicago Historical Society had just digitized a large collection of material on Haymarket, including a transcript of the trial. He slogged through thousands of pages, consulting other primary documents to gain a sharper picture of what lay buried in the historical record.[ The LOC collection is down, temporarily—an archived version is here. ] Along the way, he realized that earlier researchers had not consulted this transcript. Instead, they had relied on an abstract of the trial prepared by defense lawyers, drawing their conclusions from a flamboyantly prejudiced account of the bombing and its aftermath. “The best source had been hiding in plain sight,” says Messer-Kruse.” [Emphasis added—all this is typical of the thinking that creates the conventional Narrative.]

Briefly, although there’s been pushback from the Left: the Haymarket “Martyrs” were guilty.

Messer-Kruse believes that although it’s impossible to rule out lethal friendly fire, several policemen were probably shot by armed protesters—a fact that chips away at the belief that the anarchists were peaceful. Messer-Kruse also worked with chemists to study the forensic remains of Haymarket’s violence. He determined that the original trial experts brought in to study the bomb and bullet fragments had done their jobs well. He furthermore concluded that one of the Haymarket defendants—Louis Lingg, who killed himself before authorities could carry out his death sentence—almost certainly built the bomb.

They were not only guilty, they were also foreign. Which means we can class the deaths of police at the hands of German anarchists like George Engel, Adolph Fischer, Louis Lingg, and August Spies as “Immigrant Mass Murder.”

This is supposed to be a point in their favor, in the conventional Narrative. Miller, who has shown an tendency to fall for the Narrative on the subject of immigration, mentions this, though it’s the conventional view, not his:

“A group of workers, most of them German-speaking immigrants, assembled near Haymarket Square to appeal for an eight-hour workday….

In a fit of xenophobic hysteria, authorities rounded up political radicals, showing little regard for civil rights or criminal evidence.”

Good old xenophobic hysteria! It never occurs to the historian that there are downsides to immigration, and Messer-Kruze’s research has led him to publish not only The Trial of the Haymarket Anarchists: Terrorism and Justice in the Gilded Age,but also The Haymarket Conspiracy: Transatlantic Anarchist Networks.

Yes, in the 19th century, there was a lot of anarchist terror. And to a large extent, anarchist terror in America came from overseas.

You could compile a whole list of things like this that you’ve been lied to about:

  • The killing of “unarmed student protesters” in the Kent State Riots—the Guardsmen who fired at the rioters—armed with rocks, setting things on fire, and outnumbering the Guardsmen a hundred to one, said they were responding to sniper fire. No one ever believed them, but recently evidence has come to light that five shots were fired in the crowd. [Not a massacre but a mistake By Robert F. Turner, The Washington Times, October 12, 2010]

Not at the Guardsmen, it’s true. They were fired in self-defense by a photographer who was afraid he’d be beaten to death by the “unarmed student protesters” .[Kent State tape indicates altercation and pistol fire preceded National Guard shootings (audio)”. By John Mangels, Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 8, 2010]

  • The “Sharpeville massacre” of 1960, which killed 69 unarmed African rioters charging police (out of 5-7,000 rioters present.) You probably heard about it in school. It was preceded, two months earlier by the Cato Manor massacre of which you have, I am reasonably confident, never heard.

That’s because the dead at Cato Manor were police, who had failed to shoot the “unarmed” rioters—four white and five black policemen, who were killed and mutilated. Mutilated means, according to Wikipedia and other sources, their genitals stuffed in their mouths.

I am unable to find contemporary newspaper reports of that detail, because in 1960, you couldn’t say “with their genitals stuffed in their mouths” in a newspaper. A book about the Sharpeville Massacre (Philip Frankel’s An Ordinary Atrocity) uses the word “disembowelment” to describe what happened to some of the victims—but says that some lucky dead cops were simply stoned to death by rioters, who were, of course, “unarmed.”

You may never have heard of it—but you can bet the police at Sharpeville had heard of it. If they hadn’t, the Sharpeville rioters were willing to remind them: “We took great delight in shouting ‘Cato Manor` … because we knew it would disturb the Boers,” said a surviving rioter. [Book Review: An Ordinary Atrocity, by Leon Engelbrecht,, May 4, 2009]

And in 2015, the new, black South African government reacted exactly the same way to dangerous rioters—striking miners in the Marikana area—and shot 112 of them, killing 34. (Oh, and the rioters killed 10 of the security forces.) [South African mine massacre: Report says many share in the blame, By Pat St. Claire and Karen Smith, CNN, June 25, 2015]

So you were lied to about the Haymarket Massacre, the Kent State Shootings, and the Sharpeville Massacre by your schoolteachers.

You were lied in the same way about the Vietnam War and “McCarthyism”.

It should be no surprise that you’re being lied to about “Trump riots” now.

The difference is that now, thanks to the Internet, social media…and us here at, you now know you’re being lied to and can take steps.

James Fulford [Email him] is a writer and editor for

(Republished from VDare by permission of author or representative)
Hide 25 CommentsLeave a Comment
Commenters to FollowEndorsed Only
Trim Comments?
  1. A few comments. The Sharpeville massacre was mainly not killing of protestors or rioters, but of police driving around Soweto days after the protest or riot, killing children. See page 257. Oh, and before you complain about his [Gabu Tugwana’s] comments about Arnold Geyer, note that at the time, he thought Geyer to be a governmental spy. Note also what he was arrested, not for acts of terrorism, even though he was arrested under the terrorism act, but for journalism. A tad embarrassing, no?

    As to the necklacing, any evidence that Nelson Rohihlahla Mandela was involved with them? I do know that his estranged second wife, Winnie Mandela was.


    Tugwana’s arrest reminds one of the gang shoot-out, between the Cannibal Army street gang and another street gang, in Gonaives, Haiti, which led the US and Canadian governments to accuse the Aristide government of genocide [sic]. The notion that the Aristide government was involved in the shoot-out was a farce, arising from a firearm importation ban allegedly against the Cedras rapist [see also discussion in Goff’s Hideous Dream, and the paper in the Lancet that the Canadian government repressed, though in fairness to the Lancet, they did later show some spine and make the paper available again; the formerly suppressed paper involves similar perpetrators, albeit during the 2004 coup, rather than Cedras] and pedophile regime, de facto sponsored by the US, as the firearms importation ban was not enforced until Aristide was returned to power. As the Aristide government could not import arms, the government eventually resorted to negotiating with the gangs not to attack police. Then, in 2003 (iirc), one street gang that promised not to attack the police, murdered a leader of another gang that promised not to attack the police [Cannibal Army, later National Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Haiti, under the leadership of former Gonaives police chief turned cocaine dealer with Canadian governmental ties—confession by ambassador to Haiti, The Honourable Claude Bucher of 9 November 2004 in Canadian parliament]. So after the US, Canada and France invade Haiti abetting Philippe’s terrorism, they charge Yvon Neptune with genocide, over the gang squabble. Eventually, the charges become such a farce, that the charges against Neptune are dropped. For an example of the US, Canadian, French and other governmental terrorism in the invasion and occupation of Haiti, see the documentary, Haiti, we must kill the bandits.

    The links to the trial transcripts (Haymarket) within that link are broken, including to the earliest copy. Where might I be able to read the actual transcripts?

    As to Marikana, I see that you neglect to mention that most of the non-police victims were shot in the back, far from police lines, suggesting sniping. Also, within your link for the police killed at Marikana, I fail to find evidence of 10 police killed, let alone at the massacre. Four police officers are listed as killed, two seemingly in revenge for killing striking mine workers prior to the massacre. The only evidence of shooting by the union is by the union’s leadership against the striking workers, that is, in support of the police. Also, the evidence supplied by a defense lawyer against the police, of planting evidence, brings to mind again Haiti; in Kevin Pina’s original Haiti The Untold Story (released while he was fleeing from US/Canadian/French sponsored death squads; it later, with some editing, became the video I linked above), he shows footage of a man first murdered by a police shot in the face (lower jaw shattered, the man crawls his last), then the body, then minutes later the police draw the attention of journalists filming, but now with a pistol next to the body. The journalists held their tongues to the police. Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, and the rest of the state department/CIA crowd have been holding their tongues to their followers.

    I notice, in regards the Kent shooting, that you neglect to mention several facts. I shall quote from one of your sources.

    The apparent order for the Guardsmen to fire that is captured on the recording, as well as passage of more than a minute between the last supposed pistol shot and the Guard’s gunshots, raises doubts about a connection between the two events.

    Perhaps you could explain how the shooting by the journalist led, more than a minute after the last shot had been fired, to the shooting by the national guard.

  2. anarchyst says:

    The “Kent State massacre” was a result of mostly outsiders rioting for weeks. Local businesses begged for intervention by police or military, as their businesses were “going under” from all of the “social unrest”.
    In fact a number of those shot were outsiders–not students…

  3. jjc says:

    Hard to determine “cased closed” on the Haymarket Riot – particularly when the revisionist account relies on so many qualifiers: “impossible to rule out lethal friendly fire, several policemen were probably shot by armed protesters…” this “probably” becomes “fact” by the next sentence.

    “one of the Haymarket defendants—Louis Lingg, who killed himself before authorities could carry out his death sentence—almost certainly built the bomb.” once again, “almost certainly” is not hard fact. An absolute determination of guilt could not, and still is not, established, let alone any evidence that the remaining defendants – who were hanged – had any connection with this bomb. The Chicago authorities went after those who they believed were the anarchist leadership, and had them eliminated through execution – as witnessed by the captains of Chicago industry, taking time out from their busy days. They were executed for advocating an eight hour work day.

  4. Hibernian says:

    Proof beyond a reasonable doubt is not the same thing as proof beyond a reasonable doubt. Juries are told this. Otherwise no criminal would ever be convicted. You are a Marxist troll.

    • Replies: @Wizard of Oz
    , @Johan Meyer
  5. TheJester says:

    I was a college student growing up in the turmoil of Kent State and the Vietnam anti-war movement. I attended quite a few university symposiums whose sole purpose, it seemed, was to educate students on where Vietnam was on the map. First things first, as it were.

    The shootings at Kent State really bothered me since it could have been me in the National Guard unit. Having sifted through the evidence over the years, I drew two conclusions:

    1. Regardless of the issue, it is congenital stupidity to throw rocks at and spit on soldiers carry loaded rifles. If your intent is to agitate them into an emotional reaction, be careful. You might succeed. I say this in full knowledge that the guardsmen at Kent State received an order to fire.

    2. Those killed and wounded were at the back of the crowd … in some case, far beyond the line of confrontation. The dead and dying were not, as one might expect, on the line of confrontation in front of the guardsmen, which means that the guardsmen were more interested in scaring the students than killing them.

  6. Jason Liu says:

    The word “anarchist” should be applied more often to the left, like they do with “Nazi”. It should be made into a dirty word with a very negative connotation, like it was in the 1900s.

    That way it can be used as a simple epithet for labeling leftist elements within society, and force them onto the defensive. They must either spend time distancing themselves from it, or embrace it and become more extreme in the eyes of the public.

  7. @jjc

    Have you read the trial transcripts and on that badis say yhat the jury or juries could not have been satisfied of guilt beyond readonable doubt or are you just musing?

    • Replies: @Johan Meyer
  8. @Hibernian

    That needs editing. And will you please tell us who you are replying to. (jjc ???)

    • Replies: @Hibernian
  9. Agent76 says:

    Aug 20, 2011 Law without Government: Conflict Resolution in a Free Society

    This is part 2 of my video series exploring a society where law is provided not by government, but by competing voluntary institutions.

  10. @Wizard of Oz

    Can you access the transcripts? When I click on the transcript link, a page loads, which contains a link, “Transcript and Exhibits From Trial.” When I click on that link, a list of links to selections of transcripts and exhibits loads. Clicking on any of these produces a smaller list of links to individual transcripts, and clicking on any of those gives a 301 or other failure, which in some cases redirects to the Chicago History Museum.

    A link which does work, that I found while searching was this one. One prosecution witness identified the bomb throwers, and said that they conspired in English; one of the identified bomb throwers could scarcely speak English, and all alleged bomb throwers were native German speakers. Nice little touch—referring to the defendants’ lawyer as a sap head [sic].

    • Replies: @Wizard of Oz
    , @Philip Owen
  11. @Johan Meyer

    I am not suggesting that a jury couldn’t have got it badly wrong with or without misfitection by the judge or misconduct by the prosecutor, only that I would want some eviodence from careful perusal of the transcript to displace the presumption that it was a fair trial. As it happens our State Court of Appeal has just overturned a (pfoperly instructed) jury’s verdict of guilty against a man with a Muslim name for forging paintnga by a famous painter and a gallery owner for selling them, presumably on the basis that no readonable jury could have concluded beyond readonable doubt that they were guilty on the evidence they heard. (It seems even some of the prosecution’s experts must have conceded that the paintings could be genuine. Maybe you could find enough in the transcript of the Haymarket case (which I have not seen) to say that no reasonable jury etc…. You have made a start with the bit about hearing them conspiring in English. In the OJ case Mark Fuhrman’s tainted evidence seems to have done much to cause a Not Guilty verdict. The Chicago jury presumably wasn’t looking for an excuae to find the Germans Not Guilty….

    • Replies: @Johan Meyer
  12. It is telling that the posting relies on liberals, themselves not noted for honesty, and now pushing for a new cold war. As I found relevant materials on the site of the organisation that published the transcripts (the links to the individual transcripts are dead), I’ll post some quotes.

    The accused’s lawyers provided evidence that Schwab did not attend the Haymarket rally, that Schnaubelt had left before the rally was over, that Spies never got off the wagon, and that these men conversed with each other only in German (which the witnesses admitted that they did not understand). The defense also found several acquaintances of Gilmer’s who testified that they would not trust his word even under oath. Although Grinnell continued to maintain that Thompson and Gilmer spoke the truth, he thenceforth devoted his central efforts to establishing that the accused had caused the bomb to be thrown, even if they may not have actually thrown it themselves.

    The fact that one or more parts of this case did not precisely fit, and the fact that the prosecution could not positively prove that Schnaubelt or any of the eight men on trial had actually committed or even planned this particular act of terrorism, did not matter. Grinnell argued that the accused’s words and deeds indisputably made them accessories to the crime. In the days, weeks, months, and even years preceding the bombing, they had encouraged the infamous act, which Grinnell compared to treason, another capital offense. They were as guilty of murder as was the coward who perpetrated this horror.

    The defense attorneys acknowledged that the accused had pushed the limits of free speech in preaching dynamite and revolution, but they argued that this involved sedition, not homicide, and was hardly a capital offense. They built their case around refuting the specific charge of murder and the implicit indictment for conspiracy.

    Black contended that Bonfield had no reason to disperse a meeting whose already small crowd had thinned and that was drawing to a close. … The defense witnesses also maintained that the police had begun the shooting. One of the state’s witnesses identified a bullet taken from a wounded officer as of the type used by the police.

    So perjury, friendly fire, defendants missing from the crime scene, and a slew of constitutional violations during the trial. I shall cite an honourable liberal, namely senator J William Fulbright. He made comments about destroying the law in order to save it. The ball is in the author’s court.

  13. @Wizard of Oz

    See my comment above. Unfortunately, because the links that the author provided contains only non-valid links to the transcript, one is forced to rely on that museum’s interpretation, although the museum link does contain partial transcripts of the prosecution’s and defendants’ witnesses. Note that it is one prosecution witness that contradicts another prosecution witness’s claim of English versus German. The image on the left is of the witness that claimed that the defendants spoke in English; he is also the one that insulted the defendants’ lawyer on the stand, although that part is missing in that partial transcript. The prosecution witness testimony that one gets by clicking on the image on the right says that they spoke German. He fingers Spies as the one who ignited the fuze, which is interesting, as Spies had fled the city, but had returned to face trial of his own volition. Ultimately the prosecutor argued that their individual guilt or innocence was irrelevant, due to prior speeches.

    • Replies: @Wizard of Oz
  14. @jjc

    An absolute determination of guilt could not, and still is not, established, let alone any evidence that the remaining defendants – who were hanged – had any connection with this bomb.

    “An absolute determination of guilt” is not a thing that exists in reality. Those who think it does have been watching too much TV. The law may be a fine line on paper, but in reality it is a broad gray area surrounding the line that is full of traps and land mines. Those who dance too close to the line and suffer have no one to blame but themselves for their own naïvety.

    For an example of primitive “justice”.

    A tremendous number of cultures believe in witchcraft or the evil eye. There failure to fit in can be lethal. To the Bantu33, all evil is caused by a witch, an innocent soul in whom a
    demonic spirit has taken up residence without his knowledge. To detect the bearer of malevolence the Bantu gather in a circle, chanting softly, as the witch doctor goes from man to man, sniffing each. The tribesmen believe that the volume of their chanting is under the control of supernatural forces. The individual in front of whom the witch doctor is testing the air when the chanting becomes the loudest is the one he picks as the demonic vessel. The unwitting conduit of evil is hauled off and dispatched from this planet by having a stake driven up his rectum. His Kraal is burned, his family wiped out, his cattle given to the chief, and a smattering of cows and bulls are divvied out to the witch doctor as a tip. But in reality the chanting is a popularity contest. And as in the American witch-hunts of the 1600s, suspicion locks in on the person who strays the furthest from the norm.

    From: The Global Brain, by Howard Bloom

    We may have advanced a bit from that, but not so much as to lay a claim on “an absolute determination of guilt.”

  15. woodNfish says:

    You were lied in the same way about the Vietnam War and “McCarthyism”.

    It should be no surprise that you’re being lied to about “Trump riots” now.

    We have been lied to about the Waco Massacre of the Branch Davidians, and most police trials where the cop(s) murdered the victim. 99.9% of those all end as whitewashes of the truth. We were lied to about the butcher Lincoln and his war against the South’s desire to secede. American History as it is taught in schools is nothing more than government propaganda.

    We are lied to by the government.
    We are lied to by the media.
    We are lied to by academia.
    We are lied to by business.

    Trust no one and you won’t go wrong.

    • Replies: @bluedog
  16. bluedog says:

    Damn son I like your way of thinking…

  17. Hibernian says:
    @Wizard of Oz

    Sorry. It’s been a few days; I think I was replying to Mr. Meyer. I meant to say that proof beyond a reasonable doubt does not equal proof beyond a shadow of a doubt

  18. Agent76 says:

    Aug 15, 2014 Order Out Of Chaos: The Doctrine That Runs The World

    “From the days of Spartacus-Weishaupt to those of Karl Marx, and down to Trotsky (Russia), Bela Kun (Hungary), Rosa Luxembourg (Germany), and Emma Goldman (United States), this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily growing.

  19. @Johan Meyer

    Sounds like the overused idea of “conspiracy to” was already in play in Ametica….

    • Replies: @Johan Meyer
  20. @Hibernian

    I see below that this is meant to be a reply to me. Weird— I see no connection to what I said. Tugwana was not convicted of terrorism, to my knowledge—where does proof beyond a reasonable doubt come in, and how is it something other than itself, in my comment, or in your world-view? Where does Marx come into the picture?

    What does your comment have to do with Haymarket? Did you try to access the transcripts? Could you download them? I could not. I did link above to a comment discussing the transcripts—after the defense destroyed the prosecutor’s central claims, he used their prior seditious acts as a basis of conviction—i.e. he dropped the pretense of them being tried for murder per se.

  21. @Wizard of Oz

    Prosecutors are often conspiracy theorists. More seriously, though, the problem with conspiracy charges is the weak standard for actus reus and weaker standard for mens rea. If the prosecutor in the Haymarket case weren’t so fixated on getting executions, he could simply have charged them with sedition—an open and shut case.

    • Replies: @Wizard of Oz
  22. @Johan Meyer

    Res ipsa loquitur I think we all concur nem. con.

  23. “…After looking for the answer in standard histories from 1936 and 1984….”

    Isaac Asimov (whom I don’t consider among the best of sci-fi authors, but was prolific) wrote in one of the Foundation novels about historians who sit and read other historians work to produce new insights while never trying to search for first hand knowledge. Mr Messer-Kruse is just such an individual. His first step should have been the court transcript, then the determination of the standard narrative. He is almost useless as a historian and just like those whom Asimov derided in his novel.

  24. My Great Grandfather’s brother Thomas Owen was named as the bomb thrower at the time. He was a Welsh Protestant Master Carpenter who employed a considerable number of men in partnership with his 3 brothers. He was also active in the American Legion (not the modern one, an anglo organization) and trained for direct action against the police. My G Grandfather came back rich. He might have been Lingg’s employer, although he usually employed Irishmen (How the Irish got to Chicago – another story)

    Thomas was tracked down to Homestead Pa whence he had fled from Chicago by a detective. He was in active touch with Lucy Parson. Two days later he was dead. Nobody saw him fall off the ladder. A lot of newspaper reporters turned up to the site to interview the other carpenters. Personally I don’t think he was the bomb thrower although it is not impossible. I do think he was very active in the planning of the event, including planning a response to the police if they turned up. There has always been a cover up in multiple directions of the events at The Haymarket. No one was interested in the truth. Thomas was killed to shut him up (the trial was underway). Lucy Parsons had tried to get him to return to Chicago.

  25. @Johan Meyer

    English is possible. See my comments about Thomas Owen below.

Current Commenter

Leave a Reply - Comments on articles more than two weeks old will be judged much more strictly on quality and tone

 Remember My InformationWhy?
 Email Replies to my Comment
Submitted comments become the property of The Unz Review and may be republished elsewhere at the sole discretion of the latter
Subscribe to This Comment Thread via RSS Subscribe to All James Fulford Comments via RSS