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Is now ready for the period 1 January 2017 – 31 December 2017.

The Weighted Fraction Count (WFC) of the Nature Index is is probably the single best proxy for quality-adjusted scientific output in the world today. You can read about the methodology here.

The first publicly accessible Nature Index dates to 2013, and covers the year 2012. In just the past five years, China has gone from having 25% of America’s elite science output to close to 50%.

. Country/territory AC FC WFC
1 United States of America (USA) 25537 17764.24 15791.8
2 China 11136 7870.2 7449.71
3 Germany 9092 4423.53 3785.08
4 United Kingdom (UK) 8146 3747.49 3087.55
5 Japan 4761 2962.21 2679.12
6 France 5345 2330.97 1890.01
7 Canada 3032 1390.92 1236.33
8 Switzerland 3053 1209.41 1080.48
9 South Korea 1985 1092.6 1000.22
10 Spain 3134 1220.04 950.11
11 India 1701 1085.43 935.44
12 Italy 3373 1335.3 923.17
13 Australia 2660 1056.63 833.15
14 Netherlands 2692 943.84 751.98
15 Israel 1202 564.51 484.92
16 Singapore 896 481.74 480.44
17 Sweden 1702 558.94 466.83
18 Russia 1514 497.54 389.54
19 Taiwan 1007 384.24 343.02
20 Belgium 1202 402.86 331.58
21 Austria 1049 355.42 318.08
22 Denmark 1081 316.7 272.51
23 Brazil 1086 341.38 253.22
24 Poland 1088 301.26 211.71
25 Norway 622 183.88 166.96
26 Czech Republic 688 203.8 164.23
27 Finland 708 197.14 160.23
28 Chile 1085 234.94 109.69
29 Portugal 573 128.74 109.11
30 New Zealand 400 118.06 107.87
31 Saudi Arabia 382 104.65 102.23
32 Ireland 484 117.38 101.84
33 Argentina 436 161.01 101.38
34 Iran 282 119.49 90.63
35 Mexico 584 157.72 86.93
36 Hungary 437 98.76 72.01
37 South Africa 588 127.25 71.95
38 Greece 433 86.5 64.35
39 Turkey 346 77.06 57.61
40 Pakistan 179 41.37 37.28
41 Slovenia 198 39.16 36.86
42 Thailand 224 35.98 32.28
43 Iceland 119 27.82 26.6
44 Estonia 167 32.2 24.49
45 Ukraine 309 38.61 23.96
46 Croatia 213 30.46 22.62
47 Romania 229 21.88 19.81
48 Luxembourg 56 14.97 14.97
49 Slovakia 157 26.09 14.95
50 Colombia 253 18.86 13.91
51 United Arab Emirates 110 21.06 12.63
52 Lithuania 118 15.18 11.73
53 Egypt 162 12.64 10.4
54 Serbia 190 16.35 8.91
55 Panama 40 8.64 8.64
56 Armenia 186 11.73 8.41
57 Vietnam 65 10.89 8.27
58 Bulgaria 158 13.22 8.03
59 Kazakhstan 31 9.14 7.71
60 Qatar 89 7.55 7.5
61 Malaysia 139 7.96 6.73
62 Belarus 152 6.48 6.42
63 Indonesia 52 6.51 6.41
64 Uruguay 17 6.03 6.03
65 Lebanon 23 6.57 5.97
66 Ecuador 99 5.99 5.68
67 Cyprus 98 6.02 5.15
68 Malta 20 6.06 4.79
69 Peru 45 4.9 4.54
70 Kenya 17 4.51 4.51
71 Georgia 177 8.54 3.37
72 Tunisia 23 5.03 3.07
73 Latvia 59 3.9 2.91
74 Morocco 88 2.93 2.84
75 Moldova 11 2.79 2.79
76 Oman 11 2.76 2.76
77 Algeria 17 3.23 2.36
78 Philippines 35 2.14 2.14
79 Costa Rica 14 4.09 1.95
80 Benin 7 1.57 1.57
81 Mongolia 12 1.52 1.52
82 Azerbaijan 80 1.63 1.51
83 Mali 9 1.45 1.45
84 Sri Lanka 53 1.36 1.36
85 North Korea 2 1.3 1.3
86 Madagascar 7 1.3 1.3
87 Venezuela 17 2.5 1.24
88 Congo 6 1.11 1.11
89 Nepal 7 1.22 1.1
90 Jordan 9 1.25 1.09
91 Uganda 9 1.76 1.09
92 Iraq 19 1.11 1.05
93 Tanzania 9 1.03 1.03
94 Bosnia and Herzegovina 7 1.12 1.02
95 Nigeria 16 2.44 1.02
96 Ethiopia 14 1.31 1
97 Macedonia 6 1.07 0.93
98 Brunei 5 0.9 0.9
99 Cuba 21 1.1 0.83
100 Bangladesh 10 0.81 0.81
101 Namibia 16 0.91 0.72
102 Monaco 13 0.7 0.7
103 Uzbekistan 8 0.89 0.68
104 Seychelles 3 0.67 0.67
105 Papua New Guinea 4 0.58 0.58
106 Botswana 7 0.63 0.57
107 Tajikistan 3 1.16 0.56
108 Kuwait 7 0.76 0.56
109 Malawi 3 0.55 0.55
110 Angola 4 0.55 0.55
111 Ivory Coast 5 0.53 0.53
112 Cameroon 9 0.65 0.51
113 Niger 4 0.5 0.5
114 Libya 3 0.47 0.47
115 Senegal 3 0.97 0.44
116 Jamaica 5 0.43 0.43
117 Sierra Leone 3 0.41 0.41
118 Guatemala 4 0.45 0.36
119 Sudan 3 0.56 0.36
120 Syria 1 0.33 0.33
121 Gabon 7 0.33 0.33
122 Burkina Faso 6 0.57 0.32
123 Bahamas 3 0.32 0.32
124 Fiji 2 0.28 0.28
125 Cambodia 2 0.27 0.27
126 Ghana 4 0.27 0.27
127 Vatican City State (Holy See) 27 0.96 0.25
128 Faroe Islands 1 0.25 0.25
129 Albania 2 0.24 0.24
130 Greenland 2 0.22 0.22
131 Maldives 1 0.22 0.22
132 East Timor 1 0.2 0.2
133 Rwanda 3 0.6 0.2
134 Palestinian territories 31 0.19 0.19
135 Trinidad and Tobago 2 0.19 0.19
136 Nicaragua 1 0.17 0.17
137 Bolivia 2 0.17 0.17
138 Bahrain 1 0.13 0.13
139 Cape Verde 1 0.13 0.13
140 Swaziland 1 0.13 0.13
141 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1 0.11 0.11
142 Liechtenstein 2 0.07 0.07
143 Paraguay 2 0.07 0.07
144 Honduras 2 0.07 0.07
145 Solomon Islands 1 0.06 0.06
146 Samoa 1 0.06 0.06
147 Gambia 1 0.06 0.06
148 Mozambique 2 0.25 0.05
149 Zambia 1 0.05 0.05
150 Grenada 1 0.05 0.05
151 Central African Republic 1 0.05 0.05
152 Montenegro 3 0.04 0.04
153 Liberia 1 0.04 0.04
154 Myanmar 1 0.04 0.04
155 Suriname 1 0.03 0.03
156 Kyrgyzstan 1 0.03 0.03
157 French Polynesia 2 0.16 0.03
158 Guinea 1 0.03 0.03
159 Laos 1 0.03 0.03
160 Zimbabwe 1 0.02 0.02
161 Guinea-Bissau 1 0.01 0.01

.

 
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  1. For the last 30 to 40 years, Chinese nationals have made up the largest group of foreign students in our STEM graduate programs, including the elite programs at MIT, Cal Tech et al. In many STEM graduate programs they constitute an absolute majority of all the enrolled students.

    These Chinese students are supported on externally (mostly federal) funded research projects, and they are participating in cutting edge research in many fields. In many cases they create the cutting edge. Because they talk to other students, including Americans, they even get some access to restricted military research. Almost all of these students go home, and take their advanced knowledge with them and away from the US. We lose that knowledge. Hence China now has more supercomputers than we do, they have the two fastest supercomputers, and their supercomputers are entirely homegrown, from the chips to the operating systems.

    Russia and China both have industrial sectors that are much more diverse than America’s, and China’s industrial sector is larger than ours: socks to supercomputers. In general, the quality of their manufactured products is every bit as good as ours and in many cases better. Ask Apple or any other “tech” firm. What advantages we have, mostly in military technology, are rapidly being lost. China will be at full parity with the US much sooner than our Ruling Class thinks.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Boxer
    @Anatoly Karlin
    It takes a century to build a great university. Asia's higher education is still lagging behind, even as Japan.
    More than 95% of great scientists from 1800 - 1950 are whites, western countries are still benefiting from it, or "rest on their laurels".
    , @Yan Shen
    This is one of the facts that usually ends up being ignored in discussions of China versus the US. A non-trivial percentage of American STEM output is done by Chinese Americans.

    Take Silicon Valley for instance. At many top tech companies like Uber or Google or the likes, anywhere between 35-50% of workers in technical roles are Asian. A safe bet would be to assume that that's roughly half Chinese and half Indian. Ethnic Chinese have also had a big impact in hardware in America and Canada. Computer graphics today is basically Nvidia vs AMD, with AMD having purchased ATI Technologies some 12 years ago and melded it with its graphics division. Nvidia was co-founded by Jen Hsun-Huang and ATI Technologies was founded by 4 ethnic Chinese Canadians.

    Lee Ka Lau,[2] Francis Lau, Benny Lau, and Kwok Yuen Ho[3] founded ATI in 1985 as Array Technology Inc.[4]
     
    Also, a Chinese American, Feng Zhang, is one of the major players, along with Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier in the development of CRISPR-CAS9.

    Chinese Americans are a total of 1.5-1.6% of the American population, but surely contribute significantly more than that to various areas of American STEM. What percentage of the American authors in Nature papers are actually ethnic Chinese?
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  2. Any theories as to why the Japanese underperform relative to their population size and IQ?

    Read More
    • Replies: @reiner Tor
    Why is Saudi Arabia so good? Why is Slovakia so weak relative to Hungary? Even Romania seems pretty weak, relative to what I’d have expected based on prior knowledge.
    , @Anatoly Karlin
    Probably this: Asians: bright, but not curious?, by James Thompson
    , @anony-mouse
    Age
    , @Yan Shen
    See my other comments. I believe there's no real under-performance once you account for math/verbal split, Japanese insularity leading to much lower levels of international collaboration, and in general lower levels of English fluency among Japanese compared to other Europeans.

    To summarize, East Asian cognitive output is skewed towards quantitative STEM fields such as physics, chemistry, and engineering and away from life sciences, medicine, social sciences and humanities. In some non-quantitative scientific fields, there's probably relatively low levels of East Asian output. When you look at the 21 major science categories listed by ISI, you'll in fact see that the majority of these are more verbally loaded life science/medicine/social science fields.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_for_Scientific_Information#ISI_Highly_Cited

    Apart from Japan, which has pockets of historical strengths in areas of the biological sciences such as for instance immunology or STEM cell research, most of East Asian scientific output is clearly and significantly skewed towards physical sciences and engineering. When you look at the US or the UK, the opposite is clear. The Anglosphere is clearly skewed towards life sciences and medicine. I don't expect East Asia to challenge the supremacy of the Western countries in verbally loaded scientific fields such as biology of medicine.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/515S73a


    These countries are traditionally strong in physical science and chemistry — of China's total WFC of 5,206, for example, a WFC of 4,696 (or 90%) is from chemical and physical sciences.
     
    So where does the missing "excess" human capital in East Asia get allocated? Simple. Towards quantitative industrial R&D. See Karlin's prior post about the lack of a tech sector in Europe.

    http://www.unz.com/akarlin/europe-cant-into-big-tech/

    Tech is basically California vs East Asia, with the former skewed towards software and the latter skewed towards hardware. This once again can be explained by math/verbal split.

    https://www.ft.com/content/dbb3bc26-413b-11e7-9d56-25f963e998b2


    Japan remains an innovation powerhouse, according to a geographical analysis of patenting that shows Tokyo-Yokohama is much the largest such cluster in world

    The study comes from the World Intellectual Property Organisation (Wipo), based in Geneva, which analysed the addresses of inventors named in all 950,000 international patent applications published between 2011 and 2015 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty.

    Two other Japanese clusters, Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto and Nagoya, are in the global top ten.

    The results also show strong inventive activity elsewhere in east Asia, with China’s Shenzhen-Hong Kong taking second place in Wipo’s rankings, ahead of California’s Silicon Valley in third and Seoul in South Korea..

    European clusters appear lower down the rankings, with Paris at number 10 and Frankfurt-Mannheim at 12. The UK does poorly, with London at 21, Cambridge at 55 and Oxford at 88.
     

    It's a non-trivial fact that virtually every piece of modern day consumer electronics hardware that you or I use is made in East Asia. This is major major value add.

    To conclude, different groups of people will skew towards what they're naturally good at. East Asians and Europeans today clearly seem to skew towards different areas of specialization. At a high level, East Asian countries clearly tend to prefer the quantitative physical sciences such as physics, chemistry, engineering, etc, while the Anglosphere and other Western countries skew towards life sciences and medicine. East Asian economies are primarily based on hardware and manufacturing, while Western economies tend to be based on software and services. I think all of this can be explained by math/verbal split.

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  3. So much for German science having been destroyed by Hitler kicking out the Jews…

    Read More
    • Replies: @Anatoly Karlin
    I suspect Germany would have probably been in the lead if such a ranking had been done in earlier decades from the time of its unification to around 1940.

    Of course kicking out the Jews didn't help, but I think the main reasons were:

    1. Americans getting in on the university game, which Germany had dominated during the 19th century.

    2. And of course the war, consequent economic ruin, brain drain abroad, etc.
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  4. @DFH
    Any theories as to why the Japanese underperform relative to their population size and IQ?

    Why is Saudi Arabia so good? Why is Slovakia so weak relative to Hungary? Even Romania seems pretty weak, relative to what I’d have expected based on prior knowledge.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Anatoly Karlin
    King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) - most productive university in West Asia outside Israel.

    https://www.natureindex.com/annual-tables/2017/institution/all/all/regions-Western%20Asia

    I recall they hired huge numbers of very good Western professors.
    , @anony-mouse
    Age
    , @bb.
    per Slovakia-literally all the STEMs I know (about 15) do their work abroad - Germany, France, UK or US but most notably, Czechia. Also, I don't have the source at hand, but I am pretty certain that among the V4, we spend the least on science. Actually, there are not many countries within EU, who spend less.
    So that is actually not bad - with not very significant spending increases, we can jump in output considerably.
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  5. @reiner Tor
    Why is Saudi Arabia so good? Why is Slovakia so weak relative to Hungary? Even Romania seems pretty weak, relative to what I’d have expected based on prior knowledge.

    King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) – most productive university in West Asia outside Israel.

    https://www.natureindex.com/annual-tables/2017/institution/all/all/regions-Western%20Asia

    I recall they hired huge numbers of very good Western professors.

    Read More
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  6. @reiner Tor
    So much for German science having been destroyed by Hitler kicking out the Jews...

    I suspect Germany would have probably been in the lead if such a ranking had been done in earlier decades from the time of its unification to around 1940.

    Of course kicking out the Jews didn’t help, but I think the main reasons were:

    1. Americans getting in on the university game, which Germany had dominated during the 19th century.

    2. And of course the war, consequent economic ruin, brain drain abroad, etc.

    Read More
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  7. @DFH
    Any theories as to why the Japanese underperform relative to their population size and IQ?

    Probably this: Asians: bright, but not curious?, by James Thompson

    Read More
    • Replies: @lauris71
    I think there is simpler explanation. European, and especially US/UK universities draw the brightest students/professors from much larger pool. Japan is quite isolated and much larger part of the research is done by locals.
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  8. Why is Saudi Arabia so good?

    That’s pretty easy to answer. Check out the faculty pages of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, e.g.

    https://www.kaust.edu.sa/en/study/faculty?researcharea=10

    Not much local talent there, it would appear.

    Related question: what % of US total is “native” American as compared to “imports”? On a worldwide basis, is it possible that ethnic Chinese are already ahead of ethnic “Americans”.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Polish Perspective

    Related question: what % of US total is “native” American as compared to “imports”? On a worldwide basis, is it possible that ethnic Chinese are already ahead of ethnic “Americans”.
     
    Very good question. Some countries are being brain-drained by richer countries (yours truly) whereas the richer countries, such as the US, can reap the benefits of this. Germany has also started this process in the last 10-15 years, with the increasing ease of movement of peoples. A great deal of 30-somethings in German universities and research institutions are no longer Germans, though still a minority, a much bigger share than was the case, say, 20 years ago.

    I haven't been to Chinese universities, but it is my impression that the research done their is almost exclusively done by locals. If you only looked at natives, I wouldn't be surprised if the distance between them and the US shrunk even further, though at this stage it looks like a foregone conclusion at any rate. It's just a question of time.
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  9. I think this is an important point to make: this is with what in the US would certainly be called bad air and drinking water. Food is somewhat similar, you may get as sick as if you visited Mexico.

    Why am I bringing this all up? Well, that is the boilerplate excuse for blacks and Hispanics in the US. I mean, if you ignore, that all those cities had dirtier water and air when they were 95-97% white. And if you don’t believe in invisible racism rays. Or school buildings that have some curse on them.

    Read More
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  10. I wonder how many of these more tropical countries are there because of research on tropical diseases.

    Read More
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  11. Slovakia & Czechia looks strange. We’re talking about two peoples who are basically as similar Norwegians and Swedes, yet even when weighted by population the massive discrepancy is striking. Some variation is normal but such a huge chasm requires some form of thorough explanation.

    Any Czech or Slovak who has any clue? (Or anyone else wishing to guess is of course welcome to do so).

    P.S. Oh and our score is pathetic. Though we do spend a pitiful amount of our GDP on R&D. I wonder how a list normalised to GDP per capita as well as percentage of GDP spent on R&D would look like. So for instance, a band of those with a per capita GDP (nominal, since research equipment often has to be imported on the international market) with, say, 10-15K, 15-20K and so on and then each group sorted by how much they spend on R&D as a proportion of GDP.

    At the same time, a nation’s priorities is also shown by what it spends on. IIRC, South Korea spent quite a bit on R&D as a percentage of GDP even when it was relatively poor, ditto Taiwan.

    Read More
    • Replies: @A-non
    Maybe this: Many Slovaks work in the Czech Republic. They are the biggest minority in this regard. As far as I know they rather work in more demanding occupations. It is not the case vice versa. And I guess, in general, more gifted Slovaks emigrate than Czechs (on per captita basis).
    , @enkidusvk
    A-non is right. The emigration of more gifted students to Czechia is indeed one of our (Slovak) largest problems. This is even more pronounced in the case of PhD students. This and literally non-existent governmental support of R&D sector and universities gives the depressing results in the table above (similar big difference is in the rankings of universities, best Slovak ones lag by huge distance behind Charles and Masaryk Universities).
    , @LH
    @Polish Perspective

    Czech and Slovak languages are mutually intelligible. Technical literature in Slovakia are often printed in Czech language, to expand the market (Czechs are not used to read in Slovak language). Slovaks are not perceived as foreigners (foreigner = bad) by the Czechs. Moving from Slovakia to the Czech Republic is not a stressful event full of uncertainty.

    As a result lot of Slovaks study at Czech universities, and young scientists tend stay there.

    In recent decade Czech government initiated construction of 48 scientific centers, from EU "for science" funds. Huge modern palaces from glass and steel were erected. However, EU funding will end in couple of years, and I predict that not every center will survive.
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  12. @for-the-record
    Why is Saudi Arabia so good?

    That's pretty easy to answer. Check out the faculty pages of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, e.g.

    https://www.kaust.edu.sa/en/study/faculty?researcharea=10

    Not much local talent there, it would appear.

    Related question: what % of US total is "native" American as compared to "imports"? On a worldwide basis, is it possible that ethnic Chinese are already ahead of ethnic "Americans".

    Related question: what % of US total is “native” American as compared to “imports”? On a worldwide basis, is it possible that ethnic Chinese are already ahead of ethnic “Americans”.

    Very good question. Some countries are being brain-drained by richer countries (yours truly) whereas the richer countries, such as the US, can reap the benefits of this. Germany has also started this process in the last 10-15 years, with the increasing ease of movement of peoples. A great deal of 30-somethings in German universities and research institutions are no longer Germans, though still a minority, a much bigger share than was the case, say, 20 years ago.

    I haven’t been to Chinese universities, but it is my impression that the research done their is almost exclusively done by locals. If you only looked at natives, I wouldn’t be surprised if the distance between them and the US shrunk even further, though at this stage it looks like a foregone conclusion at any rate. It’s just a question of time.

    Read More
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  13. @Anatoly Karlin
    Probably this: Asians: bright, but not curious?, by James Thompson

    I think there is simpler explanation. European, and especially US/UK universities draw the brightest students/professors from much larger pool. Japan is quite isolated and much larger part of the research is done by locals.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Anatoly Karlin
    Even France does much better at elite research than Japan per capita, and France is sooner losing science human capital (mainly to the US) than gaining it.

    In per capita terms, Japan is basically Italy/Spain tier, with their 5-10 point lower IQs.
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  14. @DFH
    Any theories as to why the Japanese underperform relative to their population size and IQ?

    Age

    Read More
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  15. @reiner Tor
    Why is Saudi Arabia so good? Why is Slovakia so weak relative to Hungary? Even Romania seems pretty weak, relative to what I’d have expected based on prior knowledge.

    Age

    Read More
    • Replies: @reiner Tor
    Slovaks are older than Hungarians? Or younger? Or what? And what does it mean for Saudi Arabia?
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  16. @Polish Perspective
    Slovakia & Czechia looks strange. We're talking about two peoples who are basically as similar Norwegians and Swedes, yet even when weighted by population the massive discrepancy is striking. Some variation is normal but such a huge chasm requires some form of thorough explanation.

    Any Czech or Slovak who has any clue? (Or anyone else wishing to guess is of course welcome to do so).

    P.S. Oh and our score is pathetic. Though we do spend a pitiful amount of our GDP on R&D. I wonder how a list normalised to GDP per capita as well as percentage of GDP spent on R&D would look like. So for instance, a band of those with a per capita GDP (nominal, since research equipment often has to be imported on the international market) with, say, 10-15K, 15-20K and so on and then each group sorted by how much they spend on R&D as a proportion of GDP.

    At the same time, a nation's priorities is also shown by what it spends on. IIRC, South Korea spent quite a bit on R&D as a percentage of GDP even when it was relatively poor, ditto Taiwan.

    Maybe this: Many Slovaks work in the Czech Republic. They are the biggest minority in this regard. As far as I know they rather work in more demanding occupations. It is not the case vice versa. And I guess, in general, more gifted Slovaks emigrate than Czechs (on per captita basis).

    Read More
    ReplyAgree/Disagree/Etc. More... This Commenter This Thread Hide Thread Display All Comments
  17. @lauris71
    I think there is simpler explanation. European, and especially US/UK universities draw the brightest students/professors from much larger pool. Japan is quite isolated and much larger part of the research is done by locals.

    Even France does much better at elite research than Japan per capita, and France is sooner losing science human capital (mainly to the US) than gaining it.

    In per capita terms, Japan is basically Italy/Spain tier, with their 5-10 point lower IQs.

    Read More
    • Replies: @Yan Shen
    My guess is that Japan like China and other East Asian countries skew decently towards quantitative fields. A couple of years back, something like 90% of China's total WFC for Nature was in physical sciences and chemistry alone. Japan's output in life sciences is better than that of China and South Korea, but in general this skew is fairly clear. The overall Nature Index includes a number of non-quantitative fields, some of which I assume East Asian countries publish relatively little in.

    In general, East Asian countries skew towards physics, chemistry, and engineering and away from life sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Japan does better than other East Asian countries in life sciences and China publishes a lot more in computer science and mathematics than other East Asian countries. Japan is a world leader in patenting and high tech manufacturing and in general in East Asia a higher percentage of R&D goes towards applied industrial research. I think this can all be explained by math/verbal split. See also this Simon Marginson article below.

    http://www.researchcghe.org/perch/resources/publications/wp9.pdf


    More strikingly, in 2000 China authored just 0.6 per cent of chemistry papers ranked in the global top one per cent on citation rate in the Web of Science. Only 12 years later, in 2012, China published 16.3 per cent of the leading one per cent of papers, half as many as the US – an astonishing rate of improvement. There were similar patterns in engineering, physics and computing – where China publishes more top one per cent papers than the US – and mathematics (NSF, 2014). China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and to some degree Singapore, have concentrated research development in the physical sciences and related applied fields like engineering, computing and materials. In Korea and Japan this supports advanced manufacturing. China also emphasises research that supports accelerated modernisation: energy, urbanisation, construction, transport and communications. At this stage medicine and life sciences are much weaker.
     
    The other factor is that Japan has fairly low levels of international collaboration, low English fluency, and is a relatively closed society. While America benefits significantly from foreign Asian STEM talent, most of the STEM work in Japan is done by Japanese.

    The OECD report urges the country to better integrate itself in “global innovation networks”. In 2014 only 0.4% of Japanese research and development was financed from outside the country. It also says the proportion of scientists who have immigrated to Japan is among the lowest in the organization’s 35 member countries — in line with the mere 1.7% of Japan’s population who are foreigners. The result is very low levels of “international co-authorship of academic papers and international co-patenting”.
     
    As far as I can tell, based on Japan's surge in Nobel prizes since 2000 and based on the numbers of potential future Japanese Nobel laureates, the country does fairly well in terms of elite science and world class scientists. My guess is that the factors I mentioned above can explain why that's the case despite Japan seemingly lagging on certain other metrics. For instance, average citation rates for Japanese papers typically are fairly lowly even compared to countries like Italy and Spain, yet there's no real sign that there's a huge glut of elite modern day Italian or Spanish scientists!
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  18. @anony-mouse
    Age

    Slovaks are older than Hungarians? Or younger? Or what? And what does it mean for Saudi Arabia?

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    It means that anony-mouse is a troll.
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  19. Anonymous • Disclaimer says:

    The Weighted Fraction Count (WFC) of the Nature Index is is probably the single best proxy for quality-adjusted scientific output in the world today.

    “Nature Index” is garbage. Things that get into glamor mags are about an equal mix of great job and total garbage. In the long run, journal impact factor only matters in so far as ~ 95% of things worthwhile the attention are published in the top ~ 50% journals. For which the sole reason is the proliferation of total garbage damps of journals driven by oversize profits of scientific publishing industry.

    You should read this: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00037/full

    That said, I just generated a list in Life Sciences (something I can judge expertly) and the result is not too bad:

    1 United States of America (USA) 8103.18 10106
    2 United Kingdom (UK) 1200.22 2222
    3 Germany 1072.95 2012
    4 Japan 844.22 1327
    5 France 632.04 1234
    6 Canada 578.44 1084
    7 China 554.16 1050
    8 Switzerland 301.43 678
    9 Australia 285.35 614
    10 Netherlands 274.79 687
    11 Spain 258.79 570
    12 Italy 221.96 572
    13 South Korea 189.9 345
    14 Israel 183.77 324
    15 Sweden 178.77 419
    16 Belgium 109.84 302
    17 Austria 99.68 242
    18 Denmark 96.91 267
    19 Singapore 81.58 189
    20 Taiwan 79.68 146

    Observation: Canada, Spain and Singapore are way higher than they should be. Otherwise, pretty reasonable – except that Germany+UK should be much closer to the total US that they are in the rankings. South Korea and Switzerland both need to be ~3 positions higher.

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  20. @bob sykes
    For the last 30 to 40 years, Chinese nationals have made up the largest group of foreign students in our STEM graduate programs, including the elite programs at MIT, Cal Tech et al. In many STEM graduate programs they constitute an absolute majority of all the enrolled students.

    These Chinese students are supported on externally (mostly federal) funded research projects, and they are participating in cutting edge research in many fields. In many cases they create the cutting edge. Because they talk to other students, including Americans, they even get some access to restricted military research. Almost all of these students go home, and take their advanced knowledge with them and away from the US. We lose that knowledge. Hence China now has more supercomputers than we do, they have the two fastest supercomputers, and their supercomputers are entirely homegrown, from the chips to the operating systems.

    Russia and China both have industrial sectors that are much more diverse than America's, and China's industrial sector is larger than ours: socks to supercomputers. In general, the quality of their manufactured products is every bit as good as ours and in many cases better. Ask Apple or any other "tech" firm. What advantages we have, mostly in military technology, are rapidly being lost. China will be at full parity with the US much sooner than our Ruling Class thinks.


    It takes a century to build a great university. Asia’s higher education is still lagging behind, even as Japan.
    More than 95% of great scientists from 1800 – 1950 are whites, western countries are still benefiting from it, or “rest on their laurels”.

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  21. @Anatoly Karlin
    Even France does much better at elite research than Japan per capita, and France is sooner losing science human capital (mainly to the US) than gaining it.

    In per capita terms, Japan is basically Italy/Spain tier, with their 5-10 point lower IQs.

    My guess is that Japan like China and other East Asian countries skew decently towards quantitative fields. A couple of years back, something like 90% of China’s total WFC for Nature was in physical sciences and chemistry alone. Japan’s output in life sciences is better than that of China and South Korea, but in general this skew is fairly clear. The overall Nature Index includes a number of non-quantitative fields, some of which I assume East Asian countries publish relatively little in.

    In general, East Asian countries skew towards physics, chemistry, and engineering and away from life sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Japan does better than other East Asian countries in life sciences and China publishes a lot more in computer science and mathematics than other East Asian countries. Japan is a world leader in patenting and high tech manufacturing and in general in East Asia a higher percentage of R&D goes towards applied industrial research. I think this can all be explained by math/verbal split. See also this Simon Marginson article below.

    http://www.researchcghe.org/perch/resources/publications/wp9.pdf

    More strikingly, in 2000 China authored just 0.6 per cent of chemistry papers ranked in the global top one per cent on citation rate in the Web of Science. Only 12 years later, in 2012, China published 16.3 per cent of the leading one per cent of papers, half as many as the US – an astonishing rate of improvement. There were similar patterns in engineering, physics and computing – where China publishes more top one per cent papers than the US – and mathematics (NSF, 2014). China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and to some degree Singapore, have concentrated research development in the physical sciences and related applied fields like engineering, computing and materials. In Korea and Japan this supports advanced manufacturing. China also emphasises research that supports accelerated modernisation: energy, urbanisation, construction, transport and communications. At this stage medicine and life sciences are much weaker.

    The other factor is that Japan has fairly low levels of international collaboration, low English fluency, and is a relatively closed society. While America benefits significantly from foreign Asian STEM talent, most of the STEM work in Japan is done by Japanese.

    The OECD report urges the country to better integrate itself in “global innovation networks”. In 2014 only 0.4% of Japanese research and development was financed from outside the country. It also says the proportion of scientists who have immigrated to Japan is among the lowest in the organization’s 35 member countries — in line with the mere 1.7% of Japan’s population who are foreigners. The result is very low levels of “international co-authorship of academic papers and international co-patenting”.

    As far as I can tell, based on Japan’s surge in Nobel prizes since 2000 and based on the numbers of potential future Japanese Nobel laureates, the country does fairly well in terms of elite science and world class scientists. My guess is that the factors I mentioned above can explain why that’s the case despite Japan seemingly lagging on certain other metrics. For instance, average citation rates for Japanese papers typically are fairly lowly even compared to countries like Italy and Spain, yet there’s no real sign that there’s a huge glut of elite modern day Italian or Spanish scientists!

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  22. So to summarize, once you move away from IQ and towards math/verbal split, which quite frankly as phenomenon like Spearman’s diminishing returns and history’s myriad examples of cognitively lopsided geniuses like Richard Feymann or Terence Tao suggest is much more useful for understanding elite performance.

    Japan’s output in Nature has actually declined in absolute terms over the past 5-10 years, while most other countries have gone up. I think that this can all be explained by math/verbal split, i.e. Japan does fairly well in physics, chemistry, engineering, and material sciences and invests significantly in applied industrial R&D, low levels of international collaboration and English fluency among Japanese and very few foreigners, etc.

    Nature metrics are interesting and useful but also need to be analyzed carefully. Indeed, article count numbers probably favor more internationally collaborative countries given that all it takes is one author among all of the authors for a given paper for that paper to count towards a particular nation.

    Karlin equates Japan’s elite science performance with that of Italy and Spain based on WFC. Based on average citation rates, Japan is even worse than Italy or Spain in most fields. Yet, Japan has a fairly significant presence of world class scientists and potential future Nobel laureates, while Italy and Spain have minimal such 21st century figures. Surely the factors I alluded to above explain this kind of discrepancy?

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  23. @DFH
    Any theories as to why the Japanese underperform relative to their population size and IQ?

    See my other comments. I believe there’s no real under-performance once you account for math/verbal split, Japanese insularity leading to much lower levels of international collaboration, and in general lower levels of English fluency among Japanese compared to other Europeans.

    To summarize, East Asian cognitive output is skewed towards quantitative STEM fields such as physics, chemistry, and engineering and away from life sciences, medicine, social sciences and humanities. In some non-quantitative scientific fields, there’s probably relatively low levels of East Asian output. When you look at the 21 major science categories listed by ISI, you’ll in fact see that the majority of these are more verbally loaded life science/medicine/social science fields.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_for_Scientific_Information#ISI_Highly_Cited

    Apart from Japan, which has pockets of historical strengths in areas of the biological sciences such as for instance immunology or STEM cell research, most of East Asian scientific output is clearly and significantly skewed towards physical sciences and engineering. When you look at the US or the UK, the opposite is clear. The Anglosphere is clearly skewed towards life sciences and medicine. I don’t expect East Asia to challenge the supremacy of the Western countries in verbally loaded scientific fields such as biology of medicine.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/515S73a

    These countries are traditionally strong in physical science and chemistry — of China’s total WFC of 5,206, for example, a WFC of 4,696 (or 90%) is from chemical and physical sciences.

    So where does the missing “excess” human capital in East Asia get allocated? Simple. Towards quantitative industrial R&D. See Karlin’s prior post about the lack of a tech sector in Europe.

    http://www.unz.com/akarlin/europe-cant-into-big-tech/

    Tech is basically California vs East Asia, with the former skewed towards software and the latter skewed towards hardware. This once again can be explained by math/verbal split.

    https://www.ft.com/content/dbb3bc26-413b-11e7-9d56-25f963e998b2

    Japan remains an innovation powerhouse, according to a geographical analysis of patenting that shows Tokyo-Yokohama is much the largest such cluster in world

    The study comes from the World Intellectual Property Organisation (Wipo), based in Geneva, which analysed the addresses of inventors named in all 950,000 international patent applications published between 2011 and 2015 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty.

    Two other Japanese clusters, Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto and Nagoya, are in the global top ten.

    The results also show strong inventive activity elsewhere in east Asia, with China’s Shenzhen-Hong Kong taking second place in Wipo’s rankings, ahead of California’s Silicon Valley in third and Seoul in South Korea..

    European clusters appear lower down the rankings, with Paris at number 10 and Frankfurt-Mannheim at 12. The UK does poorly, with London at 21, Cambridge at 55 and Oxford at 88.

    It’s a non-trivial fact that virtually every piece of modern day consumer electronics hardware that you or I use is made in East Asia. This is major major value add.

    To conclude, different groups of people will skew towards what they’re naturally good at. East Asians and Europeans today clearly seem to skew towards different areas of specialization. At a high level, East Asian countries clearly tend to prefer the quantitative physical sciences such as physics, chemistry, engineering, etc, while the Anglosphere and other Western countries skew towards life sciences and medicine. East Asian economies are primarily based on hardware and manufacturing, while Western economies tend to be based on software and services. I think all of this can be explained by math/verbal split.

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  24. Published papers and citation rank is only useful as a measure for grant distribution. It doesn’t actually measure productive scientific output. (Something that isn’t quantifiable anyways.)

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    • Replies: @Yan Shen
    Yes and no. Publications and citation rates certainly tell you something non-trivial about the state of science in a given country. But I agree careful analyses is needed. For instance, Karlin pointed out Japan's per capita WFC is on par with that of countries like Spain and Italy. I pointed out that in fact Japan's average citation rates in most fields are lower than those of Spain or Italy. Ergo Italy/Spain > Japan in elite science right? No.

    Based on the surge of Japanese Nobel laureates post 2000 and on the high numbers of world class Japanese scientists and potential future Nobel laureates, Japan clearly excels relative to Spain or Italy, despite initial superficial metrics such as number of articles and average citation rates in Nature. So other factors are at play here.

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  25. @bob sykes
    For the last 30 to 40 years, Chinese nationals have made up the largest group of foreign students in our STEM graduate programs, including the elite programs at MIT, Cal Tech et al. In many STEM graduate programs they constitute an absolute majority of all the enrolled students.

    These Chinese students are supported on externally (mostly federal) funded research projects, and they are participating in cutting edge research in many fields. In many cases they create the cutting edge. Because they talk to other students, including Americans, they even get some access to restricted military research. Almost all of these students go home, and take their advanced knowledge with them and away from the US. We lose that knowledge. Hence China now has more supercomputers than we do, they have the two fastest supercomputers, and their supercomputers are entirely homegrown, from the chips to the operating systems.

    Russia and China both have industrial sectors that are much more diverse than America's, and China's industrial sector is larger than ours: socks to supercomputers. In general, the quality of their manufactured products is every bit as good as ours and in many cases better. Ask Apple or any other "tech" firm. What advantages we have, mostly in military technology, are rapidly being lost. China will be at full parity with the US much sooner than our Ruling Class thinks.

    This is one of the facts that usually ends up being ignored in discussions of China versus the US. A non-trivial percentage of American STEM output is done by Chinese Americans.

    Take Silicon Valley for instance. At many top tech companies like Uber or Google or the likes, anywhere between 35-50% of workers in technical roles are Asian. A safe bet would be to assume that that’s roughly half Chinese and half Indian. Ethnic Chinese have also had a big impact in hardware in America and Canada. Computer graphics today is basically Nvidia vs AMD, with AMD having purchased ATI Technologies some 12 years ago and melded it with its graphics division. Nvidia was co-founded by Jen Hsun-Huang and ATI Technologies was founded by 4 ethnic Chinese Canadians.

    Lee Ka Lau,[2] Francis Lau, Benny Lau, and Kwok Yuen Ho[3] founded ATI in 1985 as Array Technology Inc.[4]

    Also, a Chinese American, Feng Zhang, is one of the major players, along with Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier in the development of CRISPR-CAS9.

    Chinese Americans are a total of 1.5-1.6% of the American population, but surely contribute significantly more than that to various areas of American STEM. What percentage of the American authors in Nature papers are actually ethnic Chinese?

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    • Replies: @Polish Perspective

    Computer graphics today is basically Nvidia vs AMD
     
    This is something which I thought about the other day, namely that both CEOs are Taiwanese-Americans. Taiwan is of course allied with America, but you sort of wonder if there is a Bamboo ceiling of sorts against Chinese-Americans as opposed to Taiwanese-Americans. I'm talking more about cultural self-identification rather than ethnicity(where there is much less difference).

    After all, I seem to recall a ridiculous mini-scandal a few years back where the USG basically forbade both AMD and NV to sell their hardware to China because the Chinese were gaining massively in supercomputer performance. The result was that China simply built their own supercomputers, did it better and neither NV or AMD got any business from it.

    I wouldn't be surprised if there is a racialised panic in the upper echelons of the US establishment about specifically Chinese-Americans. We're not just seeing panic about Russians. I'm seeing streams of articles demonising and smearing
    even something as modest as the Confucius Institutes.

    This kind of racialised panic is already leading to the mainstreaming of bigotry against Russians in the US and I wouldn't be surprised if Chinese are next.
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  26. @anonymous coward
    Published papers and citation rank is only useful as a measure for grant distribution. It doesn't actually measure productive scientific output. (Something that isn't quantifiable anyways.)

    Yes and no. Publications and citation rates certainly tell you something non-trivial about the state of science in a given country. But I agree careful analyses is needed. For instance, Karlin pointed out Japan’s per capita WFC is on par with that of countries like Spain and Italy. I pointed out that in fact Japan’s average citation rates in most fields are lower than those of Spain or Italy. Ergo Italy/Spain > Japan in elite science right? No.

    Based on the surge of Japanese Nobel laureates post 2000 and on the high numbers of world class Japanese scientists and potential future Nobel laureates, Japan clearly excels relative to Spain or Italy, despite initial superficial metrics such as number of articles and average citation rates in Nature. So other factors are at play here.

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  27. @reiner Tor
    Slovaks are older than Hungarians? Or younger? Or what? And what does it mean for Saudi Arabia?

    It means that anony-mouse is a troll.

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  28. @reiner Tor
    Why is Saudi Arabia so good? Why is Slovakia so weak relative to Hungary? Even Romania seems pretty weak, relative to what I’d have expected based on prior knowledge.

    per Slovakia-literally all the STEMs I know (about 15) do their work abroad – Germany, France, UK or US but most notably, Czechia. Also, I don’t have the source at hand, but I am pretty certain that among the V4, we spend the least on science. Actually, there are not many countries within EU, who spend less.
    So that is actually not bad – with not very significant spending increases, we can jump in output considerably.

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  29. @Polish Perspective
    Slovakia & Czechia looks strange. We're talking about two peoples who are basically as similar Norwegians and Swedes, yet even when weighted by population the massive discrepancy is striking. Some variation is normal but such a huge chasm requires some form of thorough explanation.

    Any Czech or Slovak who has any clue? (Or anyone else wishing to guess is of course welcome to do so).

    P.S. Oh and our score is pathetic. Though we do spend a pitiful amount of our GDP on R&D. I wonder how a list normalised to GDP per capita as well as percentage of GDP spent on R&D would look like. So for instance, a band of those with a per capita GDP (nominal, since research equipment often has to be imported on the international market) with, say, 10-15K, 15-20K and so on and then each group sorted by how much they spend on R&D as a proportion of GDP.

    At the same time, a nation's priorities is also shown by what it spends on. IIRC, South Korea spent quite a bit on R&D as a percentage of GDP even when it was relatively poor, ditto Taiwan.

    A-non is right. The emigration of more gifted students to Czechia is indeed one of our (Slovak) largest problems. This is even more pronounced in the case of PhD students. This and literally non-existent governmental support of R&D sector and universities gives the depressing results in the table above (similar big difference is in the rankings of universities, best Slovak ones lag by huge distance behind Charles and Masaryk Universities).

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  30. The emigration of more gifted students to Czechia is indeed one of our (Slovak) largest problems. This is even more pronounced in the case of PhD students.

    Is it even to Czechia? Weirdly, I’ve met more Slovak Ph.D students at University of Vienna than at Charles University.

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  31. @Yan Shen
    This is one of the facts that usually ends up being ignored in discussions of China versus the US. A non-trivial percentage of American STEM output is done by Chinese Americans.

    Take Silicon Valley for instance. At many top tech companies like Uber or Google or the likes, anywhere between 35-50% of workers in technical roles are Asian. A safe bet would be to assume that that's roughly half Chinese and half Indian. Ethnic Chinese have also had a big impact in hardware in America and Canada. Computer graphics today is basically Nvidia vs AMD, with AMD having purchased ATI Technologies some 12 years ago and melded it with its graphics division. Nvidia was co-founded by Jen Hsun-Huang and ATI Technologies was founded by 4 ethnic Chinese Canadians.

    Lee Ka Lau,[2] Francis Lau, Benny Lau, and Kwok Yuen Ho[3] founded ATI in 1985 as Array Technology Inc.[4]
     
    Also, a Chinese American, Feng Zhang, is one of the major players, along with Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier in the development of CRISPR-CAS9.

    Chinese Americans are a total of 1.5-1.6% of the American population, but surely contribute significantly more than that to various areas of American STEM. What percentage of the American authors in Nature papers are actually ethnic Chinese?

    Computer graphics today is basically Nvidia vs AMD

    This is something which I thought about the other day, namely that both CEOs are Taiwanese-Americans. Taiwan is of course allied with America, but you sort of wonder if there is a Bamboo ceiling of sorts against Chinese-Americans as opposed to Taiwanese-Americans. I’m talking more about cultural self-identification rather than ethnicity(where there is much less difference).

    After all, I seem to recall a ridiculous mini-scandal a few years back where the USG basically forbade both AMD and NV to sell their hardware to China because the Chinese were gaining massively in supercomputer performance. The result was that China simply built their own supercomputers, did it better and neither NV or AMD got any business from it.

    I wouldn’t be surprised if there is a racialised panic in the upper echelons of the US establishment about specifically Chinese-Americans. We’re not just seeing panic about Russians. I’m seeing streams of articles demonising and smearing
    even something as modest as the Confucius Institutes.

    This kind of racialised panic is already leading to the mainstreaming of bigotry against Russians in the US and I wouldn’t be surprised if Chinese are next.

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    • Replies: @myself
    There is a split, an important one, among the elite populations of the Atlantic Alliance. I use this term to refer to the United States, Canada, Britain, France, Germany, Italy and some smaller Western European nations. The same split can be seen in Australia as well.

    On the one hand, the elite business class in these lands do VERY, VERY profitable business in China. Earnings are high, business is booming, what's not to like? The Han have rolled out a limitless, sumptuous banquet, and the Western elites have truly gorged themselves for DECADES.

    On the other hand, China, "unfortunately", is not Western, nor White, nor even remotely interested in changing its own identity or race. As it grows ever more powerful and advanced, what will happen to the Western Hegemony of the last few centuries?

    Polish Perspective, you speak of "panic". Exhibit A, making a big-deal about China's investment in the 16+1 Group, saying it interferes in Europe. What? Aren't these 16 Central-Eastern European nations sovereign states?

    I mean you can "interfere" in Prague, Warsaw or Budapest, yes, but "interference" in Brussels is NOT A THING.

    So, you have a "quasi-racialized" panic in the upper echelons all across the Western World.
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  32. @Polish Perspective
    Slovakia & Czechia looks strange. We're talking about two peoples who are basically as similar Norwegians and Swedes, yet even when weighted by population the massive discrepancy is striking. Some variation is normal but such a huge chasm requires some form of thorough explanation.

    Any Czech or Slovak who has any clue? (Or anyone else wishing to guess is of course welcome to do so).

    P.S. Oh and our score is pathetic. Though we do spend a pitiful amount of our GDP on R&D. I wonder how a list normalised to GDP per capita as well as percentage of GDP spent on R&D would look like. So for instance, a band of those with a per capita GDP (nominal, since research equipment often has to be imported on the international market) with, say, 10-15K, 15-20K and so on and then each group sorted by how much they spend on R&D as a proportion of GDP.

    At the same time, a nation's priorities is also shown by what it spends on. IIRC, South Korea spent quite a bit on R&D as a percentage of GDP even when it was relatively poor, ditto Taiwan.

    Czech and Slovak languages are mutually intelligible. Technical literature in Slovakia are often printed in Czech language, to expand the market (Czechs are not used to read in Slovak language). Slovaks are not perceived as foreigners (foreigner = bad) by the Czechs. Moving from Slovakia to the Czech Republic is not a stressful event full of uncertainty.

    As a result lot of Slovaks study at Czech universities, and young scientists tend stay there.

    In recent decade Czech government initiated construction of 48 scientific centers, from EU “for science” funds. Huge modern palaces from glass and steel were erected. However, EU funding will end in couple of years, and I predict that not every center will survive.

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  33. @Polish Perspective

    Computer graphics today is basically Nvidia vs AMD
     
    This is something which I thought about the other day, namely that both CEOs are Taiwanese-Americans. Taiwan is of course allied with America, but you sort of wonder if there is a Bamboo ceiling of sorts against Chinese-Americans as opposed to Taiwanese-Americans. I'm talking more about cultural self-identification rather than ethnicity(where there is much less difference).

    After all, I seem to recall a ridiculous mini-scandal a few years back where the USG basically forbade both AMD and NV to sell their hardware to China because the Chinese were gaining massively in supercomputer performance. The result was that China simply built their own supercomputers, did it better and neither NV or AMD got any business from it.

    I wouldn't be surprised if there is a racialised panic in the upper echelons of the US establishment about specifically Chinese-Americans. We're not just seeing panic about Russians. I'm seeing streams of articles demonising and smearing
    even something as modest as the Confucius Institutes.

    This kind of racialised panic is already leading to the mainstreaming of bigotry against Russians in the US and I wouldn't be surprised if Chinese are next.

    There is a split, an important one, among the elite populations of the Atlantic Alliance. I use this term to refer to the United States, Canada, Britain, France, Germany, Italy and some smaller Western European nations. The same split can be seen in Australia as well.

    On the one hand, the elite business class in these lands do VERY, VERY profitable business in China. Earnings are high, business is booming, what’s not to like? The Han have rolled out a limitless, sumptuous banquet, and the Western elites have truly gorged themselves for DECADES.

    On the other hand, China, “unfortunately”, is not Western, nor White, nor even remotely interested in changing its own identity or race. As it grows ever more powerful and advanced, what will happen to the Western Hegemony of the last few centuries?

    Polish Perspective, you speak of “panic”. Exhibit A, making a big-deal about China’s investment in the 16+1 Group, saying it interferes in Europe. What? Aren’t these 16 Central-Eastern European nations sovereign states?

    I mean you can “interfere” in Prague, Warsaw or Budapest, yes, but “interference” in Brussels is NOT A THING.

    So, you have a “quasi-racialized” panic in the upper echelons all across the Western World.

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